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1

Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

1986-01-01

2

Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.

Witek-Janusek, L.

1986-08-01

3

The Evolution of Multivariate Maternal Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A.; Townley, Stuart

2014-01-01

4

The effects of maternal passive smoking on maternal milk lipid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive smoking was long overlooked by those in the medical and legal professions as being harmful to one's health, but in recent years the negative effect of passive smoking has come to the fore in the media and laws have been changed so that less people are obliged to unwillingly suffer from passive smoking, particularly in the workplace and in indoor settings. To study the effects of environmental tobacco smoking exposure during the breast-feeding period on maternal milk lipids. This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers environmental tobacco smoking exposure and 40 non-exposed post-partum mothers referred to the Shahid Ayat health center, Tehran, Iran. Socioeconomic conditions and the demographic characteristics of exposed and non-exposed groups were recorded. Milk samples were collected twice- at baseline (5-7 days after delivery) and four months after delivery. The samples were reserved at -20°C until assay. Milk lipids including cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were evaluated. Dietary intake assessment was performed by means of the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire both times. Maternal occupation status and education levels were significantly different between the two groups. Lipids profiles of milk were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group and four months after delivery.  Dietary intake was not significantly different between the two groups. Maternal environmental tobacco smoking exposure affects milk lipids which are essential for infant growth. PMID:24901858

Baheiraei, Azam; Shamsi, Azar; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Shams, Sedigheh; Chamari, Maryam; Boushehri, Hoda; Khedri, Azam

2014-04-01

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Effects of Maternal Age on Pregnancy and Fetal Prognosis  

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Maternal age has important effects on maternal and fetal/neonatal health. Maternal age groups in which these effects are especially important are adolescent and advanced age groups. While adolescent pregnancies include below 20 ages, advanced age pregnancies include 35 and over. In this review, effects of maternal age on pregnancy and fetal health in adolescent and advenced age gropus are discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000): 90-98

Hakan Kiran; Gurkan Kiran; Melih Atahan Guven

2003-01-01

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Effects of Maternal Age on Pregnancy and Fetal Prognosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maternal age has important effects on maternal and fetal/neonatal health. Maternal age groups in which these effects are especially important are adolescent and advanced age groups. While adolescent pregnancies include below 20 ages, advanced age pregnancies include 35 and over. In this review, effects of maternal age on pregnancy and fetal health in adolescent and advenced age gropus are discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 90-98

Hakan Kiran

2003-04-01

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EFFECT OF MATERNAL WEIGHT ON POSTTERM DELIVERY  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Examine the effect of prepregnancy weight and maternal gestational weight gain on postterm delivery rates. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of term, singleton births (N=375,003). We performed multivariable analyses of the association between postterm pregnancy and both prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight gain. Results Prolonged or postterm delivery (41 or 42 weeks) was increasingly common with increasing prepregnancy weight (p<0.001) and increasing maternal weight gain (p<0.001). Underweight women were 10% less likely to deliver postterm than normal weight women who gain within the recommendations (aOR 0.90 (95% CI 0.83, 0.97)). Overweight women who gain within or above recommendations were also at increased risk of a 41 week delivery. Finally, obese women were at increased risk of a 41 week delivery with increasing risk with increasing weight (below, within, and above recommendations aOR 1.19, 1.21, and 1.27, respectively). Conclusion Elevated prepregnancy weight and weight gain both increase the risk of a postterm delivery. While most women do not receive preconceptional care, restricting weight gain to the within the recommended range can reduce the risk of postterm pregnancy in normal, overweight, and obese women.

Halloran, Donna R.; Cheng, Yvonne W.; Wall, Terry C.; Macones, George A.; Caughey, Aaron B.

2011-01-01

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The Population Dynamics of Maternal-Effect Selfish Genes  

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We use population genetic methods to describe the expected population dynamics of the selfish-gene chromosomal factor, Medea (maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest), recently discovered in flour beetles, genus Tribolium. In the absence of deleterious effects on gross fecundity, Medea factors spread to fixation for all degrees of maternal-effect lethality greater than zero and the rate of spread is proportional to the strength of the maternal-effect. The rate of spread when rare is very sl...

Wade, M. J.; Beeman, R. W.

1994-01-01

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The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring  

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Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

JocelienDAOlivier

2013-05-01

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Effects of Cocaine on Maternal Behavior and Neurochemistry  

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Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves drug seeking and abuse despite the negative social and health consequences. While the potential effects of cocaine on child development have been extensively studied over the last 30 years, few researchers have focused on the effects of cocaine on maternal behavior, which includes offspring care and maternal aggression towards an unfamiliar individual. In humans, maternal cocaine use can lead to child neglect, abuse, and disrupt the...

2012-01-01

11

Maternal smoking effects on infant growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of infants (from non-smoking mothers during pregnancy but smokers during lactation) had a growth pattern intermediate to both curves, suggesting the impact of maternal smoking at any period of infant growth. Smoking had a clear effect on infant height during the period of breast feeding, attributable to the effect of the known content of cadmium in smoker's milk, on the bioavailability of essential nutrients such as zinc. (author)

1999-11-08

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Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity services. METHODS: We included all women who were admitted to the maternity unit for childbirth, or within 24 hours of delivery. We recorded maternal mortality during a 1-year baseline period from January to December 1997, and during a 3-year period from January 1998 to December 2000 after MDR had been implemented. Effects of MDR on organization of care were qualitatively evaluated. FINDINGS: The MDR strategy led to changes in organizational structure that improved life-saving interventions with a relatively large financial contribution from the community. Overall mortality significantly decreased from 0.83 (95% CI (confidence interval = 0.60 -1.06 in baseline period to 0.41 (95% CI = 0.25 -0.56 per 100 women 3 years later. CONCLUSION: MDR had a marked effect on resources, management and maternal outcomes in this facility. However, given the design of our study and the local specific context, further research is needed to confirm the feasibility of MDR in other settings and to confirm the benefits of this approach for maternal health in developing countries.

Dumont Alexandre

2006-01-01

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Maternal effects in human cleft lip and palate.  

Science.gov (United States)

To look for a persistent maternal effect of CL(P) and CP, 8,000 pedigrees were screened for half sibships, and data were pooled from 16 investigators. After excluding known genetic or cytogenetic diagnoses from the probands with facial clefts, a recurrence risk of .011 was obtained for CL(P) based upon 342 maternal half sibs. This was nearly identical to the risk of .014 based upon 210 paternal half sibs. CP proband frequencies of .004 for maternal half sibs and .009 for the paternal counterparts were also found. The lack of significant maternal effects in this data supports previously reported data from twin studies and from interracial crosses from Hawaii. The lack of maternal effect in human CL(P) and CP is in contrast to genetic data on clefting in mice. PMID:930925

Bingle, G J; Niswander, J D

1977-11-01

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The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring  

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It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well-documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the quest...

Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; A?kerud, Helena; Kaihola, Helena; Pawluski, J. L.; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Ho?gberg, Ulf; Sundstro?m Poromaa, Inger

2013-01-01

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Effect of maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of nanotechnology is widely recognized in both biomedical and industrial applications, so the search for new nano materials with improved physical and chemical characteristics is rapidly growing, causing a consequent increase in the risk of exposure by the population.Engineered nanoparticles, defined as particles having a different shape, but at least one dimension less than 100 nm, are constituents of many everyday products, including for example, sunscreens, cosmetics and some food packaging. This implies that an increasing number of people can come into contact with these nanoparticles in occupational settings, and the environment. It then becomes mandatory to assess what potential effects nanoparticles may have on biological systems. Although many nanoparticles may not be a problem for the general population, may instead be a problem for subgroups of susceptible individuals. In this context, we aimed to study the effect that maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs may have on the health of pregnant individuals, with particular attention to the possible harmful effects on the development of the placenta and fetus. To this end we have produced silica nanoparticles of three different sizes: small, medium and large. Each nanoparticle was in turn modified in two different ways, through the introduction of NH2 or COOH functional groups, in order to make their surface positively or negatively charged.SiO2 NPs were intravenously administered to pregnant mice, through the injection into the venous retro-bulbar eye plexus. Administration was performed at two different gestational stages. A group of females received the material 5.5 days after conception, when the placenta is still poorly formed, while a second group was exposed at 12.5 day of pregnancy, a time at which the placenta has completed development. The difference in the administration timing allowed us to evaluate the possible differences in susceptibility of the fetus depending at different stages of placental development. Our results have shown that the smallest SiO2 NP have a high biocompatibility and do not interfere with the development of the embryo, or with placental development. In contrast, the NPs of medium and large size have demonstrated interference with the development of the fetus, leading to the onset of mild structural alterations and the appearance of a large number of identical twins, an extremely rare phenomenon in rodents, generally secondary to a mild teratogenic stimulus. Such effect became apparent only after administration of high doses of nano particles, showing also a relationship with the surface charge.In conclusion, these results suggest caution in the exposure to SiO2 NP of medium and large size during pregnancy.

Pietroiusti A

2013-07-01

16

Effects of pregnancy on maternal work tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review summarizes current information on the tolerance of healthy pregnant women and their fetuses to acute strenuous exertion. Maximal aerobic power, expressed in L x min(-1), is not significantly affected in women who maintain an active lifestyle, whereas values expressed in ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) decline with advancing gestational age in relation to maternal/fetal weight gain. Efficiency during standard exercise testing and the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (Tvent) also appear to be unaffected by pregnancy, but the ability to utilize carbohydrate and exercise anaerobically during brief strenuous exercise may be reduced. Fetal responses to short strenuous exercise are usually moderate and revert to baseline values within approximately 30 min postexercise. Future studies should examine alveolar gas exchange kinetics at the start of exercise and during recovery from both moderate and strenuous exertion. Existing studies of the responses of pregnant women to prolonged exercise have focused primarily on substrate utilization and glucose homeostasis. Other maternal responses to prolonged exercise that should be examined include acid-base regulation, temperature regulation, fluid and electrolyte balance, and perception of effort. Fetal reactions should also be examined in relation to maternal responses. Until evidence-based, occupation-specific guidelines become available, it is recommended that pregnant women use the Joint SOGC/CSEP Clinical Practice Guideline: Exercise in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period, published by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (2003). PMID:15981789

Wolfe, Larry A; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Glenn, Nicole M; Heenan, Aaron P; Davies, Gregory A L

2005-04-01

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To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome  

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AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

2012-06-01

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The Effect of Maternal Employment on the Adolescent Daughter.  

Science.gov (United States)

While most studies indicate a positive influence of the working mother on adolescent daughters, relatively little research on the effects of maternal employment has been done in South Africa. This study was conducted to determine whether there are differences between South African adolescent daughters of working mothers and non-working mothers in…

Louw, Anet E.

19

Effects of Daily and Acute Restraint Stress During Lactation on Maternal Aggression and Behavior in Mice  

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A decreased reactivity to stressors during lactation might heighten the expression of maternal care (including defense of offspring) by minimizing the extent to which stress can impact maternal care. Although stressors applied during pregnancy have variable effects on maternal aggression (or defense of offspring), to date no study has examined the effects of stress applied during the postpartum period on maternal aggression. In this study, we examined the effects of both daily and acute restr...

2006-01-01

20

Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk  

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Abstract Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yo...

Müller Wendt; Vergauwen Jonas; Eens Marcel; Blount Jonathan D

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Maternal effects in quail and zebra finches: Behavior and hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal effects are influences of parents on offspring phenotype occurring through pathways other than inherited DNA. In birds, two important routes for such transmission are parental behavior and non-DNA egg constituents such as yolk hormones. Offspring traits subject to parental effects include behavior and endocrine function. Research from the Adkins-Regan lab has used three avian species to investigate maternal effects related to hormones and behavior. Experiments with chickens and Japanese quail have shown that maternal sex steroids can influence sex determination to produce biased offspring sex ratios. Because all birds have a ZZ/ZW chromosomal sex determining system in which the female parent determines the sex of the offspring, these results raise the possibility that maternal steroids can influence the outcome of sex chromosome meiosis. Learning has been shown to influence egg investment by female quail in ways that are likely to alter offspring phenotype. In quail, embryonic and exogenous sex steroids have well established and long-lasting effects on sexual differentiation of behavior during a critical period in ovo, but elevated yolk testosterone has long-term effects on behavior that do not seem to be occurring through an alteration in sexual differentiation. In biparental zebra finches, removal of mothers alters not only later behavior, but also the adult response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to an environmental stressor, as indicated by plasma corticosterone. Birds raised only by fathers have lower levels of mRNA for both glucocorticoid receptors in several brain regions as adults. These studies add to the evidence that one generation influences the behavioral or endocrine phenotype of the next through routes other than transmission of DNA. Additional research will be required to understand the adaptive significance of these effects. PMID:23499787

Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Sunayana B; Correa, Stephanie M; Schweitzer, Cécile

2013-09-01

22

Investigating maternal effects on production traits in Duroc pigs using animal and sire models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variance components for production traits were estimated using different models to evaluate maternal effects. Data analysed were records from the South African pig performance testing scheme on 22 224 pigs from 18 herds, tested between 1990 and 2008. The traits analysed were backfat thickness (BFAT), test period weight gain (TPG), lifetime weight gain (LTG), test period feed conversion ratio (FCR) and age at slaughter (AGES). Data analyses were performed by REML procedures in ASREML, where random effects were successively fitted into animal and sire models to produce different models. The first animal model had one random effect, the direct genetic effects, while the additional random effects were maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. In the sire model, the random effects fitted were sire and maternal grand sire effects. The best model considered the covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects or between sire and maternal grand sire effects. Fitting maternal genetic effects into the animal model reduced total additive variance, while the total additive variance increased when maternal grand sire effects were fitted into the sire model. The correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects were all negative, indicating antagonism between these effects, hence the need to consider both effects in selection programmes. Direct genetic correlations were higher than other correlations, except for maternal genetic correlations of FCR with TPG, LTG and AGES. There has been direct genetic improvement and almost constant maternal ability in production traits as shown by trends for estimated (EBVs) and maternal breeding values (MBVs), while phenotypic trends were similar to those for EBVs. These results suggest that maternal genetic effects should be included in selection programmes for these production traits. Therefore, the animal-maternal model may be the most appropriate model to use when estimating genetic parameters for production traits in this population. PMID:24476043

Dube, B; Mulugeta, S D; Dzama, K

2014-08-01

23

Effect of skim milk supplementation of the maternal diet on lactational amenorrhea, maternal prolactin, and lactational behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of skim milk supplementation of the maternal diet on lactational amenorrhea was studied in 30 pairs of healthy lactating women matched for parity, body mass index, and previous experience of lactational amenorrhea. Supplementation of the maternal diet had no significant effect on the time of resumption of regular menstruation or ovulation, maternal prolactin concentrations, breast-feeding pattern, maternal body mass index, or infant weight. However, the supplemented group breast-fed nearly exclusively (supplemental feeds were introduced but did not exceed 20% of total feeds) for a significantly longer duration (P < 0.05) than did the control group. Previous experience of lactational amenorrhea was significantly positively correlated with the time of resumption of menstruation in the supplemented (P < 0.01) and control (P < 0.05) groups when frequency of breast-feeding, maternal body mass index, and supplementary feeds to the infant were controlled for. Thus, maternal nutritional supplementation does not appear to affect the contraceptive benefit of lactation when the frequency of breast-feeding is not compromised but apparently lengthens the duration of nearly full breast-feeding. PMID:8780335

Tennekoon, K H; Karunanayake, E H; Seneviratne, H R

1996-09-01

24

Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom  

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Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg). The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10). The maternal reproductive parameters of...

Bara?o, A. A. S.; Nencioni, A. L. A.; Dorce, V. A. C.

2008-01-01

25

Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factor [...] s for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P

Janine Santos, Müller; Marcelo, Antunes; Ivo, Behle; Lucas, Teixeira; Paulo, Zielinsky.

26

Effect of Maternal Steroid on Developing Diaphragm Integrity  

Science.gov (United States)

Antenatal steroids reduce the severity of initial respiratory distress of premature newborn babies but may have an adverse impact on other body organs. The study aimed to examine the effect of maternal steroids on postnatal respiratory muscle function during development and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the potential myopathy in newborn rats. Pregnant rats were treated with intramuscular injections of 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone 7 d and 3 d before birth. Newborn diaphragms were dissected for assessment of contractile function at 2 d, 7 d or 21 d postnatal age (PNA), compared with age-matched controls. The expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and atrophy-related genes and activity of intracellular molecular signalling were measured using quantitative PCR and/or Western blot. With advancing PNA, neonatal MHC gene expression decreased progressively while MHC IIb and IIx isoforms increased. Protein metabolic signalling showed high baseline activity at 2 d PNA, and significantly declined at 7 d and 21 d. Antenatal administration of betamethasone significantly decreased diaphragm force production, fatigue resistance, total fast fibre content and anabolic signalling activity (Akt and 4E-BP1) in 21 d diaphragm. These responses were not observed in 2 d or 7 d postnatal diaphragm. Results demonstrate that maternal betamethasone treatment causes postnatal diaphragmatic dysfunction at 21 d PNA, which is attributed to MHC II protein loss and impairment of the anabolic signalling pathway. Developmental modifications in MHC fibre composition and protein signalling account for the age-specific diaphragm dysfunction.

Song, Yong; Demmer, Denise L.; Pinniger, Gavin J.; Lavin, Tina; MacMillan, Mia V.; Pillow, Jane J.; Bakker, Anthony J.

2014-01-01

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Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factors for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P<0.001 as was the mean fetal heart rate (P=0.044. Maternal systolic blood pressure (P=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.033 were also elevated after smoking. A decrease occurred in the systolic/diastolic ratio in the right uterine artery (P=0.014 and in the left uterine artery (P=0.039. The other hemodynamic variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking can cause changes in physiologic variables of fetal-placental circulation, but it does not change fetal cardiac function, in the dose of nicotine and its components used in this study. The decrease in systolic/diastolic ratio in the uterine arteries is probably related to a dose-dependent nicotine pattern.

Müller Janine Santos

2002-01-01

28

The maternal-effect, selfish genetic element Medea is associated with a composite Tc1 transposon  

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Maternal-Effect Dominant Embryonic Arrest (“Medea”) factors are selfish nuclear elements that combine maternal-lethal and zygotic-rescue activities to gain a postzygotic survival advantage. We show that Medea1 activity in Tribolium castaneum is associated with a composite Tc1 transposon inserted just downstream of the neurotransmitter reuptake symporter bloated tubules (blot), whose Drosophila ortholog has both maternal and zygotic functions. The 21.5-kb insertion contains defective copie...

Lorenzen, Marce? D.; Gnirke, Andreas; Margolis, Jonathan; Garnes, Jeffrey; Campbell, Margie; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Aggarwal, Rajat; Richards, Stephen; Park, Yoonseong; Beeman, Richard W.

2008-01-01

29

Mitigating the ill effects of maternal incarceration on women in prison and their children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal incarceration has deleterious effects on children, families, and society, but child welfare professionals historically have paid limited attention to maternal incarceration. Two recent changes have required the reevaluation of that stance: the dramatic increase in the number of women in prison, and the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. This article discusses the reality of maternal incarceration, analyzes one prison's attempt to provide programs to support inmate mothers and their children, and makes policy and program recommendations. PMID:12458780

Luke, Katherine P

2002-01-01

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Effects of Elevated Circulating Cortisol Concentrations on Maternal Behavior in Common Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Both acute and chronic stress can impair maternal behavior and increase rates of infant abuse in several species. The mechanisms inducing these effects are unknown, but experimental manipulation of circulating corticosterone levels alters maternal behavior in rats, and circulating or excreted cortisol concentrations have been found to correlate either positively or negatively with maternal behavior in humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, therefore, we experimentally tested the hypothe...

2009-01-01

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Effects of maternal plasmid GHRH treatment on offspring growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

To differentiate prenatal effects of plasmid growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) treatment from maternal effects mediated by lactation on long-term growth of offspring, a cross-fostering study was designed. Pregnant sows (n=12) were untreated (n=6) or received either a Wt-GHRH (n=2) or HV-GHRH (n=4) plasmid. At birth, half of each litter was cross-fostered (treated to controls and controls to treated only). Piglets from plasmid-injected sows were heavier at birth (HV-GHRH, 1.65+/-0.07kg; Wt-GHRH, 1.46+/-0.05kg vs. Controls, 1.27+/-0.03kg; P>or=0.001) and at weaning (Wt-GHRH, 6.01+/-0.21kg and HV-GHRH, 6.34+/-0.15kg vs. Controls, 5.37+/-0.14kg; P>or=0.02, respectively). Control piglets cross-fostered to plasmid-injected sows grew faster to weaning (Wt-GHRH, 5.61+/-0.15kg and HV-GHRH, 5.70+/-0.29kg vs. Controls, 5.08+/-0.22kg; P>0.05, respectively). Piglets from plasmid-injected sows that suckled on control sows were larger than control piglets on control sows (Wt-GHRH, 5.93+/-0.20kg and HV-GHRH, 6.2+/-0.19kg vs. Controls, 5.08+/-0.22kg; P>0.05, respectively), but smaller than their littermates left on their treated mothers. The observed improvements were maintained until the end of the study when the offspring were 170-day-old. The results suggest that the improved growth of offspring of GHRH plasmid-treated sows pre-weaning is attributable to improved maternal performance, while after weaning the effects on the pituitary component are relevant. PMID:20188245

Khan, Amir S; Bodles-Brakhop, Angela M; Fiorotto, Marta L; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

2010-02-23

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Antidepressants May Mitigate the Effects of Prenatal Maternal Anxiety on Infant Auditory Sensory Gating  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Prenatal maternal anxiety has detrimental effects on the resulting offspring’s neurocognitive development, including impaired attentional function. Antidepressants are commonly utilized during pregnancy, yet their impact on offspring attention and their interaction with maternal anxiety has not been assessed. Using P50 auditory sensory gating, a putative marker of early attentional processes measurable in young infants, the impact of maternal anxiety and antidepressant use are explored. Method Two hundred forty-two mother-infant dyads were classified relative to maternal history of anxiety and maternal prenatal antidepressant use. Infant P50 auditory sensory gating was recorded during active sleep at a mean± standard deviation of 76 ± 38 days of age. Results In the absence of prenatal antidepressant exposure, infants with mothers with a history of anxiety diagnoses had diminished P50 sensory gating (p<.001). Prenatal antidepressants mitigated the effect of anxiety (uncorrected p=.041). The effect of maternal anxiety was limited to amplitude of response to the second stimulus while antidepressants impacted the amplitude or response to both the first and second stimulus. Conclusion Maternal anxiety disorders are associated less inhibition during infant sensory gating, a performance deficit mitigated by prenatal antidepressant use. This effect may be important in considering the risks and benefits of prenatal antidepressant treatment. Cholinergic mechanisms are hypothesized for both anxiety and antidepressant effects; however the cholinergic receptors involved are likely different for anxiety and antidepressant effects. Additional work focused on understanding how treatment impacts the relationship between maternal prenatal illness and offspring neurocognitive development is indicated.

Hunter, Sharon K.; Mendoza, Jordan H.; D'Anna, Kimberly; Zerbe, Gary O; McCarthy, LizBeth; Hoffman, Camille; Freedman, Robert; Ross, Randal G.

2013-01-01

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Prenatal Maternal and Possible Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects on Milk Production  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated whether the prenatal maternal environment in dairy cattle influences the postnatal milking performance of the resulting daughters and grand-daughters. Linear mixed models were used to analyse whole season milk production from ?46000 Jersey and ?123000 Holstein Friesian cows in their 1st and 2nd lactations. Variation in the prenatal environment was associated with a small but significant (P<0.05) proportion of the total phenotypic variation (0.010 to 0.015) in all traits in Holstein Friesian cows and in the first lactation milk volume (0.011) and milk protein (0.011), and the second lactation milk fat (0.015) in the Jersey breed. This indicates that the prenatal environment does influence the adult performance of the subsequent daughter. Associations between daughter performance and dam and grand-dam traits indicative of their prenatal environment were also estimated. A one litre increase in the dam’s herd test milk volume was associated with a 7.5 litre increase in the daughters’ whole season milk yield and a 1% increase in either the dams’ herd test milk fat or protein percentage was associated with a reduction in daughter whole season milk volume (?49.6 and ?45.0 litres for dam fat and protein, respectively). Similar results between the grand-dam herd test traits ansd the daughters’ whole season milk production were observed with a 1% increase in either grand-dam milk fat or protein percentage associated with a reduction in daughter whole season milk yield (?34.7 and ?9.7 litres for fat and protein, respectively). This study revealed that the prenatal environment of the dam and the grand-dam can influence milk production in the subsequent daughters, though the effects are small. The similarity of the results between the dam daughter and the grand-dam daughter analyses suggests that the majority of the prenatal maternal effects are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms.

Gudex, Boyd; Johnson, David; Singh, Kuljeet

2014-01-01

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EFFECT OF ACUTE MATERNAL TOXICITY ON FETAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MOUSE  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of acute alterations in maternal health status upon fetal development were assessed following exposure of pregnant CD-1 mice on day 8 of gestation to one of ten chemicals at a dose calculated to be the maternal LD10 or LD40. The dams were killed on day 18 of gestation...

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Inheritable effect of unpredictable maternal separation on behavioral responses in mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The long-term impact of early stress on behavior and emotions is well documented in humans, and can be modeled in experimental animals. In mice, maternal separation during early postnatal development induces poor and disorganized maternal care, and results in behavioral deficits that persist through adulthood. Here, we examined the long-term effect of unpredictable maternal separation combined with maternal stress (MSUS on behavior and its transmissibility. We report that unpredictable maternal separation from birth to postnatal day (PND 14 in C57Bl/6J mice has mild behavioral effects in the animals when adult, but that its combination with maternal stress exacerbates this effect. Further, the behavioral deficits are transmitted to the following generation through females, an effect that is independent of maternal care and is not affected by cross-fostering. The combined manipulation does not alter basic components of the HPA axis but decreases the expression of the corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2 in several nuclei of the amygdala and the hypothalamus in the brain of maternal-separated females. These results suggest a non-genomic mode of transmission of the impact of early stress in mice.

TamaraBFranklin

2011-02-01

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Effect of maternal oral hydration therapy in oligohydramnios.  

Science.gov (United States)

This was a randomized controlled trial on 64 pregnant women from 32 to 35 weeks gestation, in one year period to determine the effect of maternal hydration by oral water in oligohydramnios amniotic fluid index (AFI) ? 5. Studied women were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (intervention group) women were instructed to drink 2 liters of water within 2 hours and from the next day extra 2 liters of water daily for 7 days. Group B (control group) women were allowed for routine water intake. AFI was done after 2 hours, 24 hours and 7 days of oral hydration therapy in both the groups. P values less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Pre-treatment mean AFI was 4.77 ± 0.42 (mean ± SD) vs. 4.80 ± 0.43 (mean ± SD) and post treatment AFI after 2 hours was 6.35 ± 0.65 vs. 4.81 ± 0.42; after 7 days was 7.08 ± 0.21 vs. 5.0 ± 0.20 in oral hydration group and control group respectively. Delivery at 37-40 weeks was 53.1% vs. 12.4%, normal vaginal delivery in 71% vs. 21.8%, caesarean section in 29% vs. 78.2% and low birth weight babies were 12.5% vs. 81.25% in intervention and control group respectively. Foetal outcome was healthy in 87.1% vs. 59.4%, asphyxiated in 12.9% vs. 50% and perinatal death was 3.22% vs. 21.8% between intervention and control group. Still born were 6.3% cases in control group. Maternal oral hydration therapy significantly increases the AFI, reduces the caesarean section rate and improves the foetal outcome. PMID:23134924

Akter, M D; Kabir, N; Shah, M S; Islam, F; Tasnim, S

2012-10-01

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Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom  

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Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg. The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10. The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

A. A. S. Barão

2008-01-01

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Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered t [...] o pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg). The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10). The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

Barão, A. A. S.; Nencioni, A. L. A.; Dorce, V. A. C..

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Detection of imprinting and heterogeneous maternal effects on high blood pressure using Framingham Heart Study data  

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Abstract Both imprinting and maternal effects could lead to parent-of-origin patterns in complex traits of human disorders. Statistical methods that differentiate these two effects and identify them simultaneously by using family-based data from retrospective studies are available. The usual data structures include case-parents triads and nuclear families with multiple affected siblings. We develop a likelihood-based method to detect imprinting and maternal effects simultaneously us...

Yang Jingyuan; Lin Shili

2009-01-01

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The effects of maternal thiamine nutrition on thiamine status of the offspring in broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The response of broiler chickens to a wide range of dietary supplementation of thiamine to broiler breeder diet was studied in order to understand the effects of maternal thiamine nutrition on the status of thiamine indices in the offspring. Thiamine, and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) content, and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) activity were measured in hearts from 20 day old chicken embryos and from chickens at 1, 7, 14, and 21 days of age and in blood at 21 days of age. Total thiamine content in the heart of day old chicks was higher in comparison to 20 day old embryos. Maternal supplementation of thiamine increased heart thiamine in the offspring (p < 0.001), and increased the activity of KGDH in the hearts of day old chicks (p < 0.001), but not in the embryo. The TPP content in the heart increased in response to both maternal and offspring thiamine supplementation (p < 0.001), however the effect of broiler thiamine supplementation was largely independent from the maternal effect. The effect of maternal thiamine nutrition on the offspring's heart KGDH activity was apparent, but the responses to broiler supplementation were dependent largely on the maternal effect. Blood TPP content was not affected by maternal thiamine supplementation (p = 0.39), but thiamine supplementation in the offspring diets increased blood TPP (p < 0.001). Both maternal and offspring thiamine supplementation increased blood free base thiamine content (both p < 0.001). It is concluded from this study that maternal thiamine nutrition affects thiamine status indices and thiamine metabolism of the offspring. PMID:10052019

Olkowski, A A; Classen, H L

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Genomic imprinting and maternal effect genes in haplodiploid sex determination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research into the Drosophila melanogaster sex-determining system has been at the basis of all further research on insect sex determination. This further research has made it clear that, for most insect species, the presence of sufficient functional Transformer (TRA) protein in the early embryonic stage is essential for female sexual development. In Hymenoptera, functional analysis of sex determination by knockdown studies of sex-determining genes has only been performed for 2 species. The first is the social insect species Apis mellifera, the honeybee, which has single-locus complementary sex determination (CSD). The other species is the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, the jewel wasp. Nasonia has a non-CSD sex-determining system, described as the maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination system (MEGISD). Here, we describe the arguments that eventually led to the formulation of MEGISD and the experimental data that supported and refined this model. We evaluate the possibility that DNA methylation lies at the basis of MEGISD and briefly address the role of genomic imprinting in non-CSD sex determination in other Hymenoptera. PMID:24356125

van de Zande, L; Verhulst, E C

2014-01-01

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Maternal and environmental effects on symbiont-mediated antimicrobial defense.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria produce a remarkable diversity of bioactive molecules with antimicrobial properties. Despite the importance of such compounds for human medicine, little is known about the factors influencing antibiotic production in natural environments. Recently, several insects have been found to benefit from symbiont-produced antimicrobial compounds for defense against pathogenic microbes. In the European beewolf, Philanthus triangulum (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae), bacteria of the genus Streptomyces provide protection against pathogens by producing antimicrobials on the larval cocoon during hibernation, thereby significantly enhancing the survival probability of the beewolf larva. To investigate the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on antibiotic production, we exposed beewolf cocoons to different environmental conditions and quantified the amount of Streptomyces-produced antibiotics by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed no significant influence of temperature, humidity, or pathogen load on the antibiotic amount, indicating that antibiotic production is not affected by current environmental conditions but rather may be optimized to serve as a reliable long-term protection during the unpredictable phase of beewolf hibernation. However, the amount of antibiotics was positively correlated with the symbiont population size on the cocoon, which in turn is affected by the number of Streptomyces cells provided by the mother into the brood cell. Additionally, we found a positive correlation between the amount of hydrocarbons and the number and length of bacterial cells in the antennal gland secretion, suggesting that maternal investment affects symbiont growth and, thus, antibiotic production on the larval cocoon. PMID:23779268

Koehler, Sabrina; Kaltenpoth, Martin

2013-07-01

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Maternal toxicity in humans and animals: effects on fetal development and criteria for detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of published human and animal teratology data revealed associations between maternal toxicity and congenital malformations and embryofetal death. This has been reported elsewhere in detail and is herein summarized. Regarding human data, intrauterine deaths were observed to occur in association with 1) maternal homeostatic changes due to phenylketonuria and diabetes and 2) maternal toxicity resulting from alcohol abuse, use of aminopterin, and, possibly, trimethadione. A pattern of malformations that was similar and thus suggestive of a common cause was noticed among malformations attributed to phenylketonuria, diabetes mellitus, aminopterin, alcohol, warfarin, phenytoin, phenobarbital, trimethadione, and valproic acid. On reviewing 234 studies of agents tested in hamsters, mice, rats and rabbits, a fairly strong association between maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal mortality was observed. Further, a consistent pattern of fetal malformations associated with maternotoxic effects was discovered in a survey of 476 studies of agents tested in these four species. In these reviews, it was postulated that maternal toxicity per se could possibly cause such fetal effects. For evaluating maternotoxic effects in experimental studies, the minimum maternal data required would be frequent measurements of maternal body weight and food consumption, signs of altered behavior, death, and gross lesions at necropsy. PMID:2888207

Khera, K S

1987-01-01

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Protective effects of maternal nutritional supplementation with lactoferrin on growth and brain metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background:Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major risk factor for both perinatal and long-term morbidity. Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a major milk glycoprotein considered as a pleiotropic functional nutrient. The impact of maternal supplementation with bLf on IUGR-induced sequelae, including inadequate growth and altered cerebral development, remains unknown.Methods:IUGR was induced through maternal dexamethasone infusion (100 ?g/kg during last gestational week) in rats. Maternal supplementation with bLf (0.85% in food pellet) was provided during both gestation and lactation. Pup growth was monitored, and Pup brain metabolism and gene expression were studied using in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy, quantitative PCR, and microarray in the hippocampus at postnatal day (PND)7.Results:Maternal bLf supplementation did not change gestational weight but increased the birth body weight of control pups (4%) with no effect on the IUGR pups. Maternal bLf supplementation allowed IUGR pups to recover a normalized weight at PND21 (weaning) improving catch-up growth. Significantly altered levels of brain metabolites (?-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, and N-acetylaspartylglutamate) and transcripts (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), and glutamate receptors) in IUGR pups were normalized with maternal bLf supplementation.Conclusion:Our data suggest that maternal bLf supplementation is a beneficial nutritional intervention able to revert some of the IUGR-induced sequelae, including brain hippocampal changes. PMID:24213624

Somm, Emmanuel; Larvaron, Pierre; van de Looij, Yohan; Toulotte, Audrey; Chatagner, Alexandra; Faure, Magali; Métairon, Sylviane; Mansourian, Robert; Raymond, Frédéric; Gruetter, Rolf; Wang, Bing; Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Hüppi, Petra S

2014-01-01

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The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

Khashan, A S

2012-01-31

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Chronic exposure to light reverses the effect of maternal separation on proteins in the prefrontal cortex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animals subjected to maternal separation display behavioural and endocrine disturbances, as well as structural and functional changes in the prefrontal cortex and limbic areas. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of maternal separation and treatment with either chronic constant light exposure or anti-depressant (escitalopram) on proteins in the prefrontal cortex. Four experimental groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to (1) normal rearing, (2) maternal separation (3 h per day from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P14), (3) maternal separation followed by chronic light exposure (P42-P63) or (4) maternal separation followed by treatment with the anti-depressant drug, escitalopram (P68-P100). Groups 1-3 were treated with saline as vehicle control for the escitalopram-treated group. At P101, all rats were decapitated, and the prefrontal cortex was collected and stored at -80 °C. Tissue from three rats per group was pooled and proteins determined by isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal separation led to disruptions in the prefrontal cortex that included hypometabolism by decreasing energy-related proteins (creatine kinase B, aconitate hydratase), decreased cell signalling (synapsin I, calmodulin, 14-3-3 protein epsilon) and impaired plasticity (spectrin, microtubule-associated protein). Maternal separation also increased dihydropyrimidinase-related protein/collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) and myelin proteolipid protein. Exposure of maternally separated animals to constant light during adolescence reversed the hypometabolic state by increasing energy-related proteins in the prefrontal cortex and increasing cell signalling and cytoskeletal proteins and decreasing the expression of CRMP. Escitalopram had similar effects to light by increasing ATP synthase in maternally separated rats and dissimilar effects by increasing 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and myelin proteolipid protein. Constant light exposure during adolescence reversed a range of protein changes in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to early maternal separation. The most prominent reversal by light treatment of maternal separation-induced protein increases in the prefrontal cortex was the expression of CRMP which impairs plasticity and neuronal signalling. The effects of light treatment overlapped partially with the effects of escitalopram. PMID:23884545

Dimatelis, J J; Stein, D J; Russell, V A

2013-11-01

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The problem of confounding in studies of the effect of maternal drug use on pregnancy outcome.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In most epidemilogical studies, the problem of confounding adds to the uncertainty in conclusions drawn. This is also true for studies on the effect of maternal drug use on birth defect risks. This paper describes various types of such confounders and discusses methods to identify and adjust for them. Such confounders can be found in maternal characteristics like age, parity, smoking, use of alcohol, and body mass index, subfertility, and previous pregnancies including previous birth of a mal...

2012-01-01

48

Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, pre- and post-term delivery, induction of labor, macrosomia, increased rate of caesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) on pregnancy outcomes. Methods 1000 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. In order to explore the relationship between ma...

Yazdani Shahla; Yosofniyapasha Yousofreza; Nasab Bahman; Mojaveri Mohsen; Bouzari Zinatossadat

2012-01-01

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The effects of maternity leave extension on training for young women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using three representative individual-level datasets for West Germany, we estimate the effect of the extension of maternity leave from 18 to 36 months on young women's participation in job-related training. Specifically, we employ difference-indifferences identification strategies using control groups of older women and older women together with young and older men. We find that maternity leave extension negatively affects job-related training for young women, even if they do not have childre...

2008-01-01

50

Effects of Individualized Video Feedback Combined with Group Parent Training onInappropriate Maternal Behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of adding individualized video feedback (IVF) to Webster-Stratton's (2000, 2001) group-based parent training program (GT) were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across four mother-child dyads. During all phases of the study, inappropriate maternal behavior was recorded from videotapes of playtime with their preschoolers with developmental disabilities. Results suggested that GT+IVF reduced inappropriate maternal behavior to levels below GT alone.

2007-01-01

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Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index  

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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group wa...

2011-01-01

52

Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in maternal care.

ElizabethThomasCox

2011-06-01

53

Exploration of cytoplasmic inheritance as a contributor to maternal effects in Welsh Mountain sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Cytoplasmic effects were investigated using a dataset comprising three breeding groups of Welsh Mountain sheep. The influences of cytoplasmic effects were investigated by comparing animal models with and without a random term representing cytoplasmic effects. The models were applied to the eight-week weight, scan weight (mean 152 days and ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth. The animal model included the random effects of animals and the maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and maternal common environmental effects. In total there were 24 569, 10 509, 8389, 8369 records for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth respectively. Four subsets were further analysed containing maternal lines with at least five, ten, fifteen and twenty animals/line. There was no evidence of cytoplasmic effects on eight-week weight and muscle depth. Cytoplasmic effects contributed 1–2% of phenotypic variance for scan-weight and fat depth, but the effect was generally non-significant (P > 0.05. As the number of animals per maternal line increased, the magnitude of cytoplasmic effects also increased for these traits. Direct heritability estimates for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth using the full dataset were 0.18, 0.25, 0.24, and 0.21 respectively.

Dewi Ioan

2008-05-01

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Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior  

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Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was t...

2011-01-01

55

Disentangling Prenatal and Postnatal Maternal Genetic Effects Reveals Persistent Prenatal Effects on Offspring Growth in Mice  

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Mothers are often the most important determinant of traits expressed by their offspring. These “maternal effects” (MEs) are especially crucial in early development, but can also persist into adulthood. They have been shown to play a role in a diversity of evolutionary and ecological processes, especially when genetically based. Although the importance of MEs is becoming widely appreciated, we know little about their underlying genetic basis. We address the dearth of genetic data by provid...

2011-01-01

56

The maternal environment affects offspring viability via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental conditions that reproductive females experience can influence patterns of offspring provisioning and fitness. In particular, prey availability can influence maternal reproduction and, in turn, affect the viability of their offspring. Although such maternal effects are widespread, the mechanisms by which these effects operate are poorly understood. We manipulated the amount of prey available to female brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to evaluate how this factor affects patterns of reproductive investment (total egg output, egg size, yolk steroids) and offspring viability (morphology, growth, survival). Experimental reduction of yolk in a subset of eggs enabled us to evaluate a potential causal mechanism (yolk investment) that mediates the effect of maternal prey availability on offspring viability. We show that limited prey availability significantly reduced egg size, which negatively influenced offspring size, growth, and survival. Experimental yolk removal from eggs directly reduced offspring size, which, in turn, negatively affected offspring growth and survival. These findings show that maternal environments (i.e., low prey) can affect offspring fitness via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size and highlight the complex set of indirect effects by which maternal effects can operate. PMID:24642545

Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B

2014-01-01

57

Effect of non-selective dopaminergic receptor agonist on disrupted maternal behavior in olfactory bulbectomized mice.  

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Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) animals are considered a putative model of depression that produces behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations resembling clinical depression. Depression is a critical cause of child abuse and neglect, and it has been reported that maternal behavior involves dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of apomorphine, a non-selective dopaminergic receptor agonist, on maternal behavior to examine the influence of activated brain dopaminergic function in OBX mice. In addition, we conducted the sucrose preference test to examine the reward system which has a critical relationship to mesolimbic dopaminergic function and maternal behavior. Maternal behavior was observed on postnatal day (PND) 0 and 4. OBX female mice showed a reduction in sucrose preference 2 weeks post surgery. OBX dams showed maternal behavior deficits on PND 0, and these deficits were ameliorated by administration of apomorphine. These results suggest that maternal behavior deficits in OBX dams may involve brain hypodopaminergic function in the central nervous system induced by OBX. PMID:20219556

Sato, Atsushi; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Tan-No, Koichi; Onogi, Hiroshi; Niijima, Fukie; Tadano, Takeshi

2010-07-11

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Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams  

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Full Text Available Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3 and mid (day 10 lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing. AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress.

Benjamin C. Nephew

2012-11-01

59

Toxic effects of maternal zearalenone exposure on uterine capacity and fetal development in gestation rats.  

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The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of high-dose and early gestational exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, to correlate the maternal uterus with the fetus, and to explore the development and malformation of fetuses. Pregnant female SD rats were fed diets containing 0.3, 48.5, 97.6, or 146.0 mg/kg ZEN on gestational days (GDs) 0 through 7. All the females survived until GD 20, at which point a cesarean section was performed to harvest the organs, blood, and fetuses. The results indicated that exposure to ZEN during early gestation can impact the maternal reproductive capability. Delayed fetal development was directly linked to maternal toxicity. The toxic effects of ZEN caused early deaths more frequently than late deaths, and the deleterious effects lasted through the end of pregnancy. PMID:24357638

Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jia, Zhiqiang; Yin, Shutong; Shan, Anshan; Gao, Rui; Qu, Zhe; Liu, Min; Nie, Shaoping

2014-06-01

60

Effects of maternal separation on the dietary preference and behavioral satiety sequence in rats.  

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This study investigated the effects of maternal separation on the feeding behavior of rats. A maternal separation model was used on postnatal day 1 (PND1), forming the following groups: in the maternal separation (MS) group, pups were separated from their mothers each day from PND1 to PND14, whereas in the control (C) group pups were kept with their mothers. Subgroups were formed to study the effects of light and darkness: control with dark and light exposure, female and male (CF and CM), and maternal separation with dark and light exposure, female and male (SDF, SDM, SLF and SLM). Female rats had higher caloric intake relative to body weight compared with male controls in the dark period only (CF=23.3±0.5 v. CM=18.2±0.7, Pv. CM=7.0±0.5, n=8, P<0.05) and satiety development was not interrupted. Female rats had a higher adrenal weight as compared with male rats independently of experimental groups and exhibited a higher concentration of serum triglycerides (n=8, P<0.001). The study indicates possible phenotypic adjustments in the structure of feeding behavior promoted by maternal separation, especially in the dark cycle. The dissociation between the mother's presence and milk intake probably induces adjustments in feeding behavior during adulthood. PMID:24901662

da Silva, M C; de Souza, J A; Dos Santos, L O; Pinheiro, I L; Borba, T K F; da Silva, A A M; de Castro, R M; de Souza, S L

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.  

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We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality. PMID:24134511

Scalone, Francesco

2014-07-01

62

Systematic review of effect of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to provide a systematic review of the effectiveness of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We searched published papers using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, CINAHL, BNI, CAB ABSTRACTS, IBSS, Web of Science, LILACS and African Index Medicus from inception or at least 1982 to June 2006; searched unpublished works using National Research Register website, metaRegister and the WHO International Trial Registry portal. We hand searched major references. Selection criteria were maternity or childbearing age women, comparative study designs with concurrent controls, community-level interventions and maternal death as an outcome. We carried out study selection, data abstraction and quality assessment independently in duplicate. Results We found five cluster randomised controlled trials (RCT and eight cohort studies of community-level interventions. We summarised results as odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals (CI, combined using the Peto method for meta-analysis. Two high quality cluster RCTs, aimed at improving perinatal care practices, showed a reduction in maternal mortality reaching statistical significance (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.98. Three equivalence RCTs of minimal goal-oriented versus usual antenatal care showed no difference in maternal mortality (1.09, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.25. The cohort studies were of low quality and did not contribute further evidence. Conclusion Community-level interventions of improved perinatal care practices can bring about a reduction in maternal mortality. This challenges the view that investment in such interventions is not worthwhile. Programmes to improve maternal mortality should be evaluated using randomised controlled techniques to generate further evidence.

Deeks Jonathan J

2009-01-01

63

The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Africa low birth weight (LBW ( Methods In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002 with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p 12 years of education. Conclusion Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

Schmalisch Gerd

2008-07-01

64

Maternal effects, flight versus fecundity trade-offs, and offspring immune defence in the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria  

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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Maternal condition can generate resource-related maternal effects through differential egg provisioning, and can greatly affect offspring performance. In the present study, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.) was used to investigate whether (after controlling for egg size) maternal age, and increased flight during the oviposition period, resulted in changes in egg provisioning and whether this contributed to variation in offspring performance, i) early in de...

2010-01-01

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Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática  

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Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by h...

Lepe, M.; Bacardi? Gasco?n, M.; Castan?eda-gonza?lez, L. M.; Pe?rez Morales, M. ª. E.; Jime?nez Cruz, A.

2011-01-01

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The Effects of Marriage and Maternal Education in Reducing Child Poverty. A Report of the Heritage Center for Data Analysis.  

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This paper examines whether marriage is effective in reducing child poverty and notes the comparative effects of marriage and maternal education on combatting child poverty. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicate that marriage plays a powerful role in lifting children out of poverty. While both marriage and maternal education…

Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.

67

Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)  

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Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother’s fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT). Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata) with 17-?-estradiol (E2) or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss). CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth.

Tissier, Mathilde L.; Williams, Tony D.; Criscuolo, Francois

2014-01-01

68

Maternal effects of inducible tolerance against the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in the grazer Daphnia carinata  

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Cyanobacterial blooms are becoming potent agents of natural selection in aquatic ecosystems because of their high production of some toxins and increased frequency in recent decades with eutrophication and climate change. Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates of a clone of the planktonic grazer Daphnia carinata in an offspring environment where cyanobacteria were present, but not for two additional clones. Offspring from mothers exposed to M. aeruginosa had lower intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates than individuals from unexposed mothers when fed exclusively a green alga. These results suggest that benefits, costs, and clonal variations of maternal effects of inducible tolerance should be considered when trying to understand ecological consequences of cyanobacterial blooms since they can shape the trophic interactions between cyanobacteria and daphnids. -- Highlights: •Maternal exposure to Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the offspring tolerance in a Daphnia carinata clone. •Another two clones, however, failed to response to maternal exposure. •Offspring from exposed mothers had lower fitness when fed exclusively a green alga. -- Capsule: Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa increased offspring fitness in one of three Daphnia carinata clones and carried a cost

2013-07-01

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Neurobiological effects of neonatal maternal separation and post-weaning environmental enrichment.  

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Throughout the lifespan, the brain has a considerable degree of plasticity and can be strongly influenced by sensory input from the outside environment. Given the importance of the environment in the regulation of the brain structure, behavior and physiology, the aim of the present work was to analyze the effects of different environmental qualities during two critical ontogenic periods (early life and peripuberty) on behavior and hippocampal physiology. Male Wistar rats were separated from their mothers for 4.5h daily during the first 3 weeks of life. They were weaned on day 21 and housed under either standard or enriched conditions. At 60 d of age, all animals were then housed in same-treatment groups, two per cage, until testing began on day 74. Emotional and cognitive responses were tested using the open field, novel object recognition test and step-down inhibitory avoidance learning. In the dorsal hippocampus, glucocorticoid receptor expression and neuronal activity were examined by immunoreactivity. Grooming behavior in the open field was found to be significantly lower in maternally separated animals, but post-weaning environmental enrichment completely reversed this tendency. Inhibitory avoidance but not object recognition memory was impaired in maternally separated animals, suggesting that early maternal separation alters learning and memory in a task-specific manner. Again, environmental enrichment reversed the effects of maternal separation on the inhibitory avoidance task. Even though maternal separation did not significantly affect Fos and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, environmental enrichment increased both Fos expression in the total hippocampal area and also the overall number of GR positive cells per hippocampal area, mainly due to the changes in CA1. These findings suggest that differential rearing is a useful procedure to study behavioral and physiological plasticity in response to early experience and that, although the effects of adverse experience early in life such as maternal separation can persist until adulthood, some of them can be compensated by early favorable environments, possibly through nervous system plasticity. PMID:23195113

Vivinetto, Ana Laura; Suárez, Marta Magdalena; Rivarola, María Angélica

2013-03-01

70

The problem of confounding in studies of the effect of maternal drug use on pregnancy outcome.  

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In most epidemilogical studies, the problem of confounding adds to the uncertainty in conclusions drawn. This is also true for studies on the effect of maternal drug use on birth defect risks. This paper describes various types of such confounders and discusses methods to identify and adjust for them. Such confounders can be found in maternal characteristics like age, parity, smoking, use of alcohol, and body mass index, subfertility, and previous pregnancies including previous birth of a malformed child, socioeconomy, race/ethnicity, or country of birth. Confounding by concomitant maternal drug use may occur. A geographical or seasonal confounding can exist. In rare instances, infant sex and multiple birth can appear as confounders. The most difficult problem to solve is often confounding by indication. The problem of confounding is less important for congenital malformations than for many other pregnancy outcomes. PMID:22190949

Källén, Bengt

2012-01-01

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The effect of stay in a maternity waiting home on perinatal mortality in rural Zimbabwe.  

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A hospital-based cohort study was carried out in a district hospital in Zimbabwe to evaluate the effect of a maternity waiting home on perinatal mortality. Information on antenatal risk factors, use of antenatal care, access to the hospital and stage of labour on arrival was collected for each woman delivering at the hospital during the period 1989-1991 (n = 6438). Women who stayed in the maternity waiting home had a lower risk of perinatal death compared to women who came directly from home to the hospital during labour. The crude relative risk of perinatal death for the women coming from home was 1.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.6; P maternity waiting homes has the potential to reduce perinatal mortality in rural areas with low geographic access to hospitals and merits further evaluation. PMID:7636923

Chandramohan, D; Cutts, F; Millard, P

1995-08-01

72

Effect of Source and Level of Maternal Vitamin D on Carryover to Newly Hatched Chicks  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the carryover effect of maternal vitamin D level and source on performance and bone development of the progeny. Breeder hens were fed a vitamin D deficient diet for two months to deplete stores. After this period, experimental diets in a factorial arrangement were fed to the hens with five levels of cholecalciferol (0, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 IU/kg and two levels of 25OHD3 (HyD (0 and 68 ?g/kg for a total of 10 treatments. At the end of two months on the experimental diets two sets of eggs were hatched. The progeny obtained were placed in battery brooders to 21 days by maternal diet and received a common diet. The first hatch received a diet with no vitamin D supplement whereas the second hatch received a diet with the same nutrient composition but containing 5500 IU/kg of cholecalciferol. The first set of birds responded to the maternal diet supplementation of vitamin D mostly during the first week post hatch with no clear pattern in later stages. The progeny receiving 5500 IU/kg of vitamin D in the diet responded to the maternal vitamin D supplementation even at 21 days and in a clearer trend. Feed conversion and body weight improved as the cholecalciferol level increased and with the inclusion of HyD in the maternal diet. The response when HyD was added was more noticeable at low levels of cholecalciferol supplementation with no difference at higher levels in the hen’s diet. Bone development of the progeny was improved with the addition of HyD in the maternal diet; this response was not influenced by increasing levels of cholecalciferol in the breeder diet. This study confirms the importance of the maternal vitamin D carryover for an adequate development of the progeny. Certainly, the vitamin D carryover effect did not overcome the effect of supplementing vitamin D directly in the progeny’s diet but it was capable of improving the performance of the progeny even three weeks post-hatch when a high level of cholecalciferol (5500 IU/kg was present in the diet of the progeny. A carryover effect of HyD when added to the maternal diet was observed in this study, thus the feasibility of using the metabolite to supply vitamin D to the developing embryo was confirmed.

F. Yan

2010-01-01

73

Estimation of Direct Genetic and Maternal Effects for Production Traits of Iranian Holstein Cows Using Different Animal Models  

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Full Text Available (Covariance components and genetic parameters were estimated using Derivative-free Restricted Maximum Likelihood (DFREML approach for milk yield and fat yield of Iranian Holsteins of Isfahan province. Data was consisted of first lactation records on milk and fat yields of 12,047 Holsteins from 45 herds, which were calved from 1995 to the end of 2001. Records were pre-adjusted to mature equivalent yields (ME-2X-305d. Six different animal models were fitted, which were differentiated by including or excluding maternal additive genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental effects and direct-maternal genetic covariance. Animal Models included Herd-Year-Season and direct additive genetic effects as fixed and random effects, respectively. Direct heritability estimates (h2 ranged from 0.157 to 0.229 and 0.203 to 0.243 for milk yield and fat yield, respectively. The estimates were substantially higher when maternal effects were ignored from the model. Mean estimates of the maternal genetic and maternal permanent environment variances and direct-maternal genetic covariance as fractions to the phenotypic variances were 0.07, 0.02 and 0.025 for milk yield and 0.01, 0.05 and 0.016 for fat yield, respectively, while, positive direct-maternal relationships (Covam were obtained. The results of this study showed that maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects had not any important influence on the yield of dairy cows. However, they can improve genetic evaluations. Also, there is no need for the inclusion of direct-maternal genetic covariance in the animal models for dairy cows.

M.A. Edriss

2006-01-01

74

Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring  

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Abstract Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female W...

Zhang Le; Teng Weiping; Liu Yuhui; Li Jing; Mao Jinyuan; Fan Chenling; Wang Hong; Zhang Hongmei; Shan Zhongyan

2012-01-01

75

The Interactive Effects of Temperament and Maternal Parenting on Toddlers' Externalizing Behaviours  

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The present study aimed to determine the potential moderating effects of temperamental traits on the relation between parenting and toddlers' externalizing behaviours. For that purpose, this study examined the interplay between temperament and maternal parenting behaviours in predicting the level as well as the development of toddlers'…

van Aken, C.; Junger, M.; Verhoeven, M.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Dekovic, M.

2007-01-01

76

Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies for maternal and neonatal health in developing countries  

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Objective To determine the costs and benefits of interventions for maternal and newborn health to assess the appropriateness of current strategies and guide future plans to attain the millennium development goals. Design Cost effectiveness analysis. Setting Two regions classified by the World Health Organization according to their epidemiological grouping: Afr-E, those countries in sub-Saharan Africa with very high adult and high child mortality, and Sear-D, comprising countries in South East Asia with high adult and high child mortality. Data sources Effectiveness data from several sources, including trials, observational studies, and expert opinion. For resource inputs, quantities came from WHO guidelines, literature, and expert opinion, and prices from the WHO choosing interventions that are cost effective database. Main outcome measures Cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted in year 2000 international dollars. Results The most cost effective mix of interventions was similar in Afr-E and Sear-D. These were the community based newborn care package, followed by antenatal care (tetanus toxoid, screening for pre-eclampsia, screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and syphilis); skilled attendance at birth, offering first level maternal and neonatal care around childbirth; and emergency obstetric and neonatal care around and after birth. Screening and treatment of maternal syphilis, community based management of neonatal pneumonia, and steroids given during the antenatal period were relatively less cost effective in Sear-D. Scaling up all of the included interventions to 95% coverage would halve neonatal and maternal deaths. Conclusion Preventive interventions at the community level for newborn babies and at the primary care level for mothers and newborn babies are extremely cost effective, but the millennium development goals for maternal and child health will not be achieved without universal access to clinical services as well.

Adam, Taghreed; Lim, Stephen S; Mehta, Sumi; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Fogstad, Helga; Mathai, Matthews; Zupan, Jelka; Darmstadt, Gary L

2005-01-01

77

Disentangling prenatal and postnatal maternal genetic effects reveals persistent prenatal effects on offspring growth in mice.  

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Mothers are often the most important determinant of traits expressed by their offspring. These "maternal effects" (MEs) are especially crucial in early development, but can also persist into adulthood. They have been shown to play a role in a diversity of evolutionary and ecological processes, especially when genetically based. Although the importance of MEs is becoming widely appreciated, we know little about their underlying genetic basis. We address the dearth of genetic data by providing a simple approach, using combined genotype information from parents and offspring, to identify "maternal genetic effects" (MGEs) contributing to natural variation in complex traits. Combined with experimental cross-fostering, our approach also allows for the separation of pre- and postnatal MGEs, providing rare insights into prenatal effects. Applying this approach to an experimental mouse population, we identified 13 ME loci affecting body weight, most of which (12/13) exhibited prenatal effects, and nearly half (6/13) exhibiting postnatal effects. MGEs contributed more to variation in body weight than the direct effects of the offsprings' own genotypes until mice reached adulthood, but continued to represent a major component of variation through adulthood. Prenatal effects always contributed more variation than postnatal effects, especially for those effects that persisted into adulthood. These results suggest that MGEs may be an important component of genetic architecture that is generally overlooked in studies focused on direct mapping from genotype to phenotype. Our approach can be used in both experimental and natural populations, providing a widely practicable means of expanding our understanding of MGEs. PMID:21890739

Wolf, Jason B; Leamy, Larry J; Roseman, Charles C; Cheverud, James M

2011-11-01

78

Perinatal maternal stress and serotonin signaling: Effects on pain sensitivity in offspring.  

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It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women are facing perinatal stress and depression. Perinatal maternal stress has been shown to increase pain sensitivity in offspring. For the treatment of their depressive symptoms, pregnant women are frequently prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Since the descending pain inhibitory circuit matures perinatally, perinatal SSRI exposure has been shown to affect pain sensitivity in offspring. In the present review, we summarize experimental and clinical evidence for the effect of perinatal maternal stress and SSRI exposure on pain sensitivity in offspring. Both experimental and clinical studies show the effect of perinatal maternal stress on regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system and the serotonin pain inhibitory system. Alterations in these two systems likely underlie long-term alterations in the development of pain sensitivity. This review sheds light on the effect of perinatal maternal stress and treatment with SSRIs on offspring pain sensitivity, in relation to the developing HPA system and 5-HT signaling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 885-896, 2014. PMID:24311362

Knaepen, Liesbeth; Pawluski, Jodi L; Patijn, Jacob; van Kleef, Maarten; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Elbert A

2014-07-01

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Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes  

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Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes.

Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

2014-01-01

80

Maternity Leave in Turbulent Times: Effects on Labor Market Transitions and Fertility in Russia, 1985-2000  

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Maternity leave policies are designed to ease the tension between women's employment and fertility, but whether they actually play such a role remains unclear. We analyze the individual-level effects of maternity leave on employment outcomes and on second conception rates among Russian first-time mothers from 1985-2000 using retrospective job and…

Gerber, Theodore P.; Perelli-Harris, Brienna

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior  

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Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet.

Purcell, Ryan H.; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L.; Power, Michael L.; Moran, Timothy H.; Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.

2011-01-01

82

Maternal effects and range expansion: a key factor in a dynamic process?  

Science.gov (United States)

Species that depend on ephemeral habitat often evolve distinct dispersal strategies in which the propensity to disperse is closely integrated with a suite of morphological, behavioural and physiological traits that influence colonizing ability. These strategies are maintained by natural selection resulting from spatial and temporal variation in resource abundance and are particularly evident during range expansion. Yet the mechanisms that maintain close alignment of such strategies with resource availability, integrate suites of dispersal traits and generate variability in dispersal propensity are rarely known. Breeding females can influence offspring phenotype in response to changes in current environmental conditions, making maternal effects uniquely suited to bridge fluctuations in resource abundance in the maternal generation and variation in offspring dispersal ability. Western bluebirds' (Sialia mexicana) dependence on nest cavities--an ephemeral resource--has led to the evolution of two distinct dispersal phenotypes: aggressive males that disperse and non-aggressive males that remain philopatric and cooperate with their relatives. Over the last 40 years, western bluebirds rapidly expanded their geographical range, providing us with an opportunity to test, in newly established populations, the importance of maternal effects for generating variability in dispersal propensity. Here, I show that, under variable resource conditions, breeding females group offspring of different competitive ability in different positions in the egg-laying order and, consequently, produce aggressive males that are more likely to disperse when resources are low and non-aggressive philopatric males when resources are abundant. I then show experimentally that the association between resource availability and sex-specific birth order is robust across populations. Thus, this maternal effect enables close tracking of resource availability and may explain how variation in dispersal is generated in newly colonized populations. More generally, these results suggest that, as a key source of variation in colonizing phenotypes, maternal effects are of crucial importance for understanding the dynamics of range expansion. PMID:19324612

Duckworth, Renée A

2009-04-27

83

A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

Sharma R.K

1999-01-01

84

Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade(®)), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject's group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios. PMID:21271182

Borges, V T M; Rososchansky, J; Abbade, J F; Dias, A; Peraçoli, J C; Rudge, M V C

2011-03-01

85

Effect of gestational age at the prior cesarean delivery on maternal morbidity in subsequent VBAC attempt  

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OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of gestational age at the time of prior cesarean on maternal morbidity in women attempting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC). STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study of women attempting VBAC, comparing women with a prior cesarean delivery ? 34 completed weeks to women with a prior cesarean delivery > 34 weeks. The primary outcome was maternal morbidity, including uterine rupture. Univariable, stratified, and multivariable analyses were used to estimate the effect of a prior cesarean performed at ? 34 weeks on maternal morbidities. RESULTS Of 19,474 women with 1 prior cesarean, 12,535 attempted VBAC and 508 of those had a previous cesarean ? 34 weeks. Study groups had similar risks of uterine rupture (adjusted OR [AOR], 1.5; 95% CI, 0.7–3.5; P = .32) and composite morbidity (AOR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.5–1.8; P = .81). CONCLUSION Prior cesarean delivery at ? 34 weeks’ gestation does not appear to increase the risk of maternal morbidity in a subsequent VBAC attempt.

Harper, Lorie M.; Cahill, Alison G.; Stamilio, David M.; Odibo, Anthony O.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.; Macones, George A.

2014-01-01

86

Sperm competition and maternal effects differentially influence testis and sperm size in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary factors affecting testis size are well documented, with sperm competition being of major importance. However, the factors affecting sperm length are not well understood; there are no clear theoretical predictions and the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Recently, maternal effects have been implicated in sperm length variation, a finding that may offer insights into its evolution. We investigated potential proximate and microevolutionary factors influencing testis and sperm size in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus using a combined approach of an artificial evolution experiment over 90 generations and an environmental effects study. We found that while polyandry seems to select for larger testes, it had no detectable effect on sperm length. Furthermore, population density, a proximate indicator of sperm competition risk, was not significantly associated with sperm length or testis size variation. However, there were strong maternal effects influencing sperm length. PMID:19309491

Gay, L; Hosken, D J; Vasudev, R; Tregenza, T; Eady, P E

2009-05-01

87

Effects of maternal obesity on early and long-term outcomes for offspring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laura I Stirrat,1,2 Rebecca M Reynolds2,3 1Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Tommy's Centre for Maternal and Fetal Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 3Endocrinology Unit, University/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The prevalence of maternal obesity has increased significantly in recent years, and obesity is currently the most common comorbidity of pregnancy. Pregnancies of obese women are often defined as "high-risk" for the purposes of clinical care, with many well documented risks to the mother and developing baby. Maternal physiology and metabolism is dysregulated in the context of obesity, which may contribute to some of the adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Furthermore, maternal obesity has been hypothesized to cause harmful effects for the developing baby through "early life programming." This review will examine evidence from human studies for outcomes of offspring from obese women during pregnancy, during labor, during the neonatal period, and later in life. Keywords: pregnancy, short-term, physiology, metabolism, early life programming, neonatal complications, adverse intrauterine environment

Stirrat LI

2014-03-01

88

Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cord-blood mercury concentration is usually considered the best biomarker in regard to developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity. However, the mercury concentration may be affected by the binding of methylmercury to hemoglobin and perhaps also selenium. As cord-blood mercury analyses appear to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N=514) and the Mothers and Children׳s Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses were used to ascertain interrelationships between the exposure biomarkers and the possible impact of hemoglobin as well as selenium. Both methods showed a significant dependence of the cord-blood concentration on hemoglobin, also after adjustment for other exposure biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in maternal and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended.

Kim, Byung-Mi; Choi, Anna L

2014-01-01

89

Sex-biased maternal effects reduce ectoparasite-induced mortality in a passerine bird  

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Duration of developmental stages in animals evolves under contrasting selection pressures of age-specific mortality and growth requirements. When relative importance of these effects varies across environments, evolution of developmental periods is expected to be slow. In birds, maternal effects on egg-laying order and offspring growth, two proximate determinants of nestling period, should enable rapid adjustment of developmental periods to even widely fluctuating mortality rates. We test thi...

Badyaev, Alexander V.; Hamstra, Terri L.; Oh, Kevin P.; Acevedo Seaman, Dana A.

2006-01-01

90

Effect of maternal age on milk production traits, fertility, and longevity in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longevity is the economically most important functional trait in cattle populations. However, with an increased productive lifespan, the number of offspring born by older dams increases. A higher maternal age might have negative effects on the performance of offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal age on production (energy-corrected milk yield [ECM]) and functional traits (fertility; somatic cell score, and functional longevity) in Austrian dual-purpose Simmental cows. Age of dam had a significant effect on ECM yield and longevity. The ECM yield of daughters decreased with age of dam. Although the risk of culling slightly increased with age of dam, it was lowest for daughters of oldest dams. Results for fertility were non-significant, and results for somatic cell scores were inconsistent across parities. PMID:15328244

Fuerst-Waltl, B; Reichl, A; Fuerst, C; Baumung, R; Sölkner, J

2004-07-01

91

Dietary supply with polyunsaturated fatty acids and resulting maternal effects influence host - parasite interactions  

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Background Interactions between hosts and parasites can be substantially modulated by host nutrition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential dietary nutrients; they are indispensable as structural components of cell membranes and as precursors for eicosanoids, signalling molecules which act on reproduction and immunity. Here, we explored the potential of dietary PUFAs to affect the course of parasitic infections using a well-established invertebrate host – parasite system, the freshwater herbivore Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Results Using natural food sources differing in their PUFA composition and by experimentally modifying the availability of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) we examined PUFA-mediated effects resulting from direct consumption as well as maternal effects on offspring of treated mothers. We found that both host and parasite were affected by food quality. Feeding on C20 PUFA-containing food sources resulted in higher offspring production of hosts and these effects were conveyed to a great extent to the next generation. While feeding on a diet containing high PUFA concentrations significantly reduced the likelihood of becoming infected, the infection success in the next generation increased whenever the maternal diet contained PUFAs. We suggest that this opposing effect was caused by a trade-off between reproduction and immunity in the second generation. Conclusions Considering the direct and maternal effects of dietary PUFAs on host and parasite we propose that host – parasite interactions and thus disease dynamics under natural conditions are subject to the availability of dietary PUFAs.

2013-01-01

92

Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).  

Science.gov (United States)

Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved. PMID:23652562

Zas, R; Cendán, C; Sampedro, L

2013-09-01

93

The persisting effect of maternal mood in pregnancy on childhood psychopathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental or fetal programming has emerged as a major model for understanding the early and persisting effects of prenatal exposures on the health and development of the child and adult. We leverage the power of a 14-year prospective study to examine the persisting effects of prenatal anxiety, a key candidate in the developmental programming model, on symptoms of behavioral and emotional problems across five occasions of measurement from age 4 to 13 years. The study is based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort, a prospective, longitudinal study of a large community sample in the west of England (n = 7,944). Potential confounders included psychosocial and obstetric risk, postnatal maternal mood, paternal pre- and postnatal mood, and parenting. Results indicated that maternal prenatal anxiety predicted persistently higher behavioral and emotional symptoms across childhood with no diminishment of effect into adolescence. Elevated prenatal anxiety (top 15%) was associated with a twofold increase in risk of a probable child mental disorder, 12.31% compared with 6.83%, after allowing for confounders. Results were similar with prenatal depression. These analyses provide some of the strongest evidence to date that prenatal maternal mood has a direct and persisting effect on her child's psychiatric symptoms and support an in utero programming hypothesis. PMID:24621564

O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Barker, Edward D; O'Connor, Thomas G

2014-05-01

94

Effect of maternal use of labetalol on the cerebral autoregulation in premature infants.  

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Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are normally treated to avoid maternal complications. In this study we aimed to investigate if there was an effect of maternal HDP treatment on the cerebral autoregulation of the neonates by analysing measurements of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and rScO2 by means of correlation, coherence, and transfer function analysis. We found that these infants presented higher values of transfer function gain, which indicates impaired cerebral autoregulation, with a decreasing trend towards normality. We hypothesised that this trend was due to a vasodilation effect of the maternal use of labetalol due to accumulation, which disappeared by the third day after birth. Therefore, we investigated the values of pulse pressure in order to find evidence for a vasodilatory effect. We found that lower values of pulse pressure were present in these infants when compared with a control population, which, together with increased transfer function gain values, suggests an effect of the drug on the cerebral autoregulation. PMID:23852483

Caicedo, Alexander; Thewissen, Liesbeth; Naulaers, Gunnar; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank; Van Huffel, Sabine

2013-01-01

95

Investigation of maternal genotype effects in autism by genome-wide association.  

Science.gov (United States)

Like most psychiatric disorders, autism spectrum disorders have both a genetic and an environmental component. While previous studies have clearly demonstrated the contribution of in utero (prenatal) environment on autism risk, most of them focused on transient environmental factors. Based on a recent sibling study, we hypothesized that environmental factors could also come from the maternal genome, which would result in persistent effects across siblings. In this study, the possibility of maternal genotype effects was examined by looking for common variants (single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs) in the maternal genome associated with increased risk of autism in children. A case/control genome-wide association study was performed using mothers of probands as cases, and either fathers of probands or normal females as controls. Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and Illumina Genotype Control Database were used as our discovery cohort (n?=?1616). The same analysis was then replicated on Simon Simplex Collection and Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment datasets (n?=?2732). We did not identify any SNP that reached genome-wide significance (P?effect is unlikely. However, there was evidence for the possibility of a large number of alleles of effective size marginally below our power to detect. Autism Res 2014, 7: 245-253. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24574247

Yuan, Han; Dougherty, Joseph D

2014-04-01

96

Effects of insulin on placental, fetal and maternal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To observe the effects of exogenous insulin on placental, fetal and maternal outcomes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Methods: After screening and diagnoses(WHO criteria) 30 GDM patients(Group A) were kept on diet control and 39 GDM (Group B) who did not achieve glycemic targets were added subcutaneous insulin. Term placental weight, size, shape, consistency, fibrinoid necrosis, hemorrhages, cord color, length of the cord, completeness of membranes, weight and condition of baby and mode of delivery were assessed in 25 patients in each group. Result: Placental weight, cord width and baby weight were found to be more in Group B, than Group A and were statistically significant with p value 0.005, 0.02 and 0.003 respectively. Ten patients in group A and 17 patients in group B had cesarean deliveries. Conclusion: Exogenous insulin produces significant effects on the placental, fetal and maternal outcomes in patients with GDM. PMID:24772119

Arshad, Rabia; Karim, Nasim; Ara Hasan, Jahan

2014-03-01

97

Effects of insulin on placental, fetal and maternal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To observe the effects of exogenous insulin on placental, fetal and maternal outcomes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Methods: After screening and diagnoses(WHO criteria) 30 GDM patients(Group A) were kept on diet control and 39 GDM (Group B) who did not achieve glycemic targets were added subcutaneous insulin. Term placental weight, size, shape, consistency, fibrinoid necrosis, hemorrhages, cord color, length of the cord, completeness of membranes, weight and condition of baby and mode of delivery were assessed in 25 patients in each group. Result: Placental weight, cord width and baby weight were found to be more in Group B, than Group A and were statistically significant with p value 0.005, 0.02 and 0.003 respectively. Ten patients in group A and 17 patients in group B had cesarean deliveries. Conclusion: Exogenous insulin produces significant effects on the placental, fetal and maternal outcomes in patients with GDM

Arshad, Rabia; Karim, Nasim; Ara Hasan, Jahan

2014-01-01

98

Nutrition During Pregnancy and the Effect of Carbohydrates on the Offspring's Metabolic Profile: In Search of the "Perfect Maternal Diet".  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal growth and development is primarily dependent upon the nutritional, hormonal and metabolic environment provided by the mother. A wartime famine study in Holland first showed that a low food intake reduces the glucose offered to the fetus and thus produces smaller size infants at birth. Maternal glucose regulation is however affected by numerous factors including physiological changes of pregnancy (e.g. insulin resistance [IR]), pathological conditions (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus) and maternal nutrition. Maternal glucose is substantially influenced by the type of carbohydrates in the diet through its direct effect on glycemia. The rate at which each carbohydrate raises blood glucose levels after ingestion, can be measured via the dietary glycemic index (GI). Carbohydrate type and the GI of the diet enhance or inhibit abnormal hyperglycemia during pregnancy caused by either pathological conditions or the inability of the mother to cope with the physiological IR of pregnancy. In turn, maternal gestational hyperglycemia may be involved in the pathogenesis of IR, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, the Metabolic Syndrome and subsequent cardiovascular diseases in adult offspring. A low GI maternal diet has been associated with measurable benefits to the offspring. These include a positive effect on altering maternal blood glucose production, insulinemia and reduced adiposity as well as fetal and placental insulin and glucose regulation, fetal growth, birth weight and offspring adiposity. We review the possible links between dietary carbohydrate in health during pregnancy and the effect of maternal carbohydrate ingestion on programming the offspring's metabolic profile. PMID:21673843

Tzanetakou, Irene P; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Perrea, Despina N

2011-01-01

99

CNS EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL Pb EXPOSURE ARE ENHANCED BY COMBINED MATERNAL AND OFFSPRING STRESS  

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Lead (Pb) exposure and elevated stress are co-occurring risk factors. Both impact brain mesolimbic dopamine/glutamate systems involved in cognitive functions. We previously found that maternal stress can potentiate Pb-related adverse effects in offspring at blood Pb levels averaging approximately 40 ug/dl. The current study of combined Pb exposure and stress sought to extend those results to lower levels of Pb exposure, and to examine relationships among consequences in offspring for Fixed In...

Virgolini, M. B.; Rossi-george, A.; Lisek, R.; Weston, D. D.; Thiruchelvam, M.; Cory-slechta, D. A.

2008-01-01

100

Maternal Employment Effects On Family and Preterm Infants at Three Months  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal employment status and the mother’s degree of choice and satisfaction regarding her employment status on family functioning and, on the preterm infant’s development at three months chronologic age. Families with preterm infants (N = 110) were categorized as employed, nonemployed, and on leave of absence based on the mother’s employment status at three months postpartum. There were no significant differences across emplo...

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effects of social support during parturition on maternal and infant morbidity.  

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Because continuous social support during labour is a component of care in many societies but inconsistent in our own, the clinical effect of support during labour on maternal and neonatal morbidity were studied. Social support was provided by female companions. Four hundred and sixty five healthy primigravidous women were enrolled using a randomised design. Compared with 249 women undergoing labour alone 168 women who had supportive female companions throughout labour had significantly fewer ...

1986-01-01

102

Effectiveness of maternal referral system in a rural setting: a case study from Rufiji district, Tanzania  

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Abstract Background The functional referral system is important in backing-up antenatal, labour and delivery, and postnatal services in the primary level of care facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the maternal referral system through determining proportion of women reaching the hospitals after referral advice, appropriateness of the referral indications, reasons for non-compliance and to find out if compliance to referrals makes a differenc...

Pembe Andrea B; Carlstedt Anders; Urassa David P; Lindmark Gunilla; Nyström Lennarth; Darj Elisabeth

2010-01-01

103

Effect of parity on fetal and maternal microchimerism: interaction of grafts within a host?  

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Small amounts of genetically foreign cells (microchimerism, Mc) traffic between a mother and fetus during pregnancy. Commonly, these grafts durably persist. For women, multiple naturally acquired Mc grafts can accrue, as they harbor Mc from their own mothers (maternal Mc, MMc) and subsequently acquire fetal Mc (FMc) through pregnancy. The nature of interactions between these naturally acquired grafts may inform, and be informed by, observations in transplantation, including the effect of noni...

Gammill, Hilary S.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Aydelotte, Tessa M.; Waldorf, Kristina M. Adams; Nelson, J. Lee

2010-01-01

104

Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Hippocampus Neuronal Density in Neonatal Rats  

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The present study has been undertaken the effects of maternal diabetes on Hippocampus structure 1 day neonate individual`s rats from diabetic mothers in both control and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by stereptozotocin (60 mg kg-1) given by a single intraperitoneal injection to female Wistar rats. Control rats were injected with phosphate buffered saline. In neonates brains rapidly were removed and in all sample the number of neurons in CA1, CA2, CA3 was measured via...

Tehranipour, M.; Khakzad, M. R.

2008-01-01

105

A systematic review of the effects of postnatal maternal anxiety on children  

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Several decades of research have focused on the impact of exposure to postnatal depression on children, while anxiety has been largely overlooked. Estimates of the prevalence of postnatal maternal anxiety (PMA) range from 3% to 43%, suggesting PMA may be an important risk factor for adverse outcomes in children. This review summarizes what is known about the effects of PMA exposure on children and makes recommendations for future research. A systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE® and PsychINFO®...

Glasheen, Cristie; Richardson, Gale A.; Fabio, Anthony

2010-01-01

106

The effects of maternal anxiety prior to amniocentesis on uterine and fetal umbilical blood flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the mothers’ anxiety levels and determine its effect on fetomaternal circulation in pregnant women undergoing genetic amniocentesis.Material and Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted regarding the assessment of maternal anxiety levels by means of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in 60 pregnant women having genetic amniocentesis and 60 control cases having their early second trimester ultrasonographic screening, 30 minutes before and immediately after the procedure. Additionally, maternal-fetal hemodynamic changes and Doppler ultrasonographic measurements of fetoplacental circulation were recorded in both groups. Results: The maternal anxiety state scores were found to be significantly higher in the amniocentesis group (p<0.001. Maternal heart rate was significantly higher in the amniocentesis group (p<0.05, while the fetal heart rate was significantly lower (p<0.05 compared to the control group. Uterine artery Doppler measurements were comparable in the two groups but umbilical artery resistance index (p<0.05 and S/D ratio (p<0.05 were significantly higher in the amniocentesis group. Regression analysis revealed that the time which elapsed from offering amniocentesis until it was performed is the main predictor of fetal umbilical artery S/D ratio measured prior to amniocentesis in the amniocentesis group (?=0.66, p<0.001 and maternal anxiety state scores (?=0.04, p=0.003 are the main predictors of fetal umbilical artery S/D ratio measured prior to amniocentesis or ultrasonography in the two groups. The education of the patient in years decreased (?=-0.13, p=0.04, while the amniocentesis procedure (?=1.44, p=0.02 and the time which elapsed in days from offering amniocentesis or ultrasonography up to its performance (?=0.41, p=0.04 increased the S/D ratio measured after the procedures.Conclusion: Our study provides the evidence that maternal anxiety and its duration has effects on the fetal blood flow. Early booking and patient support may help to overcome undesired consequences of an invasive prenatal procedure.

Eray Çal??kan

2009-09-01

107

Effects of maternal separation, early handling, and gonadal sex on regional metabolic capacity of the preweanling rat brain  

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This is the first study to assess the effects of mother-infant separation on regional metabolic capacity in the preweanling rat brain. Mother-infant separation is generally known to be stressful for rat pups. Holtzman adolescent rats show a depressive-like behavioral phenotype after maternal separation during the preweanling period. However, information is lacking on the effects of maternal separation on the brains of rat pups. We addressed this issue by mapping the brains of preweanling Holt...

2011-01-01

108

Effects of Child Psychopathology on Maternal Depression: The Mediating Role of Child-Related Acute and Chronic Stressors  

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In light of recent research highlighting the potential effects of children’s behavior on mothers’ mental health, the current study examined 679 mothers and their adolescent children from a community-based sample to determine the effects of youth psychopathology on maternal depression and levels of child-related stress in mothers’ lives. It was hypothesized that the number of past clinical diagnoses in 15-year-old adolescents would predict the presence of maternal depression at youth age...

Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

2011-01-01

109

The effects of dietary fructose and salt on maternal, fetal and adult offspring growth, metabolic status and cardiovascular health  

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The modern Western diet is typically high in salt and fructose. Variations in maternal diet can have delayed developmental effects on the adult offspring’s cardiovascular function leading to acute or chronic hypertension. The aim of the work in this thesis was to determine the effect of moderate dietary salt and/or fructose intake on maternal and fetal growth, metabolic status and cardiovascular health of the adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were fed either 1) control diet (chow) with t...

2011-01-01

110

The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of newborns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

cm) circumference of neonates in the severe anemic group is less than the mild anemic group. Anemia during pregnancy affect the anthropometric measurements of a newborn. Severe anemia had significant negative effect on neonatal anthropometric measurements. (author)

2009-01-01

111

Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes: effect of balanced protein-energy supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nutritional status of a woman before and during pregnancy is important for a healthy pregnancy outcome. Maternal malnutrition is a key contributor to poor fetal growth, low birthweight (LBW) and short- and long-term infant morbidity and mortality. This review summarised the evidence on association of maternal nutrition with birth outcomes along with review of effects of balanced protein-energy supplementation during pregnancy. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, WHOLIS, PAHO and Cochrane library. Only intervention studies were considered for inclusion and data were combined by meta-analyses if available from more than one study. Sixteen intervention studies were included in the review. Pooled analysis showed a positive impact of balanced protein-energy supplementation on birthweight compared with control [mean difference 73 (g) [95% confidence interval (CI) 30, 117

Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

2012-07-01

112

Placental serotonin: implications for the developmental effects of SSRIs and maternal depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addition to its role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders, increasing evidence points to serotonin (5-HT as a crucial molecule for the modulation of neurodevelopmental processes. Recent evidence indicates that the placenta is involved in the synthesis of 5-HT from maternally derived tryptophan (TRP. This gives rise to the possibility that genetic and environmental perturbations directly affecting placental TRP metabolism may lead to abnormal brain circuit wiring in the developing embryo, and therefore contribute to the developmental origin of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we discuss how perturbations of the placental TRP metabolic pathway may lead to abnormal brain development and function throughout life. Of particular interest is prenatal exposure to maternal depression and antidepressants, both known to alter fetal development. We review existing evidence on how antidepressants can alter placental physiology in its key function of maintaining fetal homeostasis and have long-term effects on fetal forebrain development.

JuanCVelasquez

2013-04-01

113

Effects of maternal ethanol ingestion on uptake of glucose alanine analogs in fetal rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of maternally-derived glucose and alanine has been studied in selected tissues of fetuses from ethanol-fed (EF) rats (30% of caloric intake throughout gestation). Controls received diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation, 2 ?Ci "3H 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and 1 ?Ci "1"4C ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were administered i.v. to each rat. One hour later, maternal blood, placenta, and fetal blood, liver, lung and brain were sampled for "3H and "1"4C activities. When compared to either control group, the mean "1"4C AIB activities of tissues from EF animals were reduced from 19 to 46%, with the greatest effect seen in the brain (3.7 +/- 0.1, 7.2 +/- 0.3 and 6.9 +/- 1.3 dpm/mg in EF, PF and AF fetuses respectively). In addition, the ratios of tissue:plasma "1"4C were reduced (p < 0.01 or lower) in the EF fetal tissues and placenta. Maternal ethanol ingestion reduced the "3H 2-DG content of placenta (p < 0.05) and of brain (38.6 + 1.2, 48.1 +/- 1.2 and 47.2 +/- 1.2 in EF, PF and AF, p < 0.001). Brain weight showed significant positive correlations with AIB content (r = 0.466, p < 0.001) and with 2-DG content (r = 0.267, p < 0.01). Impaired uptake of maternally-derived nutrients may play a significant role in the effects of ethanol in utero

1986-05-01

114

Additive Effects of Maternal High Fat Diet during Lactation on Mouse Offspring  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent reports indicated that nutrition in early infancy might influence later child health outcomes such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we examined the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD) during lactation on the onset of a metabolic syndrome in their offspring. All offspring were cross-fostered by dams on the same or opposite diet to yield 4 groups: offspring from HFD-fed dams suckled by HFD-fed dams (OHH) and by control diet (CD)-fed dams (OHC) and CD-fed dams suckled by HFD-fed dams (OCH) and by CD-fed dams (OCC) mice. We examined several metabolic syndrome-related factors including body weight, blood pressure, glucose tolerance and adipocytokines. Mean body weights of OHH and OCH mice were significantly higher than those of OHC and OCC mice, respectively, with elevated systolic blood pressure. Moreover, OHH and OCH mice revealed significantly worse glucose tolerance compared with the OHC and OCC mice, respectively. Triglyceride and leptin levels were significantly increased and adiponectin levels were significantly reduced by the maternal HFD during lactation, with similar changes in leptin and adiponectin mRNA expression but without histone modifications in adipose tissues. In addition, maternal obesity induced by HFD during lactation increased and prolonged the leptin surge in the offspring and the gender differences of leptin surge were observed. Our data suggested that maternal HFD during lactation might have an additive effect on the onset of the metabolic syndrome in the offspring, irrespective of the nutritional status in utero through the modified leptin surge.

Masuyama, Hisashi; Hiramatsu, Yuji

2014-01-01

115

Additive effects of maternal high fat diet during lactation on mouse offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent reports indicated that nutrition in early infancy might influence later child health outcomes such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we examined the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD) during lactation on the onset of a metabolic syndrome in their offspring. All offspring were cross-fostered by dams on the same or opposite diet to yield 4 groups: offspring from HFD-fed dams suckled by HFD-fed dams (OHH) and by control diet (CD)-fed dams (OHC) and CD-fed dams suckled by HFD-fed dams (OCH) and by CD-fed dams (OCC) mice. We examined several metabolic syndrome-related factors including body weight, blood pressure, glucose tolerance and adipocytokines. Mean body weights of OHH and OCH mice were significantly higher than those of OHC and OCC mice, respectively, with elevated systolic blood pressure. Moreover, OHH and OCH mice revealed significantly worse glucose tolerance compared with the OHC and OCC mice, respectively. Triglyceride and leptin levels were significantly increased and adiponectin levels were significantly reduced by the maternal HFD during lactation, with similar changes in leptin and adiponectin mRNA expression but without histone modifications in adipose tissues. In addition, maternal obesity induced by HFD during lactation increased and prolonged the leptin surge in the offspring and the gender differences of leptin surge were observed. Our data suggested that maternal HFD during lactation might have an additive effect on the onset of the metabolic syndrome in the offspring, irrespective of the nutritional status in utero through the modified leptin surge. PMID:24664181

Masuyama, Hisashi; Hiramatsu, Yuji

2014-01-01

116

A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n?=?20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks), second (ST, 22-24 weeks) and third (TT, 32-38 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (pmigration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction. PMID:24905832

Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E; Mitchell, Murray D; Rice, Gregory E

2014-01-01

117

Effectiveness of maternal referral system in a rural setting: a case study from Rufiji district, Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional referral system is important in backing-up antenatal, labour and delivery, and postnatal services in the primary level of care facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the maternal referral system through determining proportion of women reaching the hospitals after referral advice, appropriateness of the referral indications, reasons for non-compliance and to find out if compliance to referrals makes a difference in the perinatal outcome. Methods A follow-up study was conducted in Rufiji rural district in Tanzania. A total of 1538 women referred from 18 primary level of care facilities during a 13 months period were registered and then identified at hospitals. Those not reaching the hospitals were traced and interviewed. Results Out of 1538 women referred 70% were referred for demographic risks, 12% for obstetric historical risks, 12% for prenatal complications and 5.5% for natal and immediate postnatal complications. Five or more pregnancies as well as age Conclusion Majority of the maternal referrals were due to demographic risks, where few women complied. To improve compliance to maternal referrals there is need to review the referral indications and strengthen counseling on birth preparedness and complication readiness.

Lindmark Gunilla

2010-12-01

118

Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, pre- and post-term delivery, induction of labor, macrosomia, increased rate of caesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal Body Mass Index (BMI on pregnancy outcomes. Methods 1000 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. In order to explore the relationship between maternal first trimester Body Mass Index and pregnancy outcomes, participants were categorized into five groups based on their first trimester Body Mass Index. The data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square tests in SPSS 18. Differences were considered significant if p Results Women with an above-normal Body Mass Index had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia, induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor, and macrosomia than women with a normal Body Mass Index (controls. There was no significant difference in the incidence of post-term delivery between the control group and other groups. Conclusion Increased BMI increases the incidence of induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor and macrosomia. The BMI of women in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.

Yazdani Shahla

2012-01-01

119

Maternal effect and familial aggregation in a type 2 diabetic Moroccan population.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to evaluate the degree of familial aggregation of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Morocco and to investigate transmission patterns of the disease and their relationships with patients' clinical profiles. Family history of diabetes and clinical data were collected from 232 unrelated type 2 diabetic Moroccan patients. Diabetes status was recorded for first degree (parents, siblings) and second degree relatives (aunts and uncles from both maternal and paternal sides). Among studied subjects, 50% reported at least one relative with diabetes and 24% had at least one parent with diabetes. Familial aggregation of type 2 diabetes was prominent and more important among first degree relatives than second degree relatives (P < 0.01). Moreover, diabetes was more frequent among mothers than fathers of probands (P = 0.02), but this maternal effect was not observed in second degree relatives. There are no significant differences in clinical and metabolic profiles between patients according to the transmission pattern of the disease. In conclusion, these results suggest familial aggregation and excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes in the Moroccan studied population. PMID:21442339

Benrahma, Houda; Arfa, Imen; Charif, Majida; Bounaceur, Safaa; Eloualid, Abdelmajid; Boulouiz, Redouane; Nahili, Halima; Abidi, Omar; Rouba, Hassan; Chadli, Asmaa; Oudghiri, Mounia; Farouqui, Ahmed; Abdelhak, Sonia; Barakat, Abdelhamid

2011-12-01

120

Effect of iron supplementation on zinc and magnesium concentrations in maternal milk and plasma  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Iron in the diet can influence the absorption of certain elements including zinc (Znand magnesium (Mg. In this study the effect of iron supplementation on zinc and magnesiumconcentrations in maternal milk and plasma at puerperal period were evaluated.Materials and Methods: Ninety nine non anemic mothers with single pregnancy and normaldelivery were randomly enrolled in two groups (iron and placebo group; blood samples werecollected at the time of delivery and also 140 mid 40 days after delivery. Milk samples were collectedtwice; at two weeks (transient milk and 40 days after the delivery (mature milk. They weresupplemented orally with either 150mg ferrous sulfate or placebo from the time of delivery for 40days. Zinc and magnesium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry.Results: The maternal dietary intake for zinc and magnesium were similar between two groups.Mean iron indexes (ferritin, serum iron and TIBC were not significantly different between two groupsat the time of delivery. No significant differences in Zn and mg levels were detected in maternal milkbetween two groups but in plasma although there was no significant difference in plasma magnesiumconcentrations; The zinc concentrations was significantly (p<0.001 decreased in the group receivingiron supplementation (0.076±0.047mg/dL compared with the group receiving placebo (0.163±0.137until 40 days after delivery.Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that iron supplementation does not affect the contents ofthese elements in maternal milk but despite the possible improvement in body iron status, it candecrease the plasma zinc concentrations, so the zinc supplementation may be needed with iron.

Parvin Ehsani

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of Maternal Nicotine Exposure on Expression of Laminin Alpha 5 in Lung Tissue of Newborn  

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Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been clearly demonstrated to be associated with increased health problems in infants and children. Nicotine is the chemical substance with high level of toxicity. It crosses through the placenta and accumulates in the developing organs of fetus. Previous investigation indicated that maternal nicotine exposures induce decreased fibronectin expression in lung parenchyma. In this study, the effect of maternal nicotine exposure on laminin expression of the newborn mice lungs has been evaluated. Female pregnant Balb/C mice were divided randomly in to four groups as fallow: Experimental group1 (Exp D1; was received 3 mg kg-1 nicotine intra peritoneal injection (IP from gestational day 7 (GD7 to the last day of pregnancy, Experimental group 2 (Exp D14; was received 3 mg kg-1 nicotine from GD7 to postnatal day 14, Groups 3 and 4; as sham control groups (Sha-Con were received the same volume (3 mg kg-1 of normal saline parallel to experimental groups. At the end of exposure times, all of newborns were anesthetized; their lungs were removed and prepared for immunohistochemical method and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The finding indicated that laminin alpha 5 (Lama5 mRNA expressions in the lung of newborn in the nicotine treated Exp D1 decreased by 0.63 fold but increased in Exp D14 by 1.57 fold comparing to Sh-Con groups. Lama5 immunoreactivity was not similar in different parts of the lungs including alveoli and bronchiole, having a significant increase in the experimental groups in contrast to the Sh-Con groups. However, increase in immunoreactivity observed more in Exp D14. Immunoreactivity intensity in small vessels of all experimental groups was not significantly different. These data also indicate that maternal nicotine exposure may induce abnormal laminin expression which may cause defects in lung function during life time.

Mojtaba Sankian

2012-01-01

122

Effects of maternal nicotine exposure on expression of laminin alpha 5 in lung tissue of newborn.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal smoking has been clearly demonstrated to be associated with increased health problems in infants and children. Nicotine is the chemical substance with high level of toxicity. It crosses through the placenta and accumulates in the developing organs of fetus. Previous investigation indicated that maternal nicotine exposures induce decreased fibronectin expression in lung parenchyma. In this study, the effect of maternal nicotine exposure on laminin expression of the newborn mice lungs has been evaluated. Female pregnant Balb/C mice were divided randomly in to four groups as fallow: Experimental group 1 (Exp D1); was received 3 mg kg(-1) nicotine intra peritoneal injection (IP) from gestational day 7 (GD7) to the last day of pregnancy, Experimental group 2 (Exp D14); was received 3 mg kg(-1) nicotine from GD7 to postnatal day 14, Groups 3 and 4; as sham control groups (Sha-Con) were received the same volume (3 mg kg(-1)) of normal saline parallel to experimental groups. At the end of exposure times, all of newborns were anesthetized; their lungs were removed and prepared for immunohistochemical method and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The finding indicated that laminin alpha 5 (Lama5) mRNA expressions in the lung of newborn in the nicotine treated Exp D1 decreased by 0.63 fold but increased in Exp D14 by 1.57 fold comparing to Sh-Con groups. Lama5 immunoreactivity was not similar in different parts of the lungs including alveoli and bronchiole, having a significant increase in the experimental groups in contrast to the Sh-Con groups. However, increase in immunoreactivity observed more in Exp D14. Immunoreactivity intensity in small vessels of all experimental groups was not significantly different. These data also indicate that maternal nicotine exposure may induce abnormal laminin expression which may cause defects in lung function during life time. PMID:23755407

Mahdi Shariati, Kohbanani; Mohammad Reza, Nikravesh; Mehdi, Jalali; Alireza, Fazel; Mojtaba, Sankian; Bideskan, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh

2012-12-15

123

Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced bioavailability of trace elements in aged CCW. Most importantly, maternal exposure to contaminants coupled with larval exposure to fresh CCW interacted to reduce survival to metamorphosis by 85% compared to reference conditions. Our study yields further evidence that disposal of CCW in aquatic basins potentially creates ecological traps for some amphibian populations. - Highlights: ? The interaction of maternal exposure and larval exposure to CCW reduced survival. ? Previous maternal exposure to CCW had a latent effect on survival to metamorphosis. ? Larval southern toads exposed to CCW experienced prolonged larval periods. ? Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced growth rates. ? Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced mass at metamorphosis. - Maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes interact to decrease survival in larval amphibians.

2012-05-01

124

Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats  

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Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 m...

2011-01-01

125

Effects of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Maternal Antibodies on Experimental Infection of Piglets with PCV2  

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To determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) maternal antibodies on and response to experimental PCV2 infection, 24 piglets were divided into four groups on the basis of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers of PCV2 maternal antibodies: group A (n = 6; sample/positive [S/P] ratio, 0.2 to 0.5). Piglets in groups A, B, and C were inoculated with PCV2 at day 0 and challenged with PCV2...

Mckeown, N. E.; Opriessnig, T.; Thomas, P.; Guenette, D. K.; Elvinger, F.; Fenaux, M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

2005-01-01

126

Maternal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Term Birth Weight: A Multi-Country Evaluation of Effect and Heterogeneity  

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Background: A growing body of evidence has associated maternal exposure to air pollution with adverse effects on fetal growth; however, the existing literature is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight and low birth weight (LBW) across 14 centers from 9 countries, and to explore the influence of site characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in this associ...

Dadvand, Payam; Parker, Jennifer; Bell, Michelle L.; Bonzini, Matteo; Brauer, Michael; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana V.; Gouveia, Nelson; Ha, Eun-hee; Leem, Jong Han; Den Hooven, Edith H.; Jalaludin, Bin; Jesdale, Bill M.; Lepeule, Johanna

2013-01-01

127

Effect of maternal dietary amino acid pattern on rat offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of lifetime feeding to gravid rats of diets containing different indispensable amino acid patterns on body and brain composition of the offspring was studied. Two groups of rats were fed, from weaning to delivery, either experimental diet B or diet I. Both diets contained the same amount of total nitrogen (3.14%), available lysine (0.4%) and "complete protein to total protein ratio" (22.5%), but whereas diet I provided an excess of indispensable amino acids over the amount of limiting amino acid, diet B supplied all of the indispensable amino acids in marginal amounts and in a rather well balanced pattern. The nitrogen content of diet B was matched to the nitrogen content of diet I by addition of a mixture of dispensable amino acids. A control group fed stock diet (C) was run simultaneously. Birth body weight, carcass nitrogen to water ratio, and brain weight of pups were significantly lower in B than in I. The figures for I were not significantly different from the controls. Brain DNA content in B was significantly lower than in C, but in I it was lower than for both B and C. Nitrogen to water ratio and brain DNA content of group B were low when compared to the standard curves for our colony; however, DNA content was normal for the degree of body development. On the other hand, in group I brain DNA was preferentially affected, as if body and brain maturity were dissociated. PMID:835505

Portela, M L; Rio, M E; Sanahuja, J C

1977-02-01

128

Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings show that long-term effects of maternal ID and prenatal LPS were additive, such that offspring exposed to both insults displayed more adult behavioral abnormalities than offspring exposed to one alone. PMID:24930842

Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

2014-08-01

129

Drosophila melanogaster Prat, a Purine de Novo Synthesis Gene, Has a Pleiotropic Maternal-Effect Phenotype  

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In Drosophila melanogaster, two genes, Prat and Prat2, encode the enzyme, amidophosphoribosyltransferase, that performs the first and limiting step in purine de novo synthesis. Only Prat mRNA is present in the female germline and 0- to 2-hr embryos prior to the onset of zygotic transcription. We studied the maternal-effect phenotype caused by Prat loss-of-function mutations, allowing us to examine the effects of decreased purine de novo synthesis during oogenesis and the early stages of embry...

Malmanche, Nicolas; Clark, Denise V.

2004-01-01

130

Maternal effects, flight versus fecundity trade-offs, and offspring immune defence in the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal condition can generate resource-related maternal effects through differential egg provisioning, and can greatly affect offspring performance. In the present study, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L. was used to investigate whether (after controlling for egg size maternal age, and increased flight during the oviposition period, resulted in changes in egg provisioning and whether this contributed to variation in offspring performance, i early in development (egg stage and early post-hatching development, and ii later in larval development after being exposed to the model viral pathogen system; the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV. Results Age-related changes in maternal egg provisioning were observed to influence egg stage development only. Flight-induced changes in maternal egg provisioning had direct consequences for offspring growth and survival across each life stage from egg to adulthood; offspring from forced flight mothers had lower larval masses and longer development times. Offspring with lower larval masses also had reduced survival after exposure to the viral pathogen. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that a change in maternal provisioning as a result of increased flight during the oviposition period has the potential to exert non-genetic cross-generational fitness effects in P. aegeria. This could have important consequences for population dynamics, particularly in fragmented anthropogenic landscapes.

Hails Rosemary S

2010-11-01

131

Effectiveness of maternal referral system in a rural setting : a case study from Rufiji district, Tanzania  

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Majority of the maternal referrals were due to demographic risks, where few women complied. To improve compliance to maternal referrals there is need to review the referral indications and strengthen counseling on birth preparedness and complication readiness.

Pembe, Andrea B.; Carlstedt, Anders; Urassa, David P.; Lindmark, Gunilla; Nystro?m, Lennarth; Darj, Elisabeth

2010-01-01

132

A life-history evaluation of the impact of maternal effects on recruitment and fisheries reference points  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fishing causes dramatic changes in the age and size structure of fish stocks. In particular, the targeting of the largest and oldest individuals in a stock changes the age and size distribution of that stock. A large female produces a higher quantity of eggs than a young female because of its larger size, but recent laboratory evidence further indicates that large females also produce eggs of higher quality, a phenomenon known as maternal effects. However, most traditional management models assume that all female fish contribute equally per unit biomass to future recruitment. Here we investigate whether this assumption is valid by calculating the impact of maternal effects both before and after accounting for density-dependent effects. We find that the contribution of large individuals to reproduction is much more pronounced for unfished than for fished stocks. Fisheries reference points are largely unaffected by maternal effects. Our results indicate that the incorporation of maternal effects into impact assessments of fisheries is not expected to change advice substantially. Important exceptions are stocks whose demography is very vulnerable to fishing (and which therefore have low fishing reference points) for which maternal effects are relevant and necessary to consider.

MacKenzie, Brian R.; Andersen, Ken Haste

2014-01-01

133

Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects  

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Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration.

2012-01-01

134

A Maternal-Effect Sex-Transformation Mutant of the Housefly, MUSCA DOMESTICA L  

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A maternal-effect sex-transformation mutant, transformer (tra), of the housefly is described. It is located on autosome 4 in close linkage with the Ba locus. Normally, the sex of Musca domestica is determined by the presence or absence of an epistatic factor, M. When produced by tra/tra mothers, a large fraction of the tra/tra genotypic female progeny carrying no M factors are transformed to develop into intersexes or fertile phenotypic males. The tra/+ progeny are also transformed, but le...

Inoue, Hiroaki; Hiroyoshi, Toshiki

1986-01-01

135

Effects on maternal and foetal traits of feeding supplement to grazing pregnant ewes  

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Thirty single-bearing Merino ewes were used to examine the effect of feeding supplement, from 91 to 140 days of gestation, on changes in chemical composition of the ewes, on the relationships with live weight and body condition score and on the foetus. Ewes grazed a perennial ryegrass pasture and were offered either no supplement or 500 g per head per day of a concentrate supplement from days 30 to 90 and (or) from days 91 to 140 of pregnancy. Maternal carcass and non-carcass components, uter...

Frutos, Pilar; Buratovich, Oswaldo; Gira?ldez, Francisco Javier; Manteco?n, A?ngel R.; Wright, I. A.

1998-01-01

136

Effect of Source and Level of Maternal Vitamin D on Carryover to Newly Hatched Chicks  

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A study was conducted to evaluate the carryover effect of maternal vitamin D level and source on performance and bone development of the progeny. Breeder hens were fed a vitamin D deficient diet for two months to deplete stores. After this period, experimental diets in a factorial arrangement were fed to the hens with five levels of cholecalciferol (0, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 IU/kg) and two levels of 25OHD3 (HyD) (0 and 68 ?g/kg) for a total of 10 treatments. At the end of two months on the ...

2010-01-01

137

Maternal transfer of methimazole and effects on thyroid hormone availability in embryonic tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methimazole (MMI) is an anti-thyroid drug used in the treatment of chronic hyperthyroidism. There is, however, some debate about its use during pregnancy as MMI is known to cross the mammalian placenta and reach the developing foetus. A similar problem occurs in birds, where MMI is deposited in the egg and taken up by the developing embryo. To investigate whether maternally derived MMI can have detrimental effects on embryonic development, we treated laying hens with MMI (0.03% in drinking water) and measured total and reduced MMI contents in the tissues of hens and embryos at different stages of development. In hens, MMI was selectively increased in the thyroid gland, while its levels in the liver and especially brain remained relatively low. Long-term MMI treatment induced a pronounced goitre with a decrease in thyroxine (T?) content but an increase in thyroidal 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T?) content. This resulted in normal T? levels in tissues except in the brain. In chicken embryos, MMI levels were similar in the liver and brain. They gradually decreased during development but always remained above those in the corresponding maternal tissues. Contrary to the situation in hens, T? availability was only moderately affected in embryos. Peripheral T? levels were reduced in 14-day-old embryos but normal in 18-day-old embryos, while brain T? content was decreased at all embryonic stages tested. We conclude that all embryonic tissues are exposed to relatively high doses of MMI and its oxidised metabolites. The effect of maternal MMI treatment on embryonic thyroid hormone availability is most pronounced for brain T? content, which is reduced throughout the embryonic development period. PMID:23608220

Van Herck, Stijn L J; Geysens, Stijn; Bald, Edward; Chwatko, Grazyna; Delezie, Evelyne; Dianati, Elham; Ahmed, R G; Darras, Veerle M

2013-07-01

138

Maternal Factors Associated with Fetal Growth and Birthweight Are Independent Determinants of Placental Weight and Exhibit Differential Effects by Fetal Sex  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Maternal nutritional and metabolic factors influence the developmental environment of the fetus. Virtually any nutritional factor in the maternal blood has to pass the placental membranes to reach the fetal blood. Placental weight is a commonly used measure to summarize placental growth and function. Placental weight is an independent determinant of fetal growth and birthweight and modifies the associations between maternal metabolic factors and fetal growth. We hypothesized that maternal factors known to be related to fetal growth, newborn size and body composition are determinants of placental weight and that effects of maternal metabolic factors on placental weight differ between the genders. Methods The STORK study is a prospective longitudinal study including 1031 healthy pregnant women of Scandinavian heritage with singleton pregnancies. Maternal determinants (parity, body mass index, gestational weight gain and fasting plasma glucose) of placental weight were explored by linear regression models, stratified by fetal sex. Results Parity, maternal BMI, gestational weight gain and fasting glucose had positive effects on placental weight. There was a sex specific effect in these associations. Fasting glucose was significantly associated with placental weight in females but not in males. Conclusion Maternal factors known to influence fetal growth, birthweight and neonatal body composition are determinants of placental weight. The effect of maternal factors on placental weight is influenced by sex as illustrated in the relation between maternal glucose and placental weight.

Roland, Marie Cecilie Paasche; Friis, Camilla M.; Godang, Kristin; Bollerslev, Jens; Haugen, Guttorm; Henriksen, Tore

2014-01-01

139

Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts  

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We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin effects on risk of orofacial clefting using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a p-value <10?5 for maternal genotypic effects, we also applied a haplotype-based method, TRIMM, to extract potential information from clusters of correlated SNPs. None of the SNPs wer...

2012-01-01

140

Effect of acute maternal starvation on tyrosine metabolism and protein synthesis in fetal sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the effects of acute maternal starvation on intrauterine growth, tyrosine concentration and specific activity values in plasma, intracellular free and protein bound pools were determined in catheterized ovine fetuses following an 8 h continuous infusion of L-[2,3,5,6 "3H] or L-[U-"1"4C] tyrosine into the ewe and fetus respectively at 115-125 days of gestation. From the kinetic data the rates of whole body and tissue fractional protein synthesis were calculated. Although placental protein synthesis was not significantly changed as a result of acute maternal starvation, fetal whole body protein synthesis was reduced from 63 g/d/kg in the fed to 25 g/d/kg in the starved condition. There was also a 10 fold reduction in the net placental transfer of tyrosine to the fetus in the starved ewes. In addition, a three fold increase was observed in the quantity of tyrosine used for oxidation by the fetuses of starved ewes, changing from 5.2% of tyrosine net utilization in the fed to 13.7% in the starved condition. Significant reductions in tissue fractional protein synthesis rates were also seen in the liver, brain, lung kidney and GIT tissues from 78, 37, 65, 45 and 71%/d respectively in the fed to 12, 10, 23, 22 and 35%/d in the fetuses of starved ewes. The data indicate that during acute maternal starvation the sheep fetus utilizes more tyrosine for oxidation and less for anabolic purposes which is reflected in a decrease both in whole body and tissue fractional rates of protein synthesis

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Chronic exposure to the opioid growth factor, [Met5]-enkephalin, during pregnancy: maternal and preweaning effects.  

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The opioid peptide, [Met(5)]-enkephalin (termed opioid growth factor, OGF), is an autocrine growth factor that serves as a constitutively active inhibitory agent. OGF crosses the placenta and depresses DNA synthesis in the fetus. The role of OGF in pregnancy and parturition, and the influence exerted on prenatal and neonatal features of the offspring, were studied in rats. Females received daily injections of 10 mg/kg OGF throughout gestation; all offspring were cross-fostered to lactating noninjected dams at birth. No effects on the length of gestation, course of pregnancy, behavior of the pregnant dam, maternal weight gain, or food and water intake throughout gestation were recorded in OGF-treated mothers. Moreover, nociceptive response in these females was not altered by chronic OGF exposure, and no signs of physical dependence or withdrawal could be observed following a challenge by the opioid antagonist naloxone. Litter size and the number of live births per litter of OGF-treated mothers were reduced by 25% from control subjects and a fourfold increase in stillborns was noted for mothers receiving OGF compared to control levels. Histopathologic analysis confirmed the stillborns to have died in utero. OGF-exposed neonates were normal in body weight and crown-to-rump length, but these pups were observed to be lethargic and cyanotic, and had subnormal weights of many organs. Body weights of 10-, 15-, and 21-day-old OGF-exposed rats were reduced 11-27% from control levels. Wet and dry organ weights of the rats maternally subjected to OGF were decreased from control values in six of the eight organs evaluated at 10 days. At weaning, some organs were subnormal in weight. These data lead us to hypothesize that a native opioid peptide-OGF-is integral to certain aspects of maternal, neonatal, and postnatal well-being, and that disruptions in this opioid peptide have serious repercussions on the course of pregnancy and fetal outcome. PMID:11812520

McLaughlin, Patricia J; Wylie, James D; Bloom, Glenn; Griffith, James W; Zagon, Ian S

2002-01-01

142

A Gestational Profile of Placental Exosomes in Maternal Plasma and Their Effects on Endothelial Cell Migration  

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Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n?=?20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6–12 weeks), second (ST, 22–24 weeks) and third (TT, 32–38 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (pgestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001). Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction.

Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E.; Mitchell, Murray D.; Rice, Gregory E.

2014-01-01

143

Trans-generational Effects of Early Life Stress: The Role of Maternal Behavior  

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Using a rodent paradigm of early life stress, infant maternal separation (IMS), we examined whether IMS-triggered behavioral and epigenetic phenotypes of the stress-susceptible mouse strain Balb/c are propagated across generations. These phenotypes include impaired emotional behavior and deficits in executive cognitive functions in adulthood, and they are associated with increased acetylation of histone H4K12 protein (acH4K12) in the forebrain neocortex. These behavioral and epigenetic phenotypes are transmitted to the first progeny of IMS Balb/c mothers, but not fathers, and cross-fostering experiments revealed that this transmission is triggered by maternal behavior and modulated by the genetic background of the pups. In the continued absence of the original stressor, this transmission fades in later progenies. An adolescent treatment that lowers the levels of acH4K12 in IMS Balb/c mice augments their emotional abnormality but abolishes their cognitive deficits. Conversely, a treatment that further elevates the levels of acH4K12 improved the emotional phenotype but had no effects on the cognitive deficits. Moreover, treatments that prevent the emergence of either emotional or cognitive deficits in the mother also prevent the establishment of such deficits in her offspring, indicating that trans-generational effects of early life stress can be prevented.

Schmauss, Claudia; Lee-McDermott, Zoe; Medina, Liorimar Ramos

2014-01-01

144

Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

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In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

2008-07-01

145

Evidence of maternal effects on temperature preference in side-blotched lizards: implications for evolutionary response to climate change.  

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Natural populations respond to selection pressures like increasing local temperatures in many ways, including plasticity and adaptation. To predict the response of ectotherms like lizards to local temperature increase, it is essential to estimate phenotypic variation in and determine the heritability of temperature-related traits like average field body temperature (T b) and preferred temperature (T p). We measured T p of Uta stansburiana in a laboratory thermal gradient and assessed the contribution of sex, reproductive status and throat color genotype to phenotypic variation in T b of adult lizards. Females had higher T p than males. However, they temporarily preferred lower temperature when gravid than when nongravid. Using a nested half-sib design for genetic crosses in the laboratory, we estimated relative contributions of additive genetic variation and maternal effects to T p of hatchlings. Our results show that maternal effects, but not additive genetic variation, influence T p of hatchlings in U. stansburiana. Maternal T p and the presence or absence of blue throat color alleles significantly influenced T p of hatchlings. We discuss ecological and evolutionary consequences of these maternal effects in the context of rapid climate change and natural selection that we measure on progeny survival to maturity as a function of maternal T p. PMID:23919144

Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Patten, Amy; Cooper, Robert D; Sinervo, Barry

2013-07-01

146

Effect of Maternally Derived Antibody on Vaccination Against Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro with Live Vaccine in Broiler  

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Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important viral disease of poultry usually affects young chickens of 3-6 weeks. Hygienic management and proper vaccination are main way of control of this disease. But maternal antibody affects vaccination with live vaccine. To determine the effect of maternally derived antibody on live vaccine, the study was conducted. A total of 100 day old chicks (50 from vaccinated parent stock and 50 from non-vaccinated parent stock were used in this study. A preset vaccination schedule was followed for chicken and blood samples were collected to find out the actual effect. It is observed that day old chicks contain high level (6294.14±24.95 of maternally derived antibody which gradually decline below positive level within 15-20 days (390.45 ±19.42 and half-life is about 5 days. Vaccination of chicken with high level of maternally derived antibody interferes with the vaccine virus results no immune response but revaccination provokes immune response. Better immune response is found in chickens vaccinated at day 21 and boostered at day 28. But there may be chance of infection because maternal antibody declined below positive level within 15-20 days. Chickens from non-vaccinated parent stock shows good immune response from first time that is from primary vaccination at day 7 and boosting at day 14.

J. Alam

2002-01-01

147

Effectiveness of prenatal screening for Down syndrome on the basis of maternal age in Cape Town  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The prenatal screening programme for Down syndrome (DS) in the South African public health sector remains primarily based on advanced maternal age (AMA). We assessed the changes over time and effectiveness of this screening programme within a Cape Town health district. METHODS: Retrospect [...] ive analysis of the Groote Schuur Hospital Cytogenetic Laboratory and Pregnancy Counselling Clinic databases and audit of maternal delivery records at a primary health care facility. RESULTS The number of amniocenteses performed for AMA in consecutive 5-year periods reduced progressively from 786 in 1981 - 1985 to 360 in 2001 - 2005. Comparing prenatal with neonatal diagnoses of DS, the absolute number and the proportion diagnosed prenatally have remained relatively constant over time. The Pregnancy Counselling Database showed that, of 507 women receiving genetic counselling for AMA in 2008 - 2009, 158 (31.1%) accepted amniocentesis - uptake has reduced considerably since the early 1990s. The audit of women delivering at a primary care facility found that only 10 (16.4%) of 61 AMA women reached genetic counselling in tertiary care: reasons included late initiation of antenatal care and low referral rates from primary care. CONCLUSION: Prenatal screening and diagnosis for DS based on AMA is working ineffectively in the Cape Town health district assessed, and this appears to be representative of a broader trend in South Africa. Inclusion of fetal ultrasound in the process of prenatal screening for DS should be explored as a way forward.

M F, Urban; C, Stewart; T, Ruppelt; L, Geerts.

148

Effects of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy on the development and function of ovine fetal liver.  

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This study investigated the effects of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy on the development and function of ovine fetal liver. Eighteen ewes with singleton fetuses were allocated to three groups at d 90 of pregnancy: Restricted Group 1 (RG1, 0.175MJMEkgBW(-0.75)d(-1), n=6), Restricted Group 2 (RG2, 0.33MJMEkgBW(-0.75)d(-1), n=6) and a Control Group (CG, ad libitum, 0.67MJMEkgBW(-0.75)d(-1), n=6). Fetuses were recovered at slaughter on d 140. Fetuses in the RG1 group exhibited decreased (PSOD), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein (TP), globulin (GLB), and alanine transaminase (ALT). In addition, intermediate changes were found in the RG2 fetuses, including decreased liver weight, T-AOC and CHE (P<0.05). In contrast, increases in fetal hepatic collagen fibers and reticular fibers, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOs), monoamine oxidase (MAO), albumin (ALB)/GLB, aspartate transaminase (AST), and AST/ALT were found in the RG1 fetuses (P<0.05). The RG2 fetuses had increased fetal hepatic collagen fibers, NOs and MAO (P<0.05) relative to the control fetuses. These results indicate that impaired fetal hepatic growth, fibrosis, antioxidant imbalance and dysfunction were associated with maternal undernutrition. PMID:24852270

Gao, Feng; Liu, Yingchun; Li, Lingyao; Li, Ming; Zhang, Chongzhi; Ao, Changjin; Hou, Xianzhi

2014-06-30

149

In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition.  

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Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7/group) were studied: ad libitum food intake (control, CON); ad libitum food intake with 1 mg dexamethasone/l drinking water from embryonic day (ED)13 to ED21 (DEX); pair-fed (PF) to DEX from ED13 to ED21. On ED22, dams were injected with [(3)H]phenylalanine for measurements of fetal leg muscle and diaphragm fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR). Fetal muscles were analyzed for protein and RNA contents, [(3)H]phenylalanine incorporation, and MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (MAFbx) mRNA expression. Fetal liver tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) expression was quantified to assess fetal exposure to GLCs. DEX treatment reduced maternal food intake by 13% (P < 0.001) and significantly reduced placental mass relative to CON and PF dams. Liver TAT expression was elevated only in DEX fetuses (P < 0.01). DEX muscle protein masses were 56% and 70% than those of CON (P < 0.01) and PF (P < 0.05) fetuses, respectively; PF muscles were 80% of CON (P < 0.01). Muscle FSR decreased by 35% in DEX fetuses (P < 0.001) but were not different between PF and CON. Only atrogin-1 expression was increased in DEX fetus muscles. We conclude that high maternal GLC levels and inadequate maternal food intake impair fetal skeletal muscle growth, most likely through different mechanisms. When combined, the effects of decreased maternal intake and maternal GLC intake on fetal muscle growth are additive. PMID:22422665

Gokulakrishnan, Ganga; Estrada, Irma J; Sosa, Horacio A; Fiorotto, Marta L

2012-05-15

150

Effects of combinations of maternal agents on the fetal cerebrum in rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fetal cerebral development influenced by maternal ethanol or caffeine either singly or in combination with X-irradiation was investigated in rat. Female Wistar rats were given 20 % ethanol, 0.04 % caffeine and water during the premating period and pregnancy, and 0.03 % vitamin E only during pregnancy. Pregnant rats were X-irradiated with 100 R or sham-irradiated on gestational day 13. Ethanol-treatment alone much reduced the fetal body and cerebral weights, and X-irradiation alone resulted in great reductions in weight and DNA concentration in the fetal cerebrum. The reduction in body weight with ethanol exceeded that with X-irradiation, therefore, the addition of X-irradiation had no effect on that of ethanol. The reduction in cerebral weight on X-irradiation exceeded that with ethanol, thus the addition of ethanol had only a slight effect on that with X-irradiation. The decrease in body and cerebral weights and the increase in lipid peroxide (LP) formation on caffeine-treatment and the decrease in cerebral weight and the increase in LP on vitamin E-treatment were inhibited by X-irradiation as compared to the combined effects of the other drink treatments. The increase in placental weight and the decrease in cerebral weight on ethanol-treatment and the decrease in placental, body and cerebral weights on caffeine-treatment, which findings were covered by the addition of X-irradiation, became much clearer on single drink treatment. Independently of X-irradiation, ethanol-treatment resulted in increased fetal mortality and LP, and decreased body weight. These results suggest that the combined effects of maternal agents on live fetuses should be investigated as to whether they act independently of or dependently with each other and how the effects appear either singly or mixed. (author)

1985-01-01

151

Maternal effects, flight versus fecundity trade-offs, and offspring immune defence in the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria  

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Abstract Background Maternal condition can generate resource-related maternal effects through differential egg provisioning, and can greatly affect offspring performance. In the present study, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.) was used to investigate whether (after controlling for egg size) maternal age, and increased flight during the oviposition period, resulted in changes in egg provisioning and whether this contributed to variation in offspring per...

2010-01-01

152

Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on rat maternal behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has several deleterious effects on the nervous system such as alterations in the concentrations of neurotransmitters in the brain and/or behavioral changes, myelination rate, ganglioside pattern [Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R., Antonelli, M., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 2002. Increased sensitivity in dopamine D(2)-like brain receptors from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-exposed and amphetamine-challenged rats. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 965, 314-323; Duffard, R., Garcia, G., Rosso, S., Bortolozzi, A., Madariaga, M., DiPaolo, O., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 1996. Central nervous system myelin deficit in rats exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid throughout lactation. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 18, 691-696; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Orta, C., Duffard, R., 1990. Behavioral changes in rats fed a diet containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic butyl ester. Neurotoxicology 11, 563-572; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R.O., 1995. Altered behavioral responses in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated and amphetamine challenged rats. Neurotoxicology 16, 479-488; Munro, I.C., Carlo, G.L., Orr, J.C., Sund, K., Wilson, R.M. Kennepohl, E. Lynch, B., Jablinske, M., Lee, N., 1992. A comprehensive, integrated review and evaluation of the scientific evidence relating to the safety of the herbicide 2,4-D. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 11, 559-664; Rosso et al., 2000], and its administration to pregnant and lactating rats adversely affects litter growth and milk quality. Since normal growth of the offspring depends on adequate maternal nursing and care, we evaluated the effect of 2,4-D on rat maternal behavior as well as the dam's monoamine levels in arcuate nucleus (AcN) and serum prolactin (PRL) levels. Wistar dams were exposed to the herbicide through the food from post partum day (PPD) 1 to PPD 7. Dams were fed either with a 2,4-D treated diet (15, 25 or 50 mg 2,4-D/kg/day bw) or with a control diet. We observed that maternal nesting behavior was not modified by 2,4-D treatment. However, mother-pup interactions, specially the nursing behavior, were altered. Retrieval, crouching and licking of pups were reduced or suspended after 2,4-D treatment. We also observed an increase in the latency of retrieval and crouching in the dams treated with the herbicide. Dams showed movement along cage peripheries, food consumption during the light phase and high self-grooming. In addition of the deficits observed in maternal behavior parameters, increased catecholamine levels and a drastic decrease in indolamine levels in the AcN of treated dams were determined. Serum PRL levels were also diminished by 62%, 68% and 70% with respect to control dams in the 15, 25 and 50 mg 2,4-D/kg bw treated dams, respectively. In conclusion, exposure to 2,4-D during the first post partum days produced changes in maternal behavior, serum prolactin and monoamine levels in the AcN of treated dams

2008-05-21

153

The influence of phenotypic and genetic effects on maternal provisioning and offspring weight gain in mice  

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Close interactions between mother and offspring are said to result in a coevolution of parental and offspring genotypes such that offspring are adapted in their solicitation behaviour to obtain maternal provisioning that maximizes their fitness. Few empirical studies have been conducted in this field and it remains unclear whether maternal provisioning and offspring weight gain are influenced by the same set of maternal and offspring phenotypic and genotypic factors. Using a cross-foster, spl...

2006-01-01

154

Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin effects on risk of orofacial clefting using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a p-value <10?5 for maternal genotypic effects, we also applied a haplotype-based method, TRIMM, to extract potential information from clusters of correlated SNPs. None of the SNPs were significant at the genome wide level. Our results suggest neither maternal genome nor parent of origin effects play major roles in the etiology of orofacial clefting in our sample. This finding is consistent with previous genetic studies and recent population-based cohort studies in Norway and Denmark, which showed no apparent difference between mother-to-offspring and father-to-offspring recurrence of clefting. We, however, cannot completely rule out maternal genome or parent of origin effects as risk factors because very small effects might not be detectable with our sample size, they may influence risk through interactions with environmental exposures or may act through a more complex network of interacting genes. Thus the most promising SNPs identified by this study may still be worth further investigation.

Shi, Min; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L; Munger, Ronald G; Ruczinski, Ingo; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Wu, Tao; Murray, Tanda; Redett, Richard J; Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Chen, Philip K; Wang, Hong; Ye, Xiaoqian; Yeow, Vincent; Chong, Samuel S; Shi, Bing; Christensen, Kaare; Scott, Alan F; Patel, Poorav; Cheah, Felicia; Beaty, Terri H

2013-01-01

155

Effects of foraging demand on maternal behaviour and adult offspring anxiety and stress response in C57BL/6 mice.  

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It has been proposed that developmental plasticity of anxiety and stress responses in rodents is mediated by environment-dependent variations in maternal behaviour, but recent evidence indicates that other factors must be involved. To examine this further, we exposed lactating C57BL/6 mice to environmental conditions that imposed high- (HFD), low- (LFD) or variable-foraging demand (VFD) from postnatal day 1-13, depending on the amount and predictability of food supply. While nest attendance was unaffected by treatment, both HFD and VFD-dams showed increased active maternal care compared to LFD-dams. Anxiety in adult male and female offspring was examined on an elevated-O-maze (EZM) and in the open-field test, while hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) reactivity to 20min novelty/isolation stress was determined based on changes in plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels. There were no persistent treatment effects on the offspring's CORT response to novelty/isolation stress. However VFD-males, but not HFD-males, behaved more anxious than LFD males. Their reduced activities throughout the behavioural tests are indicative of a more passive coping style. Conversely, VFD-females, but not HFD-females, behaved less anxious than LFD-females. Our results demonstrate (1) that maternal behaviour in C57BL/6 mice is sensitive to specific characteristics of the environment, (2) that even subtle environment-dependent variations in maternal behaviour can have persistent effects on the offspring's behavioural phenotype, (3) that other factors besides active maternal care must have contributed to these effects, and (4) that male and female offspring may be differentially sensitive to early maternal and/or environmental cues. PMID:18809439

Coutellier, Laurence; Friedrich, Anne-Christin; Failing, Klaus; Marashi, Vera; Würbel, Hanno

2009-01-23

156

Imprinting effects of maternal water deprivation during late gestation on fetal and offspring RAS in the rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the imprinting effect of maternal water deprivation during late gestation on fetal and offspring renin-angiotensin system ( RAS) in the rats. Methods: After three days of maternal water deprivation during late gestation, fetal heart, kidney, placenta and body dry, wet weight as well as body and tail length were examined. Both fetal and offspring plasma angiotensin (Ang) II concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Angiotensinogen (ATG) mRNA in the fetal and offspring liver and cardiovascular responses to intravenous injection of Ang II were also determined by real-time PCR. Results: Maternal water deprivation during late gestation significantly decreased heart, kidney, and body dry and wet weight ,the length of the fetal body and tail (P 0. 05), and increased fetal plasma Ang II concentration (P imprintingeffect of diseases in fetal origins. (authors)

2010-07-01

157

Investigating the Effect of Maternal Elective Position during Active Phase on the First Pregnancy Outcome  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Final hours of human pregnancy are diagnosed with floored uterine contractions that induce the dilatation of cervix and pushing of the fetus throughout the delivery passage. Mothers position during labor can influence uterine contractions as well as the mothers psychological status. This study aimed at investigating the effect of maternal elective position in labor stage on the pregnancy outcome. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial (quasi-experimental study a total of 100 people were randomly selected from the population of first pregnancy women referring to Ya Zahra Maternity Hospital and they were randomized into a 50- person usual care or control group and a 50-person elective position or case group. At admission (4- cm dilatation women in the control group remained confined to the labor bed and received the usual medical care. But women in elective position were allowed to choose their preferred position such as walking sitting standing knee-chest etc. The Data were collected through information forms scale clock Burford pain scale and observation record forms and they were analyzed by t-test and Chi-square statistical tests. Results: The results indicated that relative length of the active phase in the case and control groups was 142.2 and 212.4 minutes respectively which shows a significant reduction. The mean labor scores in the case and control groups were respectively reported as 6.9±1.1 and 8.1±1.2 which indicate a significant difference. The need for oxytocin augmentation reduced (8% vs 64% and mothers satisfaction of child birth experience significantly increased. The incidence of fetal heart rate abnormalities was significantly smaller in the case group. When asked whether they would choose elective position during future labors 76% of women in the case group answered positively. Conclusion: Maternal elective position during active phase not only has no abnormal effects on the pregnancy outcome but also it improves many of pregnancy outcomes and it can therefore be used as an appropriate and harmless method in normal deliveries.

Seyed- Mahmoud Latefi

2009-01-01

158

Effects of Maternal Negativity and of Early and Recent Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Children's False Belief Understanding  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children's emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, 3 false belief tasks were administered to 5-year-old children whose mothers had either met…

Rohrer, Lisa M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.; Maughan, Angeline

2011-01-01

159

Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

2011-01-01

160

Effect of salmon consumption during pregnancy on maternal and infant faecal microbiota, secretory IgA and calprotectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of the immune and gastrointestinal systems of infants. In the present study, we investigated whether increased salmon consumption during pregnancy, maternal weight gain during pregnancy or mode of infant feeding alter the markers of gut immune defence and inflammation. Women (n 123) who rarely ate oily fish were randomly assigned to continue consuming their habitual diet or to consume two 150 g portions of farmed salmon per week from 20 weeks of pregnancy to delivery. Faecal samples were collected from the mothers (n 75) at 38 weeks of gestation and from their infants (n 38) on days 7, 14, 28 and 84 post-partum. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to determine faecal microbiota composition and ELISA to measure faecal secretory IgA (sIgA) and calprotectin concentrations. There was no effect of salmon consumption on maternal faecal microbiota or on maternal or infant faecal sIgA and calprotectin concentrations. The degree of weight gain influenced maternal faecal microbiota, and the mode of infant feeding influenced infant faecal microbiota. Faecal samples collected from infants in the salmon group tended to have lower bacterial counts of the Atopobium cluster compared with those collected from infants in the control group (P=0·097). This difference was significant in the formula-fed infants (P< 0·05), but not in the exclusively breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the impact of oily fish consumption during pregnancy on maternal and infant gut microbiota composition is limited, but significant differences are associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy and mode of infant feeding. PMID:24128654

Urwin, Heidi J; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Vlachava, Maria; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Vulevic, Jelena; Yaqoob, Parveen

2014-03-14

 
 
 
 
161

Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez / Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular) e perinatais (peso e prematuridade) da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22) e [...] não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19) de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e relativa. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx), volume sistólico (VS) e débito cardíaco (DC). Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0%) e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0%) e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5) e DC de (13,5 para 15,1); no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity) and perinatal (weight and prematurity) effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random cohort study, with 41 low-risk pregnant women in their first pregnancy, practicing (study group, n=22) and not (co [...] ntrol group, n=19) hydrotherapy. Anthropometric evaluation was used to assess lean mass, and absolute and relative body fat. Ergometric tests were used for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). Perinatal results showed premature births and small for gestational age newborns. Initial and final indexes within and between groups were compared. Maternal variables were evaluated using the t test for dependent and independent values; the chi ² test was used to study proportions. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the groups for maternal variables at the start and end of hydrotherapy. Comparison within each group confirmed the beneficial effect of hydrotherapy. In the study group, relative fat index was maintained at 29.0%; the control group showed an increase from 28.8% to 30.7%; the study group maintained VO2max at 35%, and increased SV from 106.6 to 121.5 and CO from 13.5 to 15.1; the control group showed a drop in VO2max and no change in SV and CO. There was no relationship between hydrotherapy and perinatal results. CONCLUSIONS: hydrotherapy adequately assisted metabolic and cardiovascular maternal adaptation to pregnancy and did not cause prematurity or weight loss in newborns.

Prevedel, Tânia Terezinha Scudeller; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos; De Conti, Marta Helena; Consonni, Elenice Bertanha; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha.

162

Effects of user fee exemptions on the provision and use of maternal health services: a review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

User fee removal has been put forward as an approach to increasing priority health service utilization, reducing impoverishment, and ultimately reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. However, user fees are a source of facility revenue in many low-income countries, often used for purchasing drugs and supplies and paying incentives to health workers. This paper reviews evidence on the effects of user fee exemptions on maternal health service utilization, service provision, and outcomes, including both supply-side and demand-side effects. We reviewed 19 peer-reviewed research articles addressing user fee exemptions and maternal health services or outcomes published since 1990. Studies were identified through a USAID-commissioned call for evidence, key word search, and screening process. Teams of reviewers assigned criteria-based quality scores to each paper and prepared structured narrative reviews. The grade of the evidence was found to be relatively weak, mainly from short-term, non-controlled studies. The introduction of user fee exemptions appears to have resulted in increased rates of facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections in some contexts. Impacts on maternal and neonatal mortality have not been conclusively demonstrated; exemptions for delivery care may contribute to modest reductions in institutional maternal mortality but the evidence is very weak. User fee exemptions were found to have negative, neutral, or inconclusive effects on availability of inputs, provider motivation, and quality of services. The extent to which user fee revenue lost by facilities is replaced can directly affect service provision and may have unintended consequences for provider motivation. Few studies have looked at the equity effects of fee removal, despite clear evidence that fees disproportionately burden the poor. This review highlights potential and documented benefits (increased use of maternity services) as well as risks (decreased provider motivation and quality) of user fee exemption policies for maternal health services. Governments should link user fee exemption policies with the replacement of lost revenue for facilities as well as broader health system improvements, including facility upgrades, ensured supply of needed inputs, and improved human resources for health. Removing user fees may increase uptake but will not reduce mortality proportionally if the quality of facility-based care is poor. More rigorous evaluations of both demand- and supply-side effects of mature fee exemption programmes are needed. PMID:24992804

Hatt, Laurel E; Makinen, Marty; Madhavan, Supriya; Conlon, Claudia M

2013-12-01

163

Gestational Ethanol and Nicotine Exposure: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Oxytocin, and Offspring Ethanol Intake in the Rat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy is common, despite the known adverse effects of these drugs on fetal development. Though studies on the effects of each drug separately are published, little is known about the effect of concurrent use of alcohol and nicotine in humans or in preclinical models. In this report, we examined the impact of continuous gestational exposure to both ethanol via liquid diet and nicotine via an osmotic minipump on maternal behavior, offspring ethanol int...

Mcmurray, M. S.; Williams, S. K.; Jarrett, T. M.; Cox, E. T.; Fay, E. E.; Overstreet, D. H.; Walker, C. H.; Johns, J. M.

2008-01-01

164

GENES AS INSTRUMENTS FOR STUDYING RISK BEHAVIOR EFFECTS: AN APPLICATION TO MATERNAL SMOKING AND OROFACIAL CLEFTS.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses instrumental variable (IV) models with genetic instruments to assess the effects of maternal smoking on the child's risk of orofacial clefts (OFC), a common birth defect. The study uses genotypic variants in neurotransmitter and detoxification genes relateded to smoking as instruments for cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. Conditional maximum likelihood and two-stage IV probit models are used to estimate the IV model. The data are from a population-level sample of affected and unaffected children in Norway. The selected genetic instruments generally fit the IV assumptions but may be considered "weak" in predicting cigarette smoking. We find that smoking before and during pregnancy increases OFC risk substantially under the IV model (by about 4-5 times at the sample average smoking rate). This effect is greater than that found with classical analytic models. This may be because the usual models are not able to consider self-selection into smoking based on unobserved confounders, or it may to some degree reflect limitations of the instruments. Inference based on weak-instrument robust confidence bounds is consistent with standard inference. Genetic instruments may provide a valuable approach to estimate the "causal" effects of risk behaviors with genetic-predisposing factors (such as smoking) on health and socioeconomic outcomes. PMID:22102793

Wehby, George; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C; Moreno, Lina; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T

2011-07-01

165

Effects of maternal dietary exposure to cadmium during pregnancy on mammary cancer risk among female offspring  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Since heavy metal cadmium is an endocrine disrupting chemical, we investigated whether maternal exposure to cadmium during the pregnancy alters mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring. Methods: From gestation day 10 to day 19, pregnant rat dams were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93G) diet containing 39% energy from fat (baseline diet), or the baseline diet containing moderate (75 ?g/kg of feed) or high (150 ?g/kg) cadmium levels. Some dams were injected with 10 ?g 17?-estradiol (E2) daily between gestation days 10 and 19. Results: Rats exposed to a moderate cadmium dose in utero were heavier and exhibited accelerated puberty onset. Both moderate and high cadmium dose led to increased circulating testosterone levels and reduced the expression of androgen receptor in the mammary gland. The moderate cadmium dose mimicked the effects of in utero E2 exposure on mammary gland morphology and increased both the number of terminal end buds and pre-malignant hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HANs), but in contrast to the E2, it did not increase 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Conclusions: The effects of in utero cadmium exposure were dependent on the dose given to pregnant dams: Moderate, but not high, cadmium dose mimicked some of the effects seen in the in utero E2 exposed rats, such as increased HANs in the mammary gland.

Davis, Jennifer; Khan, Galam; Martin, Mary Beth; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

2013-01-01

166

Effects of Maternal Input on Language in the Absence of Genetic Confounds: Vocabulary Development in Internationally Adopted Children  

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Parents provide children with both genes (nature) and linguistic input (nurture). A growing body of research demonstrates that individual differences in children's language are correlated with differences in parental speech. Although this suggests a causal link between parental input and the pace of language development, these correlations could reflect effects of shared genes on language, rather than a causal link between input and outcome. We explored effects of maternal input on English vo...

Snedeker, Jesse; Geren, Joy; Shafto, Carissa L.

2010-01-01

167

Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies for maternal and neonatal health in developing countries  

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Objective To determine the costs and benefits of interventions for maternal and newborn health to assess the appropriateness of current strategies and guide future plans to attain the millennium development goals.

2005-01-01

168

BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING  

Science.gov (United States)

Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

169

Congenital cataract screening in maternity wards is effective : evaluation of the Pediatric Cataract Register of Sweden  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: To study which eye-screening protocol prevails in Swedish maternity/neonatal wards, evaluate efficacy in a prospective study, and compare results with earlier Swedish retrospective results. METHODS: Surveys were sent in 2006 to maternity/neonatal and women's health departments regarding screening policy. Response frequency was 96% (122/127). Data were derived from The Pediatric Cataract Register, PECARE Sweden. All Swedish children diagnosed with congenital cataract and operated on before 1 year of age between January 2007 and December 2009 were included. Statistical comparison with earlier retrospective results was performed. RESULTS: Eye screening is routine protocol at a rate of 90% of Swedish maternity wards. Sixty-one children were included in the study. An increase was shown in case referrals from maternity wards compared to ten years ago (64% versus 50%). Detection was performed within 6 weeks of age in 75% of the cases. A significant difference between the probabilities of early referral (0.38; p

Magnusson, Gunilla; Bizjajeva, Svetlana

2013-01-01

170

Voluntary exercise reduces the neurotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine in maternally separated rats  

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Maternal separation has been associated with development of anxiety-like behaviour and learning impairments in adult rats. This has been linked to changes in brain morphology observed after exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids during the stress-hyporesponsive period (P4 to P14). In the present study, adult rats that had been subjected to maternal separation (180 min/day for 14 days) during the stress-hyporesponsive period, received unilateral infusions of a small dose of 6-h...

2010-01-01

171

Immediate and Enduring Effects of Neonatal Isolation on Maternal Behavior in Rats  

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Previously, we showed that neonatal isolation (1-hr isolation/day from dam, litter, and nest on PND 2-9) facilitates cocaine self-administration and increases extracellular dopamine responses in ventral striatum after stimulant administration in adulthood. Recent studies suggest that enduring alterations in neurobehavioral responses associated with early life manipulations reflect changes in maternal behavior. Thus, we sought to determine if neonatal isolation alters maternal care and if dams...

Kosten, Therese A.; Kehoe, Priscilla

2010-01-01

172

Maternal-age effect in aneuploidy: Does altered embryonic selection play a role?  

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The age of mothers of children with trisomy 21 (47,+21) is elevated no matter if the extra chromosome is of maternal or paternal origin, and it has been postulated that decreasing maternal selection against affected conceptuses with advancing age might explain this observation. Since the absence of sufficient data on 47,+21 abortuses precludes a direct test of this hypothesis, we have taken an indirect approach. Pooled data from spontaneous abortions and live births with autosomal trisomies, ...

Aymé, Ségolène; Lippman-hand, Abby

1982-01-01

173

Downstream Effects of Maternal Hypothyroxinemia in Early Pregnancy: Nonverbal IQ and Brain Morphology in School-Age Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Although maternal hypothyroxinemia is suggested to be related to various adverse consequences in a child's neurodevelopment, the underlying neurobiology is largely unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between maternal hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy and children's nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ). Furthermore, we explored whether global brain volumes, cortical thickness, and brain surface area differed between children exposed prenatally to hypothyroxinemia and healthy controls. Design and Setting: The study included a large population-based prospective birth cohort in The Netherlands. Participants: A total of 3727 mother-child pairs with data on prenatal thyroid function at less than 18 weeks of gestation and nonverbal IQ at 6 years participated in the study. In 652 children, brain imaging was performed at 8 years of age. Main Measures: Maternal hypothyroxinemia was defined as free T4 in the lowest 5% of the sample, whereas TSH was in the normal range. At 6 years, children's IQ was assessed using a Dutch test battery. Global brain volumetric measures, cortical thickness, and surface area were assessed using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The children of mothers with hypothyroxinemia in early pregnancy scored 4.3 points IQ lower than the children of mothers with normal thyroid status (95% confidence interval -6.68, -1.81; P = .001). After adjustment for multiple testing, we did not find any differences in brain volumetric measures, cortical thickness, and surface area between children exposed prenatally to hypothyroxinemia and controls. Conclusions: Our findings confirm a large adverse effect of maternal hypothyroxinemia on children's nonverbal IQ at school age. However, we found no evidence that maternal hypothyroxinemia is associated with differences in brain morphology in school-age children. PMID:24684462

Ghassabian, Akhgar; El Marroun, Hanan; Peeters, Robin P; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

2014-07-01

174

Effect of Skin to Skin Contact on Maternal State Anxiety in a Cesarean Section Ward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at investigating the effect of skin to skin contact (SSC on maternal state anxiety (MSA in cesarean section unit in Akbarabadi Hospital in Tehran. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 60 Iranian mothers with at least one record of cesarean section delivery were assigned to two intervention (SSC and control groups. In the morning shift and two hours after the operation, as a routine postoperative care, pain-killers were given to all mothers. Then the mothers’ pain scores were measured using visual analog scale (VAS. If VAS was?3, MSA was measured by using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Scale (Spiel Berger. Thirty minutes of SSC intervention was done for mothers in the intervention group. Six hours later, in case VAS was ? 3, MSA was re-measured by using the Spiel Berger Scale for all mothers. Results: Six hours after implementing the intervention, there were no meaningful statistical differences between the MSA mean scores of the two groups, but severity of MSA in intervention group was less than that of the control group (P=0.037. Six hours after the intervention, there was a significant decrease in the MSA mean score in SSC group (P=0.002. Conclusion: As regards the important role of constant anxiety in developing postpartum depression, and as the results of this study indicate, SSC is recommended in postpartum and especially cesarean section wards.

Hamid Haghani

2011-01-01

175

Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ?1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ?2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ?2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

2005-02-01

176

Survey study of effective factors on maternal mortality in Kurdestan province from 1998 to 2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Pregnancy is a natural phenomena and basis of birth but can induce various dangers to mother and fetus. Since mother is the central part of family, maternal mortality would be an irreparable damage to the community. On average 10100 live births and 12 maternal mortalities occur in Kurdestan province each year; the maternal mortality rate is therefore 118/100000 live births which in comparison to similar figure in whole country (37/100000 live births is three times higher. Materials and Methods: This research is an analytic case-control study. Cases and controls were matched for place of residence and age at gestation. Cases (n=55 were chosen by census and controls (n=220 were chosen by random sampling. The tool used to collect data was questionnaire, validity and reliability of which was tested by content validity and test-retest method. The statistical testing used in this study were Chi square and odds ratio. Data were analyzed by SPSS .11 software. Results: Most of maternal mortalities had occurred in women 18-35 years of age, illiterate and living in rural areas. Marivan had the highest maternal mortality compared to other surveyed cities (29.1%. Prenatal care (OR= 22.7, parturition agent (OR= 9.85, use of one of the method of family planning (OR= 2.5 and parturition method (OR= 2.3 had meaningful relationship with maternal mortality. Conclusion: According to findings of this research, it is possible to decrease the maternal mortality by improving prenatal care and family planning and preventing parturition by uneducated midwives and avoiding unnecessary cesarian sections.

Golyan Tehrani Sh

2004-11-01

177

Effect of maternal separation on mitochondrial function and role of exercise in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease  

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Early life stress, such as maternal separation, causes adaptive changes in neural mechanisms that have adverse effects on the neuroplasticity of the brain in adulthood. As a consequence, children who are exposed to stress during development may be predisposed to neurodegenerative disorders in adulthood. A possible mechanism for increased vulnerability to neurodegeneration may be dysfunctional mitochondria. Protection from neurotoxins, such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), has been observed foll...

2012-01-01

178

Effects of maternal and offspring environmental conditions on growth, development and diapause in latitudinal yellow dung fly populations  

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Extensive phenotypic plasticity can allow populations to persist in changing environments. Maternal effects represent one important but often neglected source of phenotypic plasticity. Mothers and offspring of 2 high- (northern Norway and central Sweden) and 2 low- (northern and southern Spain) latitude yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae) populations were exposed to cold (12 degrees C) and warm (18 degrees C) temperatures and to short (8 h light: 16 h dark) and l...

Scharf, I.; Bauerfeind, S. S.; Blanckenhorn, W. U.; Schaefer, M. A.

2010-01-01

179

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates.

Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

2014-01-01

180

Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density  

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Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard...

Buzatto Bruno A; Tomkins Joseph L; Simmons Leigh W

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E

2014-01-01

182

Comparative Effects of Pollen and Seed Migration on the Cytonuclear Structure of Plant Populations. I. Maternal Cytoplasmic Inheritance  

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We explicitly solve and analyze a series of deterministic continent-island models to delimit the effects of pollen and seed migration on cytonuclear frequencies and disequilibria in random-mating, mixed-mating and self-fertilized populations. Given the critical assumption of maternal cytoplasmic inheritance, five major findings are (i) nonzero cytonuclear disequilibria will be maintained in the island population if and only if at least some migration occurs each generation through seeds with ...

Asmussen, M. A.; Schnabel, A.

1991-01-01

183

No direct by maternal effects interaction detected for pre-weaning growth in Romane sheep using a reaction norm model  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The pre-weaning growth of lambs, an important component of meat production, depends on maternal and direct effects. These effects cannot be observed directly and models used to study pre-weaning growth assume that they are additive. However, it is reasonable to suggest that the influence of direct effects on growth may differ depending on the value of maternal effects i.e. an interaction may exist between the two components. Methods To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in Romane sheep in order to obtain observations of maternal phenotypic effects (milk yield and milk quality) and pre-weaning growth of the lambs. The experiment consisted of mating ewes that had markedly different maternal genetic effects with rams that contributed very different genetic effects in four replicates of a 3 × 2 factorial plan. Milk yield was measured using the lamb suckling weight differential technique and milk composition (fat and protein contents) was determined by infrared spectroscopy at 15, 21 and 35 days after lambing. Lambs were weighed at birth and then at 15, 21 and 35 days. An interaction between genotype (of the lamb) and environment (milk yield and quality) for average daily gain was tested using a restricted likelihood ratio test, comparing a linear reaction norm model (interaction model) to a classical additive model (no interaction model). Results A total of 1284 weights of 442 lambs born from 166 different ewes were analysed. On average, the ewes produced 2.3?±?0.8 L milk per day. The average protein and fat contents were 50?±?4 g/L and 60?±?18 g/L, respectively. The mean 0–35 day average daily gain was 207?±?46 g/d. Results of the restricted likelihood ratio tests did not highlight any significant interactions between the genotype of the lambs and milk production of the ewe. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis of additivity of maternal and direct effects on growth that is currently applied in genetic evaluation models.

2013-01-01

184

Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum, low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density but they had different food availability. In the two latter conditions, daphnids had the same per capita, low, food availability but they lived at different algae and daphnid densities. Moreover, the response of crowded females to recovery at high food availability and low population density was evaluated. Low food availability reduced growth and fecundity of both clones and increased male production only in the Clone L. Crowding per se did not affect growth but reduced fecundity. In both clones, low food availability due to low algae density enhanced investment in offspring size and resistance to starvation. In response to food shortage either due to low algae density and to crowding, Clone P increased the investment in offspring size and starvation tolerance but reduced fecundity to a lesser extent than Clone L and did not produce males. Clone L, in response to food shortage due to crowding at high algae density, increased development time, produced more males, as at low algae density, but halved fecundity producing offspring that were not starvationtolerant. These results might reflect differences in anticipatory maternal effects between clones and suggest that neonate quality varies according to either, the environment the mother experienced and the competitive environment the neonates will cope due to their mother life strategy.

Valeria ROSSI

2011-08-01

185

Effects of magnesium on isolated human fetal and maternal uteroplacental vessels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of Mg2+ were studied in human umbilical arteries, stem villous arteries and maternal intramyometrial arteries. The vessels were dissected and mounted in organ baths, and isometric tension was recorded. In all fetal preparations investigated, Mg2+ (0.5-6.0 mM) in a concentration-related way decreased pD2 values for prostaglandin F2 alpha responses. The maximum response to prostaglandin F2 alpha was depressed in umbilical arteries, but remained unaffected in stem villous artery preparations. In stem villous arteries pretreated in Ca2(+)-free medium, increasing concentrations of Mg2+ markedly depressed the response to Ca2+ after stimulation with K+ or prostaglandin F2 alpha, suggesting that Mg2+ inhibited transmembrane calcium influx and interfered with intracellular calcium effects. In both stem villous and intramyometrial arteries, increasing concentrations of Mg2+ increased EC50 values for responses to K+, whereas Emax values were unaffected. Mg2+ produced relaxation of agonist-induced contractions by up to 60% in stem villous arteries and up to 40% in intramyometrial artery preparations. The relaxant effect of Mg2+ did not seem to be mediated through the endothelium or through changes in the synthesis of prostanoids, since endothelial disruption and treatment with indomethacin left the responses to Mg2+ unaffected. Relaxation of vessels important for resistance regulation in the human uteroplacental vascular bed may be of benefit when uteroplacental blood flow is impaired, and the present results support the established use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of pre-eclampsia.

Skajaa, K; Forman, Axel

1990-01-01

186

Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of maternal exposure to oral bisphenol A in female mice.  

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Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread estrogenic compound. We investigated the effects of maternal exposure to BPA at reference doses on sexual behavior and neuroendocrine functions of female offspring in C57BL/6J mice. The dams were orally exposed to vehicle alone or vehicle-containing BPA at doses equivalent to the no observed adverse effect level (5?mg/kg body weight per day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI, 0.05?mg/kg body weight per day) level from gestational day 15 until weaning. Developmental exposure to BPA increased the lordosis quotient in naive females exposed to BPA at the TDI dose only. BPA exposure had no effect on olfactory preference, ability to express masculine behaviors or number of calbindin-positive cells, a sexually dimorphic population of the preoptic area. BPA at both doses selectively increased kisspeptin cell number in the preoptic periventricular nucleus of the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle in adult females. It did not affect the number of GNRH-positive cells or percentage of kisspeptin appositions on GNRH neurons in the preoptic area. These changes were associated with higher levels of estradiol (E2) at the TDI dose while levels of LH, estrus cyclicity, ovarian and uterine weights, and fertility remained unaffected. Delay in the time of vaginal opening was observed during the postnatal period at TDI dose, without any alteration in body growth. This shows that developmental exposure to BPA at reference doses did not masculinize and defeminize the neural circuitry underlying sexual behavior in female mice. The TDI dose specifically exacerbated responses normally induced by ovarian E2, through estrogen receptor ?, during the postnatal/prepubertal period. PMID:24403293

Naulé, Lydie; Picot, Marie; Martini, Mariangela; Parmentier, Caroline; Hardin-Pouzet, Hélène; Keller, Matthieu; Franceschini, Isabelle; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

2014-03-01

187

Index selection on seed traits under direct, cytoplasmic and maternal effects in multiple environments.  

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Crop seeds are important sources of protein, oil, and carbohydrates for food, animal feeds, and industrial products. Recently, much attention has been paid to quality and functional properties of crop seeds. However, seed traits possess some distinct genetic characteristics in comparison with plant traits, which increase the difficulty of genetically improving these traits. In this study, diallel analysis for seed models with genotype by environment interaction (GE) effect was applied to estimate the variance-covariance components of seed traits. Mixed linear model approaches were used to estimate the genetic covariances between pair-wise seed and plant traits. The breeding values (BV) were divided into two categories for the seed models. The first category of BV was defined as the combination of direct additive, cytoplasmic, and maternal additive effects, which should be utilized for selecting stable cultivars over multi-environments. The three genetic effects, together with their GE interaction, were included in the second category of BV for selecting special lines to be grown in specific ecosystems. Accordingly, two types of selection indices for seed traits, i.e., general selection index and interaction selection index, were developed and constructed on the first and the second category BV, respectively. These proposed selection indices can be applied to solve the difficult task of simultaneously improving multiple seed traits in various environments. Data of crop seeds with regard to four seed traits and four yield traits based on the modified diallel crosses in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were used as an example for demonstrating the proposed methodology. PMID:19161944

Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Haiming; Zhu, Jun

2009-01-01

188

STUDY OF EFFECT OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE RELATED RISKS FOR DOWN SYNDROME & OTHER TRISOMIES.  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACTBack ground: Down syndrome is the most frequent live born aneuploidy & recognizable form of mental retardation among all the ethnic groups of human population across the globe. The most common risk factor for DS is advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to find out risks of advanced maternal age for chromosomal abnormalities.  Materials & methods: The chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed by cytogenetic study of 30 clinically diagnosed cases of DS attending paediatric outpatient department(OPD & admitted in paediatric ward, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, as well as cases from B.M. Institute of Mental Health, Aashram Road, Ahmedabad. Their detailed history was taken.Results: The study revealed that with advanced maternal age the risk of child birth having DS was increased. After age of 35 years the risk of child birth with DS was increased by 43.4% in our study.Conclusion: As a woman gets older, her risk to have a pregnancy with a chromosome abnormality increases. The most commonly used definition for advanced maternal age is 35 years or more at time of child birth. With advanced maternal age hormonal level, numbers of healthy oocyte for fertilization, telomere length decreases with reduced meiotic recombination. All these factors increases the risk of pregnancy with DS.

toral goswami

2013-03-01

189

Maternal separation attenuates the effect of adolescent social isolation on HPA axis responsiveness in adult rats.  

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Adverse early life experiences that occur during childhood and adolescence can have negative impacts on behavior later in life. The main goal of our work was to assess how the association between stressful experiences during neonatal and adolescent periods may influence stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Stressful experiences included maternal separation and social isolation at weaning. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 PND) significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming across the first two weeks postpartum. Separation also induced a long-lasting increase in dams blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation did not modify brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult offspring, but they demonstrate partial recovery from the reduction induced by social isolation during adolescence. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were subjected to maternal separation was markedly reduced with respect to that observed in animals that were just socially isolated. All experimental groups showed a significant reduction of BDNF and Arc protein expression in the hippocampus. However, the reduction of BDNF observed in animals that were maternally separated and subjected to social isolation was less significantly pronounced than in animals that were just socially isolated. The results sustained the mismatch hypothesis stating that aversive experiences early in life trigger adaptive processes, thereby rendering an individual to be better adapted to aversive challenges later in life. PMID:24745548

Biggio, F; Pisu, M G; Garau, A; Boero, G; Locci, V; Mostallino, M C; Olla, P; Utzeri, C; Serra, M

2014-07-01

190

Effects of maternal care on the development of midbrain dopamine pathways and reward-directed behavior in female offspring.  

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Variation within mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathways has significant implications for behavioral responses to rewards, and previous studies have indicated long-term programming effects of early life stress on these pathways. In the current study, we examined the impact of natural variations in maternal care in Long Evans rats on the development of DA pathways in female offspring and the consequences for reward-directed behaviors. We found that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the ventral tegmental area was elevated by postnatal day 6 in response to maternal licking/grooming (LG), and that these effects were sustained into adulthood. Increased TH immunoreactivity was not found to be associated with altered epigenetic regulation or transcriptional activation of Th, but probably involved LG-associated changes in the differentiation of postnatal DA neurons through increased expression of Cdkn1c, and enhanced survival of DA projections through LG-associated increases in Lmx1b and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. At weaning, high-LG offspring had elevated DA receptor mRNA levels within the nucleus accumbens and increased conditioned place preference for a high-fat diet. In contrast, high-LG, as compared with low-LG, juvenile offspring had a reduced preference for social interactions with siblings, and haloperidol administration abolished group differences in conditioned place preference through a shift towards increased social preferences in high-LG offspring. The effects of maternal care on developing DA pathways and reward-directed behavior of female offspring that we have observed may play a critical role in the behavioral transmission of maternal LG from mother to daughter, and account for individual differences in the mesolimbic DA system. PMID:24446918

Peña, Catherine Jensen; Neugut, Yael D; Calarco, Cali A; Champagne, Frances A

2014-03-01

191

Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and possible multigenerational effects.

Amorim Elaine MP

2011-12-01

192

Partitioning genetic effects due to embryo, cytoplasm and maternal parent for oil content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Analysis of genetic main effects and genotype x environment (GE) interaction effects on the oil content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was conducted by using a genetic model for the quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants. The experiments were carried out over two years with 8 parents an [...] d a diallel mating design, which produced F1 and F2 generations. We found that the oil content of rape was simultaneously controlled by embryo genetic effect, cytoplasmic effects and maternal genetic effect as well as GE interaction effects, with the cytoplasmic and maternal effects playing the main role. The results indicate that selection of maternal plants for high oil content would be more efficient than selection based on single seeds. Since the GE interaction effects accounted for 73.69% of the total genetic effects and were more important than the genetic main effects it seems that selection might be influenced by environmental conditions. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability for oil content was 73.52% with the interaction heritability being larger than the general heritability, indicating that the early generations can be used for selection for high oil content. The prediction of genetic effects suggested that the parent cultivars Youcai 601 and Gaoyou 605 were better than the other cultivars for increasing oil content during the breeding of B. napus. The implications for the quantitative trait loci mapping of seed traits interfered by these three genetic systems is also discussed.

Jian-Guo, Wu; Chun-Hai, Shi; Hai-Zhen, Zhang.

193

Newborn literacy program effective in increasing maternal engagement in literacy activities: an observational cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Literacy is important for success in school and in adulthood. Book-gift programs at birth exist to help develop these foundations early on. The effectiveness of the Read to Me! Nova Scotia Family Literacy Program (a program where books and literacy materials are given to families in hospital when their baby is born on the duration and frequency with which mothers engage in reading and other literacy based activities with their newborns was assessed. Methods An observational cohort study design was used. Mothers of babies who received the Read to Me! package in Nova Scotia born between January-August 2006 made up the intervention group (N?=?1051. Mothers of babies born in Prince Edward Island between December 2006 and March 2008 made up the control group (N?=?279 and did not receive any literacy package when their baby was born. A phone questionnaire was conducted consisting of questions regarding frequency and duration of maternal engagement in language and literacy-based activities with their infants. These activities included reading, singing, talking, listening to CDs and the radio and watching TV. Babies were aged 0–10?months at the time of the interview. Results Mothers who received the Read to Me! literacy package spent significantly more time reading to their babies, 17.9?±?17.6?min/day compared to controls 12.6?±?10.7?min/day, (p? Conclusions Read to Me! may be an inexpensive, easy to administer and effective intervention which results in increased shared reading of mothers and their newborns.

Veldhuijzen van Zanten Stephanie

2012-07-01

194

Maternal milk as methylmercury source for suckling mice: neurotoxic effects involved with the cerebellar glutamatergic system.  

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Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly neurotoxic compound and several studies have reported intoxication signs in children whose mothers were exposed to this environmental toxicant. Although it is well established that the in utero exposure to MeHg causes neurological deficits in animals and humans, there is no evidence of the exclusive contribution of lactational exposure to MeHg as a possible cause of neurotoxicity in the offspring. In this study, we investigated the exclusive contribution of MeHg exposure through maternal milk on biochemical parameters related to the glutamatergic homeostasis (glutamate uptake by slices) and to the oxidative stress (total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, nonprotein hydroperoxides, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) in the cerebellum of suckling mice (Swiss albino). The same parameters were also evaluated in the cerebellum of mothers. Our results showed, for the first time, that lactational exposure to MeHg caused a high percent of inhibition (50%) on glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in pups. Contrarily, this effect was not observed in mothers, which were submitted to a direct oral exposure to MeHg (15 mg/l in drinking water). In addition, behavioral/functional changes were observed in the weaning mice exposed to MeHg. It was observed an increase in the levels of nonprotein hydroperoxides in cerebellum, and this increase was negatively correlated to the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices. This study indicates that (1) the exposure of lactating mice to MeHg causes inhibition of the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in the offspring; (2) this inhibitory effect seems to be related to increased levels of hydroperoxide. PMID:15201443

Manfroi, C B; Schwalm, F D; Cereser, V; Abreu, F; Oliveira, A; Bizarro, L; Rocha, J B T; Frizzo, M E S; Souza, D O; Farina, M

2004-09-01

195

Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma.  

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Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5?g OVA with 200?g aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. PMID:24370437

Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young; Cho, Eun-Sang; Choi, Eun-Young; Son, Hwa-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Youl

2014-02-01

196

The effect of maternal undernutrition in early gestation on gestation length and fetal and postnatal growth in sheep.  

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In utero undernutrition in humans may result in cardiovascular (CV), metabolic, and growth adaptations. In sheep, maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy, without effects on fetal or birth weight, results in altered CV control in the offspring. Adjustment of gestation length after undernutrition could be a strategy to enhance postnatal health/survival. The aim of this study was to determine in sheep the effect of a 50% reduction in maternal nutrient intake [undernutrition group (U) versus 100%, control group (C)] during 1-31 d of gestation (dGA) on gestation length and offspring size. By 28 dGA, U ewes had gained less weight than C, and twin-bearing ewes had gained less weight than singleton-bearing ewes regardless of group (p<0.05). In different-sex twin pairs, maternal undernutrition resulted in longer gestation compared with C (146.5+/-0.6 versus 144.6+/-0.6 d, p<0.05). Increased weight gain by weaning (20.8+/-0.8 versus 17.9+/-0.8 kg, p<0.05) was observed in U male twins. These findings suggest that the strategy (i.e. growth rate or length of time in utero) adopted by the fetus to enhance immediate survival depends on offspring number and sex. This is likely to reflect the degree of constraint imposed on the fetus. PMID:17667859

Cleal, Jane K; Poore, Kirsten R; Newman, James P; Noakes, David E; Hanson, Mark A; Green, Lucy R

2007-10-01

197

Effect of 5-HT1B receptor agonists injected into the prefrontal cortex on maternal aggression in rats  

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Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT1B receptors play an essential role in the inhibition of aggressive behavior in rodents. CP-94,253, a 5-HT1B receptor agonist, can reduce aggression in male mice when administered directly into the ventro-orbitofrontal (VO prefrontal cortex (PFC. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of two selective 5-HT1B receptor agonists (CP-94,253 and CP-93,129, microinjected into the VO PFC, on maternal aggressive behavior after social instigation in rats. CP-94,253 (0.56 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8 or CP-93,129 (1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 9 was microinjected into the VO PFC of Wistar rats on the 9th day postpartum and 15 min thereafter the aggressive behavior by the resident female against a male intruder was recorded for 10 min. The frequency and duration of aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc tests. CP-93,129 significantly decreased maternal aggression. The frequency of lateral attacks, bites and pinnings was reduced compared to control, while the non-aggressive behaviors and maternal care were largely unaffected by this treatment. CP-94,253 had no significant effects on aggressive or non-aggressive behaviors when microinjected into the same area of female rats. CP-93,129, a specific 5-HT1B receptor agonist, administered into the VO PFC reduced maternal aggressive behavior, while the CP-94,253 agonist did not significantly affect this behavior after social instigation in female rats. We conclude that only the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP-93,129 administered into the VO PFC decreased aggression in female rats postpartum after social instigation.

C.P. Veiga

2007-06-01

198

Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively, preparing at least their major offspring for the sexual competition they will face in the future. This new type of maternal effect in dung beetles represents a novel transgenerational response of alternative reproductive tactics to population density.

Buzatto Bruno A

2012-07-01

199

Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters at different gestational ages  

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This study establishes levels of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glycogen phosphorlyase (GP), and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues at Days 9, 12, and 15 in the 16-day gestation period of the hamster, and following a single dose of either 8 or 15 mg/kg mercuric acetate on the eighth gestational day. Mercury significantly elevated maternal kidney G6PD activity and decreased GP activity. The increase in kidney G6PD strongly correlated with observed urine and kidney abnormalities.

Karp, W.B.; Gale, T.F.; Subramanyam, S.B.; DuRant, R.H.

1985-04-01

200

Lack of effect of the MR (mutator) factor on the maternal repair system in Drosophila melanogaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were designed to test whether the functioning of the maternal repair system will be different in females heterozygous for MR (male recombination factor) relative to that in females not carrying the MR. Muller-5 males were irradiated and mated to either MR/ + or Cy/ + females, and the frequencies of sex-linked recessive lethals in mature spermatozoa were determined and compared. The frequencies were similar with both types of female, demonstrating that heterozygosity for MR does not lead to an alteration in the functioning of the maternal repair system. (orig.)

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Characterization of Maternal and Zygotic D-Raf Proteins: Dominant Negative Effects on Torso Signal Transduction  

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The maternal D-raf serine/threonine kinase acts downstream of Torso (Tor) for specification of cell fates at the embryonic termini. D-raf activity is also required in other signal transduction pathways and consistent with its pleiotropic role, we find accumulation of a 90-kD D-raf protein throughout embryonic development. We also characterize the accumulation of maternal D-raf proteins in 0-2-hr embryos derived from females with germ cells lacking D-raf activity. Accumulation of a 90-kD or tr...

Radke, K.; Baek, K. H.; Ambrosio, L.

1997-01-01

202

Immunomodulating effects of intestinal absorbed maternal colostral leukocytes by neonatal pigs.  

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Intestinal absorption of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled maternal colostral leukocytes (FITC-CL) was studied in 49 neonatal colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs from nine Minnesota miniature sows. Within 2 h postfeeding (pf), maternal FITC-CL were absorbed from the sibling's digestive tract and migrated into blood. The peak appearance of FITC-CL in blood occurred in samples at 5 and 7 h pf. By 24 h pf, cells were detected in liver, lung, lymph nodes, spleen and gastrointestinal tissues. To confir...

Williams, P. P.

1993-01-01

203

Effect of Maternal Smoking on Breast Milk Interleukin-1?, ?-Endorphin, and Leptin Concentrations  

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Tobacco smoke is immunotoxic, but the effect of smoking on the immunologic function of the mammary gland of mothers who smoke cigarettes (“smoker mothers”) has not been studied. Our objective was to test, in smoker mothers, the colostral and transitional milk concentrations of interleukin-(IL)1?. The immunomodulators ?-endorphin and leptin were also tested. Pregnant women who self-identified as smokers (? 5 cigarettes per day through pregnancy) or nonsmokers were recruited for study participation. The study population included 42 smoker and 40 non-smoker nursing mothers, with otherwise uncomplicated gestation, delivery, and puerperium, who were breast-feeding ad libitum their healthy neonates. Colostrum was obtained on the third postpartum day at 0900 hr and transitional milk on the 10th postpartum day at 0900 hr. IL-1? concentrations were significantly reduced in the colostrum of smoker mothers compared with nonsmoker mothers (p < 0.01). Colostral ?-endorphin and leptin concentrations were comparable. No significant differences were found between smoker and nonsmoker lactating mothers in transitional milk concentrations of IL-1?, ?-endorphin, and leptin. Moreover, ?-endorphin and leptin concentrations were significantly reduced in transitional milk samples compared with colostrum of both smoker and nonsmoker mothers (p < 0.05); also, IL-1? transitional milk concentrations were reduced compared with colostrum, but without any significance. This analysis shows that maternal smoking alters the colostral milk levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1?. The altered postnatal provision of alternative source of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? adds understanding to how breast-feeding could be nonprotective against infections among the neonates nursed by smoker mothers.

Zanardo, Vincenzo; Nicolussi, Silvia; Cavallin, Stefania; Trevisanuto, Daniele; Barbato, Angelo; Faggian, Diego; Favaro, Flaviano; Plebani, Mario

2005-01-01

204

Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development  

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Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

GS Schmidt

2003-05-01

205

Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC) and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutiv [...] e days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE) was evaluated at 9 (P9), 11 (P11), 13 (P13), 15 (P15), 17 (P17) and 21 (P21) days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO) was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP) and 68.48% (PPc) of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

GS, Schmidt; EAP de, Figueiredo; MC, Ledur; HJ, Alves.

206

Effects of maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing on chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasitism and performance of lambs.  

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Forty-eight 4- to 5-yr-old Blackface x Bluefaced Leicester (Mule) ewes and their 24-d-old twin lambs were used to assess the effects of maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing on chicory (Cichorium intybus) on performance and parasitism. The experiment consisted of 2 grazing periods: safe pasture period and experimental pasture period. During an adaptation period of 66 d, ewes were infected through oral dosing with Teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae (3 d per wk) and were supplemented with protein (HP) or not (LP) for the last 45 d of this period. At the end of this period, ewes and their lambs were turned out onto a parasitologically safe pasture; all ewes continued to be dosed with parasite (once a week), and HP ewes received protein supplementation for the first 35 d. Ewes and lambs grazed the safe pasture for an additional 43 d after termination of protein supplementation and of oral dosing with parasites. Ewes and their lambs were then moved onto newly established experimental pastures sown with chicory or grass/clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). During the safe pasture period, HP ewes had decreased fecal egg counts (FEC) compared with LP ewes, whereas HP lambs had temporarily less (P 0.10) between maternal nutrition and grazed forage type on performance or parasitological measurements. Our results suggest that increased maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing of chicory independently improve lamb performance and reduce lamb parasitism. PMID:20023143

Kidane, A; Houdijk, J G M; Athanasiadou, S; Tolkamp, B J; Kyriazakis, I

2010-04-01

207

Complex interactions between paternal and maternal effects: parental experience and age at reproduction affect fecundity and offspring performance in a butterfly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parental effects can greatly affect offspring performance and are thus expected to impact population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Most studies have focused on maternal effects, whereas fathers are also likely to influence offspring phenotype, for instance when males transfer nutrients to females during mating. Moreover, although the separate effects of maternal age and the environment have been documented as a source of parental effects in many species, their combined effects have not been investigated. In the present study, we analyzed the combined effects of maternal and paternal age at reproduction and a mobility treatment in stressful conditions on offspring performance in the butterfly Pieris brassicae. Both paternal and maternal effects affected progeny traits but always via interactions between age and mobility treatment. Moreover, parental effects shifted from male effects expressed at the larval stage to maternal effects at the adult stage. Indeed, egg survival until adult emergence significantly decreased with father age at mating only for fathers having experienced the mobility treatment, whereas offspring adult life span decreased with increasing mother age at laying only for females that did not experience the mobility treatment. Overall, our results demonstrate that both parents' phenotypes influence offspring performance through nongenetic effects, their relative contribution varying over the course of progeny's life. PMID:23106718

Ducatez, Simon; Baguette, M; Stevens, V M; Legrand, D; Fréville, H

2012-11-01

208

Mitigating the Ill Effects of Maternal Incarceration on Women in Prison and Their Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the incidence and impact of maternal incarceration, analyzes one Minnesota prison's attempt to provide programs to support inmate mothers and their children, and offers policy and program recommendations. Describes the Shakopee women's prison overnight visiting program for children 11 years and younger, and a parent support program for…

Luke, Katherine P.

2002-01-01

209

The Effects of Rumination on the Timing of Maternal and Child Negative Affect  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined whether rumination serves as a moderator of the temporal association between maternal and child negative affect. Participants included 88 mothers with a history of major depressive episodes and their 123 children. During an initial assessment, mothers and their children completed measures assessing negative affect and…

Flancbaum, Meir; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Abela, John R. Z.; Young, Jamie F.; Stolow, Darren; Hankin, Benjamin L.

2011-01-01

210

The Effect of Maternal Employment on Mormon and Non-Mormon Adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated relationship between maternal employment and familial relations in Mormon (n=60) and non-Mormon (m=102) college students whose mothers either worked full time or were nonemployed. Results indicated that both sons and daughters from Mormon families where the mother was not employed full time reported closer relationship with their…

Mohan, Philip J.

1990-01-01

211

The Moderating Effects of Maternal Psychopathology on Children's Adjustment Post-Hurricane Katrina  

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This study investigated the role of maternal psychopathology in predicting children's psychological distress in a disaster-exposed sample. Participants consisted of 260 children (ages 8-16) recruited from public schools and their mothers. These families were displaced from New Orleans because of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Assessment took place 3…

Spell, Annie W.; Kelley, Mary Lou; Wang, Jing; Self-Brown, Shannon; Davidson, Karen L.; Pellegrin, Angie; Palcic, Jeannette L.; Meyer, Kara; Paasch, Valerie; Baumeister, Audrey

2008-01-01

212

Glycemic Control in Diabetic Pregnancies: Effects on Fetal and Maternal Outcome  

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Background: Both maternal and fetal complications are increased in diabetic pregnancies. Although hypertensive complications are increased in pregnant women with pregestational diabetes, reports on hypertensive complications in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been contradictory. Congenital malformations and macrosomia are the main fetal complications in Type 1 diabetic pregnancies, whereas fetal macrosomia and birth trauma but not congenital malformations are increased in ...

Suhonen, Lauri

2009-01-01

213

Phenotypic and Molecular Analysis of Mes-3, a Maternal-Effect Gene Required for Proliferation and Viability of the Germ Line in C. Elegans  

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mes-3 is one of four maternal-effect sterile genes that encode maternal components required for normal postembryonic development of the germ line in Caenorhabditis elegans. mes-3 mutant mothers produce sterile progeny, which contain few germ cells and no gametes. This terminal phenotype reflects two problems: reduced proliferation of the germ line and germ cell death. Both the appearance of the dying germ cells and the results of genetic tests indicate that germ cells in mes-3 animals undergo...

1995-01-01

214

Effects of Altered Maternal Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Placental Global DNA Methylation Patterns in Wistar Rats  

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Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting...

Kulkarni, Asmita; Dangat, Kamini; Kale, Anvita; Sable, Pratiksha; Chavan-gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

2011-01-01

215

Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?  

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Early life stress (ELS) in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces "detrimental" effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first post-natal days and exposure to a "substitute" mother. The maternal care of biological and "substitute" mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM), acoustic startle response (ASR) and forced swim test (FST). In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects). Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behavior by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the "substitute" mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of "detrimental" and "beneficial" effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behavior. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR) and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may "buffer" the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner. PMID:24616673

Fuentes, Sílvia; Daviu, Núria; Gagliano, Humberto; Garrido, Pedro; Zelena, Dóra; Monasterio, Nela; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

2014-01-01

216

[Maternal mortality].  

Science.gov (United States)

Every year, more than 585,000 women die throughout the world from pregnancy-related causes. Pregnancy complications occur in all countries, but nearly all the resulting deaths occur in developing countries. The maternal mortality rate in Ecuador, estimated by applying the sister survival method to survey data for 1988-94, was 160/100,000 live births. Approximately 460 women thus die each year from maternal causes. The Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development established that countries with intermediate levels of maternal mortality should strive to reduce rates to below 100/100,000 by the year 2005 and to below 60/100,000 by the year 2015. Ecuador's Plan for Reduction of Maternal Mortality will involve the cooperation of national and international organizations, aided by the president of Ecuador and under the leadership of the first lady. The initiative will require commitment from all sectors and individuals directly or indirectly influencing women's health. PMID:12178219

1997-09-01

217

Maternal Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)

Clark, Sam

1975-01-01

218

Moderating effects of positive parenting and maternal alcohol use on emerging adults' alcohol use: does living at home matter?  

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Positive parenting behaviors and parental modeling of alcohol use are consistent predictors of offspring's alcohol use. Recent research extends these findings to emerging adult children and confirms continued parental influence beyond adolescence. This paper examines how maternal warmth and supervision moderate the effects of mother's heavy alcohol use on their offspring's alcohol use among a sample of non-college-attending emerging adults. Three-way interactions were used to examine if these moderating effects differed between emerging adults who lived at home and those with other living arrangements. Separate analyses within gender were used to further examine these associations. Participants were 245 emerging adults between ages 18 and 22 years with no post-secondary education (59% female) who were selected from a national probability-based internet panel. Path analyses indicated that, regardless of living arrangements, male emerging adults who were more likely to witness their mother getting drunk were themselves more likely to engage in risky drinking. However, among female emerging adults, similarity between mothers' and daughters' drunkenness was strongest among participants who resided with their family and also reported low levels of maternal warmth. This study extends previous research by indicating that the effects of maternal modeling of heavy alcohol use on emerging adults' heavy alcohol use depend upon several factors, including the gender of the child and the family context. Implications of the study findings are discussed in terms of expanding the scope of a parent-based intervention (PBI) to all emerging adults, including those who do not attend colleges or universities. PMID:24583277

Cleveland, Michael J; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; White, Helene R

2014-05-01

219

Pelvic Floor Consequences of Cesarean Delivery on Maternal Request in Women with a Single Birth: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis  

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Abstract Background The potential benefit in preventing pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) is a frequently cited reason for requesting or performing cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR). However, for primigravid women without medical/obstetric indications, the lifetime cost-effectiveness of CDMR remains unknown, particularly with regard to lifelong pelvic floor consequences. Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of CDMR in comparison to trial of labor (TOL) for primigravid women without medical/obstetric indications with a single childbirth over their lifetime, while explicitly accounting for the management of PFD throughout the lifetime. Methods We used Monte Carlo simulation of a decision model containing 249 chance events and 101 parameters depicting lifelong maternal and neonatal outcomes in the following domains: actual mode of delivery, emergency hysterectomy, transient maternal morbidity and mortality, perinatal morbidity and mortality, and the lifelong management of PFDs. Parameter estimates were obtained from published literature. The analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. All costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were discounted to the present value at childbirth. Results The estimated mean cost and QALYs were $14,259 (95% confidence interval [CI] $8,964-$24,002) and 58.21 (95% CI 57.43-58.67) for CDMR and $13,283 (95% CI $7,861-$23,829) and 57.87 (95% CI 56.97-58.46) for TOL over the combined lifetime of the mother and the child. Parameters related to PFDs play an important role in determining cost and quality of life. Conclusions When a woman without medical/obstetric indications has only one childbirth in her lifetime, cost-effectiveness analysis does not reveal a clearly preferable mode of delivery.

Ivy, Julie S.; Patel, Divya A.; Patel, Sejal N.; Smith, Dean G.; Ransom, Scott B.; Fenner, Dee; DeLancey, John O.L.

2010-01-01

220

Effects of chronic social stress on maternal behavior, anhedonia, milk intake, pup growth, and gene expression  

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Background : Exposure to chronic social stress is a strong predictor of postpartum depression and anxiety. Recent studies have described a chronic social stress (CSS) rodent model for postpartum depression where the repeated exposure of lactating dams to novel male intruders attenuates both the display of maternal care and growth during lactation and increases self-grooming, a measure of anxiety. Investigation of the adult female offspring of these affected dams reveals an attenuated nursing ...

Christorpher Murgatroyd; Lindsay Carini; Benjamin Nephew

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Maternal age effect on mouse oocytes: new biological insight from proteomic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-standing view of 'immortal germline vs mortal soma' poses a fundamental question in biology concerning how oocytes age in molecular terms. A mainstream hypothesis is that maternal ageing of oocytes has its roots in gene transcription. Investigating the proteins resulting from mRNA translation would reveal how far the levels of functionally available proteins correlate with mRNAs and would offer novel insights into the changes oocytes undergo during maternal ageing. Gene ontology (GO) semantic analysis revealed a high similarity of the detected proteome (2324 proteins) to the transcriptome (22?334 mRNAs), although not all proteins had a cognate mRNA. Concerning their dynamics, fourfold changes of abundance were more frequent in the proteome (3%) than the transcriptome (0.05%), with no correlation. Whereas proteins associated with the nucleus (e.g. structural maintenance of chromosomes and spindle-assembly checkpoints) were largely represented among those that change in oocytes during maternal ageing; proteins associated with oxidative stress/damage (e.g. superoxide dismutase) were infrequent. These quantitative alterations are either impoverishing or enriching. Using GO analysis, these alterations do not relate in any simple way to the classic signature of ageing known from somatic tissues. Given the lack of correlation, we conclude that proteome analysis of mouse oocytes may not be surrogated with transcriptome analysis. Furthermore, we conclude that the classic features of ageing may not be transposed from somatic tissues to oocytes in a one-to-one fashion. Overall, there is more to the maternal ageing of oocytes than mere cellular deterioration exemplified by the notorious increase of meiotic aneuploidy. PMID:24686459

Schwarzer, Caroline; Siatkowski, Marcin; Pfeiffer, Martin J; Baeumer, Nicole; Drexler, Hannes C A; Wang, Bingyuan; Fuellen, Georg; Boiani, Michele

2014-07-01

222

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

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Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sampl...

Akrami, M. Nojomi Z.

2006-01-01

223

Effect of Increasing Maternal Body Mass Index on Oxidative and Nitrative Stress in the Human Placenta  

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Maternal obesity is an increasing problem in obstetrics associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and delivery complications. As an inflammatory state, where elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are found, obesity can lead to the increased incidence of oxidative and nitrative stress. These stresses may result in protein oxidation and protein nitration respectively, which are post translational covalent modifications that can modify the structure and subsequently alter the function o...

Roberts, Victoria H. J.; Smith, Jessica; Mclea, Stacey A.; Heizer, Angela B.; Richardson, Jade L.; Myatt, Leslie

2009-01-01

224

Effects of Maternal Intravenous Nicotine Administration on Locomotor Behavior in Pre-Weanling Rats  

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Maternal tobacco use is associated with adverse developmental outcomes in offspring, including hyperactivity. Animal studies attempting to model this phenomenon have primarily used continuous s.c. nicotine infusion as the method of nicotine administration, which does not model the intermittent bolus delivery of nicotine associated with smoking in humans. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the locomotor activity of pre-weanling offspring of pregnant rats exposed to an i.v. ni...

Lesage, Mark G.; Gustaf, Erianne; Dufek, Matthew B.; Pentel, Paul R.

2006-01-01

225

Expression of gap junctional connexin proteins in ovine fetal ovaries: Effects of maternal diet  

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Gap junctions have been implicated in the regulation of cellular metabolism and the coordination of cellular functions during growth and differentiation of organs and tissues, and gap junctions play a major role in direct cell-cell communication. Gap junctional channels and connexin (Cx) proteins have been detected in adult ovaries in several species. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that several environmental factors including maternal diet may affect fetal organ growth and function. To...

Grazul-bilska, A. T.; Vonnahme, K. A.; Bilski, J. J.; Borowczyk, E.; Soni, D.; Mikkelson, B.; Johnson, M. L.; Reynolds, L. P.; Redmer, D. A.; Caton, J. S.

2011-01-01

226

Nobody Home: The Effect of Maternal Labor Force Participation on Long-Term Child Outcomes  

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We investigate how mother?s employment during childhood affects long term child outcomes. We utilize rich longitudinal data from Norway covering the entire Norwegian population between the years 1970 to 2007. The data allows us to match all family members and to measure maternal labor force participation throughout the child?s entire childhood. Our empirical approach exploits the variation in exposure to a working mother that exists across older and younger siblings in different fam...

2013-01-01

227

Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes  

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Abstract Objectives/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA) births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortali...

Haider Batool; Yakoob Mohammad; Bhutta Zulfiqar A

2011-01-01

228

Alternative Strategies to Reduce Maternal Mortality in India: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

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Background: Approximately one-quarter of all pregnancy- and delivery-related maternal deaths worldwide occur in India. Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in India. Methods and Findings: Country- and region-specific data were synthesized using a computer-based model that simulates the natural histor...

Hu, Delphine; Goldie, Sue J.; Sweet, Steven Goldie; Carvalho, Natalie Ida; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli

2010-01-01

229

The Effects of Rumination on the Timing of Maternal and Child Negative Affect  

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The current study examined whether rumination serves as a moderator of the temporal association between maternal and child negative affect. Participants included 88 mothers with a history of major depressive episodes and their 123 children. During an initial assessment, mothers and their children completed measures assessing negative affect and children completed a measure assessing the tendency to ruminate in response to such symptoms. Every six weeks for the subsequent year, mothers and the...

Flancbaum, Meir; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Abela, John R. Z.; Young, Jamie F.; Stolow, Darren; Hankin, Benjamin L.

2011-01-01

230

The effect of maternal and child health and family planning services on mortality: is prevention enough?  

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OBJECTIVE--To examine the impact on mortality of a child survival strategy, mostly based on preventive interventions. DESIGN--Cross sectional comparison of cause specific mortality in two communities differing in the type, coverage, and quality of maternal and child health and family planning services. In the intervention area the services were mainly preventive, community based, and home delivered. SUBJECTS--Neonates, infants, children, and mothers in two contiguous areas of rural Bangladesh...

Fauveau, V.; Wojtyniak, B.; Chakraborty, J.; Sarder, A. M.; Briend, A.

1990-01-01

231

Use of a computerised maternity information system to improve clinical effectiveness: thromboprophylaxis at caesarean section  

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An audit of the introduction of a protocol for thromboprophylaxis at caesarean section revealed over treatment of low risk women and the under treatment of high risk women. A routine computer generated risk assessment profile was introduced as part of a maternity information system. Reaudit showed a significant improvement in adherence to the thromboprophylaxis protocol in all risk groups.???Keywords: thromboprophylaxis; caesarean section; computerised assessment

Taylor, G.; Mckenzie, C.; Mires, G.

2000-01-01

232

Evaluation Of The Potential Mutagenic Effects Of Ginseng On Maternally Treated Postimplanted Mouse Foetuses  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of ginseng (herbal medicine on maternally treated postimplanted mouse foetuses. A total of 60 adult albino female mice were used and divided into 6 groups (10 females each. The first group (I served as a control group and received oral doses of the vehicle (0.5 ml disteled water for 60 days before pregnancy to 13th day of pregnancy. The rest 5 groups received orally 4mg/kg.bw of ginseng for 7, 14, 30, 45 and 60 days before day 0 of gestation and extended to 13th day of pregnancy. Then 6 females of each group were sacrificed, feotuses sample from each female were taken and subjected to cytogenetic analysis. The rest females of each group (4 females were continuously treated and sacrificed at day 17 of getation, foetuses were examined morphologically and for different features such as implanation sites, living feotuses, resorbed foetuses and foetus body weight. Chromosome analysis of the present study (Table 1 revealed that there were numerical aberrations (peridiploidy. There was a difference only between group II and III in respect to hypodiploid (2n-, meanwhile, hyperdiploid (2n+ were more frequent in group IV and VI than that in control group (group I. For the total numerical aberrations, there were significant differences between groups II, VI compared to the control group. All groups had little frequencies of structural aberrations especially for chromatid gaps, breaks and fragments. There were a significant differences between group IV and VI compared with the control group for the deletions. Chromosome breaks were more frequent in the groups III and IV compared to the control group, whereas groups V, VI had more frequencies of centromeric attenuations than the control group. There were no differences between control group and the rest of all groups investigated for implantation sites, living foetuses and resorbed foetuses (Table 2, whereas for gross malformation, 5.41 % of group VI where abnormal and the rest of all groups had no malformations. For the mean fetal body weight, there was a significant difference among the control group (I and the groups number II, III and VI. We conclude that treatment with ginseng as a herbal medicine may cause fetal chromosomal aberrations as well as gross malformation especially when taken for a long time and extended during pregnancy. So, we recommend that the use of ginseng during first trimester of pregnancy should be with caution.

H.M. El Ashmaoui, S. M. Girgis and Abd El Raouf, A.

2003-12-01

233

Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2??g/d, normal iodine (NI, 5–6??g/d, and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16??g/d. The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45 of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12?weeks of treatment (before pregnancy, iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P??0.05, all On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A level than the NI controls on PN7 (P??0.05. NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P?>?0.05. Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were mild and temporary, likely related to the changes in hippocampal protein expressions of BDNF and NSP-A.

Zhang Le

2012-10-01

234

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

2006-06-01

235

Effect of 5-HT1B receptor agonists injected into the prefrontal cortex on maternal aggression in rats  

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Serotonin (5-HT1B) receptors play an essential role in the inhibition of aggressive behavior in rodents. CP-94,253, a 5-HT1B receptor agonist, can reduce aggression in male mice when administered directly into the ventro-orbitofrontal (VO) prefrontal cortex (PFC). The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of two selective 5-HT1B receptor agonists (CP-94,253 and CP-93,129), microinjected into the VO PFC, on maternal aggressive behavior after social instigation in rats. CP-94...

Veiga, C. P.; Miczek, K. A.; Lucion, A. B.; Almeida, R. M. M.

2007-01-01

236

The politics of maternity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the culture of health care require that, to be effective, midwifery practice should become more woman-centred. This may be facilitated by adopting a stronger community orientation. In this way the hegemony of maternity care may be addressed. This paper seeks to draw readers' attention to political developments and to inspire midwives to greater awareness and, possibly, activity. PMID:24600828

Mander, Rosemary; Edwards, Nadine; McHugh, Nessa; Murphy-Lawless, Jo; Patterson, Jenny

2014-02-01

237

Simulation analysis to test the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits with direct and maternal effects  

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Full Text Available Abstract Simulations were used to study the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits governed by direct and maternal effects. To test model adequacy, several data sets were simulated according to different underlying genetic assumptions and analysed by comparing the correct and incorrect models. Results showed that omission of one of the random effects leads to an incorrect decomposition of the other components. If maternal genetic effects exist but are neglected, direct heritability is overestimated, and sometimes more than double. The bias depends on the value of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects. To study the influence of data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters, several populations were simulated, with different degrees of known paternity and different levels of genetic connectedness between flocks. Results showed that the lack of connectedness affects estimates when flocks have different genetic means because no distinction can be made between genetic and environmental differences between flocks. In this case, direct and maternal heritabilities are under-estimated, whereas maternal environmental effects are overestimated. The insufficiency of pedigree leads to biased estimates of genetic parameters.

Bouix Jacques

2001-07-01

238

Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021, a Chinese herbal formula, and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS: JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials. All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005. In a neonatal maternal separation (NMS model, male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14, or no specific handling (NH. Starting from postnatal day 60, rats were administered JCM-16021 (2, 4, 8 g/kg per day orally twice a day for 28 d. Pain threshold pressure and electromyographic activities of external oblique muscles in response to colorectal distention recorded with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International, were tested as pain indices. Changes in serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA concentrations in the colon of rats were analyzed; the enterochromaffin cell numbers and serotonin transporter in the colon of rats were also evaluated with an immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: NMS treatment significantly reduced pain threshold pressure (37.4 ± 1.4 mmHg, as compared to that of NH rats (57.7 ± 1.9 mmHg, P < 0.05. After JCM-16021 treatment, the pain threshold pressure significantly increased when compared to that before treatment (34.2 ± 0.9 mmHg vs 52.8 ± 2.3 mmHg in the high dose group, 40.2 ± 1.6 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.3 mmHg in the middle dose group, and 39.3 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.6 mmHg in the low dose group, P < 0.05. Also JCM-16021 significantly and dose-dependently decreased electromyographic activity to the graded colorectal distension (CRD, (the mean ?AUC values were: 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.06 ± 0.18, 1.22 ± 0.24 in the high dose group; 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.68 ± 0.17, 1.27 ± 0.26, 1.8 ± 0.3 in the middle dose group; and 0.29 ± 0.06, 0.8 ± 0.16, 1.53 ± 0.24, 2.1 ± 0.21 in the low dose group for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg, as compared to the NMS vehicle group. The mean ?AUC values were: 0.57 ± 0.12, 1.33 ± 0.18, 2.57 ± 0.37, 3.08 ± 0.37 for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg (P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly reduced the 5-HT concentrations (from high, middle and low dosage groups: 60.25 ± 5.98 ng/100 mg, 60.32 ± 4.22 ng/100 mg, 73.31 ± 7.65 ng/100 mg, as compared to the NMS vehicle groups (93.11 ± 9.85 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; and increased the 5-HIAA concentrations (after treatment, from high, middle and low dosage groups: 54.24 ± 3.27 ng/100 mg, 50.34 ± 1.26 ng/100 mg, 51.37 ± 2.13 ng/100 mg when compared to that in the NMS vehicle group (51.75 ± 1.98 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; but did not change the enterochromaffin cell numbers in the colon of rats. In addition, NMS rats had higher SERT expression (n = 10 than NH rats (n = 8, P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly decreased SERT expression when compared to the NMS group (P < 0.01-0.001.CONCLUSION: JCM-16021 can attenuate visceral hypersensitivity, and this analgesic effect may be mediated through the serotonin signaling pathway in the colon of rats.

Zhao-Xiang Bian, Man Zhang, Quan-Bin Han, Hong-Xi Xu, Joseph JY Sung

2010-02-01

239

Cost-effectiveness of targeted vaccination to protect new-borns against pertussis: comparing neonatal, maternal, and cocooning vaccination strategies.  

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Pertussis (whooping cough) is a severe infectious disease in infants less than 6 months old. Mass vaccination programmes have been unable to halt transmission effectively. Strategies to protect new-borns against infection include vaccination of the neonate or the mother directly after birth (cocooning), or the mother during pregnancy (maternal). Here we investigate the cost-effectiveness of these three strategies in the Netherlands. Costs for health care utilization and productivity losses, as well as impact on quality of life were calculated for a 10-year vaccination programme, assuming that vaccine-induced immunity lasts 5 years. Cocooning was the most attractive option from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint (€89,000/QALY). However, both cocooning and maternal vaccination would reduce the disease burden in infants and mothers vaccinated (about 17-20 QALY/year). Specifically, with a persistent epidemic as seen in 2012, there is need for reconsidering the vaccination schedules against pertussis in order to increase protection of the vulnerable new-borns. PMID:24075918

Lugnér, Anna K; van der Maas, Nicoline; van Boven, Michiel; Mooi, Frits R; de Melker, Hester E

2013-11-01

240

Estimation of Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Direct and Maternal Effects on Birth Weight in Brown Swiss Cattle  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight in Brown Swiss cattle reared at Malya and Konuklar State Farms, Türkiye. The least square means of birth weight were 39.91±0.005 and 42.26±0.09kg for the calves raised at Malya and Konuklar State Farms, respectively. The effects of calving year, parity and calf sex on birth weight were significant (P<0.05. The effect of calving season on birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01 for Malya State Farm, while it was non-significant for Konuklar State Farm. Direct heritability (h2d, maternal heritability (h2m, total heritability (h2T and the fraction of variance due to maternal permanent environmental effects (c2 were 0.09, 0.04, 0.11 and 0.04, respectively for birth weights of the calves raised at Malya State Farms. The corresponding values of birth weight for calves raised at Konuklar State Farm were 0.39, 0.015, 0.29 and 0.018, respectively.

Ali Kaygisiz*, Galip Bakir1, Isa Yilmaz2 and Yusuf Vanli3

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Expression of maternal behavior and activation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis during predatory threat exposure: modulatory effects of transport stress.  

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Past work has established that levels of maternal care provided to rat pups during the postpartum period plays an important role in shaping development of the stress response system, such that high levels of pup licking and grooming and active nursing behaviors are associated with more efficient hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stressors in adulthood. Furthermore, a prior study from our laboratory has demonstrated facilitation of maternal care for five days following a one-hour predator odor exposure on the day of giving birth. The present study was an investigation of the effects on maternal care during a one-hour predator odor exposure administered on the day of giving birth, with or without the addition of transport stress immediately prior to the odor exposure. Stress-induced activation of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), two brain regions involved in regulating maternal behaviors, were also quantified using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Our results show that predator odor exposure soon after birth does not significantly alter expression of maternal behaviors during the hour-long exposure period, unless the dams are also exposed to transport stress, in which case maternal behaviors are reduced during the first 10min of the exposure but not significantly different during the final 10min. Predator odor exposure (with or without additional transport stress) increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the BNST, but not the MPOA, relative to control odor exposure, suggesting that the BNST may play an important role in integration of threat cues and transduction of their meaning into long-term effects on expression of maternal care. Future experiments should be designed to test the effects of temporary inactivation of the BNST during postpartum predator odor exposure. PMID:24051053

Kenny, Stephanie L; Wright, Lisa D; Green, Amanda D; Mashoodh, Rahia; Perrot, Tara S

2014-01-17

242

Comparison between Effects of Intravenous Labetalol and Hydralazine on Control of Hypertension and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Severe Preeclamptic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Severe preeclampsia and eclampsia are responsible for 25% of maternal mortality, especially in developing countries. Considering the importance of this complication, the present study aimed to compare between effects of labetalol and hydralazine on control of hypertension and the maternal and neonatal outcomes in severe preeclamptic patients.Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 190 severe preeclamptic patients classified into two groups (95 subjects in each group. Two groups were randomly received hydralazine (5 mg intravenously,, every 20 minutes, up to a maximum of five doses or labetalol (at first 20 mg intravenously, and if not effective, 40, 80, 80, 80 mg respectively, every 20 minutes, up to a maximum of five doses. In both groups, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded 20 minutes after drug administration. Blood pressure control, as well as the maternal and neonatal outcomes, compared between two groups. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared using chi-square, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and t tests. All significant differences were at p<0.05. Results: Demographic characteristics and blood pressure control were similar in both groups, only five women in the hydralazine group and four women in labetalol group had persistent severe hypertension after maximum of five doses. Hypotension was not observed in both groups. Maternal tachycardia was similar in two groups. Others maternal and neonatal outcomes had no significant differences between two groups.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the effect of labetalol and hydralazin is similar in the control of hypertension in severe preeclamptic patients and there isn’t significant different in maternal and neonatal outcome in two groups.

Tabasi Z

2013-01-01

243

Maternal care  

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In June 2000 a distinguished group of obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners, and medical statisticians came together to discuss maternal care. Chaired by Professor James Drife from Leeds, discussion ranged over many topics, including: the changing role of the obstetrician, general practitioners, and the increasing status and responsibility of midwives. Other subjects include the induction of labour, obstetric analgesia and anaesthesia, and debates about the place and kind of delivery...

2001-01-01

244

Effects of Maternal Exposure to Ultrafine Carbon Black on Brain Perivascular Macrophages and Surrounding Astrocytes in Offspring Mice  

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Perivascular macrophages (PVMs) constitute a subpopulation of resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). They are located at the blood-brain barrier and can contribute to maintenance of brain functions in both health and disease conditions. PVMs have been shown to respond to particle substances administered during the prenatal period, which may alter their phenotype over a long period. We aimed to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to ultrafine carbon black (UfCB) on PVMs and astrocytes close to the blood vessels in offspring mice. Pregnant mice were exposed to UfCB suspension by intranasal instillation on gestational days 5 and 9. Brains were collected from their offspring at 6 and 12 weeks after birth. PVM and astrocyte phenotypes were examined by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining, transmission electron microscopy and PAS-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double staining. PVM granules were found to be enlarged and the number of PAS-positive PVMs was decreased in UfCB-exposed offspring. These results suggested that in offspring, “normal” PVMs decreased in a wide area of the CNS through maternal UfCB exposure. The increase in astrocytic GFAP expression level was closely related to the enlargement of granules in the attached PVMs in offspring. Honeycomb-like structures in some PVM granules and swelling of astrocytic end-foot were observed under electron microscopy in the UfCB group. The phenotypic changes in PVMs and astrocytes indicate that maternal UfCB exposure may result in changes to brain blood vessels and be associated with increased risk of dysfunction and disorder in the offspring brain.

Onoda, Atsuto; Umezawa, Masakazu; Takeda, Ken; Ihara, Tomomi; Sugamata, Masao

2014-01-01

245

The effect of chronic cocaine exposure throughout pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes in the rhesus monkey.  

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To explore the effects of gestational cocaine exposure in a nonhuman primate model, pregnant rhesus monkeys were either treated (N = 10) with escalating doses of cocaine up to 7.5 mg/kg (IM), three times per day, 5 consecutive days per week, prior to conception and throughout gestation, or were not treated (N = 10) with cocaine at all. Substantial levels of both cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine, were observed in samples of hair taken at birth from mothers and infants of the cocaine-treated group. Despite these differences in cocaine exposure, the experimental groups did not differ significantly with respect to maternal outcome, as measured by body weight again during pregnancy and length of pregnancy. On the other hand, the experimental groups did differ significantly with respect to infant outcome, as measured at birth by body weight, overall length, and crown circumference, all of which were decreased in the cocaine-treated group. A variety of reflexes tested at birth were normal in the cocaine-treated group. It was concluded that, in a rhesus monkey model, chronic cocaine exposure throughout pregnancy had no significant effect on maternal outcome, but did significantly affect infant outcome as assessed in this investigation. PMID:9088010

Morris, P; Binienda, Z; Gillam, M P; Klein, J; McMartin, K; Koren, G; Duhart, H M; Slikker, W; Paule, M G

1997-01-01

246

The effect of chronic cocaine exposure during pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes in the rhesus monkey.  

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To explore the effects of gestational cocaine exposure in a nonhuman primate model, pregnant rhesus monkeys were treated from about 1 month of gestation until term with either 0 (N = 3), 0.3 (N = 3), 1.0 (N = 3), or escalating doses up to 8.5 (N = 3) mg/kg (IM), three times per day, 5 consecutive days per week. Despite these differences in cocaine exposure, the experimental groups did not differ significantly with respect to maternal outcome, as measured by body weight gain during pregnancy and length of pregnancy. A clear dose-response relationship was observed between the cumulative dose of cocaine administered during gestation and the levels of both cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine, in samples of infant hair taken at birth. However, the experimental groups did not differ significantly with respect to infant outcome, as measured at birth by body weight, overall length, crown-to-rump length, rump-to-heel length, biparietal diameter, and crown circumference. Furthermore, the experimental groups did not differ significantly with respect to the integrity of a variety of infant reflexes tested at birth. It was concluded that, in a rhesus monkey model, chronic cocaine exposure during pregnancy had no significant effect on maternal and infant outcomes as assessed in this investigation. PMID:8709926

Morris, P; Binienda, Z; Gillam, M P; Harkey, M R; Zhou, C; Henderson, G L; Paule, M G

1996-01-01

247

Intergenerational and parent of origin effects of maternal calorie restriction on Igf2 expression in the adult rat hippocampus.  

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Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) regulates development, memory and adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Calorie restriction (CR) is known to modulate non-neuronal Igf2 expression intergenerationally, but its effect has not been evaluated on brain Igf2. Here, Sprague-Dawley (S) dams underwent moderate CR between gestational days 8-21. To identify parent of origin expression pattern of the imprinted Igf2 gene, their offspring (SS F1) were mated with naïve male or female Brown Norway (B) rats to obtain the second generation (BS and SB F2) progeny. CR did not affect adult hippocampal Igf2 transcript levels in SS F1 males or their BS F2 progeny, but increased it in SS F1 females and their SB F2 offspring. The preferentially maternal Igf2 expression in the SB F2 control male hippocampus relaxed to biallelic with CR, with no effect of grandmaternal diet in any other groups. Thus, allele-specific and total expression of hippocampal Igf2 is affected by maternal, grandmaternal CR in a strain and sex-specific manner. PMID:24845189

Harper, Kathryn M; Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Graf, Evan N; Herzing, Laura B K; Redei, Eva E

2014-07-01

248

Effects of feeding Bt MON810 maize to sows during first gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring health indicators.  

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A total of twenty-four sows and their offspring were used in a 20-week study to investigate the effects of feeding GM maize on maternal and offspring health. Sows were fed diets containing GM or non-GM maize from service to the end of lactation. GM maize-fed sows were heavier on day 56 of gestation (PGM maize tended to be lighter at weaning (P= 0·08). Sows fed GM maize tended to have decreased serum total protein (P= 0·08), and increased serum creatinine (PGM maize-fed sows (P= 0·10) and in offspring at birth (P= 0·08). Both platelet count (P= 0·07) and mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC; P= 0·05) were decreased on day 110 of gestation in GM maize-fed sows; however, MCHC tended to be increased in offspring at birth (P= 0·08). There was a minimal effect of feeding GM maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring serum biochemistry and haematology at birth and body weight at weaning. PMID:23168255

Walsh, Maria C; Buzoianu, Stefan G; Gardiner, Gillian E; Rea, Mary C; O'Donovan, Orla; Ross, R Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G

2013-03-14

249

Maternal genetic effects on adaptive divergence between anadromous and resident brook charr during early life history.  

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The importance of directional selection relative to neutral evolution may be determined by comparing quantitative genetic variation in phenotype (Q(ST)) to variation at neutral molecular markers (F(ST)). Quantitative divergence between salmonid life history types is often considerable, but ontogenetic changes in the significance of major sources of genetic variance during post-hatch development suggest that selective differentiation varies by developmental stage. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal genetic differentiation between anadromous and resident brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) populations for early quantitative traits (embryonic size/growth, survival, egg number and developmental time) would be greater than neutral genetic differentiation, but that the maternal genetic basis for differentiation would be higher for pre-resorption traits than post-resorption traits. Quantitative genetic divergence between anadromous (seawater migratory) and resident Laval River (Québec) brook charr based on maternal genetic variance was high (Q(ST) > 0.4) for embryonic length, yolk sac volume, embryonic growth rate and time to first response to feeding relative to neutral genetic differentiation [F(ST) = 0.153 (0.071-0.214)], with anadromous females having positive genetic coefficients for all of the above characters. However, Q(ST) was essentially zero for all traits post-resorption of the yolk sac. Our results indicate that the observed divergence between resident and anadromous brook charr has been driven by directional selection, and may therefore be adaptive. Moreover, they provide among the first evidence that the relative importance of selective differentiation may be highly context-specific, and varies by genetic contributions to phenotype by parental sex at specific points in offspring ontogeny. This in turn suggests that interpretations of Q(ST)-F(ST) comparisons may be improved by considering the structure of quantitative genetic architecture by age category and the sex of the parent used in estimation. PMID:16135130

Perry, G M L; Audet, C; Bernatchez, L

2005-09-01

250

Maternal smoking and the retinoid pathway in the developing lung  

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Abstract Background Maternal smoking is a risk factor for pediatric lung disease, including asthma. Animal models suggest that maternal smoking causes defective alveolarization in the offspring. Retinoic acid signaling modulates both lung development and postnatal immune function. Thus, abnormalities in this pathway could mediate maternal smoking effects. We tested whether maternal smoking disrupts retinoic acid pathway expression and functioning in a murine model. Met...

2012-01-01

251

Maternally derived chemical defences are an effective deterrent against some predators of poison frog tadpoles (Oophaga pumilio).  

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Parents defend their young in many ways, including provisioning chemical defences. Recent work in a poison frog system offers the first example of an animal that provisions its young with alkaloids after hatching or birth rather than before. But it is not yet known whether maternally derived alkaloids are an effective defence against offspring predators. We identified the predators of Oophaga pumilio tadpoles and conducted laboratory and field choice tests to determine whether predators are deterred by alkaloids in tadpoles. We found that snakes, spiders and beetle larvae are common predators of O. pumilio tadpoles. Snakes were not deterred by alkaloids in tadpoles. However, spiders were less likely to consume mother-fed O. pumilio tadpoles than either alkaloid-free tadpoles of the red-eyed treefrog, Agalychnis callidryas, or alkaloid-free O. pumilio tadpoles that had been hand-fed with A. callidryas eggs. Thus, maternally derived alkaloids reduce the risk of predation for tadpoles, but only against some predators. PMID:24850895

Stynoski, Jennifer L; Shelton, Georgia; Stynoski, Peter

2014-05-01

252

Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district  

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Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

Gogoi Gourangie

2007-01-01

253

Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.  

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Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

ElizabethMcConeByrnes

2011-06-01

254

Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response  

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Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR???30 per 100,000 by 2030.

Hounton Sennen

2013-01-01

255

A mutation with a maternal effect in Lymnaea stagnalis L., affecting development of bilateral symmetry and dorsoventrality and preventing gastrulation  

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A maternal effect mutation is reported in Lymnaea. The effect upon offspring of homozygous mutant snails is supression of gastrulation, resulting in permanent blastulae. Mendelian segregation is monofactorial recessive; penetrance is complete. The mutants were obtained by X-ray irradiation. Morphological analysis of the mutant ''head'' region shows 9 types of cell pattern, in which development of bilateral symmetry and dorsoventrality is disturbed. Elementary cell patterns, characteristic of normal dorsal, lateral and ventral head quadrants are arranged in abnormal, but non-random, combinations. Some elements of the coordination mechanism that is supposed to organize normal head dorsoventrality by vegetative-animal cell interactions are preserved in mutant development, other elements are lost. (Auth.)

1982-01-01

256

Study of the effects of maternal hypothyroidism and thyroxin therapy on the neuronal density of subiculum in rat newborns  

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Full Text Available Introduction: It is well established that thyroid hormones are essential for normal development of mammalian brain. Thyroid hormone deficiency during critical period of brain development can exert devastative and irreversible effects on neuronal functions as well as on learning abilities and memory. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on the neuronal structures of the subiculum in an experimental model of cretinism. Methods: Twenty five female Wistar rats were divided into experimental groups 1 and 2 and control. The experimental groups were made hypothyroid (500 mg/L PTU in drinking water. The experimental group 2 received PTU+Levothyroxin (1mg/L in drinking water. The controls only received drinking water. After two weeks the animals were mated. During pregnancy and lactation, the treatment regime of all groups was continued as above. The brain of 20 days old newborns were dissected and fixed for histological preparation. The numerical density (NV of subicular neurons was estimated by applying a stereological technique "dissector". Results: In addition to the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on the litter size and offspring weights, the results showed significant increase of subicular neuronal density in experimental group 1 when compared with control (p<0.001. There was also a significant difference (p<0.001 between the Nv of experimental groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: The increased of neuronal Nv in hypothyroid rats was probably due to the retardation of the neuronal normal growth and extension of their dendritic arborization. It seems that thyroxin therapy can improve the effects of hypothyroidism on the neuronal structure of subiculum.

Zahra Delshad

2008-03-01

257

Association between adverse maternal and embryo-fetal effects in norfloxacin-treated and food-deprived rabbits.  

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Norfloxacin is a new antibiotic which caused embryo-fetal toxicity in association with maternotoxicity when given orally to rabbits at 100 mg/kg/day. The intestinal flora of rabbits is unusually sensitive to many antibiotics and it was suspected that the maternotoxicity and embryo-fetal toxicity caused by oral norfloxacin were secondary to an effect on the intestinal flora. To test this idea, a teratologic study was conducted in which rabbits were dosed on Days 6 to 18 of gestation with norfloxacin given orally at 100 mg/kg/day or subcutaneously at 20 mg/kg/day. The oral treatment caused decreased food consumption (to less than 15 g/day in some animals), body weight loss, an increased resorption rate, and decreased fetal weight. Among the females in the orally dosed group, there was a significant correlation (p less than or equal to 0.005) between the effects on maternal body weight and the resorption rate. The subcutaneous treatment caused little intestinal exposure (biliary excretion = only 2-4% of dose) and no maternotoxicity or embryo-fetal toxicity, even though blood levels of drug were at least as high as those in the oral group. Since the maternotoxicity and embryo-fetal toxicity were specific to the oral route and not correlated with the level of systemic exposure, the maternotoxicity may have been secondary to an effect on the intestinal flora and the embryo-fetal toxicity may have been secondary to the maternotoxicity. The decreased food consumption observed in the oral group may have contributed to the embryo-fetal toxicity since, in a separate study, it was found that lowering the amount of food provided to rabbits on Days 6 to 18 of gestation from 150 g/day to 50 or 15 g/day also caused adverse maternal and fetal effects including, at 15 g/day, fetal malformations. PMID:3758545

Clark, R L; Robertson, R T; Peter, C P; Bland, J A; Nolan, T E; Oppenheimer, L; Bokelman, D L

1986-08-01

258

Functional mapping of the neural circuitry of rat maternal motivation: effects of site-specific transient neural inactivation  

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The present review focuses on recent studies from our laboratory examining the neural circuitry subserving rat maternal motivation across postpartum. We employed a site-specific neural inactivation method by infusion of bupivacaine to map the maternal motivation circuitry using two complementary behavioral approaches: unconditioned maternal responsiveness and choice of pup- over cocaine-conditioned incentives in a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference task. Our findings r...

2011-01-01

259

The Effect of Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation on Cognition and Mood during Pregnancy and Postpartum in Indonesia: A Randomized Trial  

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Maternal caregiving capacity, which is affected in part by cognition and mood, is crucial for the health of mothers and infants. Few interventions aim to improve maternal and infant health through improving such capacity. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation may improve maternal cognition and mood, since micronutrients are essential for brain function. We assessed mothers who participated in the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind c...

Prado, Elizabeth L.; Ullman, Michael T.; Muadz, Husni; Alcock, Katherine J.; Shankar, Anuraj H.

2012-01-01

260

Measuring the effect of fertility decline on the maternal mortality ratio.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a simple method to decompose the overall decline in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) observed between 1990 and 2008 into two components: decline attributable to fertility decline and decline attributable to safe motherhood programs. This method--illustrated here for three South Asian countries (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh)--is aimed at helping to properly assess the impact of safe motherhood initiatives on the MMR. The methodology is also applied to estimate the 2015 MMR level implied by low, medium, and high variants of fertility decline assumed by the United Nations, and thus to assess the contribution of future fertility decline in these countries to the achievement of MDG 5 by 2015. The results show that fertility decline in these countries between 1990 and 2008 has made a substantial contribution to the reduction of the MMR and that continued fertility decline between 2008 and 2015 will contribute to the achievement of MDG 5. PMID:22292244

Jain, Anrudh K

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

MATERNAL SELF-ESTEEM, EXPOSURE TO LEAD, AND CHILD NEURODEVELOPMENT  

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The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We ...

Surkan, Pamela J.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J.; Te?llez-rojo, Martha M.; Lamadrid-figueroa, He?ctor; Hu, Howard; Herna?ndez-avila, E. Mauricio; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O.

2008-01-01

262

Effects of rat odour and shelter on maternal behaviour in C57BL/6 dams and on fear and stress responses in their adult offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies in rats and mice suggest that developmental plasticity of HPA-stress and fear responses could be mediated by environment-dependent variations in maternal behaviour. The present study was designed to examine this question further by varying the adversity of the maternal environment to study its effects on nest-attendance and maternal care and on the HPA and fear responses in the adult offspring. C57BL/6 dams and their litter were housed in a cage system composed of a nest cage (NC) and a foraging cage (FC) connected by a tunnel. Using a 2 x 2 factorial design, we varied the maternal foraging environment (FC) by the presence or absence of rat odour (feces) and shelters (MouseHouse and tube) from postnatal days 1-14 and assessed the adult offspring's corticosterone response to isolation/novelty stress and their behaviour in three tests of fearfulness (elevated-O-maze, open-field, free exploration). While the presence of shelters in the FC reduced time spent in the NC (nest site attendance), the presence of rat odour in the FC increased active maternal care without altering nest site attendance. Alterations of the offspring's HPA and fear responses were rather subtle. The presence of shelters in the dam's foraging environment decreased fearfulness in the offspring in the free exploration test. In addition, males reared by dams exposed to rat odour were less fearful in the open-field test, and both males and females reared by dams without shelters and rat odour in the FC showed a greater corticosterone response to isolation/novelty stress. Multiple regression analysis indicated a negative relationship between maternal licking/grooming and fearfulness in males and a positive relationship between nest site attendance and fearfulness in females. Taken together, these results indicate that mouse dams adjust specific aspects of maternal behaviour in response to the specific properties of their environment, and that active maternal care and nest site attendance are two aspects of maternal behaviour that may affect the offspring's stress and fear systems independent of each other and in a sex-specific way. PMID:18346766

Coutellier, Laurence; Friedrich, Anne-Christin; Failing, Klaus; Marashi, Vera; Würbel, Hanno

2008-06-01

263

Heterosis, maternal and direct effects in double-muscled and normal cattle: II. Carcass traits of young bulls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on 135 young bulls from a two-breed group diallel experiment involving double-muscled (DM) and normal (N) cattle were analyzed to obtain estimates of heterosis, maternal and direct effects for carcass traits. When carcass traits were adjusted to a constant age at slaughter (398.5 d), significant positive heterosis was observed for slaughter and carcass weights, carcass length and s.c. fat thickness. Maternal effect was relatively unimportant for the traits studied. The progeny of N sires and DM straightbreds were heavier at slaughter and had higher carcass weight, s.c. fat thickness and carcass length (P less than .01), whereas DM-sired progeny and DM straightbreds had higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) and cutability (P less than .01). Heterosis was significant for all the 10-11-12th rib joint dissection traits except for percentage of muscle. Although there was negative heterosis for percentage of bone, there was positive heterosis for rib joint weight, fat weight and percentage, muscle weight and muscle:fat and muscle:bone ratios. For direct effect and straightbred differences, N-sired progeny and N straightbreds, respectively, had significantly larger values for rib joint weight, fat weight and percentage and bone weight. The DM-sired progeny and DM straightbreds had larger values for percentage of muscle, muscle:fat and muscle:bone ratios. When the carcass and dissection traits were adjusted to a constant carcass (303.7 kg) and rib joint (4,812 g) weight, respectively, the results were similar to those observed on age constant basis except for rib eye area, for which DM-sired progeny and DM straightbreds had larger values. PMID:2715118

Arthur, P F; Makarechian, M; Price, M A; Berg, R T

1989-04-01

264

Antioxidant supplementation overcomes the deleterious effects of maternal restraint stress-induced oxidative stress on mouse oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, using a mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that restraint stress would impair the developmental potential of oocytes by causing oxidative stress and that antioxidant supplementation could overcome the adverse effect of stress-induced oxidative stress. Female mice were subjected to restraint stress for 24?h starting 24?h after equine chorionic gonadotropin injection. At the end of stress exposure, mice were either killed to recover oocytes for in vitro maturation (IVM) or injected with human chorionic gonadotropin and caged with male mice to observe in vivo development. The effect of antioxidants was tested in vitro by adding them to IVM medium or in vivo by maternal injection immediately before restraint stress exposure. Assays carried out to determine total oxidant and antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione levels indicated that restraint stress increased oxidative stress in mouse serum, ovaries, and oocytes. Whereas the percentage of blastocysts and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in oocytes from restraint-stressed mice, addition of antioxidants to IVM medium significantly improved their blastocyst development. Supplementation of cystine and cysteamine to IVM medium reduced ROS levels and aneuploidy while increasing glutathione synthesis and improving pre- and postimplantation development of oocytes from restraint-stressed mice. Furthermore, injection of the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate into restraint-stressed mice significantly improved the blastocyst formation and postimplantation development of their oocytes. In conclusion, restraint stress at the oocyte prematuration stage impaired the developmental potential of oocytes by increasing oxidative stress and addition of antioxidants to IVM medium or maternal antioxidant injection overcame the detrimental effect of stress-induced oxidative stress. The data reported herein are helpful when making attempts to increase the chances of a successful outcome in human IVF, because restraint was applied at a stage similar to the FSH stimulation period in a human IVF program. PMID:24043846

Lian, Hua-Yu; Gao, Yan; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Wu, Xiu-Fen; Wang, Tian-Yang; Li, Hong; Tan, Jing-He

2013-12-01

265

Molecular organization of the maternal effect region of the Shaker complex of Drosophila: characterization of an IA channel transcript with homology to vertebrate Na+ channel  

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We have cloned 215-kb DNA containing the maternal effect region (ME) of the Shaker gene complex (shC) at 16F of the Drosophila X chromosome. Five translocation and deletion breakpoints have been mapped on the cloned DNA allowing a correlation of the genetic map to transcription units. The ME region spans ˜100 kb. The genetic behavior of this region correlates with the occurrence of maternal RNAs in this part of the ShC. Two transcripts have been identified in the vicinity of chromosomal rear...

Baumann, A.; Krah-jentgens, I.; Mu?ller, R.; Mu?ller-holtkamp, F.; Seidel, R.; Kecskemethy, N.; Casal, J.; Ferrus, A.; Pongs, O.

1987-01-01

266

Mother knows best, even when stressed? Effects of maternal exposure to a stressor on offspring performance at different life stages in a wild semelparous fish.  

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The environment mothers are exposed to has resonating effects on offspring performance. In iteroparous species, maternal exposure to stressors generally results in offspring ill-equipped for survival. Still, opportunities for future fecundity can offset low quality offspring. Little is known, however, as to how intergenerational effects of stress manifest in semelparous species with only a single breeding episode. Such mothers would suffer a total loss of fitness if offspring cannot survive past multiple life stages. We evaluated whether chronic exposure of female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to a chase stressor impaired offspring performance traits. Egg size and early offspring survival were not influenced by maternal exposure to the repeated acute stressor. Later in development, fry reared from stressed mothers swam for shorter periods of time but possessed a superior capacity to re-initiate bouts of burst swimming. In contrast to iteroparous species, the mechanisms driving the observed effects do not appear to be related to cortisol, as egg hormone concentrations did not vary between stressed and undisturbed mothers. Sockeye salmon appear to possess buffering strategies that protect offspring from deleterious effects of maternal stress that would otherwise compromise progeny during highly vulnerable stages of development. Whether stressed sockeye salmon mothers endow offspring with traits that are matched or mismatched for survival in the unpredictable environment they encountered is discussed. This study highlights the importance of examining intergenerational effects among species-specific reproductive strategies, and across offspring life history to fully determine the scope of impact of maternal stress. PMID:24619199

Sopinka, N M; Hinch, S G; Middleton, C T; Hills, J A; Patterson, D A

2014-06-01

267

The Effect of Health-Facility Admission and Skilled Birth Attendant Coverage on Maternal Survival in India: A Case-Control Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Research in areas of low skilled attendant coverage found that maternal mortality is paradoxically higher in women who seek obstetric care. We estimated the effect of health-facility admission on maternal survival, and how this effect varies with skilled attendant coverage across India. Methods/Findings Using unmatched population-based case-control analysis of national datasets, we compared the effect of health-facility admission at any time (antenatal, intrapartum, postpartum) on maternal deaths (cases) to women reporting pregnancies (controls). Probability of maternal death decreased with increasing skilled attendant coverage, among both women who were and were not admitted to a health-facility, however, the risk of death among women who were admitted was higher (at 50% coverage, OR?=?2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.85–2.92) than among those women who were not; while at higher levels of coverage, the effect of health-facility admission was attenuated. In a secondary analysis, the probability of maternal death decreased with increasing coverage among both women admitted for delivery or delivered at home but there was no effect of admission for delivery on mortality risk (50% coverage, OR?=?1.0, 0.80–1.25), suggesting that poor quality of obstetric care may have attenuated the benefits of facility-based care. Subpopulation analysis of obstetric hemorrhage cases and report of ‘excessive bleeding’ in controls showed that the probability of maternal death decreased with increasing skilled attendant coverage; but the effect of health-facility admission was attenuated (at 50% coverage, OR?=?1.47, 0.95–1.79), suggesting that some of the effect in the main model can be explained by women arriving at facility with complications underway. Finally, highest risk associated with health-facility admission was clustered in women with education 8 years. Conclusions The effect of health-facility admission did vary by skilled attendant coverage, and this effect appears to be driven partially by reverse causality; however, inequitable access to and possibly poor quality of healthcare for primary and emergency services appears to play a role in maternal survival as well.

Montgomery, Ann L.; Fadel, Shaza; Kumar, Rajesh; Bondy, Sue; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat

2014-01-01

268

Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow in beef cows.  

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The objective was to examine the effect of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow (BF). On Day 30 of pregnancy, lactating, multiparous Simmental beef cows were assigned randomly to treatments: control (CON; 100% National Research Council; n = 6) and nutrient restriction (RES; 60% of CON; n = 4) from Day 30 to 140 (period 1), and thereafter, realimented to CON until Day 198 of gestation (period 2). Uterine BF, pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) were obtained from both the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine arteries via Doppler ultrasonography. Generalized least square analysis was performed. Ipsilateral uterine BF in both groups increased quadratically (P alter total uterine BF, but it may increase vascular resistance. However, up on realimentation, local conceptus-derived vasoactive factors appear to influence ipsilateral uterine BF. PMID:24650930

Camacho, L E; Lemley, C O; Prezotto, L D; Bauer, M L; Freetly, H C; Swanson, K C; Vonnahme, K A

2014-06-01

269

Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment  

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Full Text Available Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.

Asher Ornoy

2010-01-01

270

Efeito da Idade Materna sobre os Resultados Perinatais / Effect of Maternal Age on Perinatal Outcomes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: analisar a relação entre a idade materna e a ocorrência de resultados perinatais adversos na população do Rio Grande do Norte. Métodos: foram analisados os registros oficiais de 57.088 nascidos vivos no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte no ano de 1997. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Info [...] rmação sobre Nascidos Vivos do Ministério da Saúde. A população estudada foi dividida em Grupos I, II e III, segundo a faixa etária materna: 10 a 19, 20 a 34 e 35 anos ou mais, respectivamente. As variáveis analisadas foram: duração da gestação, peso ao nascer e tipo de parto. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste chi². Resultados: observamos uma maior incidência de parto pré-termo no Grupo I (4,3 %), em comparação ao Grupo II (3,7%) (p = 0,0028). A taxa de cesariana foi menor nos Grupos I e III, em comparação ao Grupo II (p Abstract in english Purpose: to investigate the interactions between maternal age and adverse perinatal outcomes in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. Methods: we analyzed official records of 57,088 infants in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, from January 1997 to December 1997. Data were obtained from the Information S [...] ystem of the Health Ministry, Brazil. The sample was divided into three Groups I, II and III according to maternal age range: 10 to 19 years, 20 to 34, and 35 or more, respectively. The main outcome variables were: length of pregnancy, birth weight and mode of delivery. Statistical analysis was performed using chi² test. Results: preterm deliveries were 4.3% in the adolescent group vs 3.7% in Group II (p = 0.0028). The incidence of cesarean section was higher in Group II than in the other Groups (p³35 years old there was a high incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia. Results suggest that cesarean sections are more common in women aged 20-34 years than in adolescent and older mothers.

Azevedo, George Dantas de; Freitas Júnior, Reginaldo Antonio de Oliveira; Freitas, Ana Karla Monteiro Santana de Oliveira; Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes de; Soares, Elvira Maria Mafaldo; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira.

271

Maternal obesity and late effects on offspring metabolism / Obesidade materna e efeitos tardios sobre o metabolismo da prole  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos tardios da obesidade materna induzida por lesão do núcleo ventromedial do hipotálamo sobre o metabolismo da prole. Trinta dias após a lesão bilateral do hipotálamo ventromedial, ratos fêmeas foram colocadas para acasalar e divididas em dois grupos de animais gestantes: Co [...] ntrole (C) – falsa lesão e Obeso (OB) – lesionados. Três meses após o nascimento, de acordo com os grupos das mães, os filhotes foram divididos em animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta normocalórica (C-N and OB-N) e animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta hipercalórica (C-H and OB-H). Aos 120 dias de idade, os animais foram eutanasiados e as carcaças, fezes e ração foram submetidas à análise calorimétrica para determinação do balanço energético e composição corporal.Resultados Durante o período de crescimento, os filhos de mães obesas mostraram maiores valores de peso corporal e ingestão alimentar que animais controle. Os animais obesos apresentaram maiores valores de ganho de peso corporal e eficiência metabólica que os animais controle quando adultos. A dieta hipercalórica levou ao aumento da energia metabolizável, percentagem de energia absorvida e gasto energético para ambos os grupos. A composição corporal foi somente afetada pela associação da dieta hipercalórica com a obesidade materna que levou ao aumento da gordura corporal.Conclusões : A obesidade materna levou ao sobrepeso tardio na prole, sugerindo uma programação fetal. Pela tendência apresentada, acreditamos que a ingestão prolongada de dietas hipercalóricas em animais adultos possa induzir uma piora no quadro de sobrepeso induzido pela obesidade materna. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7 Abstract in english Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism.Materials and methods : Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 [...] groups of pregnant animals: Control (C) – false lesion (sham) and Obese (OB) – lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N), and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H). At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition.Results : During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat.Conclusions : Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7

Daniele Sá, Vido; Mariana Bocca, Nejm; Neila Ribeiro, Silva; Sylvia Maria Affonso, Silva; Sérgio Luiz, Cravo; Jacqueline, Luz.

272

Effect of maternal obesity and weight gain on gestational diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal obesity and weight gain during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study screened 614 consecutive gravid patients for GDM using 50?g glucose challenge test (GCT). The pregnant women were divided into 4 groups according to their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). Group I, II, III and IV constituted when the BMI 30?kg/m² (n = 21) respectively. All the pregnant women were also evaluated in terms of their weight gain during pregnancy and these cases were recruited in 3 groups as low, ideal and high weight gain groups. Overall, a positive 50?g GCT result was identified in 106/614 (17.8%) women. GDM was further diagnosed in 12/614 (1.95%) of subjects. The prevalence of GDM in Group II, III and IV was 1.31%, 3.28% and 9.52% respectively (p excess weight gain compared to the ones whose weight gain were in normal range. Women planning pregnancy should be educated about the disadvantages of obesity, being over-weight and should be advised to have an ideal prepregnancy BMI and ideal weight gain during pregnancy. PMID:23110595

Baci, Yelda; Üstüner, I??k; Keskin, Hüseyin Levent; Ersoy, Reyhan; Av?ar, Ay?e Filiz

2013-02-01

273

Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) : [plus] Corrigendum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains. Maternal plasma and egg cortisol levels were correlated, but no difference between the HR and LR strains was detected in either parameter. LR females produced larger eggs, and larvae with larger yolk sacs compared to HR females, however no differences in larval body size (excluding the yolk) was detected between strains. Considering that the HR and LR strains have a number of correlated behavioral and physiological traits that resemble the reactive and proactive stress coping styles, respectively, the results suggest that proactive mothers invest more energy into their offspring, producing larvae with larger energy reserves. It is possible that larger energy reserves in proactive larvae support the energy requirement for establishing and defending territory in salmonid fish. Furthermore, in the present study we found a positive relationship between mother plasma cortisol and egg cortisol; however neither mother plasma cortisol nor egg cortisol differed between strains. These results indicate that cortisol endowment from the mother to the offspring plays a minor role in the transfer of the behavioral and physiological traits which separates these strains.

Andersson, M. Ã?berg; Silva, P. I. M.

2011-01-01

274

Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available Objective(sDuring recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking water from day 2 to day 21 of lactation. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, the testis weight and volume of offspring were measured and their epididymal semen analyzed. Following tissue processing, 5 ?m sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Testicular parameters in different groups were compared by one-way ANOVA.ResultsTestis weight and volume of offspring decreased significantly in a dose-related manner in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups. Dose-dependent significant reductions were seen in seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height during neonatal, prepubertal and postpubertal periods in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in mean sperm density of offspring at puberty in moderate and high doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Testosterone levels decreased significantly in a dose-related manner at puberty in moderate and high doses groups. ConclusionPresent study showed maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation caused dose-related and long-term alterations of testicular parameters in offspring rats.

Mehran Dorostghoal

2011-03-01

275

The effects of food and maternal conditions in fetal growth and size in wild reindeer  

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Full Text Available

Fetal growth rates and birth weights were studied in four wild reindeer areas in Southern Norway (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø, Forelhogna, representing high and low density populations, with a 5-fold difference in mean lichen winter-food availability. Fetal growth was depressed by 42% in the high-densitv Hardangervidda population, and mean birth weights were 3.7 vs. 6.2 kg, with a 10 days difference in mean birth dates. Fetal size was better correlated with maternal weight, than age. Maternal weights increased until 5 yrs. of age and then decreased in the high-density Hardangervidda population (but not so in the low density Knutshø-Forclhogna populations. 55% of the offspring died before weaning in the Hardangervidda herd, but no significant calf losses were found amont the large-sized does in the food-abundant areas.

Effekter av ernæring og simlas kondisjon på vekst og størrelse av foster hos villrein.

Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fostervekst og fødselsvekter ble undersøkt i fire villreinområder i Sør-Norge (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø og Forelhogna som representerer høg- og lågtetthetsstammer, med en 5-foldig forskjell i gjennomsnittlig lavbeite-tilgang om vinteren. Fosterveksten ble nedsatt med 42% i høgtetthetsstammen på Hardangervidda og fødselsvektene var i gjennomsnitt 3,7 kg, mot 6,2 kg i det beste området, og med en 10 dagers forsinkelse i midlere fødselsdato. Fosterets størrelse var korrelert med morens vekt, som igjen var avhengig av hennes alder. Hos de minste simlene i det dårligste området økte vektene til 5-års alder, for deretter å avta for hvert gjenlevende år. Hos simlene i det beste området økte vektene til 10-års alder, og var da dobbelt så tunge som fra det dårligste området. 55% av avkommet døde før de var avvent med diing hos Hardangervidda-simlene, mens det ikke var noen statistisk målbar dødelighet hos kalvene i Knutshø-Forelhogna.

Ravinnon vaikutus ja naarasporon kunto porosikion kasvuun ja suuruuteen.

Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Etelå-Norjan neljallå peura-alueella, jotka ovat Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutsho ja Forelhogna, tutkittiin porosikion kasvua ja syntymåpainoja. Alueet edustavat ylintå ja alinta tiheyskantaa ja loytyy 5-kertainen eroavaisuus keskimåarin jåkålålaiduntaan talvisaikaan. Sikion kasvu aleni 42% ylemmåsså tiheyskannassa Hardangervidda-alueella ja syntymåpainot olivat keskimåarin 3,7 kg mutta 6,2 kg parhaimmalla alueella, ja 10 påivån myohastyminen keskimååråisesta syntymåpåivayksestå. Sikion suuruus oli vastaavuussuhteessa emon painoon, joka oli taas riippuvainen sen iåstå. Huonoimmalla alueella pieninpien naaraiden painot lisåantyivåt 5-ikåvuoteen asti, vahetåkseen sen jålkeen jokaista jåljellåolevaa elovuotta kohden. Parhaimmalla alueella naaraiden painot lisåantyivåt 10-ikåvuoteen asti, ja oli silloin kaksi kertaa niin raskaita kuin huonoimman alueen naarasporot. 55% jålkelåisistå kuoli ennenkuin ne olivat vierottuneet Hardangervidda-naarasporoista. Sitåvastoin ei ollut mitåån tilastollisesti mitattavissa olevaa Knutsho - Forelhogna-alueiden vasakuolevaisuudesta.

Terje Skogland

1984-05-01

276

The effects of food and maternal conditions in fetal growth and size in wild reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fetal growth rates and birth weights were studied in four wild reindeer areas in Southern Norway (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø, Forelhogna, representing high and low density populations, with a 5-fold difference in mean lichen winter-food availability. Fetal growth was depressed by 42% in the high-densitv Hardangervidda population, and mean birth weights were 3.7 vs. 6.2 kg, with a 10 days difference in mean birth dates. Fetal size was better correlated with maternal weight, than age. Maternal weights increased until 5 yrs. of age and then decreased in the high-density Hardangervidda population (but not so in the low density Knutshø-Forclhogna populations. 55% of the offspring died before weaning in the Hardangervidda herd, but no significant calf losses were found amont the large-sized does in the food-abundant areas.Effekter av ernæring og simlas kondisjon på vekst og størrelse av foster hos villrein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fostervekst og fødselsvekter ble undersøkt i fire villreinområder i Sør-Norge (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø og Forelhogna som representerer høg- og lågtetthetsstammer, med en 5-foldig forskjell i gjennomsnittlig lavbeite-tilgang om vinteren. Fosterveksten ble nedsatt med 42% i høgtetthetsstammen på Hardangervidda og fødselsvektene var i gjennomsnitt 3,7 kg, mot 6,2 kg i det beste området, og med en 10 dagers forsinkelse i midlere fødselsdato. Fosterets størrelse var korrelert med morens vekt, som igjen var avhengig av hennes alder. Hos de minste simlene i det dårligste området økte vektene til 5-års alder, for deretter å avta for hvert gjenlevende år. Hos simlene i det beste området økte vektene til 10-års alder, og var da dobbelt så tunge som fra det dårligste området. 55% av avkommet døde før de var avvent med diing hos Hardangervidda-simlene, mens det ikke var noen statistisk målbar dødelighet hos kalvene i Knutshø-Forelhogna.Ravinnon vaikutus ja naarasporon kunto porosikion kasvuun ja suuruuteen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Etelå-Norjan neljallå peura-alueella, jotka ovat Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutsho ja Forelhogna, tutkittiin porosikion kasvua ja syntymåpainoja. Alueet edustavat ylintå ja alinta tiheyskantaa ja loytyy 5-kertainen eroavaisuus keskimåarin jåkålålaiduntaan talvisaikaan. Sikion kasvu aleni 42% ylemmåsså tiheyskannassa Hardangervidda-alueella ja syntymåpainot olivat keskimåarin 3,7 kg mutta 6,2 kg parhaimmalla alueella, ja 10 påivån myohastyminen keskimååråisesta syntymåpåivayksestå. Sikion suuruus oli vastaavuussuhteessa emon painoon, joka oli taas riippuvainen sen iåstå. Huonoimmalla alueella pieninpien naaraiden painot lisåantyivåt 5-ikåvuoteen asti, vahetåkseen sen jålkeen jokaista jåljellåolevaa elovuotta kohden. Parhaimmalla alueella naaraiden painot lisåantyivåt 10-ikåvuoteen asti, ja oli silloin kaksi kertaa niin raskaita kuin huonoimman alueen naarasporot. 55% jålkelåisistå kuoli ennenkuin ne olivat vierottuneet Hardangervidda-naarasporoista. Sitåvastoin ei ollut mitåån tilastollisesti mitattavissa olevaa Knutsho - Forelhogna-alueiden vasakuolevaisuudesta.

Terje Skogland

1984-05-01

277

The effect of DYS-14 copy number variations on extracellular fetal DNA quantification in maternal circulation.  

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The aims of our research involved to investigate DYS-14 copy number variations in healthy males, to quantify extracellular DNA in maternal circulation in normal versus complicated pregnancies, and to study variations in the DYS-14 copy number in extracellular male fetal DNA. Fifty-five healthy males, 43 uncomplicated male singleton pregnancies (23 sampled at the 16th week and 20 sampled at the 36th week), and 15 pregnancies with placental insufficiency (PI)-related complications (mean 34.1 weeks) were analyzed using real-time PCR with DYS-14 sequence, sex determining region Y (SRY), and beta-globin (GLO) genes used as markers. Increased levels of extracellular DNA were detected in PI-related complications relative to gestational age-matched controls (SRY, p < 0.001; DYS-14, p = 0.007; GLO, p < 0.001). When the mean + 2SD (standard deviation) of controls was used as a cutoff, SRY, DYS-14, and GLO achieved 91.7%, 68.8%, and 94.4% accuracy, respectively, for differentiation between normal and complicated pregnancies. Considerable variations in the DYS-14 copy number in healthy males (mean 52.6) and extracellular DNA were found. A lower DYS-14 copy number was observed in PI-related complications (mean 83.5) compared to uncomplicated pregnancies (16th week: mean 114.2, p = 0.02; 36th week: mean 142.8, p = 0.04). The DYS-14 copy number was higher in extracellular DNA throughout gestation relative to healthy males. We concluded that, regarding interindividual copy number variations, the DYS-14 sequence is not an optimal marker for extracellular fetal DNA quantification for differentiation between normal and complicated pregnancies. PMID:19456250

Hromadnikova, Ilona; Benesova, Martina; Zejskova, Lenka; Stehnova, Jana; Doucha, Jindrich; Sedlacek, Petr; Dlouha, Klara; Krofta, Ladislav

2009-07-01

278

The effect of hormonal estrus induction on maternal effect and apoptosis-related genes expression in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes  

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Background The effect of hormonal estrus induction on maternal effect (MATER - maternal antigen that embryo requires, ZAR-1 - zygote arrest 1, and BMP15 - bone morphogenetic protein 15) and apoptosis-related genes expression (BCL-2 and BAX) in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and selected follicular parameters was investigated in this study. Methods Gilts were divided into three groups: (I) with natural estrus; (II) stimulated with PMSG/hCG; and (III) with PMSG/hCG?+?PGF2alpha. Analysis of maternal effect and apoptosis-related transcripts expression in COCs, and progesterone synthesis pathway genes expression (P450scc and 3betaHSD) in granulosa cells was performed by qPCR. BMP15 protein expression in follicular fluid (FF) was analyzed by western blot. Oocyte nuclear maturation was assessed by aceto-orcein staining. Progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) concentrations in FF and serum were measured by ELISA. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-test or Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunns post-test. Results The highest expression of MATER, ZAR-1, and BMP15 genes was found in COCs recovered from gilts treated with PMSG/hCG when compared to PMSG/hCG?+?PGF2alpha-stimulated or non-stimulated gilts. Hormonal treatment did not affect the BMP15 protein expression in FF, but increased the expression of genes participating in P4 synthesis in granulosa cells. The higher percentage of immature oocytes was found in PMSG/hCG-treated when compared to the non-stimulated gilts. The expression of BCL-2 and BAX mRNA, and BCL-2/BAX mRNA ratio was significantly higher in COCs derived from PMSG/hCG-treated when compared to PMSG/hCG + PGF2alpha-treated or non-stimulated subjects. The level of P4 in serum was similar in animals from all experimental groups, while its concentration in FF was greater in gilts subjected to PMSG/hCG treatment than in PMSG/hCG + PGF2alpha-stimulated and non-stimulated gilts. The concentration of E2 did not differ in the serum or FF between the control group and the hormonally stimulated groups. Conclusions Hormonal induction of estrus affected maternal effect gene transcripts levels in COCs and and oocyte nuclear maturation. The inclusion of PGF2alpha into the stimulation protocol enabled maintaining of physiological concentration of P4 in FF. Additionally, both hormonal treatments seem to be beneficial for apoptosis prevention through increasing BCL-2/BAX transcript ratio.

2014-01-01

279

The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior  

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In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or post...

Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

2011-01-01

280

The Costs, Benefits, and Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Maternal Morbidity and Mortality in Mexico  

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Background: In Mexico, the lifetime risk of dying from maternal causes is 1 in 370 compared to 1 in 2,500 in the U.S. Although national efforts have been made to improve maternal services in the last decade, it is unclear if Millennium Development Goal 5 - to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters by 2015 - will be met. Methodology/Principal Findings: We developed an empirically calibrated model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy and pregnancy-related complications in a ...

Hu, Delphine; Bertozzi, Stefano M.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hoffman, Daniel; Sweet, Steven Goldie; Goldie, Sue J.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Selenoproteins and maternal nutrition.  

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Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). Sel include but not limited to glutathione peroxidases (GPx1-GPx6), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR1-TrxR3), iodothyronine deiodinases (ID1-ID3), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), 15-kDa Sel (Sel15), SelH, SelI, SelK, SelM, SelN, SelO, SelP, SelR, SelS, SelT, SelV, SelW, as well as the 15-kDa Sel (Fep15), SelJ and SelU found in fish. In this review, we describe some of the recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of Sel synthesis. The impact of maternal Se intake on offspring is also discussed. The key regulatory point of Sel synthesis is Se itself, which acts predominantly at post-transcriptional levels, although recent findings indicate transcriptional and redox regulation. Maternal nutrition affects the performance and health of the progeny. Both maternal and offspring Se supplementations are essential for the antioxidant protection of the offspring. Prenatal Se supplementation provides an effective antioxidant system that is already in place at the time of birth while, postnatal Se supplementation becomes the main determinant of progeny Se status after the first few days of progeny life. PMID:18790070

Pappas, A C; Zoidis, E; Surai, P F; Zervas, G

2008-12-01

282

Effect of a difficult calving on the vigour of the calf, the onset of maternal behaviour, and some behavioural indicators of pain in the dam.  

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The neonate's development and survival is dependent upon being vigorous at birth and receiving appropriate maternal care. However, difficulty at delivery can result in less vigorous offspring and maternal care can be altered, probably as a consequence of exhaustion, pain and human intervention. The first 3h after expulsion of the calf were observed continuously from videos following twelve natural calvings and sixteen calvings assisted by farm staff (including four malpresentations) from Holstein cows. Calvings were balanced within groups for parity of the dam, genetic group, sex and birth weight of the calf, calving pen and calving season. Assisted calves were less vigorous with higher latencies to attempt to stand, achieve standing, walk and reach the udder than unassisted calves (P0.05), indicating no delayed onset or impaired expression of maternal behaviour in dams given assistance at delivery. Study of potential pain-related behaviours revealed that assisted dams spent less time self-grooming (P=0.033) than dams delivering naturally, which could suggest greater pain. However, there were no significant differences in any of the other pain-related behaviours. Our results suggest that, although maternal behaviour was unaffected by a difficult delivery, dairy calves born following difficult calvings have lower vigour in the first 3h after birth than unassisted calves. This might have longer-term effects on the health and survival of the calves. PMID:21958900

Barrier, A C; Ruelle, E; Haskell, M J; Dwyer, C M

2012-03-01

283

Efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en el oligohidramnios aislado: its effectiveness in isolated oligohydramnios Parenteral maternal hydrotherapy:  

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Full Text Available El oligohidramnios u oligoamnios es la disminución del líquido amniótico a cifras patológicas con un índice de líquido amniótico (ILA menor o igual a 5 cm, y constituye un alto riego fetal y secundariamente materno. OBJETIVO: demostrar a través de un ensayo clínico controlado la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en oligoamnios aislados, en el aumento del ILA y consecutivamente su repercusión en esos resultados perinatológicos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado para valorar la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral (HMP en gestantes con oligoamnios aislado, de 28 sem o más de embarazo, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Docente de Guanabacoa, entre el 1ro de enero del 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004. La muestra fue de 141 oligoamnios aislados y se dividió en 2 grupos: grupo estudio: 56 y el grupo control: 85. Al grupo estudio se le aplicó HMP con 2000 mL de solución salina isotónica al 0,9 %, y con el grupo control se mantuvo conducta expectante. RESULTADOS: el oligoamnios aislado es más frecuente en el embarazo a término. Al administrar HMP aumenta el ILA en un 43 % (grupo estudio y solo en un 22 % de los casos del grupo control. Igualmente, se logra aumentar la edad gestacional en 2 sem desde el diagnóstico. Fue mayor el parto transpelviano en el grupo estudio; la principal causa de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo en ambos, principalmente en el grupo control. En el grupo estudio no hubo recién nacidos con Síndrome de distress respiratorio ni bronconeumonía congénita. CONCLUSIONES: la HMP parece ser efectiva en el manejo del oligoamnios aislado, lo cual disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal y secundariamente el bienestar materno.Oligohydramnios or oligoamnios is the amniotic fluid decrease to pathological figures with a high amniotic fluid rate (AFR less or similar to 5 cm, and it is a fetal high risk, and secondarily maternal. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate through a controlled clinical assay the effectiveness of parenteral maternal hydrotherapy (PMH in isolated oligoamnios, in increase of AFR, and consecutively its repercussion on those perinatal results. METHODS: We made a controlled clinical assay to assess effectiveness of PHM in pregnants with isolated oligoamnios of 28 weeks or more of pregnancy in Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. Sample included 141 isolated oligoamnios and it was divided in two groups: study group with 56 patients and control-group with 85 patients. In study group, we administered PHM with 2000 mL of 0,9% isotopic saline solution, and in control-group there was an expectant behavior RESULTS: Isolated aligoamnios is more frequent in term pregnancy. Administration of PHM increases AFR in 43% (study group, and only in 22% of cases from control- group. Likewise, it was possible to increase gestational age in two weeks from diagnosis. In study group, transpelvic pregnancy; main cause of cesarean section was the acute fetal suffering in both groups, mainly in the control one. In study group there were not newborns presenting with neither respiratory syndrome nor congenital bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: PMH looks to be effective in management o isolated oligoamnios, decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality, and secondarily, maternal wellbeing.

Itsel Cárdenas Ramón

2009-09-01

284

The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates  

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Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in ...

2012-01-01

285

Effects of Maternal Smoking and Exposure to Methylmercury on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Concentrations in Umbilical Cord Serum  

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat. The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant f...

2010-01-01

286

B Vitamins in Breast Milk: Relative Importance of Maternal Status and Intake, and Effects on Infant Status and Function12  

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Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. F...

Allen, Lindsay H.

2012-01-01

287

Revisiting the Effect of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy on Offspring Birthweight: A Quasi-Experimental Sibling Analysis in Sweden  

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Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) seems associated with reduced birthweight in the offspring. This observation, however, is based on conventional epidemiological analyses, and it might be confounded by unobserved maternal characteristics related to both smoking habits and offspring birth weight. Therefore, we apply a quasi-experimental sibling analysis to revisit previous findings. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 677,922 singletons born between 2002 and 2010 from...

Jua?rez, Sol Pi?a; Merlo, Juan

2013-01-01

288

Effects of maternal thiamine deficiencies on the pyramidal and granule cells of the hippocampus of rat pups.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the implication of thiamine deficiency in the neuronal atrophy and cell death we undertook to induce thiamine (B1 vitamine) deficiency during three essential periods of the ontogenesis of rat central nervous system (CNS). Female rats were fed with a thiamine deprived diet during the gestation and lactation, and the fetuses and pups were alternately exposed to prenatal, perinatal or postnatal thiamine deficiencies. On the 45th postnatal day, histological studies were done on the brains of the pups and the structure of the hippocampus was analyzed. The effects of each treatment were assessed by measuring the size and the density of cell nuclei throughout the dentate gyrus and fields CA4, CA3 and CA1 of the hippocampal formation. The hippocampus showed a regional vulnerability in the pups exposed to maternal thiamine deficiencies. It appears that the thiamine deficiency decreased nuclear density (27.20%) more severely than nuclear size (10.56%) in the fetal hippocampus. Consequently, the major part of the teratogenic effects of thiamine deficiency was cellular death, rather than cellular atrophy. PMID:16366391

Bâ, Abdoulaye; N'Douba, Valentin; D'Almeida, Marie-Anne; Seri, Bialli Victor

2005-01-01

289

Oxytocin effects on mind-reading are moderated by experiences of maternal love withdrawal: an fMRI study.  

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The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to stimulate a range of social behaviors. However, recent studies indicate that the effects of intranasal oxytocin are more nuanced than previously thought and that contextual factors and individual characteristics moderate the beneficiary oxytocin effects. In this randomized-controlled trial we examine the influence of intranasally administered oxytocin on neural activity during mind-reading with fMRI, taking into account harsh caregiving experiences as a potential moderator. Participants were 50 women who received a nasal spray containing either 16 IU of oxytocin or a placebo and had reported how often their mother used love withdrawal as a disciplinary strategy. Participants performed an adapted version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a task which requires individuals to infer mental states by looking at photographs of the eye region of faces. We found that oxytocin enhanced neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula during the RMET. Moreover, oxytocin increased RMET performance outside the scanner. However, the oxytocin induced changes in STG activation and RMET performance were only brought about in potentially less socially proficient individuals who had low RMET performance, that is, participants reporting higher levels of maternal love withdrawal. PMID:24486563

Riem, Madelon M E; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Voorthuis, Alexandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

2014-06-01

290

Metabolismo mineral óseo durante la gestación y efectos sobre la masa ósea de la madre / Bone mineral metabolism during gestation and its effects on maternal bone mass  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La gestación y lactancia son periodos de alta demanda de calcio, para el crecimiento fetal y para la producción de leche materna. Durante la gestación, la madre transfiere al feto 25 a 30 g de calcio y durante la lactancia se secretan 200 a 240 mg de calcio diario en la leche materna. Durante la ges [...] tación, los mecanismos adaptativos más importantes son el incremento en la absorción de calcio y el incremento del recambio óseo materno; durante la lactancia, hay tendencia a conservar más calcio a nivel renal, pero la desmineralización temporal del esqueleto materno parece ser el mecanismo más importante. Los estudios que emplean absorciometría dual de rayos X (DXA) son escasos, por el riesgo de radiación materna y fetal; pero, con otras técnicas, como el ultrasonido cuantitativo, se ha descrito una pérdida de masa ósea durante la gestación predominantemente dependiente del hueso trabecular. Mediante marcadores bioquímicos del remodelamiento óseo se ha demostrado que los suplementos de calcio reducen la tasa de remodelamiento durante el embarazo y parecen tener efecto benéfico sobre la pérdida ósea materna. Estudios longitudinales que emplean ultrasonido cuantitativo también han encontrado una disminución de la pérdida ósea, entre las mujeres que recibieron aporte o suplemento adecuado de calcio durante la gestación. Abstract in english Pregnancy and lactation are periods of high calcium demand for skeletal growth and maternal milk production. Approximately 25-30 g of calcium are transferred to the fetus during pregnancy, and breast-feeding mothers secrete 200-240 mg/day of calcium in breast milk every day. During pregnancy, major [...] physiologic adaptations include increased both calcium intestinal absorption and rate of maternal bone turnover; during lactation, there is a contribution of renal calcium conservation, but temporary maternal bone demineralization is the main mechanism to meet calcium requirements. Data on bone mineral density assessed by dual energy x-ray absortiometry (DXA) are sparse mainly due to concern about potential risk of radiation exposure to the fetus. Other radiation-free techniques like quantitative ultrasound have been used to assess maternal bone mass changes during pregnancy. Maternal bone loss mainly depending on trabecular areas during pregnancy has been described. Calcium supplements reduce maternal skeletal-bone turnover as evaluated by bone resorption markers during pregnancy and seem to have beneficial effects on maternal bone loss. Longitudinal studies with repeated measurements of quantitative ultrasound during pregnancy have found decrease in bone loss in pregnant women with adequate calcium intake or supplementation.

Vidal, Luis; Vidal, Maritza; Cabrera, Santiago; Ortega, Eduardo; Santiváñez, Vicente; Polo, Jorge; Barnaby, Jorge; Vargas, Rolando; del Castillo, Angélica.

291

MI-GWAS: a SAS platform for the analysis of inherited and maternal genetic effects in genome-wide association studies using log-linear models  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several platforms for the analysis of genome-wide association data are available. However, these platforms focus on the evaluation of the genotype inherited by affected (i.e. case individuals, whereas for some conditions (e.g. birth defects the genotype of the mothers of affected individuals may also contribute to risk. For such conditions, it is critical to evaluate associations with both the maternal and the inherited (i.e. case genotype. When genotype data are available for case-parent triads, a likelihood-based approach using log-linear modeling can be used to assess both the maternal and inherited genotypes. However, available software packages for log-linear analyses are not well suited to the analysis of typical genome-wide association data (e.g. including missing data. Results An integrated platform, Maternal and Inherited Analyses for Genome-wide Association Studies (MI-GWAS for log-linear analyses of maternal and inherited genetic effects in large, genome-wide datasets, is described. MI-GWAS uses SAS and LEM software in combination to appropriately format data, perform the log-linear analyses and summarize the results. This platform was evaluated using existing genome-wide data and was shown to perform accurately and relatively efficiently. Conclusions The MI-GWAS platform provides a valuable tool for the analysis of association of a phenotype or condition with maternal and inherited genotypes using genome-wide data from case-parent triads. The source code for this platform is freely available at http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/sbrr/mi-gwas.htm.

Mitchell Laura E

2011-04-01

292

Physiological effect of natural humic acid during pregnancy on fetuses and maternal alterations induced by irradiation in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Humic acid is a mixture of macromolecular heterogeneous substances which have high molecular weight. Humic acid is a soil constituent, playing an important role in forming and transferring the nutrients from the soil to the living organism to perform many physiological processes. Thus, the current study was performed to study the chemical characteristics of extracted humic acid (soil constituent in Egypt) and evaluate its physiological effects on irradiated pregnant rats and some maternal biochemical parameter humic acid extract was obtained from the fine fraction of Egyptian soil (undersize 12 mesh sieve). The chemical characters were evaluated by means of IR, ESR, elemental and chemical analyses. It was found to contain all functional groups characterize natural humic acids but it contains high concentration of free radicals (73 x 1018 spin /g). Humic acid was supplemented daily to rats at two separate doses (150 mg and 300 mg/kg) during the interval 1st to 13 th day of gestation. Irradiation (2.5 Gy) was applied one hour post the last dose of humic acid. Experimental investigations were performed on the day 21 of gestation. The results showed that supplementation of rats with humic acid at a dose of 150 mg/kg increased the number of fetuses and placental weight as well as fetal measurement. These morphological effects were paralleled with some biochemical effects in justifying the radioprotective potency of humic acid. Also, the humic acid given at the same dose improved the radiation induced disturbances in serum progesterone, calcium, phosphorus, calcitonin, total proteins and albumin levels whereas administration of humic acid at the high dose (300 mg/kg) induced harmful effect on most of the studied parameters and did not show any protective role against gamma irradiation. It could be concluded that administration of humic acid at the dose of 150 mg/kg during pregnancy of rats exerted a beneficial radioprotective effects on the tested physiological and biochemical parameters

2005-01-01

293

Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática  

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Full Text Available Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by hand, a total of nine studies were analyzed. Results: Three out of four papers observed a higher risk for delay lactogenesis among obese mothers, odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.10. The study assessing the initiation of lactation showed that non-obese mothers initiated lactation sooner, OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25-0.62. The overall risk for cessation of breastfeeding showed that obese mothers had higher risks of early cessation, HR: 1.50 (CI 95% 1.11-2.04. In one study it was observed that obese mothers were not more likely to never breastfeed, OR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.97-1.50. Conclusions: This review shows that in prospective studies, obese mothers are more likely to have delayed lactogenesis and reduced lactation. Therefore, weight control and breastfeeding promotion should be reinforced before and during pregnancy. In overweight and obese mothers, breastfeeding should be closely monitored after birth.Objetivo: La falta de lactancia o su corta duración ha sido asociada con la obesidad materna. El propósito de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios prospectivos que estudiaron el efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed, se incluyeron estudios prospectivos del efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la iniciación, la intención y la duración de la lactancia: se encontraron 653 artículos, y siete fueron estudios prospectivos. Después de agregar otros estudios seleccionados a mano, se analizaron nueve estudios. Resultados: Tres de cuatro estudios observaron un mayor riesgo de retraso de la lactogénesis en madres obesas, OR: 1,02 a 1,10. El estudio que analizó la iniciación de la lactancia describió que las madres no obesas iniciaron la lactancia más temprano, OR: 0,39 (95% CI: 0,25-0,62. El riesgo de terminación temprana de la lactancia fue mayor en madres obesas, HR: 1,50 (CI 95% 1,11-2,04. En un estudio se observó que las madres obesas no tenían más probabilidades de no lactar, OR = 1,56 (95% CI: 0,97-1,50. Conclusiones: Esta revisión realizada en estudios prospectivos indica que, es más probable que las madres obesas tengan lactogénesis atrasada o un periodo corto de lactancia. Por lo tanto, el control de peso y la promoción de la lactancia deben reforzarse antes y durante el embarazo. En madres con sobrepeso y obesidad, la lactancia debe de ser promovida y supervisada después de nacimiento.

M. Lepe

2011-12-01

294

Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil  

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Full Text Available We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19 and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.

Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira Lôbo

2009-01-01

295

Maternal-effect genes as the recording genes of Turing-Child patterns: sequential compartmentalization in Drosophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

The early embryo is often a two-dimensional surface. The fate map is the subdivision of this surface into regions which give rise to parts of the phenotype. It is shown for Drosophila that the fate map is generated by the spontaneous and sequential formation of Turing-Child (TC) eigenfunction patterns. These patterns are recorded by the maternal-effect genes. The addition of the nodal lines of the TC patterns yields the correct number, positions, sequences and symmetries of regional boundaries. A simplest nontrivial 'homeotic transformation' is suggested and explained. A single mutation converts a region in one end of the fate map to a mirror-symmetric image of a nonadjacent region in the other end of the fate map, and this is attributed to the geometry of the TC patterns. This geometry also determines the initial shape of the zygotic gene expression. The vision of William Bateson that biological form is shaped like Chladni's patterns in acoustics and music is justified. A similar sequence of TC patterns occurs in the normal development of all organisms, and it is suggested that artificial intervention which completes the full sequence of TC patterns can be useful in the context of regenerative medicine and this is illustrated with the sea urchin. PMID:22564772

Schiffmann, Yoram

2012-05-01

296

A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-? and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using ?2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-? responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-? > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-? responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.

Nampijja Margaret

2005-12-01

297

Feeding of pregnant sows with mycotoxin contaminated diets has no effect on fetal and maternal hepatic transcription of genes of the insulin-like growth factor system  

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Abstract The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates fetal and placental growth. It can be influenced by dietary factors, but little is known about effects of mycotoxin feeding on hepatic levels of the IGF system. We aimed to determine (1) the normal fetal and maternal hepatic transcription of major IGF genes at distinct stages of pregnancy and to find out, (2) if the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) affect transcript concentations. Pregnant sows were...

2008-01-01

298

The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.  

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PURPOSE: To study the spectrum of adverse ocular effects which result from maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasma infection; further, to record the long-term visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these 2 major causes of fetal infection. STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A series of 55 patients with congenital infection have been studied prospectively on a long-term basis. The study group included a cohort of 34 cases with congenital rubella syndrome demonstrated by virus isolation, and 21...

O Neill, J. F.

1998-01-01

299

The Role of Carnosine in Protection Against the Damaging Effect of Maternal Nicotine Exposure During Gestation and Lactation on the Lung of Albino Rat Offspring  

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Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to investigate the effect of maternal nicotine exposure, during gestation and lactation, on the lung histological structures of rat offspring and its reversibility and (2 to establish whether carnosine would protect the neonatal rat lung against the adverse effects of maternal nicotine exposure. After mating, the pregnant albino rats were divided into three groups; group I (control group received a daily subcutaneous injection of normal saline, group II received a daily a subcutaneous injection of nicotine (1 mg kg-1 body weight and group III received daily both of subcutaneous injection of nicotine (1 mg kg-1 body weight and intramuscular injection of carnosine (10 mg kg-1 body weight. The lung tissue of the rat pups was collected for histological and histomorphometric study on postnatal days 7, 21 and 49. The study showed that maternal nicotine exposure resulted in marked affection of the lung parenchyma of the rat pups including massive cellular infiltration, thickening of the alveolar septa with increase of their cellularity, proliferation and migration of Type II pneumocytes, damage of the elastic tissue and increased fibroblast deposition. Loss of normal lung architecture and rupture septa with coalescence of alveoli giving picture of microscopical emphysema were also noticed. There was also significant decrease in the alveolar count mm-2 and the percentage of elastic tissue fibers with significant increase in the percentage of collagen fibers in the lung parenchyma of these rat pups, compared with age-matched controls. These changes were irreversible as they progressed even after withdrawal of nicotine following weaning, implying that these changes could be induced at gene level. The treatment with carnosine limited the deleterious effects of nicotine on the histological structure of lung parenchyma of rat pups especially the alveolar count, which did not show significant changes compared with the age-matched controls, as time laps. However, carnosine did not prevent completely the induction of microscopic emphysema resulted from maternal nicotine exposure.

Hoda Mahmoud El-Aasar

2007-01-01

300

Effect of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current understanding of biologic processes indicates that women's nutritional status before and during early pregnancy may play an important role in determining early developmental processes and ensuring successful pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for the impact of maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy (nutrition prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, but there is a need for well-designed prospective studies and controlled trials in developing country settings that examine relationships with low birthweight, SGA, PTD, stillbirth and maternal and neonatal mortality. The knowledge gaps that need to be addressed include the evaluation of periconceptional interventions such as food supplements, multivitamin-mineral supplements and/or specific micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin B-6 and B-12) as well as the relationship between measures of prepregnancy body size and composition and maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. PMID:22742616

Ramakrishnan, Usha; Grant, Frederick; Goldenberg, Tamar; Zongrone, Amanda; Martorell, Reynaldo

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Prenatal lipopolysaccharide increases maternal behavior, decreases maternal odor preference, and induces lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness  

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Full Text Available The present study investigated whether late maternal inflammation disrupts the mother/pup interaction, resulting in longlasting effects on pup behavior and alterations in biological pathways, thereby programming prepubertal behavior and the pups’ inflammatory responses after bacterial endotoxin treatment. Female rats received 100 ?g/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS or .9% saline solution on gestation day 18. Reproductive performance was observed at birth. On lactation days (LD 5 and LD 6, respectively, maternal behavior and maternal aggressive behavior were assessed. In pups, maternal odor preference on LD 7, open field behavior on LD 21, and serum tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? levels after LPS challenge on LD 21 were investigated. The results showed that prenatal LPS exposure improved maternal care and reduced maternal aggressive behavior but did not alter maternal reproductive performance. Male offspring exhibited increased body weights at birth and reduced maternal odor preference. Lipopolysaccharide challenge increased the duration of immobility in the open field and induced a slight increase in serum TNF-? levels. Prenatal exposure to LPS during late pregnancy improved maternal care, reduced maternal olfactory preference, and induced TNF-? hyporesponsiveness to a single dose of LPS in pups.

Sandra Penteado

2013-06-01

302

Maternal zinc intake of Wistar rats has a protective effect in the alloxan-induced diabetic offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc has a role in the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin, and has been suggested to be beneficial when used in the diabetic state. Effect of zinc intake in pregnant rats has been studied here on diabetized offspring. Pregnant rats were divided in two groups; the control group received normal food and water, and the experimental group received zinc sulfate during pregnancy and 3 weeks after offspring birth. Male offspring from the control (C) and experimental (E) groups were divided each in three groups: C1, fed with normal food and water; C2, diabetized with alloxan; C3, received zinc sulfate; E1, fed with normal food and water; E2, diabetized with alloxan; and E3, receiving zinc sulfate. After 30 days, the histological changes of pancreatic tissues were investigated by light microscopy. Body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin levels, food intake, water intake, and urine quantity were also compared between the groups. Water intake and urine quantity were decreased significantly (p?maternal zinc intake may influence subsequent deleterious effects of diabetes on alloxan-diabetized offspring. PMID:22730079

Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Esfahani-Nejad, Hamideh; Ahmadi, Ramesh; Hayati-Roodbari, Nasim; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

2013-03-01

303

Protective effect of maternal prenatal melatonin administration on rat pups born to mothers submitted to constant light during gestation  

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Full Text Available We studied the effects of adverse conditions such as constant light (LL on the circadian rhythm of malate (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and lactate (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27 dehydrogenase activities of the testes of male Wistar rats on postnatal day 28 (PN28, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test at PN60 and sexual behavior at PN120. The rats were assigned to mother groups on day 10 of pregnancy: control (12-h light/dark, LL (light from day 10 to 21 of pregnancy, and LL+Mel (LL and sc injection to the mothers of a daily dose of melatonin, 1 mg/kg body weight at circadian time 12, from day 17 to 21 of pregnancy. LL offspring did not show circadian rhythms of MDH (N = 62 and LDH (N = 63 activities (cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher. They presented a 44.7% decrease in open-arm entries and a 67.9% decrease in time (plus-maze test, N = 15, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, an increase in mounting (94.4%, intromission (94.5% and ejaculation (56.6% latencies (N = 12, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test and lower numbers of these events (61, 59 and 73%, respectively; P < 0.01, N = 12 compared to controls. The offspring of the LL+Mel group presented MDH and LDH circadian rhythms (P < 0.05, N = 50, cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher, anxiety-like and sexual behaviors similar to control. These findings supported the importance of the melatonin signal and provide evidence for the protective effects of hormones on maternal programming during gestation. This protective action of melatonin is probably related to its entrainment capacity, favoring internal coupling of the fetal multioscillatory system.

C.D. Cisternas

2010-09-01

304

Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Studies on formula-fed infants indicate a beneficial effect of dietary DHA on visual acuity. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between breast-milk DHA levels and visual acuity in breast-fed infants. The objective in this study was to evaluate the biochemical and functional effects of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00). The intervention started within a week after delivery and lasted 4 mon. Mothers with habitual high fish intake and their infants were included as a reference group. Ninety-seven infants completed the trial (44 OO-group, 53 FO-group) and 47 reference infants were followed up. The primary outcome measures were: DHA content of milk samples (0, 2, and 4 mon postnatal) and of infant red blood cell (RBC) membranes (4 mon postnatal), and infant visual acuity (measured by swept visual evoked potential at 2 and 4 mon of age). FO supplementation gave rise to a threefold increase in the DHA content of the 4-mon milk samples (P <0.001). DHA in infant RBC reflected milk contents (r = 0.564, P <0.001) and was increased by almost 50% (P <0.001). Infant visual acuity was not significantly different in the randomized groups but was positively associated at 4 mon with infant RBC-DHA (P = 0.004, multiple regression). We concluded that maternal FO supplementation during lactation did not enhance visual acuity of the infants who completed the intervention. However, the results showed that infants with higher RBC levels of n-3 LCPUFA had a better visual acuity at 4 mon of age, suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA may influence visual maturation.

Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

2004-01-01

305

Priming for local and systemic antibody memory responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus: effect of amount of virus, virus replication, route of administration and maternal antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the conditions under which calves can be primed for mucosal and serum antibody memory responses against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and the relationship between such responses and protection against the virus. Calves were primed via the respiratory tract with a low or high amount of live virus, with killed virus, or intramuscularly with live virus. Calves were challenged via the respiratory tract. Priming with live virus via the respiratory tract induced primary antibody responses in serum and on the mucosae, which were identical after the low and the high amount of virus. These responses were suppressed by maternal antibodies. Intramuscular priming of seronegative calves induced serum IgG1 and sometimes serum IgM and IgG2 responses, but no responses were detected on the mucosae. Sera of calves primed by the intramuscular or the respiratory route recognized the same viral proteins. No responses were observed after priming with killed virus, or after intramuscular priming of calves with maternal antibodies. After challenge, mucosal and serum antibody memory responses developed in calves that had been primed via the respiratory tract with live virus, whether they had maternal antibodies or not. One colostrum-fed calf showed a mucosal memory response, although serum responses were still suppressed by maternal antibodies. None of the calves thus primed shed virus after challenge. Intramuscular priming also primed for mucosal and serum memory responses after challenge, which however started perhaps slightly later and were not associated with protection against virus shedding. Priming with killed virus, or with live virus intramuscularly in the presence of maternal antibodies proved least effective in inducing memory and protection against virus shedding. Thus, protection against virus shedding was afforded by priming with live virus via the respiratory tract, both in calves with an without maternal antibodies. Protection was associated with a strong and rapid mucosal antibody memory response, but the reverse was not necessarily true. Protection against virus excretion had no relationship to titers of serum neutralizing or serum IgG1 or nasal IgA antibodies at the time of challenge. PMID:2530685

Kimman, T G; Westenbrink, F; Straver, P J

1989-09-01

306

Efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en el oligohidramnios aislado: its effectiveness in isolated oligohydramnios / Parenteral maternal hydrotherapy:  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El oligohidramnios u oligoamnios es la disminución del líquido amniótico a cifras patológicas con un índice de líquido amniótico (ILA) menor o igual a 5 cm, y constituye un alto riego fetal y secundariamente materno. OBJETIVO: demostrar a través de un ensayo clínico controlado la efectividad de la h [...] idroterapia materna parenteral en oligoamnios aislados, en el aumento del ILA y consecutivamente su repercusión en esos resultados perinatológicos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado para valorar la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral (HMP) en gestantes con oligoamnios aislado, de 28 sem o más de embarazo, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Docente de Guanabacoa, entre el 1ro de enero del 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004. La muestra fue de 141 oligoamnios aislados y se dividió en 2 grupos: grupo estudio: 56 y el grupo control: 85. Al grupo estudio se le aplicó HMP con 2000 mL de solución salina isotónica al 0,9 %, y con el grupo control se mantuvo conducta expectante. RESULTADOS: el oligoamnios aislado es más frecuente en el embarazo a término. Al administrar HMP aumenta el ILA en un 43 % (grupo estudio) y solo en un 22 % de los casos del grupo control. Igualmente, se logra aumentar la edad gestacional en 2 sem desde el diagnóstico. Fue mayor el parto transpelviano en el grupo estudio; la principal causa de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo en ambos, principalmente en el grupo control. En el grupo estudio no hubo recién nacidos con Síndrome de distress respiratorio ni bronconeumonía congénita. CONCLUSIONES: la HMP parece ser efectiva en el manejo del oligoamnios aislado, lo cual disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal y secundariamente el bienestar materno. Abstract in english Oligohydramnios or oligoamnios is the amniotic fluid decrease to pathological figures with a high amniotic fluid rate (AFR) less or similar to 5 cm, and it is a fetal high risk, and secondarily maternal. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate through a controlled clinical assay the effectiveness of parenteral ma [...] ternal hydrotherapy (PMH) in isolated oligoamnios, in increase of AFR, and consecutively its repercussion on those perinatal results. METHODS: We made a controlled clinical assay to assess effectiveness of PHM in pregnants with isolated oligoamnios of 28 weeks or more of pregnancy in Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. Sample included 141 isolated oligoamnios and it was divided in two groups: study group with 56 patients and control-group with 85 patients. In study group, we administered PHM with 2000 mL of 0,9% isotopic saline solution, and in control-group there was an expectant behavior RESULTS: Isolated aligoamnios is more frequent in term pregnancy. Administration of PHM increases AFR in 43% (study group), and only in 22% of cases from control- group. Likewise, it was possible to increase gestational age in two weeks from diagnosis. In study group, transpelvic pregnancy; main cause of cesarean section was the acute fetal suffering in both groups, mainly in the control one. In study group there were not newborns presenting with neither respiratory syndrome nor congenital bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: PMH looks to be effective in management o isolated oligoamnios, decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality, and secondarily, maternal wellbeing.

Itsel, Cárdenas Ramón; Sonia, Águila Setién; Jacinta, Otero Iglesias.

307

In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition  

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Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7/group) were studied: ad libitum food intake (control, CON); ad libitum food intake with 1 mg dexamethasone/l drinking water from embryonic day (ED)13 to ED21 (DEX); pair-fed (PF) to DEX from ED...

Gokulakrishnan, Ganga; Estrada, Irma J.; Sosa, Horacio A.; Fiorotto, Marta L.

2012-01-01

308

Mothers Caring for an Adult Child with Schizophrenia: The Effects of Subjective Burden on Maternal Health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined long-term effects that burdens associated with coping with mental illness have on parental health. Data from 81 mothers of adult children with schizophrenia revealed that subjective burdens associated with stigma and worries were related to lower levels of physical well-being among the mothers. (Author/NB)

Greenberg, Jan Steven; And Others

1993-01-01

309

The effect of placental malaria infection on cord blood and maternal immunoregulatory responses at birth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Placental malaria (PM), a frequent infection of pregnancy, provides an ideal opportunity to investigate the impact on immune development of exposure of the foetal immune system to foreign Ag. We investigated the effect of PM on the regulatory phenotype and function of cord blood cells from healthy Gambian newborns and peripheral blood cells from their mothers, and analyzed for effects on the balance between regulatory and effector responses. Using the gold standard for classifying PM we further distinguished between resolved infection and acute or chronic PM active at the time of delivery. We show that exposure to malarial Ag in utero results in the expansion of malaria-specific FOXP3(+) Treg and more generalized FOXP3(+) CD4(+) Treg in chronic and resolved PM, alongside increased Th1 pro-inflammatory responses (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma:IL-10) in resolved PM infection only. These observations demonstrate a clear effect of exposure to malarial Ag in foetal life on the immune environment at birth, with a regulatory response dominating in the newborns with ongoing chronic PM, while those with resolved infection produce both regulatory and inflammatory responses. The findings might explain some of the adverse effects on the health of babies born to women with PM. PMID:20039298

Flanagan, Katie L; Halliday, Alice; Burl, Sarah; Landgraf, Katja; Jagne, Ya Jankey; Noho-Konteh, Fatou; Townend, John; Miles, David J C; van der Sande, Marianne; Whittle, Hilton; Rowland-Jones, Sarah

2010-04-01

310

The Relations among Maternal Depression, Maternal Criticism, and Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relations between maternal criticism and externalizing and internalizing symptoms in adolescents who varied in their risk for psychopathology. Both maternal-effects and child-effects models were examined. The sample consisted of 194 adolescents (mean age = 11.8 years) and their mothers: 146 mothers had a history of…

Frye, Alice A.; Garber, Judy

2005-01-01

311

Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Berg, A.H. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S.J.; Hinton, D.E. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M. [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

1999-02-01

312

Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl2) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

2005-05-05

313

Newborn literacy program effective in increasing maternal engagement in literacy activities: an observational cohort study  

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Abstract Background Literacy is important for success in school and in adulthood. Book-gift programs at birth exist to help develop these foundations early on. The effectiveness of the Read to Me! Nova Scotia Family Literacy Program (a program where books and literacy materials are given to families in hospital when their baby is born) on the duration and frequency with which mothers engage in reading and other literacy based activities with their newborns was assessed. <...

Veldhuijzen van Zanten Stephanie; Coates Chrystal; Hervas-Malo Marilou; McGrath Patrick J

2012-01-01

314

Effects of hypertension on maternal adaptations to pregnancy: experimental study on spontaneously hypertensive rats  

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CONTEXT: Animal models for essential hypertension have been used for understanding the human pathological conditions observed in pregnant hypertensive women. OBJECTIVE: To study the possible effects of pregnancy on hypertension and of hypertension on pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and in their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) counterparts. TYPE OF STUDY: Comparative study using laboratory animals. SETTING: Animal Research Laboratory of Clinical Medicine at the Medical Scho...

2001-01-01

315

Effect of Maternal Smoking on Breast Milk Interleukin-1?, ?-Endorphin, and Leptin Concentrations  

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Tobacco smoke is immunotoxic, but the effect of smoking on the immunologic function of the mammary gland of mothers who smoke cigarettes (“smoker mothers”) has not been studied. Our objective was to test, in smoker mothers, the colostral and transitional milk concentrations of interleukin-(IL)1?. The immunomodulators ?-endorphin and leptin were also tested. Pregnant women who self-identified as smokers (? 5 cigarettes per day through pregnancy) or nonsmokers were recruited for study p...

2005-01-01

316

Mother–Infant Interaction: Effects of a Home Intervention and Ongoing Maternal Drug Use  

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Examined the effects of a home-based intervention on mother–infant interaction among drug-using women and their infants. At 2 weeks postpartum, mothers and infants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 84) or a control (n = 87) group. Control families received brief monthly tracking visits, and intervention families received weekly visits by trained lay visitors. Mother–infant interaction was evaluated at 6 months through observation of feeding. Although there were no dire...

2000-01-01

317

Effect of number of pig embryos in the uterus on their survival and development and on maternal metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of pig embryo number on fetal survival and growth and maternal metabolism were evaluated with 114 Large White gilts. Gilts were assigned at 38 kg to three treatments: control (CTR), ligature of the left oviduct (LIG), or right hemi-hysteroovariectomy (HHO). Insemination occurred at 311 +/- 18 d of age. A laparotomy was performed at d 35 of gestation, and gilts were slaughtered at d 112. Ovulation rate per uterine horn was 4.30, 8.70, and 17.12 in the LIG, CTR, and HHO groups, respectively. The hierarchy was the same for litter size at d 35 of gestation, but the relative differences were reduced (3.24, 5.98, and 8.40 fetuses/uterine horn, respectively). Litter size per uterine horn was similar in the CTR and HHO groups at d 112 of pregnancy (2.93, 4.69, and 4.76 fetuses in the LIG, CTR, and HHO groups, respectively). Early (before d 35 of gestation), late, and total fetal mortality increased with embryo potential per uterine horn. There was a compensation between early and late fetal mortality in the CTR and HHO groups. Fetal weight at d 112 was related to litter size in early pregnancy (1.50, 1.38, and 1.27 kg in the LIG, CTR, and HHO groups, respectively). Uterine capacity limits litter size and fetal development, even in sows with a conventional potential of embryos. Availability of energetic and gluconeogenic substrates was higher at 110 than at 60 d of gestation in the three groups. Blood substrate levels suggested that lipid mobilization and glucose uptake were higher in the gilts with a larger litter weight. PMID:9159282

Père, M C; Dourmad, J Y; Etienne, M

1997-05-01

318

Phenotypic and molecular analysis of mes-3, a maternal-effect gene required for proliferation and viability of the germ line in C. elegans.  

Science.gov (United States)

mes-3 is one of four maternal-effect sterile genes that encode maternal components required for normal postembryonic development of the germ line in Caenorhabditis elegans. mes-3 mutant mothers produce sterile progeny, which contain few germ cells and no gametes. This terminal phenotype reflects two problems: reduced proliferation of the germ line and germ cell death. Both the appearance of the dying germ cells and the results of genetic tests indicate that germ cells in mes-3 animals undergo a necrotic-like death, not programmed cell death. The few germ cells that appear healthy in mes-3 worms do not differentiate into gametes, even after elimination of the signaling pathway that normally maintains the undifferentiated population of germ cells. Thus, mes-3 encodes a maternally supplied product that is required both for proliferation of the germ line and for maintenance of viable germ cells that are competent to differentiate into gametes. Cloning and molecular characterization of mes-3 revealed that it is the upstream gene in an operon. The genes in the operon display parallel expression patterns; transcripts are present throughout development and are not restricted to germ-line tissue. Both mes-3 and the downstream gene in the operon encode novel proteins. PMID:8601481

Paulsen, J E; Capowski, E E; Strome, S

1995-12-01

319

Effect of an anaesthesia information video on preoperative maternal anxiety and postoperative satisfaction in elective caesarean section: a prospective randomised trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Video-based patient information supplementing clinician interview has been shown to reduce anxiety and improve satisfaction in patients undergoing procedures. In Queensland more than 90% of caesarean sections are performed under regional anaesthesia. We aimed to assess the effect of using an information video about neuraxial blockade in patients having regional anaesthesia for elective caesarean section. Subjects were randomised to undergo usual care (Group C), or to view a video and undergo usual care (Group V). Subjects completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory preoperatively and the Maternal Satisfaction with Caesarean Section Score questionnaire postoperatively. Satisfaction with, and duration of the preoperative anaesthetic interview, were noted. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-squared tests were used in statistical analysis. One-hundred and forty three subjects were randomised and 110 completed the protocol and analysis. Group C and Group V were similar in terms demographic and anaesthesia data. There was no difference in anxiety score (41.2 versus 39.8, P=0.50), maternal satisfaction score (118.5 versus 122.7, P=0.22) or interview duration (16.3 versus 15.8 min, P=0.69) between the two groups. The use of an anaesthesia information video does not reduce preoperative anxiety or increase the duration of the anaesthetic interview. Maternal satisfaction with neuraxial blockade for elective caesarean is high and not improved by an anaesthesia information video. PMID:24180719

Eley, V A; Searles, T; Donovan, K; Walters, E

2013-11-01

320

Maternal transmission effects of the PAX genes among cleft case–parent trios from four populations  

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Isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is among the most common human birth defects, with a prevalence of 1 in 700 live births. The paired box (PAX) genes have been suggested as candidate genes for CL/P based largely on mouse models; however, few human studies have focused on this gene family. This study tests for association between markers in four PAX genes and CL/P using a case-parent trio design considering parent-of-origin effects. Trios from four populations (76 from Mar...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effect of maternal lysine supplementation on the performance of growing rabbits. Preliminary results  

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The experiment studied the effect of dietary lysine supplementation to rabbit does on the performance and on meat’s protein and lysine content of their offspring. Half of the does (n=43) fed control diet (C; Lys: 0.68%), while the other half a lysine supplemented diet (L; Lys: 0.80%) from 3 days before AI until weaning. After kindling, half of the litters of C does were put under C does, while the other half under L does. The same procedure was followed for offspring of L does. After we...

Szilvia Metzger; Antonella Dalle Zotte; Edit Biró-Németh; Istvàn Radnai; Zsolt Szendrö

2010-01-01

322

Effects of CdCl/sub 2/ on the maternal-to-fetal clearance of /sup 67/Cu and placental blood flow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Copper is an essential element while Cd is an extremely toxic heavy metal of questionable biological usefulness. Cadmium has been reported to interfere with the metabolism of Cu, be teratogenic, and decrease blood flow in the fetal placenta. Because of these reported biological interactions of Cd and Cu, this investigation was conducted to determine the effects of Cd on placental transport of /sup 67/Cu and placental blood flow in the guinea pig. All guinea pigs used were 60 +/- 1 days pregnant. A placental perfusion technique was used to measure the maternal-to-fetal clearance of /sup 67/Cu and /sup 3/H/sub 2/O across the placenta. The clearance of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O served as an indicator of placental blood flow on the maternal side of the circulation. The results indicated that an iv injection of 1 mg Cd/kg body weight resulted in an immediate increase in the clearance of /sup 67/Cu which declined over the next 8 min to an elevated level compared to the extrapolated best-fit curve of control values. This iv injection of CdCl/sub 2/ concomitantly reduced the maternal-to-fetal clearance of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O across the placenta. In conclusion, an acute exposure of the pregnant female to CdCl/sub 2/ results in an increased maternal-to-fetal clearance of /sup 67/Cu and a reduced placental blood flow that can alter the supply of nutrients to the developing embryo or fetus, and therefore modify normal development.

Chertok, R.J.; Kullgren, B.; Burbank, D.

1984-06-01

323

Maternal health care amid political unrest: the effect of armed conflict on antenatal care utilization in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Armed conflicts, which primarily occur in low- and middle-income countries, have profound consequences for the health of affected populations, among them a decrease in the utilization of maternal health care services. The quantitative relationship between armed conflict and maternal health care utilization has received limited attention in the public health literature. We evaluate this relationship for a particular type of health care service, antenatal care, in Nepal. Using count regression techniques, household survey data and sub-national conflict data, we find a negative correlation between the number of antenatal care visits and incidents of conflict-related violence within a respondent's village development committee. Specifically, we find that under high-intensity conflict conditions women receive between 0.3 and 1.5 fewer antenatal care check-ups. These findings imply that maternal health care utilization is partially determined by characteristics of the social environment (e.g. political instability) and suggest health care providers need to revise maternal health strategies in conflict-affected areas. Strategies may include decentralization of services, maintaining neutrality among factions, strengthening community-based health services and developing mobile clinics. PMID:22773608

Price, James I; Bohara, Alok K

2013-05-01

324

Effects of Maternal Employment-Childrearing Pattern on College Students' Perceptions of a Mother and Her Child.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines perceptions of 100 female and 109 male college students concerning different patterns of maternal employment and child rearing. A continuously employed mother was seen as less communal and was less positively evaluated than a mother who interrupted employment or a nonemployed mother. Discussion focuses on social role theory. (SLD)

Bridges, Judith S.; Orza, Ann Marie

1993-01-01

325

Effects of a reduction in maternal renal mass on pregnancy and cardiovascular and renal function of the pregnant ewe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal renal disease is associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity. To establish an animal model to study renal dysfunction in pregnancy and its potential role in programming for renal disease and hypertension in adult life, a kidney was removed from each of 16 nonpregnant ewes, and a branch of the renal artery of the remaining kidney was ligated (STNx ewes). The 16 STNx and 15 intact ewes were time mated 2.5-17 mo later and studied at 119-132 days of gestation. STNx ewes demonstrated renal hypertrophy and glomerular hyperfiltration. They had higher diastolic arterial pressures (P STNx than in intact ewes. Glomerulotubular balance was impaired in STNx ewes. Proximal tubular Na(+) reabsorption was reduced (P STNx ewes, filtered K(+) loads were reduced (P STNx ewes; in intact ewes, there was net reabsorption. Plasma renin and angiotensinogen concentrations in STNx and intact ewes were similar, so the hypertension in STNx ewes was not renin dependent. STNx fetuses grew normally, and their blood gases, blood pressure, and heart rates were normal. These alterations in maternal fluid and electrolyte balance and the potential risk of maternal salt depletion or hyperkalemia may adversely affect the fetus. PMID:16317078

Gibson, Karen J; Thomson, Clare L; Boyce, Amanda C; Karime, Bilal M; Lumbers, Eugenie R

2006-05-01

326

Maternal hyperuricemia in normotensive singleton pregnancy, a prenatal finding with continuous perinatal and postnatal effects, a prospective cohort study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background To assess the association of maternal hyperuricemia with adverse pregnancy outcome and neonatal metabolic, neurologic and respiratory disturbances in normotensive singleton pregnant women. Method This prospective multicentric cohort study was conducted on 404 normotensive singleton pregnant women who were admitted for delivery in Vali-Asr and Akbar-Abadi teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Upon enrollment maternal and umbilical sera were obtained for determining uric acid levels. 1 and 5 minutes Apgar scores, the need for neonatal resuscitation and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were recorded. In case of NICU admission a neonatal blood sample was drawn for determining uric acid, blood sugar and bilirubin levels. An intracranial ultrasound imaging was also carried out for the admittd neonates for detecting intraventricular hemorrhage. Results Maternal hyperuricemia (uric acid one standard deviation greater than the appropriate gestational age) was independently associated with preterm birth (odds ratio (OR), 3.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1 – 4.79), small for gestational age delivery (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04 – 2.57), NICU admission (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.12 – 2.94) and neonatal IVH (OR, 8.14; 95% CI, 1.11 – 87.1). Conclusions Maternal hyperuricemia in normotensive singleton pregnant women is significantly associated with preterm and SGA delivery and the development of neonatal IVH.

2014-01-01

327

Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

2008-01-01

328

Effects of maternal exposure to diethylstilbestrol on epididymal development in rat offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

In our previous study, prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure (days 7-21 of gestation) suppressed plasma testosterone levels and histological development in the epididymis of rat offspring. In this study, we measured cell proliferation in epididymal ductules and the expression of steroid hormone receptors and 5alpha-reductase 1 in the epididymis to assess the effect of DES on epididymal development in the offspring. Prenatal DES exposure did not alter the cell division index, but suppressed the expression of androgen receptor mRNA at 15 weeks after birth, and stimulated estrogen receptor alpha mRNA at 6 weeks. These results suggest that prenatal DES exposure results in the retardation of epididymal tissue maturation by disruption of the postnatal expression of steroid hormone receptors. PMID:19346712

Yamamoto, Masako; Kohara, Shinya; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Nisikawa, Osamu; Arishima, Kazuyoshi

2009-03-01

329

Effects of maternal exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) on cell proliferation in the mouse preimplantation embryo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant mice were treated with trichloroethylene (TCE) at doses ranging from 0.01 micrograms/kg body weight to 483 mg/kg body weight when embryos were traversing the pronuclear stages of development. No treatment-related effect was seen on total number of embryos recovered from oviducts at the 2 to 4 cell stage of development. The 4-cell embryos were tested for cellular proliferative disadvantage by the embryo chimera assay in which embryos from treated mothers (experimental embryos) are paired with embryos from nontreated mothers (control embryos) to form aggregation chimeras. No significant cell proliferation decreases were observed for any of the experimental embryos across all doses examined. PMID:1591481

Coberly, S; Oudiz, D J; Overstreet, J W; Wiley, L M

1992-01-01

330

The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

de Jongh Beatriz E

2012-09-01

331

Childhood and maternal effects on physical health related quality of life five decades later: the British 1946 birth cohort.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited research has been done on the relationships between childhood factors and adult physical health related quality of life, with the underlying pathways not fully elucidated. Data from 2292 participants of the British 1946 birth cohort were used to examine the relationship of childhood characteristics and family environment with principal component summary (PCS) scores and the physical functioning (PF) subscale of the SF-36 at age 60-64 years. Impaired physical functioning was defined as the lowest quartile scores in the PF subscale. Childhood factors (father in manual social class versus non-manual (??=? -2.34; 95%CI: -3.39, -1.28) and poor maternal health versus good/excellent maternal health (??=? -6.18; -8.78, -3.57)) were associated with lower PCS scores at 60-64 years. Adult health behaviours (increasing BMI, lifelong smoking, and lower physical activity) at 53 years were identified as strong risk factors for lower PCS scores. After adjusting for these factors and education level (N?=?1463), only poor maternal health remained unattenuated (??=? -5.07; -7.62, -2.51). Similarly poor maternal health doubled the risk of reporting impaired PF (Odds ratio?=? 2.45; 95%CI: 1.39, 4.30); serious illness in childhood (OR?=?1.44; 1.01, 2.06) and lower educational level attained were also risk factors for impaired PF (N?=?1526). While findings suggest the influence of father's social class on physical health related quality of life are mediated by modifiable adult social factors and health behaviours; health professionals should also be mindful of the inter-generational risk posed by poor maternal health on the physical health related quality of life of her offspring almost five decades later. PMID:24670776

Mishra, Gita D; Black, Stephanie; Stafford, Mai; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana

2014-01-01

332

Effect of Irradiation Maternal Diets on the Post-natal Development of Brain Rat Pups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Effect of Protein-calorie malnutrition was studied on the pups born to mothers receiving either irradiated normal diet (consisted equal parts of gram and wheat) or irradiation low protein diet (consisted one part of normal diet and three parts of heat). Level of DNA, RNA and protein content were found markedly reduced in the brain of irradiated low protein diet fed pups than in the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found lower while catalase and lipid peroxidation activity were higher in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, compared whit the pups fed irradiated normal diet. On the whole both the irradiated low protein diet as well as irradiated normal diet fed pups showed higher index of biochemical changes than in the unirradiated low protein diet fed pups. Post-natal mortality was 60% in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, whereas the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet did not show any death. The study given evidence that feeding of the irradiated low protein diet interferes more with the development of brain compared with the pups fed on irradiated normal diet

2005-09-22

333

Effect of maternal age on endometrial morphology among Ghanaian infertile women  

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Full Text Available As more women choose to delay childbearing, increasing numbers of them face age-related fertility problems. Normal endometrial receptivity is essential for the establishment of any pregnancy and its evaluation is thus considered a basic goal in the assessment of female infertility. It is unclear as to whether women who present to infertility clinics at older age have age-related endometrial retar-dation or luteal phase defect. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of luteal phase defect (LPD among infertile women and its relationship with age. Mid-luteal endometrial biopsies were taken from eighty (80 infertile women attending fertility clinics of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Magazine Clinic and the Bomso Specialist Hospital in Kumasi metropolis and ten fertile women as control using dilatation and curettage and then processed for light microscopy. The re-sults show that 65.0% of the biopsies of the infertile women were normal in development hence their infertility could be due to other factors. In 35.0% of the biopsies the endometrial development was out-of-phase and therefore suggestive of a defective luteal phase which may lead to a non-receptive endometrium during the implantation window. There was no significant difference when LPD was analyzed according to age suggesting that ageing has no significant effect on endometri-al retardation from this study.

Abaidoo, C.S.

2012-01-01

334

Effect of Maternal Nutrition on Kits During Pre and Post Partum Period  

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Full Text Available A total of 15 young rabbits (kits of 35 days old were randomly allocated to same concentrate mixture (T2 in a completely randomized design. All the rabbits were offered ad-libitum green grass with same concentrate mixture. All the animals were kept in the same management. The feed intake, live weight changes and feed conversion efficiency was recorded. DM intake in three different groups (A, B, C were 350.53?46.57, 403.62 ± 41.89 and 389.30 ± 53.71 (g/wk which were not significant. The average daily gains in group A, B and C were 11.25 ± 8.71, 15.20 ± 8.33 and 14.43 ± 9.84 respectively and the differences among groups were not significant. The differences in growth velocity among different groups were not significant. Feed conversion efficiency were 4.45, 3.79 and 3.85 for group A, B and C respectively and the values were found non-significantly different. The result indicated that feeding of mother in terms of energy did not have any significant effect on DM intake, live weight changes, growth velocity and feed conversion efficiency upon their kits.

M. Hasanuzzaman

2002-01-01

335

Effects of overexpression of human GLUT4 gene on maternal diabetes and fetal growth in spontaneous gestational diabetic C57BLKS/J Lepr(db/+) mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

During gestation, heterozygous C57BLKS/J-Lepr(db/+) mice develop spontaneous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and the newborn fetuses are macrosomic compared with offspring from wild-type (+/+) mothers. To investigate the effects of the leptin receptor mutation on maternal metabolism and fetal growth during pregnancy, we studied +/+, db/+, and db/+ transgenic mice that overexpress the human GLUT4 gene two- to three-fold (db/+TG6). During pregnancy, fasting plasma glucose and hepatic glucose production were twofold greater in db/+ than +/+ mice, despite similar insulin levels. In skeletal muscle, insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation was decreased in pregnant +/+ mice, and even more so in db/+ mice: insulin receptor beta (IR-beta), +/+ 34%, db/+ 57% decrease, P<0.05; insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), +/+ 44%, db/+ 61% decrease, P<0.05; and phosphoinositol (PI) 3-kinase (p85alpha), +/+ 33%, db/+ 65% decrease, P<0.05. Overexpression of GLUT4 in db/+TG6 mice markedly improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, by 250%, and increased IRbeta, IRS-1, and p85alpha phosphorylation twofold, despite no change in concentration of these proteins. Plasma leptin concentration increased 40-fold during pregnancy, from 2.2+/-0.5 to 92+/-11 ng/ml and 3.6+/-0.1 to 178+/-34 ng/ml in +/+ and db/+ mice, respectively (P<0.01), but was increased to only 23+/-3 ng/ml in pregnant db/+TG6 mice (P<0.001). Maternal fat mass and energy intake were greater in db/+ mice, and fat mass was reduced by GLUT4 overexpression, independent of food intake. Fetal body weight was increased by 8.1 and 7.9% in db/+ and db/+TG6 mothers, respectively (P<0.05), regardless of fetal genotype, whereas fetuses from db/+TG8 mothers (four- to fivefold overexpression) weighed significantly less compared with pups from +/+ or db/+ mothers (P<0.05). These results suggest that the single mutant db allele effects susceptibility to GDM through abnormalities in insulin receptor signaling, defective insulin secretion, and greater nutrient availability. GLUT4 overexpression markedly improves insulin-signaling in GDM, resulting in increased insulin secretion and improved glycemic control. However, maternal hyperglycemia appears not to be the sole cause of fetal macrosomia. These data suggest that GDM is associated with defects in insulin receptor signaling in maternal skeletal muscle, and this may be an important factor provoking maternal and fetal perinatal complications. PMID:10331411

Ishizuka, T; Klepcyk, P; Liu, S; Panko, L; Liu, S; Gibbs, E M; Friedman, J E

1999-05-01

336

Modulating effects of maternal fish consumption on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in early infancy attributed to prenatal exposure to fine particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis whether infants with higher prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM(2.5)) are at greater risk of developing respiratory symptoms and whether fish consumption in pregnancy may modulate the effect. The study was carried out in a cohort of 465 newborns in Krakow (Poland) who have been followed over the first 2 years of life and for whom data on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and measurements of personal air monitoring in the second trimester of pregnancy were available. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) of respiratory symptoms due to prenatal PM(2.5) exposure were adjusted for potential confounders (gender of child, breastfeeding, parity, maternal atopy, maternal education as a proxy for the socio-economic status, exposure to postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and moulds in households) in the generalized estimating equations (GEE) statistical models. The adjusted risk of coughing was associated significantly with PM(2.5) level (IRR = 2.51; 95% CI: 1.77-3.58), moulds in the household, parity, maternal atopy and postnatal ETS, but was lower in girls, and in infants whose mothers consumed more fish in pregnancy (IRR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.79-0.91). The risk of wheezing was also correlated significantly with the prenatal exposure to PM(2.5) (IRR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.29-1.43) but also with the presence of moulds in homes, parity, maternal atopy and postnatal ETS. The occurrence of wheezing was associated inversely with the gender of child, gestational age, and fish consumption in pregnancy (IRR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). Similarly, the risk of difficult (puffy) breathing increased with prenatal exposure to PM(2.5) (IRR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.12-1.25) moulds, maternal atopy, and parity. The symptom occurrence was lower in girls and associated inversely with the gestational age, and fish consumption in pregnancy (IRR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.92-0.97). The results of the study support the hypothesis that fish consumption in pregnancy may mitigate the harmful effect of prenatal or perinatal exposure to components of PM(2.5) resulting in an increased burden of respiratory infections among infants. PMID:18230965

Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Pac, Agnieszka; Jacek, Ryszard; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Spengler, John; Rauh, Virginia; Perera, Frederica

2008-01-01

337

Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the levels of urinary cotinine and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex of both smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. We also looked for a relationship between those findings and fetal growth and birth weight. Methods In a prospective design, thirty pregnant smokers and thirty-four pregnant non-smokers were studied. The volunteers signed consent forms, completed a self-applied questionnaire and were subjected to Doppler velocimetry. Tobacco smoking exposure was quantified by subject provided information and confirmed by the measurement of urinary cotinine levels and by the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex. The weight of newborns was evaluated immediately after birth. Results Comparing smoking to non-smoking pregnant women, a significant increase in the resistance index was observed in the uterine arteries (P = 0.001 and umbilical artery (P = 0.001, and a decrease in the middle cerebral artery (P = 0.450. These findings were associated with progressively higher concentrations of COex and urinary cotinine. A decrease in the birth weight was also detected (P Conclusions In pregnant women who smoke, higher arterial resistance indices and lower birth weights were observed, and these findings were associated with increasing levels of tobacco smoking exposure. The values were significantly different when compared to those found in non-smoking pregnant women. This study contributes to the findings that smoking damage during pregnancy is dose-dependent, as demonstrated by the objective methods for measuring tobacco smoking exposure.

Petersen Guilherme O

2011-03-01

338

Immunomodulatory effects of maternal atrazine exposure on male Balb/c mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atrazine is a widely used herbicide applied to corn, sugar and other crops as a broad leaf weed inhibitor. Using the Balb/c mouse model, we have determined that prenatal/lactational exposure to atrazine alters adult immune function. Pregnant Balb/c dams were exposed subcutaneously for 21 days via time release pellets to 700 ?g per day of atrazine beginning between days 10 and 12 of pregnancy. Prenatal/Lactational exposure caused no overt physical malformations in the offspring and had no effect on the number of litters carried to term or the litter size. Upon reaching early adulthood (approximately 3 months of age), the state of their immune system was evaluated. There were no changes in body weight or in the organ to body weight ratio of the spleen. Additionally, no changes were observed in the number of CD8+ T cell, CD4+ T cell, or B220+ B cell subpopulations in the spleen. T cell function was assessed by measuring proliferation and cytolytic activity after in vitro allogeneic stimulation. Male mice which had been prenatally/lactationally exposed to atrazine had an increase in both T cell proliferation and cytolytic activity. The humoral immune response was assessed after immunization with heat killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP). There was a significant increase in the number of HKSP-specific IgM secreting B cells in the spleen of prenatal/lactational exposed male mice. Inasmuch as atrazine is a widespread environmental contaminant, this immunopotentiation raises concerns that it may potentiate clinical diseases, such as autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity, and needs to be carefully monitored and studied

2006-07-01

339

Prenatal programming in an obese swine model: sex-related effects of maternal energy restriction on morphology, metabolism and hypothalamic gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal energy restriction during pregnancy predisposes to metabolic alterations in the offspring. The present study was designed to evaluate phenotypic and metabolic consequences following maternal undernutrition in an obese pig model and to define the potential role of hypothalamic gene expression in programming effects. Iberian sows were fed a control or a 50 % restricted diet for the last two-thirds of gestation. Newborns were assessed for body and organ weights, hormonal and metabolic status, and hypothalamic expression of genes implicated in energy homeostasis, glucocorticoid function and methylation. Weight and adiposity were measured in adult littermates. Newborns of the restricted sows were lighter (P <0·01), but brain growth was spared. The plasma concentration of TAG was lower in the restricted newborns than in the control newborns of both the sexes (P <0·01), while the concentration of cortisol was higher in females born to the restricted sows (P <0·04), reflecting a situation of metabolic stress by nutrient insufficiency. A lower hypothalamic expression of anorexigenic peptides (LEPR and POMC, P <0·01 and P <0·04, respectively) was observed in females born to the restricted sows, but no effect was observed in the males. The expression of HSD11B1 gene was down-regulated in the restricted animals (P <0·05), suggesting an adaptive mechanism for reducing the harmful effects of elevated concentrations of cortisol. At 4 and 7 months of age, the restricted females were heavier and fatter than the controls (P< 0·01). Maternal feed restriction induces asymmetrical growth retardation and metabolic alterations in the offspring. Differences in gene expression at birth and higher growth and adiposity in adulthood suggest a female-specific programming effect for a positive energy balance, possibly due to overexposure to endogenous stress-induced glucocorticoids. PMID:24528940

Óvilo, Cristina; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Benítez, Rita; Ayuso, Miriam; Barbero, Alicia; Pérez-Solana, Maria L; Barragán, Carmen; Astiz, Susana; Fernández, Almudena; López-Bote, Clemente

2014-02-01

340

The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave of 32 days. We find limited evidence that the increase in the length of maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effcts on children's later developmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any benecial effects of increasing the length of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families.

Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

FluMum: a prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs assessing the effectiveness of maternal influenza vaccination in prevention of influenza in early infancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Influenza vaccination in pregnancy is recommended for all women in Australia, particularly those who will be in their second or third trimester during the influenza season. However, there has been no systematic monitoring of influenza vaccine uptake among pregnant women in Australia. Evidence is emerging of benefit to the infant with respect to preventing influenza infection in the first 6?months of life. The FluMum study aims to systematically monitor influenza vaccine uptake during pregnancy in Australia and determine the effectiveness of maternal vaccination in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in their offspring up to 6?months of age. Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study of 10?106 mother–infant pairs recruited between 38?weeks gestation and 55?days postdelivery in six Australian capital cities. Detailed maternal and infant information is collected at enrolment, including influenza illness and vaccination history with a follow-up data collection time point at infant age 6?months. The primary outcome is laboratory-confirmed influenza in the infant. Case ascertainment occurs through searches of Australian notifiable diseases data sets once the infant turns 6?months of age (with parental consent). The primary analysis involves calculating vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed influenza by comparing the incidence of influenza in infants of vaccinated mothers to the incidence in infants of unvaccinated mothers. Secondary analyses include annual and pooled estimates of the proportion of mothers vaccinated during pregnancy, the effectiveness of maternal vaccination in preventing hospitalisation for acute respiratory illness and modelling to assess the determinants of vaccination. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by all institutional Human Research Ethics Committees responsible for participating sites. Study findings will be published in peer review journals and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number The study is registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) number: 12612000175875.

O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; McHugh, Lisa; Nolan, Terry; Richmond, Peter; Wood, Nicholas; Marshall, Helen S; Lambert, Stephen B; Chatfield, Mark; Andrews, Ross M

2014-01-01

342

Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia during Labour: Effect of Addition of Background Infusion on Quality of Analgesia & Maternal Satisfaction  

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Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is a well established technique for pain relief during labor. But the inclusion of continuous background infusion to PCEA is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of continuous infusion along with PCEA was beneficial for laboring women with regards to quality of analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal outcome in comparison to PCEA alone. Fifty five parturients received epidural bolus of 10ml solution containing 0....

Srivastava, Uma; Gupta, Amrita; Saxena, Surekha; Kumar, Aditya; Singh, Saroj; Saraswat, Namita; Mishra, Abhijeet R.; Kannaujia, Ashish; Mishra, Sukhdev

2009-01-01

343

Sex-specific effects of maternal immunization on yolk antibody transfer and offspring performance in zebra finches  

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Trans-generational antibody transfer constitutes an important mechanism by which mothers may enhance offspring resistance to pathogens. Thus, differential antibody deposition may potentially allow a female to differentiate offspring performance. Here, we examined whether maternal immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) prior to egg laying affects sex-specific yolk antibody transfer and sex-specific offspring performance in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We showed that immunized m...

Martyka, Rafa?; Rutkowska, Joanna; Cichon?, Mariusz

2011-01-01

344

Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems - a longitudinal study.  

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BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and disabling condition with a high relapse frequency. Maternal mental health problems and experience of traumatic life events are known to increase the risk of behavior problems in children. Recently, genetic factors, in particular gene-by-environment interaction models, have been implicated to explain depressive etiology. However, results are inconclusive. METHODS: Study participants were members of the SESBiC-study. A total of 889 mothers and their childr...

Agnafors, Sara; Comasco, Erika; Bladh, Marie; Sydsjo?, Gunilla; Dekeyser, Linda; Oreland, Lars; Svedin, Carl Go?ran

2013-01-01

345

The Effect of Ephedrine on Fetal Outcome in Treatment of Maternal Hypotension Caused by Spinal Anesthesia During Cesarean Section  

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Objective: To compare maternal complications and labor outcome in obese and non-obese women. Materials and methods: It is a retrospective comparative study conducted at the Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Unit 1, Civil Hospital, Karachi from December 2008 to December 2009. A sample size of 220 gravid women is selected by Non Probability Convenience sampling technique. In these 110 obese women as cases was compared with 110 non-obese women as controls, booked at <20 weeks of gestat...

Fardin Yousefshahi; Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Mahbod Kaveh; Roghayeh Hamidian; Khosro Barkhordari

2010-01-01

346

Effect of cleansing the birth canal with antiseptic solution on maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in Malawi: clinical trial.  

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OBJECTIVE: To determine if cleansing the birth canal with an antiseptic at delivery reduces infections in mothers and babies postnatally. DESIGN: Clinical trial; two months of no intervention were followed by three months of intervention and a final month of no intervention. SETTING: Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (tertiary care urban hospital), Blantyre, Malawi. SUBJECTS: A total of 6965 women giving birth in a six month period and their 7160 babies. INTERVENTION: Manual wipe of the matern...

1997-01-01

347

The Effect of Maternal Language on Bilingual Children’s Vocabulary and Emergent Literacy Development During Head Start and Kindergarten  

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This investigation examined the impact of maternal language and children’s gender on bilingual children’s vocabulary and emergent literacy development during 2 years in Head Start and kindergarten. Seventy-two mothers and their children who attended English immersion programs participated. Questionnaires administered annually over a 3-year period revealed that mothers increased their usage of English to their children. In addition, more mothers of sons reported using “More or All Englis...

Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Davison, Megan Dunn; Lawrence, Frank R.; Miccio, Adele W.

2009-01-01

348

Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children’s Physiological Regulation  

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Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children’s physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation (?RSA) were explored as predictors of individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation and negativity (mother-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist; A. M. Shields & D....

Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O’brien, Marion

2008-01-01

349

Effect of Facilitation of Local Maternal-and-Newborn Stakeholder Groups on Neonatal Mortality : Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial  

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BACKGROUND: Facilitation of local women's groups may reportedly reduce neonatal mortality. It is not known whether facilitation of groups composed of local health care staff and politicians can improve perinatal outcomes. We hypothesised that facilitation of local stakeholder groups would reduce neonatal mortality (primary outcome) and improve maternal, delivery, and newborn care indicators (secondary outcomes) in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cluster-randomized des...

Persson, Lars-a?ke; Nga, Nguyen Thu; Ma?lqvist, Mats; Thi Phuong Hoa, Dinh; Eriksson, Leif; Wallin, Lars; Selling, Katarina; Huy, Tran Q.; Duc, Duong M.; Tiep, Tran V.; Thi Thu Thuy, Vu; Ewald, Uwe

2013-01-01

350

The effect of hospital volume on maternal outcomes in women with prior cesarean delivery undergoing trial of labor  

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The authors examined the association between hospital volume of vaginal delivery after cesarean (VBAC) and VBAC failure, uterine rupture, and maternal morbidity. This study was a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study from 1995 to 2000. Trained nurses extracted medical records of more than 25,000 women with a prior cesarean delivery from 17 community and tertiary care hospitals. Detailed Information was obtained for each patient. The study sample included 12,844 women with prior c...

Chang, Jen Jen; Stamilio, David M.; Macones, George A.

2008-01-01

351

Effect of Facilitation of Local Maternal-and-Newborn Stakeholder Groups on Neonatal Mortality: Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Facilitation of local women's groups may reportedly reduce neonatal mortality. It is not known whether facilitation of groups composed of local health care staff and politicians can improve perinatal outcomes. We hypothesised that facilitation of local stakeholder groups would reduce neonatal mortality (primary outcome) and improve maternal, delivery, and newborn care indicators (secondary outcomes) in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam. Methods and Findings In a cluster-randomized design 44 communes were allocated to intervention and 46 to control. Laywomen facilitated monthly meetings during 3 years in groups composed of health care staff and key persons in the communes. A problem-solving approach was employed. Births and neonatal deaths were monitored, and interviews were performed in households of neonatal deaths and of randomly selected surviving infants. A latent period before effect is expected in this type of intervention, but this timeframe was not pre-specified. Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) from July 2008 to June 2011 was 16.5/1,000 (195 deaths per 11,818 live births) in the intervention communes and 18.4/1,000 (194 per 10,559 live births) in control communes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.96 [95% CI 0.73–1.25]). There was a significant downward time trend of NMR in intervention communes (p?=?0.003) but not in control communes (p?=?0.184). No significant difference in NMR was observed during the first two years (July 2008 to June 2010) while the third year (July 2010 to June 2011) had significantly lower NMR in intervention arm: adjusted OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.30–0.89). Women in intervention communes more frequently attended antenatal care (adjusted OR 2.27 [95% CI 1.07–4.8]). Conclusions A randomized facilitation intervention with local stakeholder groups composed of primary care staff and local politicians working for three years with a perinatal problem-solving approach resulted in increased attendance to antenatal care and reduced neonatal mortality after a latent period. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN44599712 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Persson, Lars Ake; Nga, Nguyen T.; Malqvist, Mats; Thi Phuong Hoa, Dinh; Eriksson, Leif; Wallin, Lars; Selling, Katarina; Huy, Tran Q.; Duc, Duong M.; Tiep, Tran V.; Thi Thu Thuy, Vu; Ewald, Uwe

2013-01-01

352

Effects of maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on fetal brain growth and motor and behavioral development in offspring rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during pregnancy on fetal brain growth and neurobehavioral development in early developmental stages were investigated using rat offspring. TCDD in corn-oil (0.1microg/kg) was orally administrated to the dams from the 9th to 19th gestational day. When TCDD effects on the fetal brain weight were analyzed on the 19th gestational day, weight ratio of the brain to the whole body, and that of the forebrain without the cerebral cortex to the whole brain were larger in the exposed group than those of the control group, suggesting premature fetal brain development. TCDD effects on motor functions were investigated using newborns in an inclined plane task. Motor development assessed by righting response on an inclination was delayed in the exposed offspring in the 8th-12th postnatal day, especially in male. Also, TCDD effects on active avoidance behavior in a shuttle box were investigated using the offspring after weaning. Latency in the active avoidance learning was longer, and locomotor activity was reduced in the exposed male offspring in the 41st-44th postnatal day. The results demonstrated that maternal TCDD exposure delayed fetal brain growth and neurodevelopment of the offspring in early stage, especially in male rats. PMID:17669605

Nishijo, Muneko; Kuriwaki, Jun-Ichi; Hori, Etsuro; Tawara, Kenji; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nishijo, Hisao

2007-08-30

353

Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies  

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in...

Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu

2012-01-01

354

Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased risk of maternal worry was found if the mother herself had type 1 diabetes (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.2-4.78. Conclusions This study did not find evidence supporting the notion that genetic risk information about newborns has a negative impact on the mental health of Norwegian mothers.

Magnus Per

2010-07-01

355

Climate change and the potential effects on maternal and pregnancy outcomes: an assessment of the most vulnerable--the mother, fetus, and newborn child.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented a large amount of evidence about global warming and the impact of human activities on global climate change. The Lancet Commission have identified a number of ways in which climate change can influence human health: lack of food and safe drinking water, poor sanitation, population migration, changing disease patterns and morbidity, more frequent extreme weather events, and lack of shelter. Pregnant women, the developing fetus, and young children are considered the most vulnerable members of our species and are already marginalized in many countries. Therefore, they may have increased sensitivity to the effects of climate change. Published literature in the fields of climate change, human health, tropical diseases, and direct heat exposure were assessed through the regular search engines. This article demonstrates that climate change will increase the risk of infant and maternal mortality, birth complications, and poorer reproductive health, especially in tropical, developing countries. Thus, climate change will have a substantial impact on the health and survival of the next generation among already challenged populations. There is limited knowledge regarding which regions will be most heavily affected. Research efforts are therefore required to identify the most vulnerable populations, fill knowledge gaps, and coordinate efforts to reduce negative health consequences. The effects of malnutrition, infectious diseases, environmental problems, and direct heat exposure on maternal health outcomes will lead to severe health risks for mothers and children. Increased focus on antenatal care is recommended to prevent worsening maternal health and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Interventions to reduce the negative health impacts caused by climate change are also crucial. Every effort should be made to develop and maintain good antenatal care during extreme life conditions as a result of climate change. PMID:23481091

Rylander, Charlotta; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

2013-01-01

356

Effect of nutritional supplementation of breastfeeding HIV positive mothers on maternal and child health: findings from a randomized controlled clinical trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been well established that breastfeeding is beneficial for child health, however there has been debate regarding the effect of lactation on maternal health in the presence of HIV infection and the need for nutritional supplementation in HIV positive lactating mothers. Aims To assess the effect of nutritional supplementation to HIV infected lactating mothers on nutritional and health status of mothers and their infants. Methods A randomized controlled clinical trial to study the impact of nutritional supplementation on breastfeeding mothers. Measurements included anthropometry; body composition indicators; CD4 count, haemoglobin and albumin; as well as incidence rates of opportunistic infections; depression and quality of life scores. Infant measurements included anthropometry, development and rates of infections. Results The supplement made no significant impact on any maternal or infant outcomes. However in the small group of mothers with low BMI, the intake of supplement was significantly associated with preventing loss of lean body mass (1.32 kg vs. 3.17 kg; p = 0.026. There was no significant impact of supplementation on the infants. Conclusions A 50 g daily nutritional supplement to breastfeeding mothers had no or limited effect on mother and child health outcomes. Clinical trial registration ISRCTN68128332 (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN68128332

Kindra Gurpreet

2011-12-01

357

Long-Term Maternal Hypoxia  

Science.gov (United States)

Antenatal maternal long-term hypoxia (LTH) can alter serotonin (5-HT) and calcium (Ca2+) signaling in fetal pulmonary arteries (PAs) and is associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). In humans, the antenatal maternal hypoxia can be secondary to smoking, anemia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders. However, the mechanisms of antenatal maternal hypoxia-related PPHN are unresolved. Because both LTH and 5-HT are associated with PPHN, we tested the hypothesis that antenatal maternal LTH can increase 5-HT-mediated PA contraction and associated extracellular Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels (CaL), nonselective cation channels (NSCCs), and reverse-mode sodium–calcium exchanger (NCX) in the near-term fetus. We performed wire myography and confocal-Ca2+ imaging approaches on fetal lamb PA (?140 days of gestation) from normoxic ewes or those acclimatized to high-altitude LTH (3801 m) for ?110 days. Long-term hypoxia reduced the potency but not the efficacy of 5-HT-induced PA contraction. Ketanserin (100 nmol/L), a 5-HT2A antagonist, shifted 5-HT potency irrespective of LTH, while GR-55562 (1 µmol/L), a 5-HT1B/D inhibitor, antagonized 5-HT-induced contraction in normoxic fetuses only. Various inhibitors for CaL, NSCC, and reverse-mode NCX were used in contraction studies. Contraction was reliant on extracellular Ca2+ regardless of maternal hypoxia, NSCC was more important to contraction than CaL, and reverse-mode NCX had little or no role in contraction. Long-term hypoxia also attenuated the effects of 2-APB and flufenamic acid and reduced Ca2+ responses observed by imaging studies. Overall, LTH reduced 5HT1B/D function and increased NSCC-related Ca2+-dependent contraction in ovine fetuses, which may compromise pulmonary vascular function in the newborn.

Goyal, Ravi; Papamatheakis, Demosthenes G.; Loftin, Matthew; Vrancken, Kurt; Dawson, Antoinette S.; Osman, Noah J.; Blood, Arlin B.; Pearce, William J.; Longo, Lawrence D.; Wilson, Sean M.

2011-01-01

358

Tendências genéticas dos efeitos genéticos direto e materno em características reprodutivas de suínos / Genetic trends for maternal and direct genetic effects on reproductive traits of swine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados dados de peso da leitegada ao nascimento (PLN), peso da leitegada aos 21 dias (PL21), tamanho de leitegada ao nascimento (TLN), tamanho de leitegada ao desmame (TLD) e taxa de mortalidade (TM), para avaliar a tendência genética atribuída aos efeitos genéticos aditivos diretos e mate [...] rnos, em suínos Duroc, Landrace e Large White. As estimativas dos componentes de (co)variância foram obtidas pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML). As tendências genéticas dos efeitos genéticos direto e materno foram calculadas pela regressão das médias dos valores genéticos preditos das características, em relação ao ano de nascimento das porcas. As estimativas de tendências genéticas dos efeitos diretos mostraram que pouco ou praticamente nenhum progresso ocorreu nas características de leitegada, havendo tendências genéticas negativas (-0,0382 a 0,0756 kg no PLN, -0,1119 a 0,1118 kg no PL21, -0,0031 a 0,0509 leitões no TLN, -0,0217 a 0,0084 leitões no TLD e 0,0997 a --0,0059% na TM), evidenciando a dificuldade de se obterem ganhos genéticos expressivos nas características reprodutivas. Estes resultados destacam a importância de se utilizar a informação de parentes no melhoramento genético destas características, para otimizar os ganhos por seleção. As estimativas de tendência genética dos efeitos genéticos materno apresentaram-se, em geral, negativas, possivelmente em função das correlações genéticas negativas entre os efeitos genéticos aditivos direto e materno. Abstract in english Data of Duroc, Landrace and Large White swine were used to estimate genetic trends for maternal and direct genetic effects of litter size (TLN) and litter weight (PLN) born alive, litter size (TLD) and litter weight (PL21) at 21 days and mortality rate (TM). The genetic parameters were estimated by [...] restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. Estimated genetic direct and maternal trends were obtained by regressing genetic values averages on dam birth year. Estimated genetic direct trends showed no progress or very small progress for litter traits, being these progresses, in some cases, even negatives (-0.0382 to 0.0756 kg in PLN, -0.1119 to 0.1118 kg in PL21, -0.0031 to 0.0509 pigs in TLN, -0.0217 to 0.0084 pigs in TLD and 0.0997 to --0.0059% in TM), showing the difficulty to get high genetic gain in reproductive traits. These results showed the importance of considering relationships informations, in order to obtain higher selection gain for these traits. Estimated genetic maternal trends were, in general, negatives, possibly in function of negative genetic correlations among direct and maternal genetic additive effect.

Aldrin Vieira, Pires; Paulo Sávio, Lopes; Robledo de Almeida, Torres; Ricardo Frederico, Euclydes; Martinho de Almeida e, Silva; André Ribeiro Corrêa da, Costa.

359

A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. Methods and design 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. Control group: usual prenatal care (PC and placebo (maltodextrine. 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg, selenium (70 ?g, vitamin A (400 ?g, alphatocopherol (30 mg, vitamin C (200 mg, and niacin (100 mg. 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Discussion Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. Trial registration NCT00872365.

Girón Sandra

2011-02-01

360

The effect of acetaminophen on the expression of BCRP in trophoblast cells impairs the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acetaminophen is used as first-choice drug for pain relief during pregnancy. Here we have investigated the effect of acetaminophen at subtoxic doses on the expression of ABC export pumps in trophoblast cells and its functional repercussion on the placental barrier during maternal cholestasis. The incubation of human choriocarcinoma cells (JAr, JEG-3 and BeWo) with acetaminophen for 48h resulted in no significant changes in the expression and/or activity of MDR1 and MRPs. In contrast, in JEG-3 cells, BCRP mRNA, protein, and transport activity were reduced. In rat placenta, collected at term, acetaminophen administration for the last three days of pregnancy resulted in enhanced mRNA, but not protein, levels of Mrp1 and Bcrp. In fact, a decrease in Bcrp protein was found. Using in situ perfused rat placenta, a reduction in the Bcrp-dependent fetal-to-maternal bile acid transport after treating the dams with acetaminophen was found. Complete biliary obstruction in pregnant rats induced a significant bile acid accumulation in fetal serum and tissues, which was further enhanced when the mothers were treated with acetaminophen. This drug induced increased ROS production in JEG-3 cells and decreased the total glutathione content in rat placenta. Moreover, the NRF2 pathway was activated in JEG-3 cells as shown by an increase in nuclear NRF2 levels and an up-regulation of NRF2 target genes, NQO1 and HMOX-1, which was not observed in rat placenta. In conclusion, acetaminophen induces in placenta oxidative stress and a down-regulation of BCRP/Bcrp, which may impair the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis. PMID:24631341

Blazquez, Alba G; Briz, Oscar; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ester; Perez, Maria J; Ghanem, Carolina I; Marin, Jose J G

2014-05-15

 
 
 
 
361

Effect of Multivitamin-Mineral versus Multivitamin Supplementation on Maternal, Newborns' Biochemical Indicators and Birth Size: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial  

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Full Text Available Objective: Micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy is associated with several complications. This study was designed to