WorldWideScience
1

Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

2

Maternal effects in disease resistance: poor maternal environment increases offspring resistance to an insect virus  

OpenAIRE

Maternal effects can be adaptive and because of their intrinsic time delays may have important effects on population dynamics. In vertebrates, and increasingly invertebrates, it is well established that offspring defence is in part determined by maternal parasite exposure. It has also been suggested that there may be indirect maternal effects on immunity mediated by other components of the maternal environment, including density and resource availability. Here, we examine the effect maternal ...

Boots, Mike; Roberts, Katherine E.

2012-01-01

3

Maternal Separation Anxiety and Child Care: Effects on Maternal Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal separation anxiety influences maternal behavior, attitudes about employment, and employment decisions made by mothers. This study examined the relationship between maternal separation anxiety and the number of hours a child was in substitute care. The sample consisted of 44 mothers and their children who ranged in age from 12 to 41 months…

Storm, Heidi A.; Ridley-Johnson, Robyn

4

Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring  

OpenAIRE

While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the lifespan and healthspan of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on CR regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increa...

Gribble, Kristin E.; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B.

2014-01-01

5

Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR) on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity servic...

Dumont Alexandre; Gaye Alioune; de Bernis Luc; Chaillet Nils; Landry Anne; Delage Joanne; Bouvier-Colle Marie-Hélène

2006-01-01

6

Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall health. However, maternal employment is not associated with quality of parenting at 6 months, based on trained assessors' observations of maternal sensitivity. PMID:23645972

Chatterji, Pinka; Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2013-01-01

7

Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

2014-08-01

8

Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being  

OpenAIRE

This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall heal...

Chatterji, Pinka; Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

9

What are maternal effects (and what are they not)?  

OpenAIRE

Maternal effects can play an important role in a diversity of ecological and evolutionary processes such as population dynamics, phenotypic plasticity, niche construction, life-history evolution and the evolutionary response to selection. However, although maternal effects were defined by quantitative geneticists well over half a century ago, there remains some confusion over exactly what phenomena should be characterized as maternal effects and, more importantly, why it matters and how they ...

Wolf, Jason B.; Wade, Michael J.

2009-01-01

10

Maternal effects in disease resistance: poor maternal environment increases offspring resistance to an insect virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal effects can be adaptive and because of their intrinsic time delays may have important effects on population dynamics. In vertebrates, and increasingly invertebrates, it is well established that offspring defence is in part determined by maternal parasite exposure. It has also been suggested that there may be indirect maternal effects on immunity mediated by other components of the maternal environment, including density and resource availability. Here, we examine the effect maternal resource availability has on the immunity of offspring in an insect-virus system. We use five different maternal resource levels and examine immunity in the offspring both directly, by challenge with a virus, and by measuring a major component of the immune system, across three offspring environments. Both the direct infection assay and the measure of immunocompetence show clearly that offspring from mothers in poor environments are more resistant to parasites. This may result from life-history optimization of mothers in poor environments, or because the poor environment acts as a cue for higher disease risk in the next generation. This emphasizes the importance of maternal effects on disease resistance, mediated through indirect environmental factors that will have important implications to both the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host-parasite interactions. PMID:22833270

Boots, Mike; Roberts, Katherine E

2012-10-01

11

Effects of Cocaine on Maternal Behavior and Neurochemistry  

OpenAIRE

Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves drug seeking and abuse despite the negative social and health consequences. While the potential effects of cocaine on child development have been extensively studied over the last 30 years, few researchers have focused on the effects of cocaine on maternal behavior, which includes offspring care and maternal aggression towards an unfamiliar individual. In humans, maternal cocaine use can lead to child neglect, abuse, and disrupt the...

Nephew, Benjamin C.; Febo, Marcelo

2012-01-01

12

Maternal smoking effects on infant growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of infants (from non-smoking mothers during pregnancy but smokers during lactation) had a growth pattern intermediate to both curves, suggesting the impact of maternal smoking at any period of infant growth. Smoking had a clear effect on infant height during the period of breast feeding, attributable to the effect of the known content of cadmium in smoker's milk, on the bioavailability of essential nutrients such as zinc. (author)

13

Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. PMID:24820855

Mateo, Jill M

2014-11-01

14

Maternal Environment Effects on Phenolic Defenses in Abutilon theophrasti Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A class of phenolic compounds, ortho-dihydroxyphenols (hereafter “o-DHP”, has been implicated with seed survival. Based on expectations of the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, we predicted that seed o-DHP concentration exhibits a curvilinear response to increasing resource availability in the maternal environment, with maximum o-DHP occurring at moderate resource levels. To test this hypothesis, Abutilon theophrasti seeds were produced under field conditions at two locations. Each location included twelve maternal environments established through factorial combinations of soil compost (+/-, species assemblage (A. theophrasti with and without maize, and soil nitrogen fertilizer (0, 0.5× or 1× local recommendations for maize. Resource availability with respect to A. theophrasti growth was summarized by above-ground biomass at seed harvest (maternal biomass. Results indicated that seed o-DHP concentrations increased then decreased in response to increasing maternal biomass. This relationship was modeled with a unimodal function specific to location (Location 1, y = 1.18 + 0.03xe-0.02x, pseudo-R2 = 0.59, p = 0.003; Location 2, y = 1.40 + 0.006xe-0.005x; pseudo-R2 = 0.34, p = 0.05. Seed protein concentrations remained constant across maternal biomass levels. Because inherent vulnerability to predation and decay is considered a consequence of chemical protection relative to nutritional offering, our results suggest that A. theophrasti seed susceptibility to lethal attack is influenced by resource levels in the maternal environment. More broadly, our results suggest that the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis can be extended to maternal effects on seed phenolics.

Brian J. Schutte

2013-05-01

15

Effects of maternal diabetes on trophoblast cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a health condition characterized by hyperglycemia over a prolonged period. There are three main types of DM: DM type 1 (DM1), DM2 and gestational DM (GDM). Maternal diabetes, which includes the occurrence of DM1 and DM2 during pregnancy or GDM, increases the occurrence of gesttional complications and adverse fetal outcomes. The hyperglycemic intrauterine environment affects not only the fetus but also the placental development and function in humans and experimental rodents. The underlying mechanisms are still unclear, but some evidence indicates alterations in trophoblast proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle control in diabetes. A proper coordination of trophoblast proliferation, differentiation and invasion is required for placental development. Initially, increased expression of proliferative markers in junctional and labyrinth zones of rat placentas and villous cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, stromal cells and fetal endothelial cells in human placentas is reported among diabetics. Moreover, reduced apoptotic index and expression of some apoptotic genes are described in placentas of GDM women. In addition, cell cycle regulators including cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors seem to be affected by the hyperglycemic environment. More studies are necessary to check the balance between proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in trophoblast cells during maternal diabetes. PMID:25789116

Aires, Marlúcia Bastos; dos Santos, Anne Carolline Veríssimo

2015-01-01

16

Effects of prenatal care on maternal postpartum behaviors  

OpenAIRE

Most research on the effectiveness of prenatal care has focused on birth outcomes and has found small or no effects. It is possible, however, that prenatal care is “too little too late” to improve pregnancy outcomes in the aggregate, but that it increases the use of pediatric health care or improves maternal health-related parenting practices and, ultimately, child health. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing birth cohort study that have been augmented with hospital m...

Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Schwartz-soicher, Ofira

2010-01-01

17

Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids an...

Müller Wendt; Vergauwen Jonas; Eens Marcel; Blount Jonathan D

2012-01-01

18

Effects of maternal obesity on antenatal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: Obesity is critically important to maternal and fetal health during the perinatal period. We have detected an increasing prevalence of maternal obesity in recent years and investigated its complications during pregnancy. Methods: A total of 931 pregnant females were investigated between March 2012 and March 2013. The patients were divided into four groups: body mass index (BMI)?diabetes mellitus, cesarean delivery, premature rupture of membranes, shoulder dystocia, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, abnormal heart rate pattern and postpartum infection rates were found in the obese group during the perinatal period. Adverse maternal effects in obese cases were significantly more frequent than those in normal-weight cases. Preterm birth, perinatal mortality, low APGAR scores, newborn intensive care unit requirement, hypoglycemia and macrosomia rates were significantly higher in obese cases than those in non-obese cases. However, low birth weight infant rate was higher in the low BMI cases than that in the other BMI categories (p?maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25327177

Avc?, Muhittin Eftal; Sanl?kan, Fatih; Celik, Mehmet; Avc?, An?l; Kocaer, Mustafa; Göçmen, Ahmet

2014-11-11

19

Investigating maternal effects on production traits in Duroc pigs using animal and sire models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variance components for production traits were estimated using different models to evaluate maternal effects. Data analysed were records from the South African pig performance testing scheme on 22 224 pigs from 18 herds, tested between 1990 and 2008. The traits analysed were backfat thickness (BFAT), test period weight gain (TPG), lifetime weight gain (LTG), test period feed conversion ratio (FCR) and age at slaughter (AGES). Data analyses were performed by REML procedures in ASREML, where random effects were successively fitted into animal and sire models to produce different models. The first animal model had one random effect, the direct genetic effects, while the additional random effects were maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. In the sire model, the random effects fitted were sire and maternal grand sire effects. The best model considered the covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects or between sire and maternal grand sire effects. Fitting maternal genetic effects into the animal model reduced total additive variance, while the total additive variance increased when maternal grand sire effects were fitted into the sire model. The correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects were all negative, indicating antagonism between these effects, hence the need to consider both effects in selection programmes. Direct genetic correlations were higher than other correlations, except for maternal genetic correlations of FCR with TPG, LTG and AGES. There has been direct genetic improvement and almost constant maternal ability in production traits as shown by trends for estimated (EBVs) and maternal breeding values (MBVs), while phenotypic trends were similar to those for EBVs. These results suggest that maternal genetic effects should be included in selection programmes for these production traits. Therefore, the animal-maternal model may be the most appropriate model to use when estimating genetic parameters for production traits in this population. PMID:24476043

Dube, B; Mulugeta, S D; Dzama, K

2014-08-01

20

The Effect of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Early Maternal Feeding Behavior on Later Infant Feeding Behavior  

OpenAIRE

Adaptive maternal feeding behaviors are sensitive and responsive to the infant and support the infant’s participation in feeding. Adaptive infant behaviors help the infant to participate in the feeding within developmental capacities and to interact in a positive manner with the mother. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of the adaptiveness of early maternal feeding behavior to the adaptiveness of later infant feeding behavior, accounting for maternal depre...

Brown, Lisa F.; Pridham, Karen

2007-01-01

21

Combined effect of fetal sex and advanced maternal age on pregnancy outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Fetal sex and maternal age are each known to affect outcomes of pregnancies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the combination of maternal age and fetal sex on pregnancy outcomes in term and post-term singleton pregnancies. Material and Methods This was a retrospective study on term singleton pregnancies delivered between 2004 and 2008 at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center. Data collected included maternal age, fetal sex, and maternal and neonatal complications. The combined effect of fetal sex and maternal age on complications of pregnancy was assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. Results The study population comprised 37,327 pregnancies. The risk of operative deliveries increased with maternal age ³40 and in pregnancies with male fetuses. The risk of maternal diabetes and of longer hospitalization increased as maternal age increased, and in women ?40 carrying male fetuses. The risk of hypertensive disorders increased in pregnancies with males as maternal age advanced. The risk of shoulder dystocia and neonatal respiratory complications increased in male neonates born to women<40. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia increased in males for all maternal ages. Conclusions Risk assessment for fetal sex and advanced maternal age were given for different pregnancy complications. Knowledge of fetal sex adds value to the risk assessment of pregnancies as maternal age increases. PMID:25892459

Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Dulitzky, Mordechai

2015-01-01

22

The effect of maternal physical activity on fetal breathing movements.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the relationship between maternal exercise and fetal breathing movements. In the majority of cases, fetal breathing activity decreased following maternal exercise that involved climbing of stairs. The observations indicate that the validity of this test for the purpose of fetal well-being requires performance of the investigation following a prolonged period of maternal rest. PMID:6660927

Jakobovits, A

1983-01-01

23

The v-MFG test: investigating maternal, offspring and maternal-fetal genetic incompatibility effects on disease and viability.  

OpenAIRE

The MFG test is a family-based association test that detects genetic effects contributing to disease in offspring, including offspring allelic effects, maternal allelic effects and MFG incompatibility effects. Like many other family-based association tests, it assumes that the offspring survival and the offspring-parent genotypes are conditionally independent provided the offspring is affected. However, when the putative disease-increasing locus can affect another competing phenotype, for exa...

Hsieh, Hj; Palmer, Cg; Harney, S.; Newton, Jl; Wordsworth, P.; Brown, Ma; Sinsheimer, Js

2006-01-01

24

The effects of maternal labour analgesia on the fetus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal labour pain and stress are associated with progressive fetal metabolic acidosis. Systemic opioid analgesia does little to mitigate this stress, but opioids readily cross the placenta and cause fetal-neonatal depression and impair breast feeding. Pethidine remains the most widely used, but alternatives, with the possible exception of remifentanil, have little more to offer. Inhalational analgesia using Entonox is more effective and, being rapidly exhaled by the newborn, is less likely to produce lasting depression. Neuraxial analgesia has maternal physiological and biochemical effects, some of which are potentially detrimental and some favourable to the fetus. Actual neonatal outcome, however, suggests that benefits outweigh detrimental influences. Meta-analysis demonstrates that Apgar score is better after epidural than systemic opioid analgesia, while neonatal acid-base balance is improved by epidural compared to systemic analgesia and even compared to no analgesia. Successful breast feeding is dependent on many factors, therefore randomized trials are required to elucidate the effect of labour analgesia. PMID:20005180

Reynolds, Felicity

2010-06-01

25

Revisiting heritability accounting for shared environmental effects and maternal inheritance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heritability measures the proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to genetic factors. In addition to a shared nuclear genetic component, a number of additional variance components, such as spousal correlation, sibship, household and maternal effects, may have strong contributions to inter-individual phenotype variation. In humans, the confounding effects of these components on heritability have not been studied thoroughly. We sought to obtain unbiased heritability estimates for complex traits in the presence of multiple variance components and also to estimate the contributions of these variance components to complex traits. We compared regression and variance component methods to estimate heritability in simulations when additional variance components existed. We then revisited heritability for several traits in Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants. Using simulations, we found that failure to account for or misclassification of necessary variance components yielded biased heritability estimates. The direction and magnitude of the bias varied depending on a variance structure and an estimation method. Using the best fitted models to account for necessary variance components, we found that heritability estimates for most FHS traits were overestimated, ranging from 4 to 47 %, when we compared models that considered necessary variance components to models that only considered familial relationships. Spousal correlation explained 14-36 % of phenotypic variation in several anthropometric and lifestyle traits. Maternal and sibling effects also contributed to phenotypic variation, ranging from 3 to 5 % and 4 to 7 %, respectively, in several anthropometric and metabolic traits. Our findings may explain, in part, the missing heritability for some traits. PMID:25381465

Liu, Chunyu; Dupuis, Josée; Larson, Martin G; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ordovas, Jose M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F; Levy, Daniel

2015-02-01

26

Maternal effects of egg size in brown trout (Salmo trutta): norms of reaction to environmental quality  

OpenAIRE

The magnitude of fitness variation caused by maternal effects and, thus, the adaptive significance of maternal traits may depend on environmental quality, generating crossing reaction norms among offspring phenotypes that shape life-history evolution. By manipulating intraclutch variation in egg size and comparing siblings we examined the maternal effects of egg size on offspring performance and tested for the existence of reaction norms to environmental quality using the brown trout Salmo tr...

Einum, S.; Fleming, I. A.

1999-01-01

27

Effects of Repeated Maternal Separation On Oxidative Stress In Adolescent Male and Female Rat Brains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a previous study we demonstrated that repeated maternal separation impaired spatial memory performance in both male and female adolescent rats. The mechanisms of these cognitive alterations are unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated maternal separation on oxidative stress in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum regions of the brain of the adolescent male and female rats. The results showed that repeated maternal separation increased antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in adolescent male rat brains; however, maternal separation did not effects antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in adolescent female rat brains. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused damage in repeated maternal separated adolescent male rat brains, also a strong role of gender in the response of adolescent subjects to maternal separation.

Giray YALAZ

2008-09-01

28

Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factor [...] s for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P

Janine Santos, Müller; Marcelo, Antunes; Ivo, Behle; Lucas, Teixeira; Paulo, Zielinsky.

2002-02-01

29

Effects of Elevated Circulating Cortisol Concentrations on Maternal Behavior in Common Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)  

OpenAIRE

Both acute and chronic stress can impair maternal behavior and increase rates of infant abuse in several species. The mechanisms inducing these effects are unknown, but experimental manipulation of circulating corticosterone levels alters maternal behavior in rats, and circulating or excreted cortisol concentrations have been found to correlate either positively or negatively with maternal behavior in humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, therefore, we experimentally tested the hypothe...

Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

2009-01-01

30

Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factors for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P<0.001 as was the mean fetal heart rate (P=0.044. Maternal systolic blood pressure (P=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.033 were also elevated after smoking. A decrease occurred in the systolic/diastolic ratio in the right uterine artery (P=0.014 and in the left uterine artery (P=0.039. The other hemodynamic variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking can cause changes in physiologic variables of fetal-placental circulation, but it does not change fetal cardiac function, in the dose of nicotine and its components used in this study. The decrease in systolic/diastolic ratio in the uterine arteries is probably related to a dose-dependent nicotine pattern.

Janine Santos Müller

2002-02-01

31

The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children’s Academic Performance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child’s first three and first 15 years on that child’s grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance.

Nielsen, Lisbeth PalmhØj; Dunifon, Rachel

2013-01-01

32

[The roles of maternal-effect proteins in the maintenance of genomic imprints].  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic imprinting is a mechanism of differentially epigenetic modification that restricts monoallelic expression to either the maternally or paternally inherited copy of the gene during gametogenesis. Imprinted methylation undergoes a process of erasure, acquisition, and maintenance during gametogenesis and early embryogenesis. Disruptions in any of these steps may lead to imprinting disorders, resulting in the aberrant development of embryogenesis, placentation and postnatal growth. Recent studies have shown that maternal-effect proteins are important for the regulation of imprinted gene during the development of preimplantation embryos. In order to obtain a better understanding for the mechanism of maternal-effect proteins in the maintenance of genomic imprints, the recent study progress of maternal-effect proteins, such as DPPA3, ZFP57, TRIM28 and DNMT1, are summarized, and the regulation mechanism of these maternal-effect proteins for genomic imprints are discussed. PMID:25406243

Ma, Xin; Zhang, Sheng; Yang, Shubao; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhu, Yiran; Li, Ziyi; Luan, Weimin

2014-10-01

33

Linking Employment to Attachment: The Mediating Effects of Maternal Separation Anxiety and Interactive Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the effects of maternal employment and separation anxiety on maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment in 73 mother-infant pairs. Employed mothers who reported high levels of separation anxiety were more likely than low-anxiety mothers to exhibit intrusive behaviors. Although employment was not directly related to attachment,…

Stifter, Cynthia A.; And Others

1993-01-01

34

Inheritable effect of unpredictable maternal separation on behavioral responses in mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The long-term impact of early stress on behavior and emotions is well documented in humans, and can be modeled in experimental animals. In mice, maternal separation during early postnatal development induces poor and disorganized maternal care, and results in behavioral deficits that persist through adulthood. Here, we examined the long-term effect of unpredictable maternal separation combined with maternal stress (MSUS on behavior and its transmissibility. We report that unpredictable maternal separation from birth to postnatal day (PND 14 in C57Bl/6J mice has mild behavioral effects in the animals when adult, but that its combination with maternal stress exacerbates this effect. Further, the behavioral deficits are transmitted to the following generation through females, an effect that is independent of maternal care and is not affected by cross-fostering. The combined manipulation does not alter basic components of the HPA axis but decreases the expression of the corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2 in several nuclei of the amygdala and the hypothalamus in the brain of maternal-separated females. These results suggest a non-genomic mode of transmission of the impact of early stress in mice.

TamaraBFranklin

2011-02-01

35

Inheritable effect of unpredictable maternal separation on behavioral responses in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term impact of early stress on behavior and emotions is well documented in humans, and can be modeled in experimental animals. In mice, maternal separation during early postnatal development induces poor and disorganized maternal care, and results in behavioral deficits that persist through adulthood. Here, we examined the long-term effect of unpredictable maternal separation combined with maternal stress on behavior and its transmissibility. We report that unpredictable maternal separation from birth to postnatal day 14 in C57Bl/6J mice has mild behavioral effects in the animals when adult, but that its combination with maternal stress exacerbates this effect. Further, the behavioral deficits are transmitted to the following generation through females, an effect that is independent of maternal care and is not affected by cross-fostering. The combined manipulation does not alter basic components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis but decreases the expression of the corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2) in several nuclei of the amygdala and the hypothalamus in the brain of maternal-separated females. These results suggest a non-genomic mode of transmission of the impact of early stress in mice. PMID:21331159

Weiss, Isabelle C; Franklin, Tamara B; Vizi, Sándor; Mansuy, Isabelle M

2011-01-01

36

Maternal dietary effects on embryonic ovarian development in cattle  

Science.gov (United States)

Ovarian gametogenesis and folliculogenesis begins early in fetal development with peak numbers of follicles present in bovine fetal ovaries in the second trimester of gestation and may be altered by maternal nutrition. The objective was to determine whether maternal dietary energy intake by replacem...

37

Environmental maternal effects mediate the resistance of maritime pine to biotic stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The resistance to abiotic stress is increasingly recognised as being impacted by maternal effects, given that environmental conditions experienced by parent (mother) trees affect stress tolerance in offspring. We hypothesised that abiotic environmental maternal effects may also mediate the resistance of trees to biotic stress. The influence of maternal environment and maternal genotype and the interaction of these two factors on early resistance of Pinus pinaster half-sibs to the Fusarium circinatum pathogen was studied using 10 mother genotypes clonally replicated in two contrasting environments. Necrosis length of infected seedlings was 16% shorter in seedlings grown from favourable maternal environment seeds than in seedlings grown from unfavourable maternal environment seeds. Damage caused by F. circinatum was mediated by maternal environment and maternal genotype, but not by seed mass. Mechanisms unrelated to seed provisioning, perhaps of epigenetic nature, were probably involved in the transgenerational plasticity of P. pinaster, mediating its resistance to biotic stress. Our findings suggest that the transgenerational resistance of pines due to an abiotic stress may interact with the defensive response of pines to a biotic stress. PMID:23922944

Vivas, María; Zas, Rafael; Sampedro, Luis; Solla, Alejandro

2013-01-01

38

Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered t [...] o pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg). The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10). The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

A. A. S., Barão; A. L. A., Nencioni; V. A. C., Dorce.

39

Long-lasting effects of maternal condition in free-ranging cervids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Causes of phenotypic variation are fundamental to evolutionary ecology because they influence the traits acted upon by natural selection. One such cause of phenotypic variation is a maternal effect, which is the influence of the environment experienced by a female (and her corresponding phenotype) on the phenotype of her offspring (independent of the offspring's genotype). While maternal effects are well documented, the longevity and fitness impact of these effects remains unclear because it is difficult to follow free-living individuals through their reproductive lifetimes. For long-lived species, it has been suggested that maternal effects are masked by environmental variables acting on offspring in years following the period of dependence. Our objective was to use indirect measures of maternal condition to determine if maternal effects have long-lasting influences on male offspring in two species of cervid. Because antlers are sexually selected, we used measures of antler size at time of death, 1.5-21.5 years after gestation to investigate maternal effects. We quantified antler size of 11,000 male elk and mule deer born throughout the intermountain western US (6 states) over nearly 30 years. Maternal condition during development was estimated indirectly using a suite of abiotic variables known to influence condition of cervids (i.e., winter severity, spring and summer temperature, and spring and summer precipitation). Antler size of male cervids was significantly associated with our indirect measure of maternal condition during gestation and lactation. Assuming the correctness of our indirect measure, our findings demonstrate that antler size is a sexually selected trait that is influenced-into adulthood-by maternal condition. This link emphasizes the importance of considering inherited environmental effects when interpreting population dynamics or examining reproductive success of long-lived organisms. PMID:23472189

Freeman, Eric D; Larsen, Randy T; Clegg, Ken; McMillan, Brock R

2013-01-01

40

The effect of women's decision-making power on maternal health services uptake: evidence from Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large body of research has explored the links between women's decision making and their uptake of maternal health services, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of maternal health services. We find that women's decision-making power has a significant positive correlation with maternal health services uptake and that influential males' decision-making power has the opposite effect, after controlling for socio-economic indicators and supply-side conditions. Our findings suggest that empowering women and increasing their ability to make decisions may increase their uptake of maternal health services. They also suggest that policies directed toward improving women's utilization of maternal health services in Pakistan must target men as well as women. PMID:22522771

Hou, Xiaohui; Ma, Ning

2013-03-01

41

Long-Lasting Effects of Maternal Condition in Free-Ranging Cervids  

OpenAIRE

Causes of phenotypic variation are fundamental to evolutionary ecology because they influence the traits acted upon by natural selection. One such cause of phenotypic variation is a maternal effect, which is the influence of the environment experienced by a female (and her corresponding phenotype) on the phenotype of her offspring (independent of the offspring’s genotype). While maternal effects are well documented, the longevity and fitness impact of these effects remains unclear because i...

Freeman, Eric D.; Larsen, Randy T.; Clegg, Ken; Mcmillan, Brock R.

2013-01-01

42

Effects of Mother-Infant Separation on Maternal Attachment Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

This project hoped to specify the role of early, mother-infant separation in determining later maternal behavior. Clinically, the results suggest that such a separation should be avoided whenever possible and should be minimized when separation is unavoidable. (Authors)

Leifer, A. D.; And Others

1972-01-01

43

Maternal and Neonatal Death Review (MNDR: A Useful Approach to Identifying Appropriate and Effective Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiatives in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the effects of Maternal and Neonatal Death Review (MNDR in terms of improving maternal and neonatal health at the community level in Bangladesh. Methods: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were undertaken for collecting data in Kashipur Union, Bangladesh. Death notifications from households, subsequent data collections from a focus-group discussion (FGD, a group discussion (GD and in-depth interviews (IDIs were obtained using structured tools and guidelines. Results: A total of four maternal deaths, 21 neonatal deaths and 15 still births were reported in the MNDR death notification system at Kashipur Union in 2010. Data were presented to local programme managers, who took various initiatives including awareness programmes, pregnancy registration, antenatal care, birth planning, and also the revitalization of a community clinic. The coverage of antenatal care, delivery in clinics, postnatal care and referral of complications increased through the active participation of the community. Community healthcare providers, care recipients and members of the community expressed satisfaction with the quality of maternal and neonatal services. In the preceding two years, maternal and neonatal deaths substantially reduced in Kashipur (in 2011 maternal death = 1, neonatal death = 20, still birth = 8; in 2012 maternal death = 1, neonatal death = 8, still birth = 13. Conclusions: The MNDR system successfully delivered notification of all maternal and neonatal deaths in the defined area and collected information for the formulation and implementation of specific interventions, which resulted in visible and tangible changes in care-seeking and client satisfaction.

Animesh Biswas

2014-07-01

44

Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring  

Science.gov (United States)

Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

45

Multigenerational hybridisation and its consequences for maternal effects in Atlantic salmon  

OpenAIRE

Outbreeding between segregating populations can be important from an evolutionary, conservation and economical-agricultural perspective. Whether and how outbreeding influences maternal effects in wild populations has rarely been studied, despite both the prominent maternal influence on early offspring survival and the known presence of fitness effects resulting from outbreeding in many taxa. We studied several traits during the yolk-feeding stage in multigenerational crosses be...

Debes, P. V.; Fraser, D. J.; Mcbride, M. C.; Hutchings, J. A.

2013-01-01

46

Dominant Maternal-Effect Mutations Causing Embryonic Lethality in Caenorhabditis Elegans  

OpenAIRE

We undertook screens for dominant, temperature-sensitive, maternal-effect embryonic-lethal mutations of Caenorhabditis elegans as a way to identify certain classes of genes with early embryonic functions, in particular those that are members of multigene families and those that are required in two copies for normal development. The screens have identified eight mutations, representing six loci. Mutations at three of the loci result in only maternal effects on embryonic viability. Mutations at...

Mains, P. E.; Sulston, I. A.; Wood, W. B.

1990-01-01

47

Nifedipine versus Terbutaline, Tocolytic Effectiveness and Maternal and Neonatal Adverse Effects: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although previous evidence suggests advantages of nifedipine over terbutaline as tocolytic agents, in some jurisdictions, terbutaline is approved for use and nifedipine is not. In women in preterm labour, we compared the impact of terbutaline versus nifedipine on inhibition of uterine contractions, preterm birth, neonatal sepsis, intracranial haemorrhage or necrotizing enterocolitis, death or admission to a neonatal intensive care unit and maternal adverse reactions. We randomized 32 women to nifedipine and 34 to terbutaline. We found no difference between groups in tocolysis or preterm birth. No serious maternal adverse effects or serious neonatal adverse outcome occurred in either group. Less serious maternal adverse effects less common with terbutaline included flushing (2.94% versus 43.7%) and headache (5.9% versus 31.2%). The administration of terbutaline increased tremor (76.4% versus 0%), nausea (58.8% versus 9.4%) and dizziness (29.4% versus 6.25%). The total number of side effects, and the proportion of women experiencing one or more side effects, proved greater with terbutaline. In this study, terbutaline and nifedipine performed similarly in their tocolytic effects. Each drug has specific side effects, although overall, nifedipine was associated with fewer adverse effects. PMID:25146233

Padovani, Tania Regina; Guyatt, Gordon; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

2015-03-01

48

Burns During Pregnancy - Effect on Maternal and Foetal Outcomes  

OpenAIRE

During a 5-yr period (1999-2004), of the 529 women of reproductive age admitted with burns, 44 (7.4%) were pregnant. Of these 44, 37 (84%) were in the age group 15-25 yr and 22 (50%) were in the second trimester; 33 burns (75%) were accidental and 11 (25%) the result of suicide attempts. Flame burns accounted for 42 out of the 44 cases (95.5%); two cases were due to scalds (4.5%). Maternal death occurred in 28 of the cases (63.6%) and foetal death in 29 (65.9%). The maternal complications tha...

Subrahmanyam, M.

2006-01-01

49

The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

Khashan, A S

2012-01-31

50

The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of newborns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the relation between maternal prenatal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal anthropometric measurements. All pregnant women who gave birth at the Obstetrics Department of Dr. LK Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006, and their newborns were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The newborns weight, height, head, and chest circumference were recorded. Mothers with hemoglobin concentration less than 11g/dl were evaluated as anemic. The anemic mothers were then grouped into 3 categories according to the corresponding hemoglobin concentration: mild (10.9-9.0g/dl), moderate (8.9-7.0 g/dl), and severe anemic (less than 7 g/dl). The anthropometric measurements of newborns from non-anemic and anemic mother groups were compared. Of the 3688 pregnant women, 1588 (43%) were found to be anemic. Among the anemic mothers, 1245 had mild (78.5%), 311 had moderate (19.5%), and 32 (2%) had severe anemia. The anthropometric measurements (height, weight, head and chest circumference) of newborns of anemic and non-anemic mother groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.036, p=0.044, p=0.013, and p=0.0002). There was a statistically significant difference in height, weight, and chest circumference of newborns of severe anemic and mild anemic mothers (p=0.017, p=0.008 and p=0.02). The height (1.1 cm), weight (260 g), head (0.42 cm), and chest (1 cm) circumference of neonates in the severcm) circumference of neonates in the severe anemic group is less than the mild anemic group. Anemia during pregnancy affect the anthropometric measurements of a newborn. Severe anemia had significant negative effect on neonatal anthropometric measurements. (author)

51

The Problem of Confounding in Studies of the Effect of Maternal Drug Use on Pregnancy Outcome  

OpenAIRE

In most epidemilogical studies, the problem of confounding adds to the uncertainty in conclusions drawn. This is also true for studies on the effect of maternal drug use on birth defect risks. This paper describes various types of such confounders and discusses methods to identify and adjust for them. Such confounders can be found in maternal characteristics like age, parity, smoking, use of alcohol, and body mass index, subfertility, and previous pregnancies including previous birth of a mal...

Bengt Källén

2011-01-01

52

Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distribution of /sup 14/C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed.

Lin, G.W.

1981-01-01

53

Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 14C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed

54

Commentary: Parental care and the proximate links between maternal effects and offspring fitness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal effects influence the phenotype of offspring through non-genetic mechanisms, and thus are important components of individual life-histories and act as drivers of and/or constraints on phenotypic evolution. A maternal effect common in egg-laying vertebrates is provisioning of the yolk with carotenoids, organic pigments that often color sexual ornaments and are hypothesized to play positive and substantial physiological roles. In a recent study, yolks of great tit (Parus major) eggs were directly supplemented with carotenoids, and the effects on offspring fitness proxies measured (Marri and Richner in Oecologia 176:371-377, 2014a). Nestlings from supplemented broods were heavier early in development and more likely to fledge, but otherwise equivalent to control nestlings. The authors consider in detail the potential physiological mechanisms that might underlie this result, and here I expand on their Discussion by considering a non-exclusive explanation: that parents provided higher quality care to broods that received supplemental carotenoids. I discuss the general non-independence of pre- and post-hatching/parturition maternal effects when parents care for offspring, and then briefly review evidence that carotenoids specifically are tied to the intensity of avian begging displays. Finally, I detail how inclusive fitness opportunities and constraints shape the adaptive landscape in which maternal effects operate, highlighting both theoretical and applied concerns surrounding questions about the adaptiveness of maternal effects. PMID:25694043

Dugas, Matthew B

2015-04-01

55

OA01. 34. Effect of maternal ahara on foetal outcome  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Maternal Ahara is an important modulator of maternal health and foetal growth. Various dietary regimens for pregnant women are described under Garbhini Paricharya, emphasising on real demand of the time for proper growth and development of foetus, for normal labour, for keeping good health of the mother and making free from postnatal complications of mother and child. Birth weight of newborn is strongest indicator of perinatal mortality. Pathya Ahara during pregnancy could decrease the incidence of LBW babies, improves survival of newborns and decreases perinatal mortality. Method: Pregnant women (100), registered in S.S.Hospital, BHU and delivered live born single babies were included and those with known medical illness, associated obstetric complications, unknown last menstrual period, cases of multiple pregnancy and congenital malformation were excluded. Pregnant women were subjected to detailed dietary profile to know the quality of food consumed during pregnancy and their newborns were subjected to anthropometric measurements to assess foetal outcome. Result: Out of 100 pregnant women 39 had taken Satvika- Rajasika ahara, 22 had Satvika-Tamsika ahara and 39 were taking Rajasika-Tamasika ahara. Most of the mothers taken Satvika-Rajasika ahara delivered fair or wheatish complexioned babies with higher birth weight and crown-heel length. Majority of women with low birth weight, and dark complexioned babies were taking Rajasika-Tamasika ahara. Significant association was observed between quality of maternal ahara and baby™s head circumference, chest circumference and mid-arm circumference. These measures were gradually less in babies of mothers taken Satvika-Tamasika and Rajasika-Tamasika Ahara. Conclusion: Food items mentioned in Garbhini Paricharya are mainly Satvika in nature. Satvika Ahara is well nourishing and balanced diet containing all essential nutrients like carbohydrates, fats, vegetable proteins, minerals and vitamins. By improving the quality of maternal Ahara, foetal outcome will be better in the form of increased birth weight and decreased perinatal mortality.

Nathani, Neeru

2012-01-01

56

Widespread differential maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone phenotype at mid-gestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parent-of-origin-dependent (epi)genetic factors are important determinants of prenatal development that program adult phenotype. However, data on magnitude and specificity of maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone are lacking. We used an outbred bovine model to dissect and quantify effects of parental genomes, fetal sex, and nongenetic maternal effects on the fetal skeleton and analyzed phenotypic and molecular relationships between fetal muscle and bone. Analysis of 51 bone morphometric and weight parameters from 72 fetuses recovered at day 153 gestation (54% term) identified six principal components (PC1-6) that explained 80% of the variation in skeletal parameters. Parental genomes accounted for most of the variation in bone wet weight (PC1, 72.1%), limb ossification (PC2, 99.8%), flat bone size (PC4, 99.7%), and axial skeletal growth (PC5, 96.9%). Limb length showed lesser effects of parental genomes (PC3, 40.8%) and a significant nongenetic maternal effect (gestational weight gain, 29%). Fetal sex affected bone wet weight (PC1, p?maternal genome effects on bone wet weight (74.1%, p?maternal genome effects on growth plate height (98.6%, p?effects on fetal bone were mirrored by maternal genome effects on fetal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (96.9%, p?effects on alkaline phosphatase (90.0%, p?maternally controlled bone wet weight and paternally controlled limb ossification, respectively. Bone wet weight and flat bone size correlated positively with muscle weight (r?=?0.84 and 0.77, p?maternally expressed H19 regulates growth factors by miRNA interference, this suggests muscle-bone interaction via epigenetic factors. PMID:24753181

Xiang, Ruidong; Lee, Alice M C; Eindorf, Tanja; Javadmanesh, Ali; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Gugger, Madeleine; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Pitchford, Wayne S; Leviton, Alison J; Thomsen, Dana A; Beckman, Ian; Anderson, Gail I; Burns, Brian M; Rutley, David L; Xian, Cory J; Hiendleder, Stefan

2014-11-01

57

Effects of maternal separation on the dietary preference and behavioral satiety sequence in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of maternal separation on the feeding behavior of rats. A maternal separation model was used on postnatal day 1 (PND1), forming the following groups: in the maternal separation (MS) group, pups were separated from their mothers each day from PND1 to PND14, whereas in the control (C) group pups were kept with their mothers. Subgroups were formed to study the effects of light and darkness: control with dark and light exposure, female and male (CF and CM), and maternal separation with dark and light exposure, female and male (SDF, SDM, SLF and SLM). Female rats had higher caloric intake relative to body weight compared with male controls in the dark period only (CF=23.3±0.5 v. CM=18.2±0.7, P<0.001). Macronutrient feeding preferences were observed, with male rats exhibiting higher caloric intake from a protein diet as compared with female rats (CF=4.1±0.7, n=8 v. CM=7.0±0.5, n=8, P<0.05) and satiety development was not interrupted. Female rats had a higher adrenal weight as compared with male rats independently of experimental groups and exhibited a higher concentration of serum triglycerides (n=8, P<0.001). The study indicates possible phenotypic adjustments in the structure of feeding behavior promoted by maternal separation, especially in the dark cycle. The dissociation between the mother's presence and milk intake probably induces adjustments in feeding behavior during adulthood. PMID:24901662

da Silva, M C; de Souza, J A; Dos Santos, L O; Pinheiro, I L; Borba, T K F; da Silva, A A M; de Castro, R M; de Souza, S L

2014-06-01

58

Effects of diethylstilbestrol exposure during gestation on both maternal and offspring behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocrine disruption during gestation impairs the physical and behavioral development of offspring. However, it is unclear whether endocrine disruption also impairs maternal behavior and in turn further contributes to the developmental and behavioral dysfunction of offspring. We orally administered the synthetic non-steroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) to pregnant female C57BL/6J mice from gestation day 11-17 and then investigated the maternal behavior of mothers. In addition, we examined the direct effects of in utero DES exposure and the indirect effects of aberrant maternal behavior on offspring using the cross-fostering method. In mothers, endocrine disruption during gestation decreased maternal behavior. In addition, endocrine disruption of foster mother influenced anxiety-related behavior and passive avoidance learning of pups regardless of their exposure in utero. The influence of DES exposure in utero, irrespective of exposure to the foster mother, was also shown in female offspring. These results demonstrate the risks of endocrine disruptors on both mother as well as offspring and suggest that developmental deficits may stem from both in utero toxicity and aberrant maternal care. PMID:25852458

Tomihara, Kazuya; Zoshiki, Takahiro; Kukita, Sayaka Y; Nakamura, Kanako; Isogawa, Ayuko; Ishibashi, Sawako; Tanaka, Ayumi; Kuraoka, Ayaka S; Matsumoto, Saki

2015-01-01

59

The Effects of Marriage and Maternal Education in Reducing Child Poverty. A Report of the Heritage Center for Data Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines whether marriage is effective in reducing child poverty and notes the comparative effects of marriage and maternal education on combatting child poverty. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicate that marriage plays a powerful role in lifting children out of poverty. While both marriage and maternal education…

Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.

60

Intimate partner violence and infant socioemotional development: the moderating effects of maternal trauma symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on infant regulatory difficulties at 3 months of age and infant socioemotional problems at 12 months of age. Maternal trauma symptoms were explored as potential moderators of these associations. Participants included 120 primarily low-income, ethnically diverse women and their infants. Results revealed that infants whose mothers experienced IPV during pregnancy did not have significantly more regulatory difficulties at 3 months than did infants whose mothers did not experience prenatal IPV. However, infants whose mothers experienced IPV during the first year after birth displayed significantly more socioemotional problems at 12 months, as evidenced by both maternal report and observational data. Furthermore, maternal posttraumatic stress avoidance symptoms served as a moderator of the association between prenatal IPV and infant regulatory difficulties at 3 months whereas maternal posttraumatic stress hyperarousal and reexperiencing symptoms served as moderators of the association between IPV during the first year after birth and infant socioemotional problems at 12 months. The findings highlight the detrimental impact that IPV can have on very young children and the importance of maternal trauma symptoms as a context for understanding the effect of IPV on young children's functioning. PMID:25798485

Ahlfs-Dunn, Sarah M; Huth-Bocks, Alissa C

2014-07-01

61

Maternal effects of inducible tolerance against the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in the grazer Daphnia carinata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyanobacterial blooms are becoming potent agents of natural selection in aquatic ecosystems because of their high production of some toxins and increased frequency in recent decades with eutrophication and climate change. Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates of a clone of the planktonic grazer Daphnia carinata in an offspring environment where cyanobacteria were present, but not for two additional clones. Offspring from mothers exposed to M. aeruginosa had lower intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates than individuals from unexposed mothers when fed exclusively a green alga. These results suggest that benefits, costs, and clonal variations of maternal effects of inducible tolerance should be considered when trying to understand ecological consequences of cyanobacterial blooms since they can shape the trophic interactions between cyanobacteria and daphnids. -- Highlights: •Maternal exposure to Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the offspring tolerance in a Daphnia carinata clone. •Another two clones, however, failed to response to maternal exposure. •Offspring from exposed mothers had lower fitness when fed exclusively a green alga. -- Capsule: Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa increased offspring fitness in one of three Daphnia carinata clones and carried a

62

Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing world: a simple, cost-effective example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Andrew Browning,1,2 Birhanu Menber21Maternity Africa, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Vision Maternity Care, Barhirdar, Ethiopia Objectives: To determine the impact of volunteer obstetricians and midwife teams on obstetric services in a rural hospital in Ethiopia.Methods: The intervention was undertaken in Mota district hospital, a rural hospital in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, which is the only hospital for 1.2 million people. Before the placement of volunteer teams it had a rudimentary basic obstetric service, no blood transfusion service, and no operative delivery. The study prospectively analyzed delivery data before, during, and after the placement of volunteer obstetrician and midwife teams. The volunteers established emergency obstetric care, and trained and supervised local staff over a 3-year period. Measurable outcomes consisted of the number of women delivering, the number of referrals of pregnant women, the number of maternal deaths, and the number of referrals of obstetric fistula patients.Results: With the establishment of the service the number of women attending hospital for delivery increased by 40%. In the hospital maternal mortality decreased from 7.1% to <0.5%, and morbidity, as measured by number of obstetric fistulae, decreased from 1.5% deliveries to 0.5% over the 3-year intervention period. The improvements were sustained after handing the project back to the government.Conclusion: The placement of volunteer teams was an effective method of decreasing maternal mortality and morbidity. Keywords: emergency obstetric care, volunteers, obstetric fistula, emergency obstetric care

Browning A

2015-02-01

63

The long-run effect of maternity leave benefits on mental health: Evidence from European countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. PMID:25792339

Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo

2015-05-01

64

Estimation of Direct Genetic and Maternal Effects for Production Traits of Iranian Holstein Cows Using Different Animal Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (Covariance components and genetic parameters were estimated using Derivative-free Restricted Maximum Likelihood (DFREML approach for milk yield and fat yield of Iranian Holsteins of Isfahan province. Data was consisted of first lactation records on milk and fat yields of 12,047 Holsteins from 45 herds, which were calved from 1995 to the end of 2001. Records were pre-adjusted to mature equivalent yields (ME-2X-305d. Six different animal models were fitted, which were differentiated by including or excluding maternal additive genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental effects and direct-maternal genetic covariance. Animal Models included Herd-Year-Season and direct additive genetic effects as fixed and random effects, respectively. Direct heritability estimates (h2 ranged from 0.157 to 0.229 and 0.203 to 0.243 for milk yield and fat yield, respectively. The estimates were substantially higher when maternal effects were ignored from the model. Mean estimates of the maternal genetic and maternal permanent environment variances and direct-maternal genetic covariance as fractions to the phenotypic variances were 0.07, 0.02 and 0.025 for milk yield and 0.01, 0.05 and 0.016 for fat yield, respectively, while, positive direct-maternal relationships (Covam were obtained. The results of this study showed that maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects had not any important influence on the yield of dairy cows. However, they can improve genetic evaluations. Also, there is no need for the inclusion of direct-maternal genetic covariance in the animal models for dairy cows.

M.A. Edriss

2006-01-01

65

Persistent maternal effects on juvenile survival in North American red squirrels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal effects can have lasting fitness consequences for offspring, but these effects are often difficult to disentangle from associated responses in offspring traits. We studied persistent maternal effects on offspring survival in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) by manipulating maternal nutrition without altering the post-emergent nutritional environment experienced by offspring. This was accomplished by providing supplemental food to reproductive females over winter and during reproduction, but removing the supplemental food from the system prior to juvenile emergence. We then monitored juvenile dispersal, settlement and survival from birth to 1 year of age. Juveniles from supplemented mothers experienced persistent and magnifying survival advantages over juveniles from control mothers long after supplemental food was removed. These maternal effects on survival persisted, despite no observable effect on traits normally associated with high offspring quality, such as body size, dispersal distance or territory quality. However, supplemented mothers did provide their juveniles an early start by breeding an average of 18 days earlier than control mothers, which may explain the persistent survival advantages their juveniles experienced. PMID:17395572

Kerr, Tricia D; Boutin, Stan; Lamontagne, Jalene M; McAdam, Andrew G; Humphries, Murray M

2007-06-22

66

Effects of cigarette smoking on maternal nutrition and the fetus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Available evidence supports the importance of including facts about smoking and pregnancy in all teaching to women in the childbearing years. The incidence of low birthweight infants is possibly almost twice as high among smoking mothers, and these low birthweight babies are known to be at risk on several counts. Compromised utilization of vitamins and minerals is presented as a causative factor: calcium, vitamin B12, and vitamin C levels are lower in smokers. Other vitamin levels may be affected. Poor nutrition and other factors connected with smoking may result also in stillbirths, spontaneous abortions, congenital anomalies, and cancer in the offspring. Nurses have a unique opportunity to contribute to maternal-child health by teaching and counseling about smoking in pregnancy. PMID:6906462

Deibel, P

1980-01-01

67

Intergenerational effects of maternal birth season on offspring size in rural Gambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental conditions experienced in early life can influence an individual's growth and long-term health, and potentially also that of their offspring. However, such developmental effects on intergenerational outcomes have rarely been studied. Here we investigate intergenerational effects of early environment in humans using survey- and clinic-based data from rural Gambia, a population experiencing substantial seasonal stress that influences foetal growth and has long-term effects on first-generation survival. Using Fourier regression to model seasonality, we test whether (i) parental birth season has intergenerational consequences for offspring in utero growth (1982 neonates, born 1976-2009) and (ii) whether such effects have been reduced by improvements to population health in recent decades. Contrary to our predictions, we show effects of maternal birth season on offspring birth weight and head circumference only in recent maternal cohorts born after 1975. Offspring birth weight varied according to maternal birth season from 2.85 to 3.03 kg among women born during 1975-1984 and from 2.84 to 3.41 kg among those born after 1984, but the seasonality effect reversed between these cohorts. These results were not mediated by differences in maternal age or parity. Equivalent patterns were observed for offspring head circumference (statistically significant) and length (not significant), but not for ponderal index. No relationships were found between paternal birth season and offspring neonatal anthropometrics. Our results indicate that even in rural populations living under conditions of relative affluence, brief variation in environmental conditions during maternal early life may exert long-term intergenerational effects on offspring. PMID:22896641

Rickard, Ian J; Courtiol, Alexandre; Prentice, Andrew M; Fulford, Anthony J C; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Lummaa, Virpi

2012-10-22

68

Effects of Maternal Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and HIV infection on Birth Weight in Southeastern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The effects of malaria and HIV infection on birth weight were assessed among 300 women in childbirth in Southeastern Nigeria using standard techniques. Prevalence of maternal Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection was 16.0%. Individuals of younger age, primigravidae, anemic (with Hgb

Uneke, Chigozie J.; Duhlinska, Dochka D.; Ujam, Treasure N.

2009-01-01

69

Preventive effects of folic acid supplementation on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24842467

Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

2014-01-01

70

Perinatal maternal stress and serotonin signaling: effects on pain sensitivity in offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women are facing perinatal stress and depression. Perinatal maternal stress has been shown to increase pain sensitivity in offspring. For the treatment of their depressive symptoms, pregnant women are frequently prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Since the descending pain inhibitory circuit matures perinatally, perinatal SSRI exposure has been shown to affect pain sensitivity in offspring. In the present review, we summarize experimental and clinical evidence for the effect of perinatal maternal stress and SSRI exposure on pain sensitivity in offspring. Both experimental and clinical studies show the effect of perinatal maternal stress on regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system and the serotonin pain inhibitory system. Alterations in these two systems likely underlie long-term alterations in the development of pain sensitivity. This review sheds light on the effect of perinatal maternal stress and treatment with SSRIs on offspring pain sensitivity, in relation to the developing HPA system and 5-HT signaling. PMID:24311362

Knaepen, Liesbeth; Pawluski, Jodi L; Patijn, Jacob; van Kleef, Maarten; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Elbert A

2014-07-01

71

Maternity Leave in Turbulent Times: Effects on Labor Market Transitions and Fertility in Russia, 1985-2000  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternity leave policies are designed to ease the tension between women's employment and fertility, but whether they actually play such a role remains unclear. We analyze the individual-level effects of maternity leave on employment outcomes and on second conception rates among Russian first-time mothers from 1985-2000 using retrospective job and…

Gerber, Theodore P.; Perelli-Harris, Brienna

2012-01-01

72

Obstetric complications with GDM. Effects of maternal weight.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obstetric complications recorded prospectively were assessed retrospectively in 150 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 305 control subjects matched for age, parity, and ethnicity. Intensive diet therapy and self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose were used to obtain postprandial euglycemia; 22% of GDM subjects required insulin. GDM and control subjects were grouped by body mass index to detect any influence of maternal prepregnancy weight on outcome. Polyhydramnios, preterm labor, and pyelonephritis were not more frequent in GDM, but hypertension without proteinuria (7.3 vs. 3.3%) and preeclampsia (8 vs. 3.9%) were more frequent in GDM. The frequency of hypertensive complications in GDM was not totally attributable to being overweight. Abnormalities of labor, birth trauma, and fetal macrosomia were not more common in GDM; 6.7% of the infants of mothers with GDM weighed greater than 4200 g at birth compared with 3.6% of control infants (NS), and 10% were large for gestational age and sex compared with 6.6% of control infants (NS). Despite this, cesarean delivery was more common in GDM (35.3 vs. 22%, P less than 0.01), mostly due to significantly more cesarean births without labor. PMID:1748271

Goldman, M; Kitzmiller, J L; Abrams, B; Cowan, R M; Laros, R K

1991-12-01

73

Effects of maternally-derived antibodies on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The optimal vaccination protocol to induce immunity in kittens with maternal antibodies is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternally-derived antibody (MDA) on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens. Vaccination with a modified live virus (MLV) product was more effective than an inactivated (IA) product at inducing protective antibody titers (PAT) against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). IA vaccination against feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) was more effective in the presence of low MDA than high MDA. Among kittens with low MDA, MLV vaccination against FCV was more effective than IA vaccination. A total of 15%, 44% and 4% of kittens had insufficient titers against FPV, FHV and FCV, respectively, at 17 weeks of age. Serologic response to vaccination of kittens varies based on vaccination type and MDA level. In most situations, MLV vaccination should be utilized and protocols continued beyond 14 weeks of age to optimize response by all kittens. PMID:22314087

Digangi, Brian A; Levy, Julie K; Griffin, Brenda; Reese, Michael J; Dingman, Patricia A; Tucker, Sylvia J; Dubovi, Edward J

2012-02-01

74

Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes  

OpenAIRE

Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplement...

Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-jin; Hong, Soon-cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-ocampo, Alejandro A.; Oh, Min-jeong; Kim, Hai-joong

2014-01-01

75

Comparison of the maternal and neonatal effects of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane for cesarean delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maternal and neonatal effects of 50% O2-50% N2O alone and 50% O2-50% N2O combined with 0.5% halothane, 1.0% enflurane, or 0.75% isoflurane were studied in 42 healthy parturients undergoing general anesthesia for elective primary or repeat cesarean delivery at term. All patients received thiopental and succinylcholine for induction and were intubated and ventilated with a tidal volume of 10 ml/kg at a rate of 10 breaths/min. Two of 12 (17%) patients given O2-N2O alone had recall; none who received a potent inhalation agent had any recall. Blood loss was similar in all four groups. There were no significant differences between groups in induction-to-delivery and uterine incision-to-delivery intervals, the frequency of Apgar scores less than 7 at 1 and 5 min, maternal and fetal blood-gas tensions, acid-base balance, lactate values, and early neonatal neurobehavioral scores at 2-4 h. It is concluded that analgesic concentrations of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane can be safely added to 50% O2-50% N2O to prevent maternal awareness during general anesthesia for cesarean delivery while maintaining normal maternal and neonatal conditions. PMID:6837963

Warren, T M; Datta, S; Ostheimer, G W; Naulty, J S; Weiss, J B; Morrison, J A

1983-05-01

76

Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cord-blood mercury concentration is usually considered the best biomarker in regard to developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity. However, the mercury concentration may be affected by the binding of methylmercury to hemoglobin and perhaps also selenium. As cord-blood mercury analyses appear to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N=514) and the Mothers and Children?s Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses were used to ascertain interrelationships between the exposure biomarkers and the possible impact of hemoglobin as well as selenium. Both methods showed a significant dependence of the cord-blood concentration on hemoglobin, also after adjustment for other exposure biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in maternal and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended.

Kim, Byung-Mi; Choi, Anna L

2014-01-01

77

Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).  

Science.gov (United States)

Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved. PMID:23652562

Zas, R; Cendán, C; Sampedro, L

2013-09-01

78

Maternal stress responses and anxiety during pregnancy: effects on fetal heart rate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effect of an acute maternal stress response and anxiety on fetal heart rate. Seventeen healthy, 3rd-trimester pregnant women (mean age = 26 +/- 6 years) were instrumented for continuous electrocardiography, blood pressure (BP), respiration, and fetal heart rate (HR). Subjects completed the state anxiety subscale of the State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), then rested quietly in a semirecumbent position for a 5-min baseline period, followed by either a 5-min arithmetic or Stroop color-word task. Over the entire 5-min stress period and when averaged across all subjects, the stressors led to significant increases in maternal systolic BP and respiratory rate but changes in maternal HR, diastolic BP, and fetal HR were not significant. However, when subjects were dichotomized into groups that had above or below average anxiety scores [ANX(+) and ANX(-)], both groups had similar respiration rate increases to the stressors, but the BP and fetal heart rate (FHR) responses were significantly different. Women in the ANX(-) group had significantly greater BP responses compared to women in the ANX(+) group whereas the fetuses of ANX(+) women showed significant HR increases and the fetuses of ANX(-) women exhibited nonsignificant decreases. These findings suggest that women's acute emotional reactivity during pregnancy can influence fetal HR patterns and that a stress-induced increase in maternal BP is not the primary signal by which a women's stress response is transduced to her fetus. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that maternal psychological variables may shape the neurobehavioral development of the fetus. PMID:10607362

Monk, C; Fifer, W P; Myers, M M; Sloan, R P; Trien, L; Hurtado, A

2000-01-01

79

Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

80

The persisting effect of maternal mood in pregnancy on childhood psychopathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental or fetal programming has emerged as a major model for understanding the early and persisting effects of prenatal exposures on the health and development of the child and adult. We leverage the power of a 14-year prospective study to examine the persisting effects of prenatal anxiety, a key candidate in the developmental programming model, on symptoms of behavioral and emotional problems across five occasions of measurement from age 4 to 13 years. The study is based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort, a prospective, longitudinal study of a large community sample in the west of England (n = 7,944). Potential confounders included psychosocial and obstetric risk, postnatal maternal mood, paternal pre- and postnatal mood, and parenting. Results indicated that maternal prenatal anxiety predicted persistently higher behavioral and emotional symptoms across childhood with no diminishment of effect into adolescence. Elevated prenatal anxiety (top 15%) was associated with a twofold increase in risk of a probable child mental disorder, 12.31% compared with 6.83%, after allowing for confounders. Results were similar with prenatal depression. These analyses provide some of the strongest evidence to date that prenatal maternal mood has a direct and persisting effect on her child's psychiatric symptoms and support an in utero programming hypothesis. PMID:24621564

O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Barker, Edward D; O'Connor, Thomas G

2014-05-01

81

The Effect of Intermittent Antenatal Iron Supplementation on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Rural Viet Nam: A Cluster Randomised Trial  

OpenAIRE

Beverley-Anne Biggs and colleagues conduct a community-based cluster randomized trial in rural Viet Nam to compare the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation taken daily or twice weekly on maternal and infant outcomes.

Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T.; Simpson, Julie A.; Casey, Gerard J.; Khuong, Nguyen C.; Thoang, Dang D.; Thuy, Tran T.; Pasricha, Sant-rayn; Tran, Thach D.; Tuan, Tran; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-ann

2013-01-01

82

Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Hippocampus Neuronal Density in Neonatal Rats  

OpenAIRE

The present study has been undertaken the effects of maternal diabetes on Hippocampus structure 1 day neonate individual`s rats from diabetic mothers in both control and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by stereptozotocin (60 mg kg-1) given by a single intraperitoneal injection to female Wistar rats. Control rats were injected with phosphate buffered saline. In neonates brains rapidly were removed and in all sample the number of neurons in CA1, CA2, CA3 was measured via stereologi...

Tehranipour, M.; Khakzad, M. R.

2008-01-01

83

Effects of Child Psychopathology on Maternal Depression: The Mediating Role of Child-Related Acute and Chronic Stressors  

OpenAIRE

In light of recent research highlighting the potential effects of children’s behavior on mothers’ mental health, the current study examined 679 mothers and their adolescent children from a community-based sample to determine the effects of youth psychopathology on maternal depression and levels of child-related stress in mothers’ lives. It was hypothesized that the number of past clinical diagnoses in 15-year-old adolescents would predict the presence of maternal depression at youth age...

Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

2011-01-01

84

The effects of dietary fructose and salt on maternal, fetal and adult offspring growth, metabolic status and cardiovascular health  

OpenAIRE

The modern Western diet is typically high in salt and fructose. Variations in maternal diet can have delayed developmental effects on the adult offspring’s cardiovascular function leading to acute or chronic hypertension. The aim of the work in this thesis was to determine the effect of moderate dietary salt and/or fructose intake on maternal and fetal growth, metabolic status and cardiovascular health of the adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were fed either 1) control diet (chow) with t...

Gray, Clint

2011-01-01

85

The effects of maternal anxiety prior to amniocentesis on uterine and fetal umbilical blood flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the mothers’ anxiety levels and determine its effect on fetomaternal circulation in pregnant women undergoing genetic amniocentesis.Material and Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted regarding the assessment of maternal anxiety levels by means of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in 60 pregnant women having genetic amniocentesis and 60 control cases having their early second trimester ultrasonographic screening, 30 minutes before and immediately after the procedure. Additionally, maternal-fetal hemodynamic changes and Doppler ultrasonographic measurements of fetoplacental circulation were recorded in both groups. Results: The maternal anxiety state scores were found to be significantly higher in the amniocentesis group (p<0.001. Maternal heart rate was significantly higher in the amniocentesis group (p<0.05, while the fetal heart rate was significantly lower (p<0.05 compared to the control group. Uterine artery Doppler measurements were comparable in the two groups but umbilical artery resistance index (p<0.05 and S/D ratio (p<0.05 were significantly higher in the amniocentesis group. Regression analysis revealed that the time which elapsed from offering amniocentesis until it was performed is the main predictor of fetal umbilical artery S/D ratio measured prior to amniocentesis in the amniocentesis group (?=0.66, p<0.001 and maternal anxiety state scores (?=0.04, p=0.003 are the main predictors of fetal umbilical artery S/D ratio measured prior to amniocentesis or ultrasonography in the two groups. The education of the patient in years decreased (?=-0.13, p=0.04, while the amniocentesis procedure (?=1.44, p=0.02 and the time which elapsed in days from offering amniocentesis or ultrasonography up to its performance (?=0.41, p=0.04 increased the S/D ratio measured after the procedures.Conclusion: Our study provides the evidence that maternal anxiety and its duration has effects on the fetal blood flow. Early booking and patient support may help to overcome undesired consequences of an invasive prenatal procedure.

Eray Çal??kan

2009-09-01

86

Maternal influences on seed mass effect and initial seedling growth in four Quercus species  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed mass represents the reserves available for growth in the first stages of plant establishment. Variation in seed mass is an important trait which may have consequences for growth and survival of seedlings. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain how seed mass influences seedling development: the reserve use effect, the metabolic effect and the seedling-size effect. Few studies have evaluated at the same time the three hypotheses within species and none have evaluated the effect of the mother trees. We studied four Quercus species by selecting five mother trees per species. Seeds were sown in a glasshouse and the use of seed reserves, seedling growth and morphology were measured. Considering all mothers of the same species together, we did not find the reserve effect for any species, the metabolic effect was observed in all species except for Quercus suber, and the seedling-size effect was matched for all the species. Within species, maternal origin modified the studied relationships and thus the studied mechanisms as we did not observe seed mass effects on all mothers from each species. Moreover, the metabolic effect was not found in any mother of Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea. We concluded that a maternal effect can change seed mass relationships with traits related to seedling establishment. The conservation of this high intra-specific variability must be considered to guarantee species performance in heterogeneous environments and in particular in the current context of climate change.

González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Villar, Rafael; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

2011-01-01

87

Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension: effects on maternal and neonatal magnesium and calcium homeostasis.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double-blind manner, either to intravenous magnesium for 2 days followed by oral magnesium (n = 12) until delivery or placebo (n = 13). In women supplemented with magnesium the level of magnesium increased from 0.74 to 1.02 mmol/l during the first 24 h of inclusion and simultaneously we observed an increased urinary loss of magnesium. Serum level and the urinary excretion of magnesium returned to pretreatment level at delivery. Maternal magnesium supplement increased the concentrations of magnesium in umbilical cord and neonatal blood 1 day after delivery. Serum ionized calcium did not change during the study period despite a significant increased loss of calcium during the first 24 h of inclusion. Low dose maternal magnesium treatment did not cause neonatal hypocalcemia.

Rudnicki, M; FrØlich, A

1991-01-01

88

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival  

OpenAIRE

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 Ma...

Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

2014-01-01

89

Effects of User Fee Exemptions on the Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services: A Review of Literature  

OpenAIRE

User fee removal has been put forward as an approach to increasing priority health service utilization, reducing impoverishment, and ultimately reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. However, user fees are a source of facility revenue in many low-income countries, often used for purchasing drugs and supplies and paying incentives to health workers. This paper reviews evidence on the effects of user fee exemptions on maternal health service utilization, service provision, and outcomes, incl...

Hatt, Laurel E.; Makinen, Marty; Madhavan, Supriya; Conlon, Claudia M.

2013-01-01

90

Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid-base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid-base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy. PMID:24810329

Sawant, Onkar B; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

2014-08-01

91

Effect of cocaine on periadolescent rats with or without early maternal separation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and weight loss were investigated in periadolescent Wistar rats kept with their mothers or subjected to repeated maternal separation. Litters allocated to the separation procedure were placed in a temperature-controlled (33ºC chamber for 3 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P20. Non-handled rats were left undisturbed until weaning. Treatments were started on P30-31 and the test was performed on P36-37. Animals received injections of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, sc twice daily for 5 days. On day 6 all animals received saline. On day 7 animals were challenged with 10 mg/kg cocaine and their locomotion was evaluated in activity cages. A third group received saline throughout the 7-day period. Body weights were recorded on P30-31 and P36-37. Two-way ANOVA on body weights showed a main effect of treatment group (F(1,35 = 10.446, P = 0.003; N = 10-12. Non-handled rats treated with cocaine for 5 days gained significantly less weight, while no significant effect was observed in maternally separated rats. Two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of drug treatment on locomotor activity (F(2,32 = 15.209, P<0.001; N = 6-8, but not on rearing condition (F(1,32<0.001, P = 0.998. Animals pretreated with cocaine showed a clear behavioral sensitization relative to the saline group. No difference in the magnitude of sensitization was found between separated and non-handled animals. Only the effect of cocaine on weight gain was significantly affected by repeated episodes of early maternal separation during the pre-weaning period.

Planeta C.S.

2002-01-01

92

Maternal effects, flight versus fecundity trade-offs, and offspring immune defence in the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal condition can generate resource-related maternal effects through differential egg provisioning, and can greatly affect offspring performance. In the present study, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L. was used to investigate whether (after controlling for egg size maternal age, and increased flight during the oviposition period, resulted in changes in egg provisioning and whether this contributed to variation in offspring performance, i early in development (egg stage and early post-hatching development, and ii later in larval development after being exposed to the model viral pathogen system; the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV. Results Age-related changes in maternal egg provisioning were observed to influence egg stage development only. Flight-induced changes in maternal egg provisioning had direct consequences for offspring growth and survival across each life stage from egg to adulthood; offspring from forced flight mothers had lower larval masses and longer development times. Offspring with lower larval masses also had reduced survival after exposure to the viral pathogen. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that a change in maternal provisioning as a result of increased flight during the oviposition period has the potential to exert non-genetic cross-generational fitness effects in P. aegeria. This could have important consequences for population dynamics, particularly in fragmented anthropogenic landscapes.

Hails Rosemary S

2010-11-01

93

PREMIM and EMIM: tools for estimation of maternal, imprinting and interaction effects using multinomial modelling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we present two new computer tools, PREMIM and EMIM, for the estimation of parental and child genetic effects, based on genotype data from a variety of different child-parent configurations. PREMIM allows the extraction of child-parent genotype data from standard-format pedigree data files, while EMIM uses the extracted genotype data to perform subsequent statistical analysis. The use of genotype data from the parents as well as from the child in question allows the estimation of complex genetic effects such as maternal genotype effects, maternal-foetal interactions and parent-of-origin (imprinting effects. These effects are estimated by EMIM, incorporating chosen assumptions such as Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or exchangeability of parental matings as required. Results In application to simulated data, we show that the inference provided by EMIM is essentially equivalent to that provided by alternative (competing software packages such as MENDEL and LEM. However, PREMIM and EMIM (used in combination considerably outperform MENDEL and LEM in terms of speed and ease of execution. Conclusions Together, EMIM and PREMIM provide easy-to-use command-line tools for the analysis of pedigree data, giving unbiased estimates of parental and child genotype relative risks.

Howey Richard

2012-06-01

94

A life-history evaluation of the impact of maternal effects on recruitment and fisheries reference points  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fishing causes dramatic changes in the age and size structure of fish stocks. In particular, the targeting of the largest and oldest individuals in a stock changes the age and size distribution of that stock. A large female produces a higher quantity of eggs than a young female because of its larger size, but recent laboratory evidence further indicates that large females also produce eggs of higher quality, a phenomenon known as maternal effects. However, most traditional management models assume that all female fish contribute equally per unit biomass to future recruitment. Here we investigate whether this assumption is valid by calculating the impact of maternal effects both before and after accounting for density-dependent effects. We find that the contribution of large individuals to reproduction is much more pronounced for unfished than for fished stocks. Fisheries reference points are largely unaffected by maternal effects. Our results indicate that the incorporation of maternal effects into impact assessments of fisheries is not expected to change advice substantially. Important exceptions are stocks whose demography is very vulnerable to fishing (and which therefore have low fishing reference points) for which maternal effects are relevant and necessary to consider.

Calduch-Verdiell, Núria; MacKenzie, Brian R.

2014-01-01

95

Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration.

Wang Lei

2012-09-01

96

Effects of Maternal Visitation to Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated whether directing mothers to make weekly appointments to visit the neonatal intensive care unit would generalize to increase the frequency of independent maternal visiation and affect maternal perceptions of the infant and infants' length of hospitalization. (Author/RH)

Zeskind, Philip Sanford; Iacino, Richard

1984-01-01

97

Effect of Source and Level of Maternal Vitamin D on Carryover to Newly Hatched Chicks  

OpenAIRE

A study was conducted to evaluate the carryover effect of maternal vitamin D level and source on performance and bone development of the progeny. Breeder hens were fed a vitamin D deficient diet for two months to deplete stores. After this period, experimental diets in a factorial arrangement were fed to the hens with five levels of cholecalciferol (0, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 IU/kg) and two levels of 25OHD3 (HyD) (0 and 68 ?g/kg) for a total of 10 treatments. At the end of two months on the ...

Yan, F.; Wang, Z.; Cerate, S.; Cesar Coto; Waldroup, P. W.

2010-01-01

98

Additive Effects of Maternal High Fat Diet during Lactation on Mouse Offspring  

OpenAIRE

Recent reports indicated that nutrition in early infancy might influence later child health outcomes such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we examined the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD) during lactation on the onset of a metabolic syndrome in their offspring. All offspring were cross-fostered by dams on the same or opposite diet to yield 4 groups: offspring from HFD-fed dams suckled by HFD-fed dams (OHH) and by control diet (CD)-fed dams (OHC) and CD-fed dams suckled by ...

Masuyama, Hisashi; Hiramatsu, Yuji

2014-01-01

99

The effect of a maternal low protein diet on renal development and function in the offspring  

OpenAIRE

A poor maternal diet leads to offspring with a greater risk of developing chronic diseases later in life. This thesis considered whether a low protein diet during pregnancy in sheep affected the development of the fetal kidney, and how this impacted upon adult renal function when challenged by obesity. Pregnant ewes were fed either a control diet or a diet that was isocaloric but contained only 50% of the protein, in either early or late gestation. The effects of the diet were assessed on the...

Dunford, Louise Jane

2013-01-01

100

X chromosome effect on maternal recombination and meiotic drive in the mouse.  

OpenAIRE

We observed that maternal meiotic drive favoring the inheritance of DDK alleles at the Om locus on mouse chromosome 11 was correlated with the X chromosome inactivation phenotype of (C57BL/6-Pgk1(a) x DDK)F(1) mothers. The basis for this unexpected observation appears to lie in the well-documented effect of recombination on meiotic drive that results from nonrandom segregation of chromosomes. Our analysis of genome-wide levels of meiotic recombination in females that vary in their X-inactivat...

La Casa-espero?n, Elena; Loredo-osti, J. Concepcio?n; Pardo-manuel Villena, Fernando; Briscoe, Tammi L.; Malette, Jan Michel; Vaughan, Joe E.; Morgan, Kenneth; Sapienza, Carmen

2002-01-01

101

Effects of Shiga toxin type 2 on maternal and fetal status in rats in the early stage of pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5?ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, María M; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M; Ibarra, Cristina

2014-01-01

102

First-trimester screening for preeclampsia: impact of maternal parity on modeling and screening effectiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: The impact of maternal parity on screening efficiency for preeclampsia (PE) has been poorly studied. Our objective was to investigate the effect of maternal parity on models for screening for PE in the first-trimester and their effectiveness. Study design: A secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of women present between 11 and 14 weeks gestation. Maternal risk factors, uterine artery Doppler, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and serum markers including PAPP-A, ADAM12, PP13 in the first-trimester were used to create multi-parameter screening models for PE. The best models for screening in nulliparous versus parous women were developed using backward stepwise logistic regression approach. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and the sensitivity for fixed false positive rates of 10% and 20%, respectively, were compared using non-parametric statistics. Results: Among 1177 women with complete outcome data (503 (42.7%) nulliparous and 674 (57.3%) multiparous), PE occurred in 102 (8.7%). There were significant differences in predicting variables in the final optimal models when stratified by parity; and screening performance also varied by parity. The AUC for the model for nulliparous women was 0.88(95% CI 0.80-0.95); and for multiparous was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.91). For fixed false positive rate of 10%, the sensitivity for predicting PE was 70% and 68% for nulliparous and multiparous, respectively. The screening performance for the models were however not statistically or clinically significantly different. Conclusion: We found significant differences in prediction model parameters between nulliparous and multiparous women, but these did not significantly impact screening performance for PE in the first-trimester. PMID:25330843

Moon, Myoungjin; Odibo, Anthony

2014-11-11

103

The effects of maternal epidural anesthesia on neonatal behavior during the first month.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of maternal epidural anesthesia with bupivacaine on the infant's performance on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) over the first month of life were examined. 20 non-medicated infants were matched for biomedical and demographic variables with 20 infants delivered with bupivacaine epidural anesthesia. The NBAS was administered on days 1, 3, 7 and 28. The epidural group showed poorer performance on the orientation and motor clusters during the first month of life. Epidural mothers reported spending less time with their infants while in the hospital; post hoc analyses showed that they had longer labor, more forceps deliveries and a greater amount of oxytocin. Controlling for the effects of these medical variables, a dose effect was found for the mean orientation and motor cluster scores. The results are discussed in terms of possible effects of the infant's early disorganization on the mother-infant interaction. PMID:1451936

Sepkoski, C M; Lester, B M; Ostheimer, G W; Brazelton, T B

1992-12-01

104

Effect of maternal autonomy and relatedness and borderline personality disorder on adolescent symptomatology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several theories propose a relationship between deficits in autonomy and relatedness and the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Empirical work supports relationships between maternal BPD and adolescent symptomatology, as well as between maternal autonomy and relatedness and adolescent symptomatology. However, no study has examined how individuals with BPD differ from normative comparisons on autonomy and relatedness, or whether mothers' BPD mediates the relationship between their autonomy and relatedness and their adolescents' symptomatology. We sampled 28 mothers with BPD and their adolescents aged 14-17 years, as well as 28 normative comparisons matched on demographic variables. We assessed BPD as a categorical diagnosis and along a continuum of self-reported borderline features. In a videotaped problem-solving interaction, controlling for current major depressive disorder, mothers with BPD were less likely to promote and more likely to inhibit relatedness, and they were marginally more likely to inhibit but equally likely to promote autonomy with their adolescents. Mothers' total borderline features mediated the relationship between mothers' promotion of autonomy plus relatedness and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms (anxious depression, withdrawn depression, somatic problems, rule breaking, and aggression) and adolescent borderline features (affective instability and self-harm). Mothers' total borderline features also mediated the relationship between mothers' inhibition of autonomy plus relatedness and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms (anxious depression, withdrawn depression, somatic problems, and aggression but not rule breaking) and adolescent borderline features (affective instability and self-harm). We discuss findings in terms of light shed on BPD and the effect of maternal BPD on adolescent development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867839

Frankel-Waldheter, Miriam; Macfie, Jenny; Strimpfel, Jennifer M; Watkins, Christopher D

2015-04-01

105

Effect of acute maternal starvation on tyrosine metabolism and protein synthesis in fetal sheep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the effects of acute maternal starvation on intrauterine growth, tyrosine concentration and specific activity values in plasma, intracellular free and protein bound pools were determined in catheterized ovine fetuses following an 8 h continuous infusion of L-[2,3,5,6 3H] or L-[U-14C] tyrosine into the ewe and fetus respectively at 115-125 days of gestation. From the kinetic data the rates of whole body and tissue fractional protein synthesis were calculated. Although placental protein synthesis was not significantly changed as a result of acute maternal starvation, fetal whole body protein synthesis was reduced from 63 g/d/kg in the fed to 25 g/d/kg in the starved condition. There was also a 10 fold reduction in the net placental transfer of tyrosine to the fetus in the starved ewes. In addition, a three fold increase was observed in the quantity of tyrosine used for oxidation by the fetuses of starved ewes, changing from 5.2% of tyrosine net utilization in the fed to 13.7% in the starved condition. Significant reductions in tissue fractional protein synthesis rates were also seen in the liver, brain, lung kidney and GIT tissues from 78, 37, 65, 45 and 71%/d respectively in the fed to 12, 10, 23, 22 and 35%/d in the fetuses of starved ewes. The data indicate that during acute maternal starvation the sheep fetus utilizes more tyrosine for oxidation and less for anabolic purposes which is reflected in a decrease both in whole body and cted in a decrease both in whole body and tissue fractional rates of protein synthesis

106

Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

2008-07-01

107

Epistasis and maternal effects in experimental adaptation to chronic nutritional stress in Drosophila.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on ecological and metabolic arguments, some authors predict that adaptation to novel, harsh environments should involve alleles showing negative (diminishing return) epistasis and/or that it should be mediated in part by evolution of maternal effects. Although the first prediction has been supported in microbes, there has been little experimental support for either prediction in multicellular eukaryotes. Here we use a line-cross design to study the genetic architecture of adaptation to chronic larval malnutrition in a population of Drosophila melanogaster that evolved on an extremely nutrient-poor larval food for 84 generations. We assayed three fitness-related traits (developmental rate, adult female weight and egg-to-adult viability) under the malnutrition conditions in 14 crosses between this selected population and a nonadapted control population originally derived from the same base population. All traits showed a pattern of negative epistasis between alleles improving performance under malnutrition. Furthermore, evolutionary changes in maternal traits accounted for half of the 68% increase in viability and for the whole of 8% reduction in adult female body weight in the selected population (relative to unselected controls). These results thus support both of the above predictions and point to the importance of nonadditive effects in adaptive microevolution. PMID:24118120

Vijendravarma, R K; Kawecki, T J

2013-12-01

108

Potential Maternal Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 on Development and Disease Severity in a Mediterranean Legume  

Science.gov (United States)

Global change can greatly affect plant populations both directly by influencing growing conditions and indirectly by maternal effects on development of offspring. More information is needed on transgenerational effects of global change on plants and their interactions with pathogens. The current study assessed potential maternal effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on performance and disease susceptibility of first-generation offspring of the Mediterranean legume Onobrychis crista-galli. Mother plants were grown at three CO2 concentrations, and the study focused on their offspring that were raised under common ambient climate and CO2. In addition, progeny were exposed to natural infection by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew. In one out of 3?years, offspring of high-CO2 treatments (440 and 600?ppm) had lower shoot biomass and reproductive output than offspring of low-CO2 treatment (280?ppm). Disease severity in a heavy-infection year was higher in high-CO2 than in low-CO2 offspring. However, some of the findings on maternal effects changed when the population was divided into two functionally diverging plant types distinguishable by flower color (pink, Type P; white, Type W). Disease severity in a heavy-infection year was higher in high-CO2 than in low-CO2 progeny in the more disease-resistant (Type P), but not in the more susceptible plant type (Type W). In a low-infection year, maternal CO2 treatments did not differ in disease severity. Mother plants of Type P exposed to low CO2 produced larger seeds than all other combinations of CO2 and plant type, which might contribute to higher offspring performance. This study showed that elevated CO2 potentially exerts environmental maternal effects on performance of progeny and, notably, also on their susceptibility to natural infection by a pathogen. Maternal effects of global change might differently affect functionally divergent plant types, which could impact population fitness and alter plant communities. PMID:22639588

Grünzweig, José M.

2011-01-01

109

Potential Maternal Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO(2) on Development and Disease Severity in a Mediterranean Legume.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global change can greatly affect plant populations both directly by influencing growing conditions and indirectly by maternal effects on development of offspring. More information is needed on transgenerational effects of global change on plants and their interactions with pathogens. The current study assessed potential maternal effects of atmospheric CO(2) enrichment on performance and disease susceptibility of first-generation offspring of the Mediterranean legume Onobrychis crista-galli. Mother plants were grown at three CO(2) concentrations, and the study focused on their offspring that were raised under common ambient climate and CO(2). In addition, progeny were exposed to natural infection by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew. In one out of 3?years, offspring of high-CO(2) treatments (440 and 600?ppm) had lower shoot biomass and reproductive output than offspring of low-CO(2) treatment (280?ppm). Disease severity in a heavy-infection year was higher in high-CO(2) than in low-CO(2) offspring. However, some of the findings on maternal effects changed when the population was divided into two functionally diverging plant types distinguishable by flower color (pink, Type P; white, Type W). Disease severity in a heavy-infection year was higher in high-CO(2) than in low-CO(2) progeny in the more disease-resistant (Type P), but not in the more susceptible plant type (Type W). In a low-infection year, maternal CO(2) treatments did not differ in disease severity. Mother plants of Type P exposed to low CO(2) produced larger seeds than all other combinations of CO(2) and plant type, which might contribute to higher offspring performance. This study showed that elevated CO(2) potentially exerts environmental maternal effects on performance of progeny and, notably, also on their susceptibility to natural infection by a pathogen. Maternal effects of global change might differently affect functionally divergent plant types, which could impact population fitness and alter plant communities. PMID:22639588

Grünzweig, José M

2011-01-01

110

Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects on risk of orofacial clefting (OC) using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a P-value

Shi, Min; Murray, Jeff

2012-01-01

111

Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal  

Science.gov (United States)

Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment influences development in a cooperative mammal. Individuals are most sensitive to social and maternal factors during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, whereas direct environmental effects are relatively more important later in development. Understanding the way in which environmental sensitivity varies across life stages is likely to be an important consideration in predicting trait responses to environmental change. PMID:24102215

English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

2014-01-01

112

Effectiveness of prenatal screening for Down syndrome on the basis of maternal age in Cape Town  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prenatal screening programme for Down syndrome (DS) in the South African public health sector remains primarily based on advanced maternal age (AMA). We assessed the changes over time and effectiveness of this screening programme within a Cape Town health district. METHODS: Retrospect [...] ive analysis of the Groote Schuur Hospital Cytogenetic Laboratory and Pregnancy Counselling Clinic databases and audit of maternal delivery records at a primary health care facility. RESULTS The number of amniocenteses performed for AMA in consecutive 5-year periods reduced progressively from 786 in 1981 - 1985 to 360 in 2001 - 2005. Comparing prenatal with neonatal diagnoses of DS, the absolute number and the proportion diagnosed prenatally have remained relatively constant over time. The Pregnancy Counselling Database showed that, of 507 women receiving genetic counselling for AMA in 2008 - 2009, 158 (31.1%) accepted amniocentesis - uptake has reduced considerably since the early 1990s. The audit of women delivering at a primary care facility found that only 10 (16.4%) of 61 AMA women reached genetic counselling in tertiary care: reasons included late initiation of antenatal care and low referral rates from primary care. CONCLUSION: Prenatal screening and diagnosis for DS based on AMA is working ineffectively in the Cape Town health district assessed, and this appears to be representative of a broader trend in South Africa. Inclusion of fetal ultrasound in the process of prenatal screening for DS should be explored as a way forward.

M F, Urban; C, Stewart; T, Ruppelt; L, Geerts.

2011-01-01

113

Effects of maternal exposure to the galactagogue Sulpiride on reproductive parameters in female rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antipsychotic Sulpiride has been documented as an effective galactagogue that acts blocking dopamine receptors, increasing prolactin concentrations. However, this drug passes through the milk exposing neonates during postnatal development, which may result in functional and morphological alterations in adult life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal exposure to Sulpiride during lactation could impair reproductive development of female offspring. The dams were treated daily by gavage with Sulpiride doses of 2.5mg/Kg (SUL 2.5mg group) and 25mg/Kg (SUL 25mg group), or distilled water (Control group) throughout the lactation period. During early life, body weight, anogenital distance, and vaginal opening were analyzed on the female offspring. In adulthood, estrous cycle, sexual behavior, estrogen levels as well as the weight of the reproductive organs were evaluated. There were no differences regarding body weight, anogenital distance, puberty onset, frequency and duration of the estrous cycle and estradiol levels on female offspring. Nonetheless, there were changes in sexual behavior. There was an increase in the number of observations in reflex magnitude 0 (absence of lordosis) and reflex magnitude 2 as well as a reduction of reflex magnitude 3 in the rats of SUL 25mg group in relation to the Control group, suggesting a decrease in sexual receptivity of these animals. These results demonstrate that maternal exposure to Sulpiride can alter reproductive function in female offspring rats. PMID:25554483

de Azevedo Camin, Nathália; Vieira, Milene Leivas; Montagnini, Bruno Garcia; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

2015-03-01

114

Effect of melatonin or maternal nutrient restriction on vascularity and cell proliferation in the ovine placenta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously we reported increased umbilical artery blood flow in ewes supplemented with melatonin from mid- to late-pregnancy, while maternal nutrient restriction decreased uterine artery blood flow. To further unravel these responses, this study was designed to assess placental cell proliferation and vascularity following supplementation with melatonin or maternal nutrient restriction. For the first experiment, 31 primiparous ewes were supplemented with 5mg of melatonin per day (MEL) or no melatonin (CON) and allocated to receive 100% (adequate fed; ADQ) or 60% (restricted; RES) of their nutrient requirements from day 50 to 130 of gestation. To examine melatonin receptor dependent effects, a second experiment was designed utilizing 14 primiparous ewes infused with vehicle, melatonin, or luzindole (melatonin receptor 1 and 2 antagonist) from day 62 to 90 of gestation. For experiment 1, caruncle concentrations of RNA were increased in MEL-RES compared to CON-RES. Caruncle capillary area density and average capillary cross-sectional area were decreased in MEL-RES compared to CON-RES. Cotyledon vascularity was not different across dietary treatments. For experiment 2, placental cellular proliferation and vascularity were not affected by infusion treatment. In summary, melatonin interacted with nutrient restriction to alter caruncle vascularity and RNA concentrations during late pregnancy. Although melatonin receptor antagonism alters feto-placental blood flow, these receptor dependent responses were not observed in placental vascularity. Moreover, placental vascularity measures do not fully explain the alterations in uteroplacental blood flow. PMID:25578503

Eifert, Adam W; Wilson, Matthew E; Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Camacho, Leticia E; Borowicz, Pawel P; Redmer, Dale A; Romero, Sinibaldo; Dorsam, Sheri; Haring, Jodie; Lemley, Caleb O

2015-02-01

115

Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on Cholinergic System in Rat Brain  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated an association between early stressful life events and adult life psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In rodents, early life exposure to stressors such as maternal deprivation (MD) produces numerous hormonal, neurochemical, and behavioral changes and is accepted as one of the animal models of schizophrenia. The stress induces acetylcholine (Ach) release in the forebrain and the alterations in cholinergic neurotransmitter system are reported in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine long-term effects of maternal separation on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in different brain structures and the density of cholinergic fibers in hippocampus and retrosplenial (RS) cortex. Wistar rats were separated from their mothers on the postnatal day (P) 9 for 24?h and sacrificed on P60. Control group of rats was bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Brain regions were collected for AChE activity measurements and morphometric analysis. Obtained results showed significant decrease of the AChE activity in cortex and increase in the hippocampus of MD rats. Density of cholinergic fibers was significantly increased in CA1 region of hippocampus and decreased in RS cortex. Our results indicate that MD causes long-term structure specific changes in the cholinergic system. PMID:24711997

Markovi?, Branka; Radonji?, Nevena V.; Aksi?, Milan; Filipovi?, Branislav; Petronijevi?, Nataša

2014-01-01

116

The genetic control of maternal effects on mutations recovered from X-rayed mature drosophila sperm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drosophila melanogaster males carrying a ring-X-chromosome were X-rayed and crossed to virgin females of 7 stocks, which had their second and third chromosomes systematically substituted. In the same experiment dominant lethals, sex-chromosome losses, and reciprocal translocations were recorded. Maternal effects on mutation fixation were observable as differences in the mutation frequencies observed with the different types of females. With the set of substitution stocks studied it was found that the maternal genotype strongly influences the frequencies of chromosome losses. The influence on classical chromosome-breakage phenomena, such as dominant lethals and translocations, however, are weak. The differences in the chromosome-loss frequencies may result either from different time intervals between insemination and the beginning of chromosome replication, and/or the efficiency of a repair system. One or more strong genetic factors reponsible for such modifications could be located on the third chromosome. On the second chromosome, at best only weak factors are present. (Auth.)

117

Effects of combinations of maternal agents on the fetal cerebrum in rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fetal cerebral development influenced by maternal ethanol or caffeine either singly or in combination with X-irradiation was investigated in rat. Female Wistar rats were given 20 % ethanol, 0.04 % caffeine and water during the premating period and pregnancy, and 0.03 % vitamin E only during pregnancy. Pregnant rats were X-irradiated with 100 R or sham-irradiated on gestational day 13. Ethanol-treatment alone much reduced the fetal body and cerebral weights, and X-irradiation alone resulted in great reductions in weight and DNA concentration in the fetal cerebrum. The reduction in body weight with ethanol exceeded that with X-irradiation, therefore, the addition of X-irradiation had no effect on that of ethanol. The reduction in cerebral weight on X-irradiation exceeded that with ethanol, thus the addition of ethanol had only a slight effect on that with X-irradiation. The decrease in body and cerebral weights and the increase in lipid peroxide (LP) formation on caffeine-treatment and the decrease in cerebral weight and the increase in LP on vitamin E-treatment were inhibited by X-irradiation as compared to the combined effects of the other drink treatments. The increase in placental weight and the decrease in cerebral weight on ethanol-treatment and the decrease in placental, body and cerebral weights on caffeine-treatment, which findings were covered by the addition of X-irradiation, became much clearer on single drink treatment. Independently of X-irradiation, ethanent. Independently of X-irradiation, ethanol-treatment resulted in increased fetal mortality and LP, and decreased body weight. These results suggest that the combined effects of maternal agents on live fetuses should be investigated as to whether they act independently of or dependently with each other and how the effects appear either singly or mixed. (author)

118

Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on rat maternal behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has several deleterious effects on the nervous system such as alterations in the concentrations of neurotransmitters in the brain and/or behavioral changes, myelination rate, ganglioside pattern [Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R., Antonelli, M., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 2002. Increased sensitivity in dopamine D(2)-like brain receptors from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-exposed and amphetamine-challenged rats. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 965, 314-323; Duffard, R., Garcia, G., Rosso, S., Bortolozzi, A., Madariaga, M., DiPaolo, O., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 1996. Central nervous system myelin deficit in rats exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid throughout lactation. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 18, 691-696; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Orta, C., Duffard, R., 1990. Behavioral changes in rats fed a diet containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic butyl ester. Neurotoxicology 11, 563-572; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R.O., 1995. Altered behavioral responses in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated and amphetamine challenged rats. Neurotoxicology 16, 479-488; Munro, I.C., Carlo, G.L., Orr, J.C., Sund, K., Wilson, R.M. Kennepohl, E. Lynch, B., Jablinske, M., Lee, N., 1992. A comprehensive, integrated review and evaluation of the scientific evidence relating to the safety of the herbicide 2,4-D. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 11, 559-664; Rosso et al., 2000], and its administration to pregnant and lactating ratministration to pregnant and lactating rats adversely affects litter growth and milk quality. Since normal growth of the offspring depends on adequate maternal nursing and care, we evaluated the effect of 2,4-D on rat maternal behavior as well as the dam's monoamine levels in arcuate nucleus (AcN) and serum prolactin (PRL) levels. Wistar dams were exposed to the herbicide through the food from post partum day (PPD) 1 to PPD 7. Dams were fed either with a 2,4-D treated diet (15, 25 or 50 mg 2,4-D/kg/day bw) or with a control diet. We observed that maternal nesting behavior was not modified by 2,4-D treatment. However, mother-pup interactions, specially the nursing behavior, were altered. Retrieval, crouching and licking of pups were reduced or suspended after 2,4-D treatment. We also observed an increase in the latency of retrieval and crouching in the dams treated with the herbicide. Dams showed movement along cage peripheries, food consumption during the light phase and high self-grooming. In addition of the deficits observed in maternal behavior parameters, increased catecholamine levels and a drastic decrease in indolamine levels in the AcN of treated dams were determined. Serum PRL levels were also diminished by 62%, 68% and 70% with respect to control dams in the 15, 25 and 50 mg 2,4-D/kg bw treated dams, respectively. In conclusion, exposure to 2,4-D during the first post partum days produced changes in maternal behavior, serum prolactin and monoamine levels in the AcN of treated dams

119

Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence  

OpenAIRE

We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers’ adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11–13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the ...

Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

2012-01-01

120

Methyl Donor Supplementation Blocks the Adverse Effects of Maternal High Fat Diet on Offspring Physiology  

OpenAIRE

Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation cou...

Carlin, Jesselea; George, Robert; Reyes, Teresa M.

2013-01-01

121

Effects of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Maternal Antibodies on Experimental Infection of Piglets with PCV2  

OpenAIRE

To determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) maternal antibodies on and response to experimental PCV2 infection, 24 piglets were divided into four groups on the basis of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers of PCV2 maternal antibodies: group A (n = 6; sample/positive [S/P] ratio, 0.2 to 0.5). Piglets in groups A, B, and C were inoculated with PCV2 at day 0 and challenged with PCV2 at day 42. Group D piglets were not exposed to PCV2 at day 0 but were challenged at day 4...

Mckeown, N. E.; Opriessnig, T.; Thomas, P.; Guenette, D. K.; Elvinger, F.; Fenaux, M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

2005-01-01

122

Maternal filaggrin mutations increase the risk of atopic dermatitis in children: an effect independent of mutation inheritance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies suggest that allergy risk is preferentially transmitted through mothers. This can be due to genomic imprinting, where the phenotype effect of an allele depends on its parental origin, or due to maternal effects reflecting the maternal genome's influence on the child during prenatal development. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) cause skin barrier deficiency and strongly predispose to atopic dermatitis (AD). We investigated the 4 most prevalent European FLG mutations (c.2282del4, p.R501X, p.R2447X, and p.S3247X) in two samples including 759 and 450 AD families. We used the multinomial and maximum-likelihood approach implemented in the PREMIM/EMIM tool to model parent-of-origin effects. Beyond the known role of FLG inheritance in AD (R1meta-analysis = 2.4, P = 1.0 x 10-36), we observed a strong maternal FLG genotype effect that was consistent in both independent family sets and for all 4 mutations analysed. Overall, children of FLG-carrier mothers had a 1.5-fold increased AD risk (S1 = 1.50, Pmeta-analysis = 8.4 x 10-8). Our data point to two independent and additive effects of FLG mutations: i) carrying a mutation and ii) having a mutation carrier mother. The maternal genotype effect was independent of mutation inheritance and can be seen as a non-genetic transmission of a genetic effect. The FLG maternal effect was observed only when mothers had allergic sensitization (elevated allergen-specific IgE antibody plasma levels), suggesting that FLG mutation-induced systemic immune responses in the mother may influence AD risk in the child. Notably, the maternal effect reported here was stronger than most common genetic risk factors for AD recently identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our study highlights the power of family-based studies in the identification of new etiological mechanisms and reveals, for the first time, a direct influence of the maternal genotype on the offspring's susceptibility to a common human disease. PMID:25757221

Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Matanovic, Anja; Marenholz, Ingo; Bauerfeind, Anja; Rohde, Klaus; Nemat, Katja; Lee-Kirsch, Min-Ae; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Winge, Marten C G; Keil, Thomas; Krüger, Renate; Lau, Susanne; Beyer, Kirsten; Kalb, Birgit; Niggemann, Bodo; Hübner, Norbert; Cordell, Heather J; Bradley, Maria; Lee, Young-Ae

2015-03-01

123

To What Extent Is the Protective Effect of Breastfeeding on Future Overweight Explained by Decreased Maternal Feeding Restriction?  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE Previous studies have found that breastfeeding may protect infants against future overweight. One proposed mechanism is that breastfeeding, as opposed to bottle feeding, promotes maternal feeding styles that are less controlling and more responsive to infant cues of hunger and satiety, thereby allowing infants greater self-regulation of energy intake. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the protective effect of breastfeeding on future overweight is explained by decreased maternal feeding restriction. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied 1012 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, an ongoing prospective cohort study of pregnant mothers and their children. The main exposure was breastfeeding duration, assessed at 1 year postpartum. At 3 years of age, the main outcomes were age- and gender-specific BMI z score and the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses, with overweight defined as a BMI ?95th percentile. We defined maternal restriction of infant’s access to food as strongly agreeing or agreeing, with the following question from the Child Feeding Questionnaire: “I have to be careful not to feed my child too much.” To examine the association between breastfeeding duration and our outcomes, we used multivariate linear and logistic models, adjusting for several potential confounders. In subsequent models, we also adjusted for maternal restriction of infant’s access to food. RESULTS The mean duration of breastfeeding was 6.5 months, and 12% of women strongly agreed or agreed with the restriction question. At age 3, mean for BMI z score was 0.47. Each 3-month increment in breastfeeding duration was associated with a reduction of 0.045 BMI z score. After adjusting for maternal restriction, the estimate was ?0.039, a 13% attenuation. CONCLUSION The protective effect of breastfeeding on future overweight seems to be explained only partially by decreased maternal feeding restriction. PMID:17142517

Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Scanlon, Kelley S.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.; Sherry, Bettylou; Gillman, Matthew W.

2015-01-01

124

Effects on life history variables and population dynamics following maternal metal exposure in the live-bearing fish Gambusia affinis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of maternal copper and maternal cadmium exposure on life history variables and population dynamics in a live-bearing fish species. Gravid females were exposed to copper, cadmium, or background metal levels (control); maternal transfer of the metals was previously demonstrated using the exact same design. Each female's first brood, born after the exposure, was subdivided into two groups. One group was raised in the laboratory, to assess time-to and size-at sexual maturity, reproductive output and other life history variables. Offspring from the other group were used to start four mesocosm populations for each treatment. These populations were sampled monthly, for about 18 months, to assess population dynamics. For the laboratory-reared fish, offspring of copper-exposed females reached sexual maturity at a smaller size than did offspring from the other treatments. Maternal copper exposure and maternal cadmium exposure both resulted in fewer broods and an increase in gestation time. No impacts were detected for brood size, inter-brood interval, time-to-sexual-maturity, or life span. In the greenhouse population study, no effect of maternal copper or cadmium exposure was evident for population parameters, other than that the relative abundance of juveniles and/or newborns was reduced in populations established with offspring of the exposed females. This study provided evidence that a short-term metal exposure of gravid females can negatively affect their offspring's life history variables and potentially influence population dynamics in a life-bearing fish species. PMID:25564012

Cazan, Alfy Morales; Klerks, Paul L

2015-04-01

125

Evaluative Pressure in Mothers: Effects of Situation, Maternal, and Child Characteristics on Autonomy Supportive versus Controlling Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of situational pressure and maternal characteristics (social contingent self-worth, controlling parenting attitudes) on mothers' autonomy support versus control in the social domain. Sixty 4th-grade children and their mothers worked on a laboratory task in preparation for meeting new children, with mothers in either…

Grolnick, Wendy S.; Price, Carrie E.; Beiswenger, Krista L.; Sauck, Christine C.

2007-01-01

126

Effects of maternal thrombocytopenia on platelet counts of pre- and postnatal mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of maternal thrombocytopenia on platelet counts of pre- and postnatal mice were determined. Platelet counts of gravid mice were reduced at 2 to 3 days before parturition by injection of rabbit anti-mouse platelet serum (RAMPS). Marked rebound-thrombocytosis was observed after 4 to 6 days. Platelet counts of pre- and postnatal mice whose mothers were injected with RAMPS 3 days before parturition were unaltered except at 1 day before and at the time of birth when they were significantly (P less than 0.005) reduced. The results of immunodiffusion techniques showed that RAMPS crossed the placental barrier resulting in reduced platelet counts of the fetuses, but significant fetal rebound-thrombocytosis was not observed.

McDonald, T.P.; Clift, R.; Dunn, C.D.R.

1977-10-15

127

The different effects of maternal separation on spatial learning and reversal learning in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early postnatal maternal separation (MS) can play an important role in the development of psychopathologies during ontogeny. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4h per day from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 21) on locomotor activity and anxiety behavior in open field, spatial learning and reversal learning in Morris water maze of male and female juvenile (PND 21), adolescent (PND 35) and early adult (PND 56) Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased locomotor activity of rats across all ages and reduced anxiety behavior of adolescent rats in open field test. MS also increased swim distance in spatial learning and decreased escape latency in reversal learning in adolescent and early adult rats. Additionally, for socially reared rats, there was increased spontaneous locomotion with age, decreased reversal learning ability with age. The present study provides novel insights into the consequences of MS and demonstrates unique age-dependent changes at the behavioral levels. PMID:25479401

Wang, Qiong; Li, Man; Du, Wei; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

2015-03-01

128

Maternal adrenalectomy abrogates the effect of fetal alcohol exposure on the interleukin-1beta-induced febrile response: gender differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) has been shown to blunt the febrile component of the primary host-defense response to infection induced experimentally by systemic administration of interleukin (IL)-1beta. Given that maternal adrenalectomy (ADX) can prevent various postnatal effects of FAE, the present experiments were designed to determine whether maternal ADX would prevent the blunted IL-1beta-induced febrile response of fetal alcohol-exposed offspring and whether the effects of maternal ADX would be gender related. Timed-pregnant rats underwent ADX or were sham-operated on gestation day (GD) 7, or remained intact (without any surgery), and were fed ethanol-containing (E) or pair-fed (PF) liquid diets or normal (N) rat chow and water from GD 8 to GD 21. As adults, male and female E, PF and N offspring were injected with saline on day 1 and with IL-1beta (2 microg/kg, i.p.) on day 2 at 09.00 h and the body temperature was recorded biotelemetrically for 8.5 h. IL-1beta produced significantly lower febrile responses in female than in male offspring of intact dams, irrespective of prenatal diet. Furthermore, prenatal surgical stress differentially affected the IL-1beta-induced febrile response of male and female normally fed offspring. Additionally, in both male and female offspring of intact dams, FAE significantly attenuated the IL-1beta-induced febrile response. In males, FAE also attenuated the febrile response in the offspring of maternal sham-operated dams, and this effect was completely reversed by maternal ADX. In females, both maternal sham surgery and ADX reversed the effect of FAE on the febrile response. These findings suggest that maternal adrenal mediators are essential for the long-term effect of FAE on the febrile response in male offspring. In females, early prenatal surgical stress is sufficient to reverse the effects of FAE, possibly via adrenal-independent mechanisms that affect the thermoregulatory system. PMID:12218351

Taylor, Anna N; Tritt, Susan H; Tio, Delia L; Romeo, Horacio E; Yirmiya, Raz

2002-09-01

129

Effects of level and source of dietary selenium on maternal and fetal body weight, visceral organ mass, cellularity estimates, and jejunal vascularity in pregnant ewe lambs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant Targhee ewe lambs (n = 32; BW = 45.6 ± 2.3 kg) were allotted randomly to one of four treatments in a completely randomized design to examine effects of dietary-Se level and source on maternal and fetal visceral organ mass, cellularity estimates, and maternal jejunal crypt cell proliferation...

130

Effects of Setting and Maternal Accessibility on the Infant's Response to Brief Separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responses of 80 10-month-old infants to brief maternal separation were observed in home and laboratory settings and in two conditions of maternal accessibility: mothers' exit door closed or open. Results show the importance of situational determinants in the investigation of infant attachment behavior. (Author/RH)

Rinkoff, Robert F.; Corter, Carl M.

1980-01-01

131

Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez / Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular) e perinatais (peso e prematuridade) da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22) e [...] não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19) de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e relativa. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx), volume sistólico (VS) e débito cardíaco (DC). Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0%) e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0%) e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5) e DC de (13,5 para 15,1); no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity) and perinatal (weight and prematurity) effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random cohort study, with 41 low-risk pregnant women in their first pregnancy, practicing (study group, n=22) and not (co [...] ntrol group, n=19) hydrotherapy. Anthropometric evaluation was used to assess lean mass, and absolute and relative body fat. Ergometric tests were used for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). Perinatal results showed premature births and small for gestational age newborns. Initial and final indexes within and between groups were compared. Maternal variables were evaluated using the t test for dependent and independent values; the chi ² test was used to study proportions. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the groups for maternal variables at the start and end of hydrotherapy. Comparison within each group confirmed the beneficial effect of hydrotherapy. In the study group, relative fat index was maintained at 29.0%; the control group showed an increase from 28.8% to 30.7%; the study group maintained VO2max at 35%, and increased SV from 106.6 to 121.5 and CO from 13.5 to 15.1; the control group showed a drop in VO2max and no change in SV and CO. There was no relationship between hydrotherapy and perinatal results. CONCLUSIONS: hydrotherapy adequately assisted metabolic and cardiovascular maternal adaptation to pregnancy and did not cause prematurity or weight loss in newborns.

Tânia Terezinha Scudeller, Prevedel; Iracema de Mattos Paranhos, Calderon; Marta Helena, De Conti; Elenice Bertanha, Consonni; Marilza Vieira Cunha, Rudge.

2003-02-01

132

Gestational Ethanol and Nicotine Exposure: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Oxytocin, and Offspring Ethanol Intake in the Rat  

OpenAIRE

Alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy is common, despite the known adverse effects of these drugs on fetal development. Though studies on the effects of each drug separately are published, little is known about the effect of concurrent use of alcohol and nicotine in humans or in preclinical models. In this report, we examined the impact of continuous gestational exposure to both ethanol via liquid diet and nicotine via an osmotic minipump on maternal behavior, offspring ethanol int...

Mcmurray, M. S.; Williams, S. K.; Jarrett, T. M.; Cox, E. T.; Fay, E. E.; Overstreet, D. H.; Walker, C. H.; Johns, J. M.

2008-01-01

133

Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten percent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction. Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal DA patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal DA after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet. PMID:25566077

Zielinsky, Paulo; Martignoni, Felipe V; Vian, Izabele

2014-01-01

134

Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P Angus, or MARC III)was significant (P < 0.05) only for fat depth, USDA yield grade, retail product yield, fat yield, fat weight, and bone yield. Sire breed was significant (P < 0.05) for live weight, hot carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems. PMID:12723078

Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

2003-04-01

135

Effect of endogenous vasoconstrictors on maternal intramyometrial and fetal stem villous arteries in pre-eclampsia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The contractile responses to various endogenous vasoactive agents were investigated in isolated human uteroplacental arteries from normotensive (NT) patients and patients with pre-eclampsia (PE) undergoing caesarian section. Tissue samples were obtained from the uterine incision and from macroscopically normal cotyledons. Vascular ring preparations of intramyometrial and stem villous arteries (length 1.0-1.3 mm, outer diameter 400-600 microns) were dissected and mounted in organ baths and isometric tension was recorded. Concentration-response relationships for vasopressin (VP), oxytocin (OX), angiotensin II (Ang II), noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were assessed. For each compound, the mean maximum contractile effect (Emax) and the drug concentration producing half-maximal response (EC50) were determined. In intramyometrial arteries from NT and PE patients, VP, Ang II, NA, 5-HT and PGF2 alpha induced contraction while OX and PGE2 produced weak or no responses. Preparations from PE patients showed higher Emax values, while no differences in EC50 were found between the two groups. In fetal stem villous arteries, Ang II, 5-HT, PGF2 alpha and PGE2 induced contractions, while VP, NA and OX produced weak responses. No differences in Emax or EC50 values were found between the fetal vessels of PE and NT patients. No qualitative differences were demonstrated in response to the agents tested between the vessels (fetal and maternal) from NT women at term and PE patients. However, the results may reflect quantitative differences, suggesting increased contractility of maternal uteroplacental arteries from women with PE.

Allen, J; Forman, Axel

1989-01-01

136

Effect of Maternal Anxiety during Third Trimester on Pregnancy Outcomes and Infants’ Mental Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & Aim: The issue of children's mental health has been attracting widespread attention in recent years and the issue of parent-child mental health is particularly important. To investigate the effect of maternal anxiety on pregnancy outcome and also infants' mental health were the main purposes of this article. Methods & Materials: In this comparative study, a total of 40 pregnant women were selected using random sampling method from Imam Khomeini hospital. First, The women completed the Ketel anxiety questionnaire during the third trimester of their pregnancies. Based on the results, 20 women were allocated in the anxious mothers' group and the other 20 women were allocated in the calm mothers' group. Then, birth indicators were measured in both groups at the time of birth. Finally, infants' mental health indicators were measured using infants mental health measurement scale three months later. Data were analyzed using descriptive- inferential statistics (Chi-square and t-test in SPSS. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences in anthropometric indexes between two groups (P<0.001. The rate of vaginal delivery was more in calm mothers than in the vexatious ones. Most of the calm mothers stated that they had wanted pregnancies. Mental health of the calm mothers' newborns were significantly higher than the mental health of the other group's newborns (P<0.001. Conclusion: These findings illustrated that maternal mental status could affect pregnancy outcomes at birth and infants' mental health third months after birth.   Key words: anxiety, infants' mental health, pregnancy outcome

Z Shayeghian

2008-09-01

137

Maternal effects are long-lasting and influence female offspring's reproductive strategy in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adaptive benefits of maternal investment into individual offspring (inherited environmental effects) will be shaped by selection on mothers as well as their offspring, often across variable environments. We examined how a mother's nutritional environment interacted with her offspring's nutritional and social environment in Xiphophorus multilineatus, a live-bearing fish. Fry from mothers reared on two different nutritional diets (HQ=high quality and LQ=low quality) were all reared on a LQ diet in addition to being split between two social treatments: exposed to a large adult male during development and not exposed. Mothers raised on a HQ diet produce offspring that were not only initially larger (at 14 days of age), but grew faster, and were larger at sexual maturity. Male offspring from mothers raised on both diets responded to the exposure to courter males by growing faster; however, the response of their sisters varied with mother's diet; females from HQ diet mothers reduced growth if exposed to a courter male, whereas females from LQ diet mothers increased growth. Therefore, we detected variation in maternal investment depending on female size and diet, and the effects of this variation on offspring were long-lasting and sex specific. Our results support the maternal stress hypothesis, with selection on mothers to reduce investment in low-quality environments. In addition, the interaction we detected between the mother's nutritional environment and the female offspring's social environment suggests that female offspring adopted different reproductive strategies depending on maternal investment. PMID:24823268

Murphy, A D; Goedert, D; Morris, M R

2014-08-01

138

Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This review evaluates the evidence of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, in comparison with standard iron-folate supplements, on specific maternal and pregnancy outcomes of relevance to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Data sources/review methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Search engines used were PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the WHO regional databases and hand search of bibliographies. A standardized data abstraction and Child Health Epidemiology Reference (CHERG adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE technique were used for data abstraction and overall quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary estimates of utility to the LiST model for the specified outcome of incidence of SGA births. We also evaluated the potential impact of multiple micronutrients on neonatal mortality according to the proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities (using a threshold of 60% to indicate functionality of health systems for skilled births. Results We included 17 studies for detailed data abstraction. There was no significant benefit of multiple micronutrients as compared to iron folate on maternal anemia in third trimester [Relative risk (RR = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87 – 1.22 (random model]. Our analysis, however, showed a significant reduction in SGA by 9% [RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 – 0.96 (fixed model]. In the fixed model, the SGA outcome remained significant only in women with mean body mass index (BMI ? 22 kg/m2. There was an increased risk of neonatal mortality in studies with majority of births at home [RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.92]; such an effect was not evident where ? 60% of births occurred in facility settings [RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81-1.09]. Overall there was no increase in the risk of neonatal mortality [RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92 – 1.19 (fixed model]. Conclusion This review provides evidence of a significant benefit of MMN supplementation during pregnancy on reducing SGA births as compared to iron-folate, with no significant increase in the risk of neonatal mortality in populations where skilled birth care is available and majority of births take place in facilities. Given comparability of impacts on maternal anemia, the decision to replace iron-folate with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy may be taken in the context of available services in health systems and birth outcomes monitored.

Yakoob Mohammad

2011-04-01

139

Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 77) with a past year diagnosis of a depressive disorder and a child between the ages of ages 8–14 were administered a clinician interview and measures of maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing) in a cross-sectional design. Results showed that more than half (58%) of the mothers had a comorbid anxiety disorder and a third had Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Regression analyses showed that comorbid PTSD and Social Phobia were positively associated with maternal depression severity. Maternal comorbid Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) was associated with child internalizing symptoms. The findings are consistent with other research demonstrating negative outcomes with maternal comorbidity of depression and anxiety, however, there is limited research focused on maternal depression and OCD or PTSD. The study suggests that it is important to consider comorbid anxiety and cultural issues when conceptualizing, studying, and treating mothers with depression and their families. PMID:24040577

Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden

2013-01-01

140

Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and ?-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6?g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and ?-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p?=?0.001), 2.7-fold (p?=?0.001) and 1.7-fold (p?=?0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation. PMID:24635025

Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

2014-08-01

141

Where do all the maternal effects go? Variation in offspring body size through ontogeny in the live-bearing fish Poecilia parae  

OpenAIRE

Maternal effects are an important source of adaptive variation, but little is known about how they vary throughout ontogeny. We estimate the contribution of maternal effects, sire genetic and environmental variation to offspring body size from birth until 1 year of age in the live-bearing fish Poecilia parae. In both the sexes, maternal effects on body size were initially high in juveniles, and then declined to zero at sexual maturity. In sons, this was accompanied by a sharp rise in sire gen...

Lindholm, Anna K.; Hunt, John; Brooks, Robert

2006-01-01

142

Effects of CdCl2 on the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 67Cu and placental blood flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Copper is an essential element while Cd is an extremely toxic heavy metal of questionable biological usefulness. Cadmium has been reported to interfere with the metabolism of Cu, be teratogenic, and decrease blood flow in the fetal placenta. Because of these reported biological interactions of Cd and Cu, this investigation was conducted to determine the effects of Cd on placental transport of 67Cu and placental blood flow in the guinea pig. All guinea pigs used were 60 +/- 1 days pregnant. A placental perfusion technique was used to measure the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 67Cu and 3H2O across the placenta. The clearance of 3H2O served as an indicator of placental blood flow on the maternal side of the circulation. The results indicated that an iv injection of 1 mg Cd/kg body weight resulted in an immediate increase in the clearance of 67Cu which declined over the next 8 min to an elevated level compared to the extrapolated best-fit curve of control values. This iv injection of CdCl2 concomitantly reduced the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 3H2O across the placenta. In conclusion, an acute exposure of the pregnant female to CdCl2 results in an increased maternal-to-fetal clearance 67Cu and a reduced placental blood flow that can alter the supply of nutrients to the developing embryo or fetus, and therefore modify normal development therefore modify normal development

143

Correction of the maternal effect linked to the ac mutation, by injury of the egg, in the salamander Pleurodeles waltlii.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the gastrula stage, deep irregular furrows appear on the animal hemisphere in embryos arising from ac/ac females and characterize a maternal effect (Beetschen, 1970). Disturbed morphogenetic movements (epiboly and invagination) frequently elicit exogastrulation or anomalies of later embryonic development. Pricking the animal hemisphere of the uncleaved egg with a micropipette prevents the occurrence of anomalies during gastrulation and neurulation in many embryos. Injection of normal oocyte nuclear sap or of normal egg cytoplasm into mutant female eggs does not improve that result. The partial correction of the maternal effect therefore appears to be consecutive to the injury of the cortical cytoplasm and/or the plasma membrane. Assuming that activation could be deficient, an electric shock was applied to freshly laid fertilized mutant eggs. It did not correct ectodermal anomalies but nevertheless seemed to increase the corrective effect of pricking when both treatments were applied. PMID:536691

Fernandez, M

1979-10-01

144

The potential of immunization with synthetic peptides to overcome the immunosuppressive effect of maternal anti-measles virus antibodies in young mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we describe the results of experiments designed to test the hypothesis that immunogenic synthetic peptides representing non-immunodominant B- and T-cell epitopes of measles virus (MV) proteins can overcome the suppressive effect of maternal antibodies and induce anti-MV antibodies in young mice in the presence of maternal antibody to the virus. We have established a mouse model of immunosuppression by maternal antibody of both anti-MV and anti-peptide antibody responses in the young. Results obtained with this model immunization of young mice with a cocktail of synthetic peptides can overcome the suppression by maternal anti-MV antibodies and results in the induction of anti-peptide antibodies which recognize the virus. This work indicates that appropriately selected synthetic peptides have potential as vaccines which can be immunogenic and induce antibodies reactive with the virus-virus antibodies. in the presence of maternal anit-virus antibodies. PMID:8045592

Obeid, O E; Steward, M W

1994-05-01

145

BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING  

Science.gov (United States)

Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

146

Stage dependence of phenotypical and phenological maternal effects: insight into squamate reptile reproductive strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced thermal conditions have been credited as a driving force for the evolution of viviparity, particularly in squamate reptiles, among which it has independently evolved more than 100 times. However, maternal thermoregulation is also a critical component of reproduction in oviparous squamates, for which considerable embryonic development occurs prior to oviposition. When carrying eggs, oviparous mothers modify thermoregulation in a manner similar to that of pregnant females. To further understand the role of temperature in influencing reproductive strategies, it is critical that we elucidate the degree to which thermal sensitivity varies across developmental stages. We studied stage-dependent embryonic sensitivity in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper (Vipera aspis). We manipulated female body temperature at different stages of pregnancy-early development, early embryonic growth, and late embryonic growth-by imposing two contrasting daily thermal cycles that mimicked reproductive (warm) and nonreproductive (cool) female temperature profiles. Thermal sensitivity of offspring phenotype was stage dependent, with offspring quality more negatively affected when exposure to cool temperatures occurred early in development. In contrast, developmental rate was slowed by the cooler cycle, independent of the timing of the exposure. Given the more persistent effect on phenology, phenological effects likely provide a greater driving force for complete embryonic retention (i.e., viviparity). PMID:23852356

Lorioux, Sophie; Vaugoyeau, Marie; Denardo, Dale F; Clobert, Jean; Guillon, Michaël; Lourdais, Olivier

2013-08-01

147

Maternal-age effect in aneuploidy: Does altered embryonic selection play a role?  

OpenAIRE

The age of mothers of children with trisomy 21 (47,+21) is elevated no matter if the extra chromosome is of maternal or paternal origin, and it has been postulated that decreasing maternal selection against affected conceptuses with advancing age might explain this observation. Since the absence of sufficient data on 47,+21 abortuses precludes a direct test of this hypothesis, we have taken an indirect approach. Pooled data from spontaneous abortions and live births with autosomal trisomies, ...

Aymé, Ségolène; Lippman-hand, Abby

1982-01-01

148

Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression  

OpenAIRE

Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...

Boyd, Rhonda C.; Tervo-clemmens, Brenden

2013-01-01

149

Hormonal Sensitivity of Preterm versus Full-Term Infants to the Effects of Maternal Depression  

OpenAIRE

Comparisons were made of differences in the hormonal sensitivity of preterm versus full-term infants to maternal depression, as reflected in children's cortisol levels. In Study 1 (N = 25), a comparison was made between preterm versus healthy full-term children. In Study 2 (N = 80), a comparison was made between preterm infants and full-term infants with mild or moderate medical problems. Preterm infants were found be highly reactive to maternal depression (as measured by the Beck Depression ...

Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Beaulieu, David; Schwartz, Alex

2007-01-01

150

STUDY OF EFFECT OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE RELATED RISKS FOR DOWN SYNDROME & OTHER TRISOMIES.  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACTBack ground: Down syndrome is the most frequent live born aneuploidy & recognizable form of mental retardation among all the ethnic groups of human population across the globe. The most common risk factor for DS is advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to find out risks of advanced maternal age for chromosomal abnormalities.  Materials & methods: The chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed by cytogenetic study of 30 clinically diagnosed cases of DS attending paedi...

toral goswami; Vaishali Patel; Amita Mevada; Neha Harjivanbhai Pandya; kinnar somabhai desai; Mitesh Suthar

2013-01-01

151

Effects of early life social stress on endocrinology, maternal behavior, and lactation in rats  

OpenAIRE

Exposure to early life stress is a predictor of mental health disorders, and two common forms of early life stress are social conflict and impaired maternal care, which are predominant features of postpartum mood disorders. Exposure of lactating female rats to a novel male intruder involves robust social conflict and induces deficits in maternal care towards the F1 offspring. This exposure is an early life social stressor for female F1 pups that induces inefficient lactation associated with c...

Carini, Lindsay M.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

2013-01-01

152

Effects of Early Life Social Stress on Maternal Behavior and Neuroendocrinology  

OpenAIRE

Maternal mood disorders such as depression and chronic anxiety can negatively affect the lives of both mothers and their adult offspring. An active focus of maternal depression and anxiety research has been the role of chronic social stress in the development of these disorders. Chronic exposure to social stress is common in humans, especially in lactating mothers, and postpartum mood disorders have been correlated with high levels of social conflict and low levels of social support. Recent s...

Murgatroyd, Christopher A.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

2012-01-01

153

Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-[1-14C]leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancyal amino acids during late pregnancy

154

Effects of maternal energetic efficiency on egg traits, chick traits, broiler growth, yield, and meat quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed egg traits, chick traits, growth, yield, and meat quality characteristics of the offspring from broiler breeders classified by 2 measurements of energetic efficiency: residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between observed and expected ME intake, and residual maintenance requirement (RME(m)), defined as the residual of the relationship between hen maintenance requirement and feed intake. A group of 72 pullets were placed in laying cages from 16 to 60 wk of age. Individual hen-based feed allocation was provided following a standard BW target. At 41wk, eggs from 8 d of production were collected and pedigree hatched. Chicks were assigned to 1 of 3 maternal RFI (RFI(mat)) categories: low, average, and high. A total of 366 chicks were placed in 36 floor pens, 6 per sex x RFI(mat) interaction, and raised to 38 d. At the end of the breeder experiment (60 wk), broilers were retrospectively assigned to a low or high maternal RME(m) (RME(mmat)) category. Low RFI(mat) broilers had greater 38-d BW than average and high RFI(mat) broilers. That was achieved through a greater BW gain and feed intake of low RFI(mat) broilers from 21 to 28 d. It was found that RFI(mat) had no effect on feed conversion, yield, or meat quality characteristics. Low RME(m) hens produced heavier eggs (62.3 g) and chicks (42.5 g) than high RME(m) hens (60.0 g; 41.0 g), but RME(mmat) did not affect broiler 38-d BW. High RME(mmat) broilers had greater breast yield (29.5%) and lower breast shear force (4.7 kg of force/g) than low RME(mmat) broilers (28.5%; 5.6 kg of force/g). The low RFI(mat) x high RME(mmat) broilers had the greatest growth to 38 d. It was found that RFI(mat) was inversely related to broiler growth, particularly when RME(mmat) was high. Although low maintenance requirements may be desirable for egg and chick production, hens with a high maintenance requirement produced broilers with greater breast yield and tenderness. Minimizing maintenance requirements may not be compatible with maximizing broiler performance and meat yield. PMID:19096079

Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A N; Robinson, F

2009-01-01

155

The effects of maternal depression and use of antidepressants during pregnancy on risk of a child small for gestational age  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

RATIONALE: Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with an increased rate of children small for gestational age (SGA), but it is unclear whether this is due to an effect of the underlying depressive disorder. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of antidepressants on SGA in a nationwide sample and to separate the effect of exposure to antidepressants in utero from the effect of maternal depression. METHODS: A register study was conducted on all pregnant women in Denmark from 1996 to 2006 linking nationwide individualized data from the Medical Birth Register, the Psychiatric Central Register, and a prescription database. The rate of SGA (birth weight below the 10 percentile at given gestational week) was investigated for children exposed in utero to antidepressants or to a maternal psychiatric diagnosis of depression compared to children not prenatally exposed to antidepressants or maternal diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 673,853 pregnancies were included in the study of which 35.737 women had a diagnosis of depression and/or used antidepressants before end of pregnancy. Antidepressant use during pregnancy was weakly associated with SGA (hazard ratios (HR)?=?1.19; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.28), whereas a psychiatric diagnosis before or during pregnancy was not (HR?=?1.02; 95 % CI, 0.92-1.13). The association for use during pregnancy was found for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and newer antidepressants, but not for older antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The use of antidepressants during pregnancy slightly increases the rate of SGA. The association seems unrelated to the underlying maternal depressive disorder.

Jensen, Hans MØrch; GrØn, Randi

2013-01-01

156

Effect of maternal nutrient restriction from early to midgestation on cardiac function and metabolism after adolescent-onset obesity  

OpenAIRE

Maternal nutrient restriction (NR) from early to midgestation has marked effects on endocrine sensitivity and organ function of the resulting offspring. We hypothesized that early NR may reset the expression profile of genes central to myocardial energy metabolism, influencing ectopic lipid deposition and cardiac function in the obese adult offspring. NR offspring were exposed to an “obesogenic” environment, and their cardiac function and molecular indexes of myocardial energy metabolism ...

Chan, L. L. Y.; Se?bert, S. P.; Hyatt, M. A.; Stephenson, T; Budge, H.; Symonds, M. E.; Gardner, D. S.

2009-01-01

157

A biocultural study of the effects of maternal stress on mother and newborn health in the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of stress on human health is a topic of wide-spread relevance and one that is particularly amenable to multidisciplinary investigation. Stress impacts both our psychological and physical health and, thus, may leave evidence on our psyche, our physical body and our genome. We are interested in the effect of extreme stressors, such as war, on health from the perspective of long-term and multigenerational effects. We integrate sociocultural, biological, and epigenetic data from the war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Between May and August, 2010, we measured sociocultural stress exposure among 25 mother-newborn dyads and we measured health outcomes in newborns. We also collected maternal venous blood, placental tissue, and umbilical cord blood to assay for methylation changes to test for a possible epigenetic mechanism that mediates the effects of stress on health. We provide a qualitative description of the wide range of stress exposures experienced by mothers in our study. As we have shown previously, maternal war stress is strongly associated with newborn birthweight and changes in newborn methylation at the glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1. New results presented here demonstrate that maternal war stress and birthweight are also associated with genome-wide changes in maternal methylation levels. In sum, these results suggest that stress may influence gene expression across a broad spectrum in the individual who directly experiences the stress, i.e., the mother, whereas potential heritable effects in the newborn may be focused on specific genes that are uniquely sensitive to environmental cues. PMID:25043696

Rodney, Nicole C; Mulligan, Connie J

2014-10-01

158

A Limited Number of Caenorhabditis Elegans Genes Are Readily Mutable to Dominant, Temperature-Sensitive Maternal-Effect Embryonic Lethality  

OpenAIRE

Dominant gain-of-function mutations can give unique insights into the study of gene function. In addition, gain-of-function mutations, unlike loss-of-function alleles, are not biased against the identification of genetically redundant loci. To identify novel genetic functions active during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis, we have collected a set of dominant temperature-sensitive maternal-effect embryonic lethal mutations. In a previous screen, we isolated eight such mutations, distribute...

Mitenko, N. L.; Eisner, J. R.; Swiston, J. R.; Mains, P. E.

1997-01-01

159

Examining the effects of changes in paid maternity leave policy in Canada, with particular attention to Quebec and Ontario  

OpenAIRE

This research project examines the effects of changes in the maternity leave legislation on the wages of women with children in Canada, specifically Quebec and Ontario, using the data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics 1999 – 2003. I estimate regression equations on women’s wages using OLS, Heckman two step models and difference–in–differences estimation strategy. The results from all these of three methods confirm many of the previous studies’ findings, which suggest tha...

Lanyi, Michael G.

2006-01-01

160

Effect of maternal restraint-stress during gestation on temporal lipopolysacharide-induced neuroendocrine and immune responses of progeny  

OpenAIRE

The impact of gestational dam restraint stress on progeny immune and neuroendocrine temporal hormone responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was assessed. Maternal stress (5-min snout snare restraint stress during d 84 to 112 of gestation) increased (P < 0.05) the magnitude of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6, epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) and serum amyloid A (SAA) production following LPS infusion in the offspring. Moreover, these effects appear to be depende...

Collier, C. T.; Williams, P. N.; Carroll, J. A.; Welsh, T. H.; Laurenz, J. C.

2010-01-01

161

Understanding the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact in maternal and child mortality reduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most unexpected outcomes arising from the efforts towards maternal and child mortality reduction is that all too often the objective success has been coupled with increased inequity in the population. The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equity and suggest strategies that will promote an impact on mortality that reduce population child health inequities.

Mickey Chopra

2012-06-01

162

An explicit test for the contribution of environmental maternal effects to rapid clinal differentiation in an invasive plant  

OpenAIRE

Population differentiation of alien invasive plants within their non-native range has received increasingly more attention. Common gardens are typically used to assess the levels of genotypic differentiation among populations. However, in such experiments, environmental maternal effects can influence phenotypic variation among individuals if seed sources are collected from field populations under variable environmental regimes. In the present study, we investigated the causes of an altitudina...

Monty, Arnaud; Lebeau, Julie; Meerts, Pierre; Mahy, Gre?gory

2009-01-01

163

Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats  

OpenAIRE

Objective(s)During recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking ...

Mehran Dorostghoal; Abdolrahaman Dezfoolian; Foroogh Sorooshnia

2011-01-01

164

The effect of maternal care and infrared beak trimming on development, performance and behavior of Silver Nick hens  

OpenAIRE

In the commercial poultry industry, feather pecking leads to damage to the chickens and an increased mortality rate. The effects of two (possible) feather pecking prevention methods, infrared trimming and maternal care, on production parameters, fear, sociality, learning, feeding behavior, and feeding motivation were examined in young Silver Nick hens. Thirtynine Silver Nick hens were tested from the day of hatching until 21 weeks of age. Half of these chickens were beak trimme...

Angevaare, M. J.; Prins, Sander; Staay, F. J.; Nordquist, R. E.

2012-01-01

165

The effect of toddler emotion regulation on maternal emotion socialization: Moderation by toddler gender.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although developmental research continues to connect parenting behaviors with child outcomes, it is critical to examine how child behaviors influence parenting behaviors. Given the emotional, cognitive, and social costs of maladaptive parenting, it is vital to understand the factors that influence maternal socialization behaviors. The current study examined children's observed emotion regulatory behaviors in two contexts (low-threat and high-threat novelty) as one influence. Mother-child dyads (n = 106) with toddlers of 24 months of age participated in novelty episodes from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., caregiver-focused, attention, and self-soothing) were coded, and mothers reported their use of emotion socialization strategies when children were 24 and 36 months. We hypothesized that gender-specific predictive relations would occur, particularly from regulatory behaviors in the low-threat contexts. Gender moderated the relation between caregiver-focused emotion regulation in low-threat contexts and nonsupportive emotion socialization. Results from the current study inform the literature on the salience of child-elicited effects on the parent-child relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24821395

Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

2014-08-01

166

Effect of Skin to Skin Contact on Maternal State Anxiety in a Cesarean Section Ward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at investigating the effect of skin to skin contact (SSC on maternal state anxiety (MSA in cesarean section unit in Akbarabadi Hospital in Tehran. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 60 Iranian mothers with at least one record of cesarean section delivery were assigned to two intervention (SSC and control groups. In the morning shift and two hours after the operation, as a routine postoperative care, pain-killers were given to all mothers. Then the mothers’ pain scores were measured using visual analog scale (VAS. If VAS was?3, MSA was measured by using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Scale (Spiel Berger. Thirty minutes of SSC intervention was done for mothers in the intervention group. Six hours later, in case VAS was ? 3, MSA was re-measured by using the Spiel Berger Scale for all mothers. Results: Six hours after implementing the intervention, there were no meaningful statistical differences between the MSA mean scores of the two groups, but severity of MSA in intervention group was less than that of the control group (P=0.037. Six hours after the intervention, there was a significant decrease in the MSA mean score in SSC group (P=0.002. Conclusion: As regards the important role of constant anxiety in developing postpartum depression, and as the results of this study indicate, SSC is recommended in postpartum and especially cesarean section wards.

Hamid Haghani

2011-01-01

167

Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on the Neuronal Soma Area in the Rat Neocortex  

Science.gov (United States)

Early separation of rat pups from their mothers (separatio a matrem) is considered and accepted as an animal model of perinatal stress. Adult rats, separated early postnatally from their mothers, are developing long-lasting changes in the brain and neuroendocrine system, corresponding to the findings observed in schizophrenia and affective disorders. With the aim to investigate the morphological changes in this animal model we exposed 9-day-old (P9) Wistar rats to a 24?h maternal deprivation (MD). At young adult age rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared with the control group bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Rats exposed to MD had a 28% smaller cell soma area in the prefrontal cortex (PFCX), 30% in retrosplenial cortex (RSCX), and 15% in motor cortex (MCX) compared to the controls. No difference was observed in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the neocortex of MD rats compared to the control group. The results of this study demonstrate that stress in early life has a long-term effect on neuronal soma size in cingulate and retrosplenial cortex and is potentially interesting as these structures play an important role in cognition. PMID:24895554

Aksi?, Milan; Radonji?, Nevena V.; Aleksi?, Dubravka; Jevti?, Gordana; Markovi?, Branka; Petronijevi?, Nataša; Radonji?, Vidosava; Filipovi?, Branislav

2014-01-01

168

Effects of perinatal stress and maternal traumatic stress on the cortisol regulation of preterm infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preterm infants experience intense stress during the perinatal period because they endure painful and intense medical procedures. Repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during this period may have long-term effects on subsequent cortisol regulation. A premature delivery may also be intensely stressful for the parents, and they may develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Usable saliva samples were collected (4 times per day over 2 days, in the morning at awakening, at midday, in the afternoon, and in the evening before going to bed) to assess the diurnal cortisol regulation from 46 preterm infants when the infants were 12 months of corrected age (? 14 months after birth). Mothers reported their level of PTSD symptoms. The results showed an interaction between perinatal stress and maternal traumatic stress on the diurnal cortisol slope of preterm infants (R(2) = .32). This suggests that the HPA axis of preterm infants exposed to high perinatal stress may be more sensitive to subsequent environmental stress. PMID:25158643

Habersaat, Stephanie; Borghini, Ayala; Nessi, Jennifer; Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Müller-Nix, Carole; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Ansermet, François

2014-08-01

169

Effect of exercise on the maternal outcome in pregnancy of spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of exercise (swimming) on pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Thirty three pregnant female SHR were distributed into three groups (n=11 animals/group): SHR Control=non-exercised (sedentary); SHR Ex0 = exercised from day zero to day 20 of [...] pregnancy; and SHR Ex7 = exercised from day 7 to 20 of pregnancy. Body weight and systolic blood pressure were indirectly measured during pregnancy. On gestational day 21, the rats were anaesthetized and uterine content was withdrawn for analysis of maternal reproductive outcome parameters and fetal development. RESULTS: The reduced blood pressure percentage was higher in SHR Ex0 and SHR Ex7 compared to SHR Control group. Weight gain was present in all pregnancy periods, but it was lower in SHR Ex7 than in SHR Control dams. The exercise increased the pre-implantation loss rate. The post-implantation loss rate was lower in SHR Ex0 group. SHR Ex7 group showed a significantly higher percentage of fetuses classified as small for gestational age as compared to others groups. CONCLUSION: The exercise contributed to lowering gestational blood pressure in SHR rats, but had a negative impact on the developing embryo.

Renato, Rocha; José Carlos, Peraçoli; Gustavo Tadeu, Volpato; Débora Cristina, Damasceno; Kleber Eduardo de, Campos.

2014-09-01

170

Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ?1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ?2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ?2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

171

A maternal effect rough deal mutation suggests that multiple pathways regulate Drosophila RZZ kinetochore recruitment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper kinetochore recruitment and regulation of dynein and the Mad1-Mad2 complex requires the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch (RZZ) complex. Here, we describe rod(Z3), a maternal-effect Drosophila mutation changing a single residue in the Rough Deal (Rod) subunit of RZZ. Although the RZZ complex containing this altered subunit (denoted R(Z3)ZZ) is present in early syncytial stage embryos laid by homozygous rod(Z3) mothers, it is not recruited to kinetochores. Consequently, the embryos have no spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), and syncytial mitoses are profoundly perturbed. The polar body (residual meiotic products) cannot remain in its SAC-dependent metaphase-like state, and decondenses into chromatin. In neuroblasts of homozygous rod(Z3) larvae, R(Z3)ZZ recruitment is only partially reduced, the SAC is functional and mitosis is relatively normal. R(Z3)ZZ nevertheless behaves abnormally: it does not further accumulate on kinetochores when microtubules are depolymerized; it reduces the rate of Mad1 recruitment; and it dominantly interferes with the dynein-mediated streaming of RZZ from attached kinetochores. These results suggest that the mutated residue of rod(Z3) is required for normal RZZ kinetochore recruitment and function and, moreover, that the RZZ recruitment pathway might differ in syncytial stage embryos and post-embryonic somatic cells. PMID:25616898

Défachelles, Lénaïg; Hainline, Sarah G; Menant, Alexandra; Lee, Laura A; Karess, Roger E

2015-03-15

172

Dominant maternal-effect mutations of Drosophila melanogaster causing the production of double-abdomen embryos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dominant mutations at two loci, BicaudalC (BicC) and BicaudalD (BicD), cause heterozygous females to produce double-abdomen embryos. These mutations cause the production of embryos with a range of defects extending from the anterior end of the differentiated embryo. The same array of defective embryos is caused by mutations at either locus and is similar to that produced by the original mutation at bicaudal (bic). The array of defective embryos suggests that these mutations cause the loss of positional values from the anterior end of the embryo, associated with a duplication of the posterior end if too few positional values remain. BicaudalD mutations appear to be antimorphic, gain-of-function mutations, whereas BicaudalC mutations are likely to be hypomorphic or amorphic mutations. Mutations at all these loci (bic, BicC and BicD) act as mutual enhancers of each other, and a number of other maternal-effect mutations also act to either enhance or suppress the expression of these dominant bicaudal mutations. PMID:3082713

Mohler, J; Wieschaus, E F

1986-04-01

173

The Role of Carnosine in Protection Against the Damaging Effect of Maternal Nicotine Exposure During Gestation and Lactation on the Lung of Albino Rat Offspring  

OpenAIRE

The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the effect of maternal nicotine exposure, during gestation and lactation, on the lung histological structures of rat offspring and its reversibility and (2) to establish whether carnosine would protect the neonatal rat lung against the adverse effects of maternal nicotine exposure. After mating, the pregnant albino rats were divided into three groups; group I (control group) received a daily subcutaneous injection of normal saline, group II recei...

Hoda Mahmoud El-Aasar; Soliman, Kawther M.

2007-01-01

174

Maternal immunization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324

Chu, Helen Y; Englund, Janet A

2014-08-15

175

Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum, low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density but they had different food availability. In the two latter conditions, daphnids had the same per capita, low, food availability but they lived at different algae and daphnid densities. Moreover, the response of crowded females to recovery at high food availability and low population density was evaluated. Low food availability reduced growth and fecundity of both clones and increased male production only in the Clone L. Crowding per se did not affect growth but reduced fecundity. In both clones, low food availability due to low algae density enhanced investment in offspring size and resistance to starvation. In response to food shortage either due to low algae density and to crowding, Clone P increased the investment in offspring size and starvation tolerance but reduced fecundity to a lesser extent than Clone L and did not produce males. Clone L, in response to food shortage due to crowding at high algae density, increased development time, produced more males, as at low algae density, but halved fecundity producing offspring that were not starvationtolerant. These results might reflect differences in anticipatory maternal effects between clones and suggest that neonate quality varies according to either, the environment the mother experienced and the competitive environment the neonates will cope due to their mother life strategy.

Valeria ROSSI

2011-08-01

176

Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and possible multigenerational effects.

Amorim Elaine MP

2011-12-01

177

Effects of vitamins B12, folic asid, A, D, E and C on maternal and fetal health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adequate and balanced nutrition together with appropriate weight gain during pregnancy is important for being protected from short and long term complications. During pregnancy energy and nutrition requirements increase. Sufficient intake of nutrients has important effects on both the mother’s and the developing fetus’s health. Deficient or excessive intakes of important vitamins can increase the risk of maternal and fetal health problems. Folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D, or antioxidant vitamins (vitamin E and C deficiencies can cause fetal growth and developmental disorders in addition to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Moreover, insufficient intake of these vitamins during maternal period increases the risk of permanent health problems for the baby. Additionally, it is stated that vitamin deficiencies during the maternal period can have negative effects even on cognitional development of the children. Nowadays, only folic acid supplementation is applied to prevent the risk of neural tube defect, and recently studies are being conducted on vitamin supplementations in the maternal stage. It is stated that the effects of folic acid together with vitamin B12 on lowering the homocysteine levels can protect against the risks of insufficient fetal growth and low birth weight. Additionally, it is reported that vitamin D can be protective against bone development problems, diabetes, preeclampsia, inflammation, and infection. Studies carried on vitamins E and C (antioxidant vitamins were focused on their effects on preventing the risk of preeclampsia. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the exact effects and mechanisms of vitamins during the maternal period. Future research in this area may lead to successful vitamin supplementation practices during pregnancies in the future. Nowadays, following a sufficient and balance diet starting at pre-gestational period leads to early determination of vitamin deficiencies and can decrease the risk of problems that may arise during pregnancy. This review was aimed to evaluate the physiological functions and effects of vitamins B12, folic acid, A, D, E, and C on the mother’s and the fetus’s health.

Seray Kabaran

2013-06-01

178

Pathogenic effects of maternal antinuclear antibodies during pregnancy in women with lupus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lupus is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects young women of childbearing age. Fertility rates in lupus patients depend on various factors, including disease activity, nephritis, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies; however, after lupus patients become pregnant, different factors may affect the course of pregnancy, such as the production of autoantibodies, pre-existing renal disease, and eclampsia, among others. The placenta is a temporary hemochorial organ that prevents immunological conflict due to exposure to alloantigens at the maternal-fetal interface; placental regulatory T cells play a major role in maternal-fetal tolerance. Typically, significant amounts of maternal IgG class antibodies cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. This transition depends on the distribution of Fc receptors along the syncytiotrophoblast. The production of antinuclear antibodies (ANA is a hallmark of lupus, and these autoantibodies can form immune complexes that are typically trapped in the placenta during gestation. However, the entry of ANA into the fetal circulation depends on the IgG-ANA concentration and the FcR placental density. Maternal antinuclear antibodies with anti-Ro or anti-La specificity might be pathogenic to the fetus if transfused by the placental pathway and could induce neonatal pathologies, such as neonatal lupus and congenital heart block. Here, we review the experimental and clinical data supporting a pathogenic role for maternal autoantibodies transmitted to the fetus

Rafael Herrera-Esparza

2014-06-01

179

The effect of maternal obesity on outcomes in patients undergoing tertiary or higher cesarean delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: To estimate the association between maternal obesity and adverse outcomes in patients without placenta previa or accreta undergoing a tertiary or higher cesarean delivery. Study design: Retrospective cohort of patients cared for by a single MFM practice undergoing a tertiary or higher cesarean delivery from 2005 to 2013. Patients attempting vaginal delivery and patients with placenta accreta and/or placenta previa were excluded. We estimated the association of maternal obesity (prepregnancy BMI???30?kg/m(2)) and maternal outcomes. The primary outcome was a composite of severe maternal morbidity (uterine rupture, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, cystotomy requiring repair, bowel injury requiring repair, intensive care unit admission, thrombosis, re-operation, or maternal death). Results: Three hundred and forty four patients met inclusion criteria, 73 (21.2%) of whom were obese. The composite outcome was significantly higher in the obese group (6.8% versus 1.8%, p?=?0.024, aOR 4.36, 95% CI 1.21, 15.75). The incidence of several individual adverse outcomes were also increased in obese women, including blood transfusion (4.1% versus 0.7%, p?=?0.033, aOR 7.36, 95% CI 1.19, 45.34), wound separation or infection (20.5% versus 5.9%, p?cesarean delivery without placenta previa or accreta, obesity increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Obese patients are at risk for blood transfusion, low 1-min Apgar scores and postoperative wound complications. PMID:25058127

Mourad, Mirella; Silverstein, Michael; Bender, Samuel; Melka, Stephanie; Klauser, Chad K; Gupta, Simi; Saltzman, Daniel H; Rebarber, Andrei; Fox, Nathan S

2014-07-24

180

STUDY OF EFFECT OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE RELATED RISKS FOR DOWN SYNDROME & OTHER TRISOMIES.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACTBack ground: Down syndrome is the most frequent live born aneuploidy & recognizable form of mental retardation among all the ethnic groups of human population across the globe. The most common risk factor for DS is advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to find out risks of advanced maternal age for chromosomal abnormalities.  Materials & methods: The chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed by cytogenetic study of 30 clinically diagnosed cases of DS attending paediatric outpatient department(OPD & admitted in paediatric ward, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, as well as cases from B.M. Institute of Mental Health, Aashram Road, Ahmedabad. Their detailed history was taken.Results: The study revealed that with advanced maternal age the risk of child birth having DS was increased. After age of 35 years the risk of child birth with DS was increased by 43.4% in our study.Conclusion: As a woman gets older, her risk to have a pregnancy with a chromosome abnormality increases. The most commonly used definition for advanced maternal age is 35 years or more at time of child birth. With advanced maternal age hormonal level, numbers of healthy oocyte for fertilization, telomere length decreases with reduced meiotic recombination. All these factors increases the risk of pregnancy with DS.

kinnar somabhai desai

2013-03-01

181

Microanatomical Study of the Maternal Diabetes Effects on Rat`s Choroids Plexus in Embryonic, Neonatal and Adulthood Stages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, the effect of maternal diabetes on the choroids plexus volume changes and total length of capillaries in (15°, 1-day-old and 30-day-old rat neonates was studied. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (60 mg kg-1, given by a single intraperitoneal injection to female Wistar rats (250-300 g. Control animals were given an equivalent amount of citrate buffer saline. In three stage of life, the volume of choroids plexus and total length of capillaries by stereological methods was measured. Statistical analysis`s showed significant difference in choroids plexus volume and total length of capillary`s between diabetic and control groups (p<0.01. This study shows that maternal diabetes causes microvascular disorders in choroids plexus system that lead to an increase in volumes of that.

M. Tehranipour

2008-01-01

182

Effect of essential oil from Citrus aurantium in maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly frequency in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus aurantium L., commonly known as bitter orange, is widely used in folk medicine, but there is little data in the literature about the effects on pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of essential oil obtained from fruits of Citrus aurantium on the maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly incidence in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n minimum = 12 animals/group): G1 = control, G2 to G4 = treated with essential oil from C. aurantium at dose 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Rats were orally treated, by gavage, with plant essential oil or vehicle during pre-implantation and organogenic period (gestational day 0-14). On gestational day 20 the rats were anaesthetized and the gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and the fetuses were analyzed. Results showed that the treated group with 500 mg/kg presented decreased placental weights and placental index, although the treatment with bitter orange essential oil did not show any alteration in maternal reproductive performance, toxicological effect, changes in ossification sites, and malformation index. In conclusion, the treatment of Citrus aurantium essential oil was not teratogenic and did not alter the maternal reproductive outcome. PMID:25806990

Volpato, Gustavo T; Francia-Farje, Luis A D; Damasceno, Débora C; Oliveira, Renata V; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Kempinas, Wilma G

2015-03-01

183

Hemoglobinas humanas: hipótese malária ou efeito materno? Human hemoglobins: malaria hypothesis or maternal effect?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As hemoglobinopatias têm provido uma das poucas demonstrações convincentes da seleção, influenciando a freqüência de único gene na população humana. A alta taxa de desordens, tais como a anemia falciforme e a beta-talassemia, ocorridas em áreas subtropicais ou tropicais dentro do cinturão da malária, levou Haldane a propor que a malária pode ser o agente seletivo responsável que balanceia a perda dos genes para a talassemia e a anemia falciforme, por morte prematura dos homozigotos a partir do aumento do valor adaptativo de heterozigotos no ambiente com malária. Mas uma nova proposta surgiu para explicar a manutenção deste polimorfismo, baseada na fertilidade diferencial ou efeito parental. Alguns autores observaram uma distorção favorecendo a transmissão de alelos mutantes em áreas não endêmicas de malária. Com base nestas observações, esses autores propuseram um efeito materno para explicar tais distorções. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão destes mecanismos envolvidos na manutenção do polimorfismo de hemoglobinopatias, desde seu modelo clássico até hipóteses alternativas que surgiram recentemente na literatura.Hemoglobinopathies are providing one of the few convincing demonstrations of selection, influencing the frequency of a single gene in the human population. The high rate of disorders, such as the sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia that occur in the subtropical or tropical regions within the strip affected by malaria, led Haldane to propose that malaria may be the selective agent responsible for balancing the loss of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia genes due to the early death of homozygous patients. But a new proposal appeared to explain the maintenance of these polymorphisms, based on the differential fertility or parental effect. Some authors observed a distortion favoring the transmission of mutant alleles in non-endemic malaria areas. Based on these observations, the authors proposed a maternal effect to explain these distortions. This study aims at presenting a review of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of polymorphisms of hemoglobinopathies, both from the classic model and the recently published alternative hypotheses.

Felipe R. Torres

2005-03-01

184

Newborn literacy program effective in increasing maternal engagement in literacy activities: an observational cohort study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Literacy is important for success in school and in adulthood. Book-gift programs at birth exist to help develop these foundations early on. The effectiveness of the Read to Me! Nova Scotia Family Literacy Program (a program where books and literacy materials are given to families in hospital when their baby is born on the duration and frequency with which mothers engage in reading and other literacy based activities with their newborns was assessed. Methods An observational cohort study design was used. Mothers of babies who received the Read to Me! package in Nova Scotia born between January-August 2006 made up the intervention group (N?=?1051. Mothers of babies born in Prince Edward Island between December 2006 and March 2008 made up the control group (N?=?279 and did not receive any literacy package when their baby was born. A phone questionnaire was conducted consisting of questions regarding frequency and duration of maternal engagement in language and literacy-based activities with their infants. These activities included reading, singing, talking, listening to CDs and the radio and watching TV. Babies were aged 0–10?months at the time of the interview. Results Mothers who received the Read to Me! literacy package spent significantly more time reading to their babies, 17.9?±?17.6?min/day compared to controls 12.6?±?10.7?min/day, (p? Conclusions Read to Me! may be an inexpensive, easy to administer and effective intervention which results in increased shared reading of mothers and their newborns.

Veldhuijzen van Zanten Stephanie

2012-07-01

185

Effects of maternal separation on behavior and brain damage in adult rats exposed to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal studies suggest that maternal separation, a widely used paradigm to study the effects of early life adversity, exerts a profound and life-long impact on both brain and behavior. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adverse early life experiences interact with neonatal hypoxia-ischemia, affecting the outcome of this neurological insult at both functional and structural levels during adulthood. Rat pups were separated from their mothers during postnatal days 1-6, for either a short (15 min) or prolonged (180 min) period, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 7, a subgroup from each of the three postnatal manipulations was exposed to a hypoxic-ischemic episode. Behavioral examination took place approximately at three months of age and included tests of learning and memory (Morris water maze, novel object and novel place recognition), as well as motor coordination (rota-rod). We found that both prolonged maternal separation and neonatal hypoxia-ischemia impaired the animals' spatial learning and reference memory. Deficits in spatial but not visual recognition memory were detected only in hypoxic-ischemic rats. Interestingly, prolonged maternal separation prior to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia augmented the reference memory impairments. Histological analysis of infarct size, hippocampal area and thickness of corpus callosum did not reveal any exacerbation of damage in hypoxic-ischemic rats that were maternally separated for a prolonged period. These are the first data suggesting that an adverse postnatal environmental manipulation of just 6 days causes long-term effects on spatial learning and memory and may render the organism more vulnerable to a subsequent insult. PMID:25433094

Tata, Despina A; Markostamou, Ioanna; Ioannidis, Anestis; Gkioka, Mara; Simeonidou, Constantina; Anogianakis, Georgios; Spandou, Evangelia

2015-03-01

186

Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ?g OVA with 200 ?g aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue.

Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young [Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 483 Expo-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Sang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun-young [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa-Young [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Youl, E-mail: youl10@hanmail.net [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-01

187

Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ?g OVA with 200 ?g aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue

188

Immunomodulating effects of intestinal absorbed maternal colostral leukocytes by neonatal pigs.  

OpenAIRE

Intestinal absorption of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled maternal colostral leukocytes (FITC-CL) was studied in 49 neonatal colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs from nine Minnesota miniature sows. Within 2 h postfeeding (pf), maternal FITC-CL were absorbed from the sibling's digestive tract and migrated into blood. The peak appearance of FITC-CL in blood occurred in samples at 5 and 7 h pf. By 24 h pf, cells were detected in liver, lung, lymph nodes, spleen and gastrointestinal tissues. To confir...

Williams, P. P.

1993-01-01

189

Lack of effect of the MR (mutator) factor on the maternal repair system in Drosophila melanogaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were designed to test whether the functioning of the maternal repair system will be different in females heterozygous for MR (male recombination factor) relative to that in females not carrying the MR. Muller-5 males were irradiated and mated to either MR/ + or Cy/ + females, and the frequencies of sex-linked recessive lethals in mature spermatozoa were determined and compared. The frequencies were similar with both types of female, demonstrating that heterozygosity for MR does not lead to an alteration in the functioning of the maternal repair system. (orig.)

190

Genetic modification of the effect of maternal household air pollution exposure on birth weight in Guatemalan newborns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low birth weight is associated with exposure to air pollution during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether null polymorphisms of Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), specifically GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in infants or mothers, modify the association between high exposures to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking fires and birth weight. Pregnant women in rural Guatemala were randomized to receive a chimney stove or continue to use open fires for cooking. Newborns were measured within 48 h of birth. 132 mother-infant pairs provided infant genotypes (n=130) and/or maternal genotypes (n=116). Maternal null GSTM1 was associated with a 144 g (95% CI, -291, 1) and combined maternal/infant null GSTT1 was associated with a 155 g (95% CI, -303, -8) decrease in birth weight. Although there was a trend toward higher birth weights with increasing number of expressed GST genes, the effect modification by chimney stove use was not demonstrated. PMID:25305053

Thompson, Lisa M; Yousefi, Paul; Peñaloza, Reneé; Balmes, John; Nina, Holland

2014-12-01

191

Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development

192

Genetic moderation of effects of maternal sensitivity on girl's age of menarche: Replication of the Manuck et al. study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-? gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The replication was general because a different measure of the rearing environment was used in this inquiry (i.e., maternal sensitivity) than in the prior one (i.e., family cohesion). Extensions of the work included prospective rather than retrospective measurements of the rearing environment, reports of first menstruation within a year of its occurrence rather than decades later, accounting for some heritability of menarcheal age by controlling for maternal age of menarche, and using a new model-fitting approach to competitively compare diathesis-stress versus differential-susceptibility models of Gene × Environment interaction. The replication/extension effort proved successful in the case of both estrogen receptor-? SNPs, with the Gene × Environment interactions principally reflecting diathesis-stress: lower levels of maternal sensitivity predicted earlier age of menarche for girls homozygous for the minor alleles of either SNP but not for girls carrying other genotypes. Results are discussed in light of the new analytic methods adopted. PMID:25195863

Hartman, Sarah; Widaman, Keith F; Belsky, Jay

2014-09-01

193

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome.

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei

2014-01-01

194

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

2014-10-28

195

Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

GS Schmidt

2003-05-01

196

Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC) and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutiv [...] e days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE) was evaluated at 9 (P9), 11 (P11), 13 (P13), 15 (P15), 17 (P17) and 21 (P21) days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO) was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP) and 68.48% (PPc) of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

GS, Schmidt; EAP de, Figueiredo; MC, Ledur; HJ, Alves.

2003-05-01

197

Phenotypic and Molecular Analysis of Mes-3, a Maternal-Effect Gene Required for Proliferation and Viability of the Germ Line in C. Elegans  

OpenAIRE

mes-3 is one of four maternal-effect sterile genes that encode maternal components required for normal postembryonic development of the germ line in Caenorhabditis elegans. mes-3 mutant mothers produce sterile progeny, which contain few germ cells and no gametes. This terminal phenotype reflects two problems: reduced proliferation of the germ line and germ cell death. Both the appearance of the dying germ cells and the results of genetic tests indicate that germ cells in mes-3 animals undergo...

Paulsen, J. E.; Capowski, E. E.; Strome, S.

1995-01-01

198

Effects of Maternal Basking and Food Quantity during Gestation Provide Evidence for the Selective Advantage of Matrotrophy in a Viviparous Lizard  

OpenAIRE

The evolution of matrotrophy (i.e., direct supply of nutrients by the mother during gestation) may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation. However, we lack knowledge about the selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity (live-bearing) in reptiles. In reptiles, the interaction between body temperature and food intake affect maternal net energy gain. In the present study, we examined the effects of basking and food availability (2 by 2 factorial design) during...

Itonaga, Keisuke; Jones, Susan M.; Wapstra, Erik

2012-01-01

199

Does Neighborhood Social Capital Buffer the Effects of Maternal Depression on Adolescent Behavior Problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

2014-01-01

200

Does neighborhood social capital buffer the effects of maternal depression on adolescent behavior problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D

2014-06-01

201

The Effects of Morning Naps, Car Trips, and Maternal Separation on Adrenocortical Activity in Human Infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three studies examined adrenocortical activity in infants. Morning naps were associated with decreases in salivary cortisol. Riding for 40 minutes in a car lowered salivary cortisol concentrations. Thirty minutes of maternal separation in the laboratory resulted in higher salivary cortisol concentrations than did 30 minutes of play with the mother…

Larson, Mary C.; And Others

1991-01-01

202

Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

2012-01-01

203

The Effects of Rumination on the Timing of Maternal and Child Negative Affect  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined whether rumination serves as a moderator of the temporal association between maternal and child negative affect. Participants included 88 mothers with a history of major depressive episodes and their 123 children. During an initial assessment, mothers and their children completed measures assessing negative affect and…

Flancbaum, Meir; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Abela, John R. Z.; Young, Jamie F.; Stolow, Darren; Hankin, Benjamin L.

2011-01-01

204

Individual and mixture effects of caffeine and sulfamethoxazole on the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio following maternal exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) such as caffeine and sulfamethoxazole have been detected in the estuarine environment. The present study characterized effects of a maternal exposure of these compounds on the development of the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio from embryo to juvenile life stage. Ovigerous females were exposed to either caffeine (20?mg/L), sulfamethoxazole (60?mg/L), or a mixture of both (20?mg/L caffeine and 60?mg/L sulfamethoxazole). Embryos were then removed from the females and the effects of the PPCPs on hatching, metamorphosis, juvenile growth, and overall mortality were determined. No significant effect was observed on gravid female survival after 5 d of exposure to caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, or the mixture; however, development of the embryos on the female shrimp was delayed in the mixture. Caffeine and sulfamethoxazole in the mixture significantly reduced embryo survival. There was a significant effect of caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, and the mixture on embryo hatching time. Exposure to sulfamethoxazole alone significantly delayed larval metamorphosis. Exposure to caffeine and sulfamethoxazole separately led to significantly smaller length of juvenile shrimp. Maternal exposure to caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, individually and in mixture, resulted in negative effects on P. pugio offspring survival and development; however, the concentrations tested in the present study were well above maximum detected field concentrations. These results may be incorporated into PPCP risk assessments to protect sensitive estuarine ecosystems more effectively. PMID:24932500

Garcia, Robin N; Chung, Katy W; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Curran, M Carla

2014-09-01

205

Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces “detrimental” effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first postnatal days and exposure to a “substitute” mother. The maternal care of biological and “substitute” mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM, acoustic startle response (ASR and forced swim test (FST. In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects. Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behaviour by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT. ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the “substitute” mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of “detrimental” and “beneficial” effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behaviour. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may “buffer” the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner.

Roser Nadal

2014-02-01

206

Hemoglobinas humanas: hipótese malária ou efeito materno? / Human hemoglobins: malaria hypothesis or maternal effect?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As hemoglobinopatias têm provido uma das poucas demonstrações convincentes da seleção, influenciando a freqüência de único gene na população humana. A alta taxa de desordens, tais como a anemia falciforme e a beta-talassemia, ocorridas em áreas subtropicais ou tropicais dentro do cinturão da malária [...] , levou Haldane a propor que a malária pode ser o agente seletivo responsável que balanceia a perda dos genes para a talassemia e a anemia falciforme, por morte prematura dos homozigotos a partir do aumento do valor adaptativo de heterozigotos no ambiente com malária. Mas uma nova proposta surgiu para explicar a manutenção deste polimorfismo, baseada na fertilidade diferencial ou efeito parental. Alguns autores observaram uma distorção favorecendo a transmissão de alelos mutantes em áreas não endêmicas de malária. Com base nestas observações, esses autores propuseram um efeito materno para explicar tais distorções. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão destes mecanismos envolvidos na manutenção do polimorfismo de hemoglobinopatias, desde seu modelo clássico até hipóteses alternativas que surgiram recentemente na literatura. Abstract in english Hemoglobinopathies are providing one of the few convincing demonstrations of selection, influencing the frequency of a single gene in the human population. The high rate of disorders, such as the sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia that occur in the subtropical or tropical regions within the str [...] ip affected by malaria, led Haldane to propose that malaria may be the selective agent responsible for balancing the loss of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia genes due to the early death of homozygous patients. But a new proposal appeared to explain the maintenance of these polymorphisms, based on the differential fertility or parental effect. Some authors observed a distortion favoring the transmission of mutant alleles in non-endemic malaria areas. Based on these observations, the authors proposed a maternal effect to explain these distortions. This study aims at presenting a review of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of polymorphisms of hemoglobinopathies, both from the classic model and the recently published alternative hypotheses.

Felipe R., Torres; Claudia R., Bonini-Domingos.

2005-03-01

207

Effect of maternal dietary energy and protein on live performance and yield dynamics of broiler progeny from young breeders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to evaluate effects of female broiler breeder dietary ME and CP during rearing and dietary ME during early lay on broiler offspring performance and carcass yield dynamics. A factorial arrangement of treatments, with 2 ME levels, and 2 balanced protein levels from 3 to 24 wk, followed by 2 ME levels in the lay diets, and in the broilers, 2 sexes. A total of 1,635 broilers were housed in 32 pens, with 8 replicate pens according to maternal laying diet and sex. Maternal pullet diets were nested within pen (n = 9 to 14, depending on hatch rate). The broilers originated from 384 Ross 708 hens, which had been fed diets containing high (2,736 kcal/kg, HEREAR) or low ME (2,528 kcal/kg, LEREAR) combined with either high (15.3%, HPREAR) or low balanced protein (13.7% CP, LPREAR). Equal numbers of hens from each pullet treatment were then fed either a high (2,900 kcal/kg, HELAY) or low ME diet (2,800 kcal/kg, LELAY) containing 15% CP. Broilers were hatched from eggs collected at 28 wk of age, and fed identical diets. Broilers were individually weighed weekly. Serial dissections were conducted to evaluate yield breast muscle and abdominal fatpad dynamics. At 39 d, 180 broilers were processed to measure carcass yield. Female progeny of hens with the lowest CP intake during rearing (HEREAR × LPREAR) were lighter from 22 to 36 d of age than female offspring from hens that consumed more CP as pullets. We predicted the heaviest female progeny would result from an ME:CP ratio of 18.25 kcal/g in maternal pullet diets (P = 0.0063). Broiler breast yield increased when maternal EM:CP ratio increased after switching from pullet to laying diets. Hens fed HEREAR were fatter and had fatter progeny than LEREAR. Maternal diet, even during the pullet phase, influenced progeny growth and yield. PMID:25193254

Moraes, T G V; Pishnamazi, A; Mba, E T; Wenger, I I; Renema, R A; Zuidhof, M J

2014-11-01

208

Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects on risk of orofacial clefting (OC) using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a P-value POO effects play major roles in the etiology of OC in our sample. This finding is consistent with previous genetic studies and recent population-based cohort studies in Norway and Denmark, which showed no apparent difference between mother-to-offspring and father-to-offspring recurrence of clefting. We, however, cannot completely rule out maternal genome or POO effects as risk factors because very small effects might not be detectable with our sample size, they may influence risk through interactions with environmental exposures or may act through a more complex network of interacting genes. Thus, the most promising SNPs identified by this study may still be worth further investigation. PMID:22419666

Shi, Min; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L; Munger, Ronald G; Ruczinski, Ingo; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Wu, Tao; Murray, Tanda; Redett, Richard J; Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Chen, Philip K; Wang, Hong; Ye, Xiaoqian; Yeow, Vincent; Chong, Samuel S; Shi, Bing; Christensen, Kaare; Scott, Alan F; Patel, Poorav; Cheah, Felicia; Beaty, Terri H

2012-04-01

209

Microanatomical Study of the Maternal Diabetes Effects on Rat`s Choroids Plexus in Embryonic, Neonatal and Adulthood Stages  

OpenAIRE

In this research, the effect of maternal diabetes on the choroids plexus volume changes and total length of capillaries in (15°, 1-day-old and 30-day-old) rat neonates was studied. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (60 mg kg-1), given by a single intraperitoneal injection to female Wistar rats (250-300 g). Control animals were given an equivalent amount of citrate buffer saline. In three stage of life, the volume of choroids plexus and total length of capillaries by stereological method...

Tehranipour, M.

2008-01-01

210

The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information and data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The cohort was established in 1994 and baseline information from the enrolled 100,418 pregnancies was gathered from 1996 to 2002. At their first antenatal visit pregnant women were invited to participate in the cohort by their general practitioner. To contribute the women had to be pregnant, have intentions of carrying the pregnancy to term, reside in Denmark and speak Danish sufficiently well to participate in telephone interviews. When enrolled the women were asked to participate in two telephone interviews during pregnancy at approximately 12-14 and 30-32 weeks of gestation and two after birth when the child was six and 18 months old and a follow-up questionnaire at age seven years.  Exposure to work-related stress was assessed based on information from the first interview on two questions regarding job control and job demands. These questions were interpreted as dimensions of demands and control, and hereafter used as a proxy for the dimensions of the job strain model by Karasek.  Based on their answers, the women were divided into the four job strain categories: high strain, active, passive and low strain. Gestational age at birth, birthweight and congenital malformations were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The outcome variable on asthma and atopic dermatitis were based on maternal self-reports from the fourth (child 18 months) and fifth (child seven years old) interviews/questionnaires. All studies in the thesis were based on protocols describing methods, analyses etc. prior to handling. No associations were found between exposure to high strain (high demands, low control) during pregnancy and preterm birth, small for gestational age, congenital malformations and asthma in the children when compared to women exposed to low strain (low demands, high control). A protective effect on large for gestational age was observed when exposed to high strain, suggesting an impact on the birthweight although it was not seen among the small for gestational age children. An association between hi

Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

2015-02-01

211

Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2??g/d, normal iodine (NI, 5–6??g/d, and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16??g/d. The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45 of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12?weeks of treatment (before pregnancy, iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P??0.05, all On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A level than the NI controls on PN7 (P??0.05. NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P?>?0.05. Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were mild and temporary, likely related to the changes in hippocampal protein expressions of BDNF and NSP-A.

Zhang Le

2012-10-01

212

Effect of maternal diabetes on female offspring / Efeito do diabetes materno na prole feminina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo Avaliar o efeito do diabetes materno sobre a pressão arterial e a função renal da prole feminina, bem como verificar se as alterações observadas se exacerbam durante a prenhez. Métodos O diabetes mellitus foi induzido em ratas com a adminis [...] tração de estreptozocina em dose única, uma semana antes do cruzamento. Durante a prenhez, foram feitas medidas da pressão arterial por pletismografia. No 20o dia da prenhez, os animais foram colocados durante 24 horas em gaiolas metabólicas para obtenção de amostras de urina. Após a retirada dos animais das gaiolas, foram obtidas amostras de sangue. Um mês após a prenhez, foram obtidas novas amostras de sangue e urina para as determinações. A função renal foi avaliada por meio de proteinúria, ureia plasmática, creatinina plasmática, carga excretada de creatinina, fluxo urinário e clearance de creatinina. Resultados As fêmeas da prole de mães diabéticas apresentaram elevação da pressão arterial e redução do ritmo de filtração glomerular em relação ao grupo controle. Conclusão A hiperglicemia durante a gestação foi capaz de causar elevação da pressão arterial e disfunção renal na prole de sexo feminino. Abstract in english Objective To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on the blood pressure and kidney function of female offspring, as well as if such changes exacerbate during pregnancy. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in female rats with the administ [...] ration of streptozotocin in a single dose, one week before mating. During pregnancy, blood pressure was measured through plethysmography. On the 20th day of pregnancy, the animals were placed for 24 hours in metabolic cages to obtain urine samples. After the animals were removed from the cages, blood samples were withdrawn. One month after pregnancy, new blood and urine sample were collected. Kidney function was evaluated through proteinuria, plasma urea, plasma creatinine, creatinine excretion rate, urinary flow, and creatinine clearance. Results The female offspring from diabetic mothers showed an increase in blood pressure, and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate in relation to the control group. Conclusion Hyperglycemia during pregnancy was capable of causing an increase in blood pressure and kidney dysfunction in the female offspring.

Juliana de Oliveira, Martins; Maurício Isaac, Panício; Marcos Paulo Suehiro, Dantas; Guiomar Nascimento, Gomes.

2014-12-01

213

Alternative Strategies to Reduce Maternal Mortality in India: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Background: Approximately one-quarter of all pregnancy- and delivery-related maternal deaths worldwide occur in India. Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in India. Methods and Findings: Country- and region-specific data were synthesized using a computer-based model that simulates the natural histor...

Hu, Delphine; Goldie, Sue J.; Sweet, Steven Goldie; Carvalho, Natalie Ida; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli

2010-01-01

214

The effect of maternal and child health and family planning services on mortality: is prevention enough?  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To examine the impact on mortality of a child survival strategy, mostly based on preventive interventions. DESIGN--Cross sectional comparison of cause specific mortality in two communities differing in the type, coverage, and quality of maternal and child health and family planning services. In the intervention area the services were mainly preventive, community based, and home delivered. SUBJECTS--Neonates, infants, children, and mothers in two contiguous areas of rural Bangladesh...

Fauveau, V.; Wojtyniak, B.; Chakraborty, J.; Sarder, A. M.; Briend, A.

1990-01-01

215

Effects of Maternal Intravenous Nicotine Administration on Locomotor Behavior in Pre-Weanling Rats  

OpenAIRE

Maternal tobacco use is associated with adverse developmental outcomes in offspring, including hyperactivity. Animal studies attempting to model this phenomenon have primarily used continuous s.c. nicotine infusion as the method of nicotine administration, which does not model the intermittent bolus delivery of nicotine associated with smoking in humans. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the locomotor activity of pre-weanling offspring of pregnant rats exposed to an i.v. ni...

Lesage, Mark G.; Gustaf, Erianne; Dufek, Matthew B.; Pentel, Paul R.

2006-01-01

216

Effect of Campylobacter-Specific Maternal Antibodies on Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Young Chickens  

OpenAIRE

Using laboratory challenge experiments, we examined whether Campylobacter-specific maternal antibody (MAB) plays a protective role in young chickens, which are usually free of Campylobacter under natural production conditions. Kinetics of C. jejuni colonization were compared by infecting 3-day-old broiler chicks, which were naturally positive for Campylobacter-specific MAB, and 21-day-old broilers, which were negative for Campylobacter-specific MAB. The onset of colonization occurred much soo...

Sahin, Orhan; Luo, Naidan; Huang, Shouxiong; Zhang, Qijing

2003-01-01

217

Where do all the maternal effects go? Variation in offspring body size through ontogeny in the live-bearing fish Poecilia parae  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Maternal effects are an important source of adaptive variation, but little is known about how they vary throughout ontogeny. We estimate the contribution of maternal effects, sire genetic and environmental variation to offspring body size from birth until 1 year of age in the live-bearing fish Poecilia parae. In both the sexes, maternal effects on body size were initially high in juveniles, and then declined to zero at sexual maturity. In sons, this was accompanied by a sharp rise in sire genetic variance, consistent with the expression of Y-linked loci affecting male size. In daughters, all variance components decreased with time, consistent with compensatory growth. There were significant negative among-dam correlations between early body size and the timing of sexual maturity in both sons and daughters. However, there was no relationship between early life maternal effects and adult longevity, suggesting that maternal effects, although important early in life, may not always influence late life-history traits. PMID:17148295

Lindholm, Anna K; Hunt, John; Brooks, Robert

2006-01-01

218

Seed fates in crop-wild hybrid sunflower: crop allele and maternal effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestication has resulted in selection upon seed traits found in wild populations, yet crop-wild hybrids retain some aspects of both parental phenotypes. Seed fates of germination, dormancy, and mortality can influence the success of crop allele introgression in crop-wild hybrid zones, especially if crop alleles or crop-imparted seed coverings result in out-of-season germination. We performed a seed burial experiment using crop, wild, and diverse hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cross types to test how a cross type's maternal parent and nuclear genetic composition might affect its fate under field conditions. We observed higher maladaptive fall germination in the crop- and F1- produced seeds than wild-produced seeds and, due to an interaction with percent crop alleles, fall germination was higher for cross types with more crop-like nuclear genetics. By spring, crop-produced cross types had the highest overwintering mortality, primarily due to higher fall germination. Early spring germination was identical across maternal types, but germination continued for F1-produced seeds. In conclusion, the more wild-like the maternal parent or the less proportion of the cross type's genome contributed by the crop, the greater likelihood a seed will remain ungerminated than die. Wild-like dormancy may facilitate introgression through future recruitment from the soil seed bank. PMID:25685189

Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M; Emry, Jason D; Mercer, Kristin L

2015-02-01

219

The Intergenerational Effects on Birth Weight and Its Relations to Maternal Conditions, São Paulo, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objectives. Parents' birth weight acts as a predictor for the descendant birth weight, with the correlation more strongly transmitted through maternal line. The present research aims to study the correlation between the child's low or increased birth weight, the mother's birth weight, and maternal conditions. Methods. 773 mother-infant binomials were identified with information on both the baby's and the mother's birth weight recorded. Group studies were constituted, dividing the sample according to birth weight ( 25.0 with Chi2 sig 0.013; Spearman's Rho 0.09; OR 1.54 and OR upper 2.17) and (maternal prepregnancy BMI > 30.0 with Chi2 sig 0 Spearman's Rho 0.137; OR 2.58 and OR upper 4.26)). The child's length at birth in the lower quartile (?47.5?cm) showed strong correlation with drug use by the mother during pregnancy (Chi2 sig 0.004; Spearman's Rho 0.105; OR 4.3 and OR lower 1.5). Conclusions. The mother's increased weight at birth and the prenatal overweight or obesity were correlated with increased weight and length at birth of the newborn, coupled with the tendency of increasing birth weight between generations of mothers and daughters. Also, descendants with smaller length at birth are the children of women with the lowest statures. PMID:25710010

Silva, Leide Irislayne Macena da Costa e; Gomes, Filumena Maria da Silva; Valente, Maria Helena; Escobar, Ana Maria de Ulhôa; Brentani, Alexandra Valéria Maria; Grisi, Sandra J. F. E.

2015-01-01

220

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

2006-06-01

221

Maternal and neonatal tetanus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal and neonatal tetanus is still a substantial but preventable cause of mortality in many developing countries. Case fatality from these diseases remains high and treatment is limited by scarcity of resources and effective drug treatments. The Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative, launched by WHO and its partners, has made substantial progress in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. Sustained emphasis on improvement of vaccination coverage, birth hygiene, and surveillance, with specific approaches in high-risk areas, has meant that the incidence of the disease continues to fall. Despite this progress, an estimated 58,000 neonates and an unknown number of mothers die every year from tetanus. As of June, 2014, 24 countries are still to eliminate the disease. Maintenance of elimination needs ongoing vaccination programmes and improved public health infrastructure. PMID:25149223

Thwaites, C Louise; Beeching, Nicholas J; Newton, Charles R

2015-01-24

222

Comparison of the effects of perinatal and neonatal administration of sodium ferulate on repair following excitotoxic neuronal damages induced by maternal oral administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage of pregnancy  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Our previous studies have revealed that ferulic acid (FA) and sodium ferulate (SF) show significant protective effect on excitotoxicity, the present study was conducted to compare its potential favorable effects of maternal?newborn?and both maternal and newborn intraperitoneal (ip) injection of SF on repair following excitotoxic neuronal damages induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG). Methods: The maternal mice were assigned randomly into seven groups (n = 10 animals in each gro...

Yongping Zhang; Lijian Yu; Rundi Ma; Xiaoyu Zhang,; Tingxi Yu

2012-01-01

223

Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021, a Chinese herbal formula, and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS: JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials. All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005. In a neonatal maternal separation (NMS model, male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14, or no specific handling (NH. Starting from postnatal day 60, rats were administered JCM-16021 (2, 4, 8 g/kg per day orally twice a day for 28 d. Pain threshold pressure and electromyographic activities of external oblique muscles in response to colorectal distention recorded with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International, were tested as pain indices. Changes in serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA concentrations in the colon of rats were analyzed; the enterochromaffin cell numbers and serotonin transporter in the colon of rats were also evaluated with an immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: NMS treatment significantly reduced pain threshold pressure (37.4 ± 1.4 mmHg, as compared to that of NH rats (57.7 ± 1.9 mmHg, P < 0.05. After JCM-16021 treatment, the pain threshold pressure significantly increased when compared to that before treatment (34.2 ± 0.9 mmHg vs 52.8 ± 2.3 mmHg in the high dose group, 40.2 ± 1.6 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.3 mmHg in the middle dose group, and 39.3 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.6 mmHg in the low dose group, P < 0.05. Also JCM-16021 significantly and dose-dependently decreased electromyographic activity to the graded colorectal distension (CRD, (the mean ?AUC values were: 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.06 ± 0.18, 1.22 ± 0.24 in the high dose group; 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.68 ± 0.17, 1.27 ± 0.26, 1.8 ± 0.3 in the middle dose group; and 0.29 ± 0.06, 0.8 ± 0.16, 1.53 ± 0.24, 2.1 ± 0.21 in the low dose group for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg, as compared to the NMS vehicle group. The mean ?AUC values were: 0.57 ± 0.12, 1.33 ± 0.18, 2.57 ± 0.37, 3.08 ± 0.37 for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg (P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly reduced the 5-HT concentrations (from high, middle and low dosage groups: 60.25 ± 5.98 ng/100 mg, 60.32 ± 4.22 ng/100 mg, 73.31 ± 7.65 ng/100 mg, as compared to the NMS vehicle groups (93.11 ± 9.85 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; and increased the 5-HIAA concentrations (after treatment, from high, middle and low dosage groups: 54.24 ± 3.27 ng/100 mg, 50.34 ± 1.26 ng/100 mg, 51.37 ± 2.13 ng/100 mg when compared to that in the NMS vehicle group (51.75 ± 1.98 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; but did not change the enterochromaffin cell numbers in the colon of rats. In addition, NMS rats had higher SERT expression (n = 10 than NH rats (n = 8, P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly decreased SERT expression when compared to the NMS group (P < 0.01-0.001.CONCLUSION: JCM-16021 can attenuate visceral hypersensitivity, and this analgesic effect may be mediated through the serotonin signaling pathway in the colon of rats.

Zhao-Xiang Bian, Man Zhang, Quan-Bin Han, Hong-Xi Xu, Joseph JY Sung

2010-02-01

224

Genetics of 51d-52a, a Region Containing Several Maternal-Effect Genes and Two Maternal-Specific Transcripts in Drosophila  

OpenAIRE

Two genomic clones exhibiting a maternal-specific pattern of expression map to cytological region 52A. To elucidate the function of these clones we have undertaken a mutagenesis of the cytological region 51D-52A. This paper presents the results of this screen and the preliminary analysis of female-sterile and lethal mutations isolated. A total of twelve complementation groups have been identified, four of which are defined exclusively by female-sterile alleles. Only one visible mutation was i...

Underwood, E. M.; Briot, A. S.; Doll, K. Z.; Ludwiczak, R. L.; Otteson, D. C.; Tower, J.; Vessey, K. B.; Yu, K.

1990-01-01

225

Effect of Maternal Nutrition and Dietary Habits on Preeclampsia: A Case-Control Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Preeclampsia is one of the most commonly encountered hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that accounts for 20% - 80% of maternal mortality in developing countries, including Ethiopia. For many years diet has been suggested to play a role in preeclampsia. However, the hypotheses have been diverse and often revealed inconsistent results across studies. Moreover, rarely were these hypotheses studied in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether the incidence of preeclampsia was related to nutrient or micronutrient deficiencies. Objectives: To describe the effect of nutrition and dietary habits on the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: A facility based unmatched case-control study was conducted among 453 (151 cases and 302 controls pregnant women attending antepartum or intrapartum care in public health facilities of Bahir Dar City Administration. Case-control incidence density sampling followed by interviewer administered face to face interview, measurement of mid-arm circumference (MUAC and document review were conducted using a standardized and pretested questionnaire. Data entry and cleaning was done by Epi Info Version 3.5.3. The data were transported to SPSS Version 20 for analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Backward stepwise unconditional logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the putative association of predictive variables with the outcome variable and to control for the effect of confounding variables. A P-value ? 0.05 was considered statistically significant at 95% confidence level throughout the study. Result: Those women having a MUAC value ? 25.6 cm were two times more likely than their counterparts to have preeclampsia (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.58, 3.94. Strikingly, higher odds of preeclampsia were found in women who reported to have taken coffee during pregnancy (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.32, 3.53. Similarly, those women who had anemia during the first trimester pregnancy were three times more likely than their counterparts to have incidence of preeclampsia (AOR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.09, 7.21. The result in this study also revealed that taking fruit or vegetables during pregnancy was found to be protective of preeclampsia (AOR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.73, AOR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.22, 0.91 respectively. In addition, folate intake during pregnancy has shown a significant independent effect on the prevention of preeclampsia in this study (AOR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.37. Conclusion and Recommendation: Vegetable and fruit consumption and folate intake during pregnancy are independent protective factors of preeclampsia. On the other hand, higher mid upper arm circumference, anemia and coffee intake during pregnancy are risk factors for the development of preeclampsia.

Mulualem Endeshaw

2014-12-01

226

Effects of day of gestation and feeding regimen in Holstein × Gyr cows: II. Maternal and fetal visceral organ mass.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the influence of day of gestation (DG) and feeding regimens (FR) on maternal and fetal visceral organ mass in Holstein × Gyr cows. Forty-four pregnant multiparous Holstein × Gyr cows with an average initial body weight of 480±10.1 kg and an average initial age of 5±0.5 yr were allocated to 1 of 2 FR: ad libitum (AL; n=20) or maintenance level (ML; n=24). Maintenance level was considered to be 1.15% of body weight (dry matter basis) and met 100% of the energy requirements; AL provided 190% of the total net energy requirements. Cows were individually fed a corn silage and concentrate-based diet composed of 93% roughage and 7% concentrate (dry matter basis) as a total mixed ration twice daily. Pregnant cows were slaughtered at 4 DG: 139 (n=11), 199 (n=11), 241 (n=11), and 268 (n=11) d, which was followed by necropsy. Mass of heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract was heavier in AL- than in ML-fed cows. Mammary gland mass was heavier in AL- than in ML-fed cows, and the heaviest mass was observed at 268 d of gestation. Feeding regimen did not influence fetal body weight in this study. The majority of the visceral organ masses were similar in fetuses from cows fed AL or ML. These data indicate that maternal feed restriction does not affect the development of most fetal organs or fetal development; however, some maternal organs are affected by the FR provided. Moreover, the negative effect on mammary gland mass caused by ML feeding will probably not affect the subsequent lactation because the crude protein concentration in the mammary gland increased with ML feeding. However, we suggest that the AL diet in pregnant dry cows should be provided with caution because the amount of fat in the mammary gland increased at 268 d of gestation. PMID:25726105

Rotta, P P; Filho, S C Valadares; Gionbelli, T R S; Costa E Silva, L F; Engle, T E; Marcondes, M I; Campos, M M; Menezes, A C B; Lobo, A A G

2015-05-01

227

The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ? six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

Abdulahi Abdulreshid

2010-04-01

228

Effects of aging and maternal protein restriction on the muscle fibers morphology and neuromuscular junctions of rats after nutritional recovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the nutritional status of mothers may predispose their offspring to neuromuscular disorders in the long term. This study evaluated the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on the muscle fibers and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of the soleus muscle in the offspring of rats at 365 days of age that had undergone nutritional recovery. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (CG)--the offspring of mothers fed a normal protein diet (17%) and restricted (RG)--offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet (6%). After lactation, the male pups received standard chow ad libitum. At 365 days, samples of soleus muscle were collected for muscle fiber analysis (HE staining, NADH-TR reaction and ultrastructure), intramuscular collagen quantification (picrosirius red staining) and NMJs analysis (non-specific esterase technique). The cross-sectional area of type I fibers was reduced by 20% and type IIa fibers by 5% while type IIb fibers increased by 5% in the RG compared to the CG. The percentage of intramuscular collagen was 19% lower in the RG. Disorganization of the myofibrils and Z line was observed, with the presence of clusters of mitochondria in both groups. Regarding the NMJs, in the RG there was a reduction of 10% in the area and 17% in the small diameter and an increase of 7% in the large diameter. The results indicate that the effects of maternal protein restriction on muscle fibers and NMJs seem to be long-lasting and irreversible. PMID:25597842

Confortim, Heloisa Deola; Jerônimo, Leslie Cazetta; Centenaro, Lígia Aline; Felipe Pinheiro, Patrícia Fernanda; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Michelin Matheus, Selma Maria; Torrejais, Marcia Miranda

2015-04-01

229

Intergenerational and parent of origin effects of maternal calorie restriction on Igf2 expression in the adult rat hippocampus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) regulates development, memory and adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Calorie restriction (CR) is known to modulate non-neuronal Igf2 expression intergenerationally, but its effect has not been evaluated on brain Igf2. Here, Sprague-Dawley (S) dams underwent moderate CR between gestational days 8-21. To identify parent of origin expression pattern of the imprinted Igf2 gene, their offspring (SS F1) were mated with naïve male or female Brown Norway (B) rats to obtain the second generation (BS and SB F2) progeny. CR did not affect adult hippocampal Igf2 transcript levels in SS F1 males or their BS F2 progeny, but increased it in SS F1 females and their SB F2 offspring. The preferentially maternal Igf2 expression in the SB F2 control male hippocampus relaxed to biallelic with CR, with no effect of grandmaternal diet in any other groups. Thus, allele-specific and total expression of hippocampal Igf2 is affected by maternal, grandmaternal CR in a strain and sex-specific manner. PMID:24845189

Harper, Kathryn M; Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Graf, Evan N; Herzing, Laura B K; Redei, Eva E

2014-07-01

230

Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM, launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective: To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design: A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012 and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the broader themes across the interviews and FGDs. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research.

Madhu Gupta

2015-02-01

231

Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012) and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the broader themes across the interviews and FGDs. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research. PMID:25676665

Gupta, Madhu; Angeli, Federica; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Bosma, Hans

2015-01-01

232

Neonatal maternal separation exacerbates the reward-enhancing effect of acute amphetamine administration and the anhedonic effect of repeated social defeat in adult rats  

OpenAIRE

Early life adversity or parental neglect is linked to the development of a number of psychiatric illnesses, including major depression and substance use disorder. These two disorders are often comorbid and characterized by anhedonia, defined as the reduced ability to experience pleasure or reward. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of neonatal maternal separation in Long Evans rats, a model of early life stress, on anhedonia under baseline conditions and in response to ...

Der-avakian, Andre; Markou, Athina

2010-01-01

233

Midazolam and nitrazepam in the maternity ward: milk concentrations and clinical effects.  

OpenAIRE

1. In a randomized study of 22 patients in a maternity ward, the residual concentrations of two hypnotics, midazolam 15 mg p.o. and nitrazepam 5 mg p.o., in early breast milk and plasma were measured 7 h after intake on day 2 to day 6 postpartum. Milk pH, milk fat and binding to plasma proteins were also investigated. Sleep variables were scored on questionnaires. 2. No measurable (less than 10 nmol l-1) concentrations of drug in milk were found in the group receiving 15 mg midazolam at night...

Matheson, I.; Lunde, P. K.; Bredesen, J. E.

1990-01-01

234

Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... adolescence? A new study published in the journal Pediatrics investigates the effect of maternal depression on a ... and engaging in sexual intercourse. The researchers say these findings show that middle childhood is an important ...

235

Maternal phenylketonuria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

Kristina Štuikien?

2013-04-01

236

Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

Mihi? Ivana

2010-01-01

237

The Effect of the Timing of Intramuscular Oxytocin Injection on Maternal Bleeding during the Third Stage of Labour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and aim: The third stage of labour is one of the most troublesome stages of child delivery. The basic principle of the third stage management is administrating prophylactic uterotonics. However, the time of its administration varies in different hospitals. This study aimed to determine the effect of intramuscular oxytocin injection after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder or placental expulsion on bleeding in the third stage of labour. Methodology: This clinical trial was conducted on 100 pregnant women with gestational age of 38-42 weeks, and singleton pregnancies. Subjects were selected using convenience sampling and were then randomly assigned to intervention (injection of 10 IU intramuscular oxytocin after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder and control (injection of 10 IU intramuscular oxytocin after placental expulsion groups. Blood was collected in containers and weighed with a weighing scale.  A checklist was used to record labor and delivery related data. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5, using Chi-square and t-test. Findings: The mean amount of bleeding during the third stage of labour was 183.4 ± 145.8 and 202.2 ±208.8 ml in intervention and control group, respectively. No significant difference was found between two groups in terms of maternal bleeding. Conclusion: Injection of intramuscular oxytocin either after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder or placental expulsion does not affect the amount of maternal bleeding during the third stage of labour.

Sakine Mohamadian

2013-12-01

238

Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

Gogoi Gourangie

2007-01-01

239

Effect of maternal stress on fetal heart rate assessed by vibroacoustic stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine whether maternal stress levels, state and trait anxiety levels, and stress hormones affect fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns after vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) at 30 weeks of gestation. A total of 24 healthy pregnant women with a single fetus pregnancy were enrolled. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone in maternal plasma and cortisol, and chromogranin A in saliva were measured. The FHR patterns after VAS were divided into three types: type I, a long period of acceleration or one acceleration lasting > 1 min or at least two accelerations lasting > 15 s; type II, a biphasic response with acceleration followed by deceleration; and type III, no response or prolonged deceleration. In the high trait anxiety group, CRH levels were significantly higher than in the low trait anxiety group, and FHR patterns after VAS showed mostly a type II response pattern. These findings suggest that stress in pregnant women with high trait anxiety may influence FHR patterns after VAS. PMID:20146876

Makino, I; Matsuda, Y; Yoneyama, M; Hirasawa, K; Takagi, K; Ohta, H; Konishi, Y

2009-01-01

240

Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

ElizabethMcConeByrnes

2011-06-01

241

Maternal Moderators of Child Care: The Role of Maternal Separation Anxiety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the relationships between maternal separation anxiety, maternal employment, and quality of child care for 49 mothers of 2- to 3-year olds in day care centers. Findings suggest that the mother's concern about separation is an important moderator of the effects of maternal employment and child care on children's development. (BB)

McBride, Susan L.

1990-01-01

242

The effects of performance incentives on the utilization and quality of maternal and child care in Burundi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Africa's progress towards the health related Millennium Development Goals remains limited. This can be partly explained by inadequate performance of health care providers. It is therefore critical to incentivize this performance. Payment methods that reward performance related to quantity and quality, called performance based financing (PBF), have recently been introduced in over 30 African countries. While PBF meets considerable enthusiasm from governments and donors, the evidence on its effects is still limited. In this study we aim to estimate the effects of PBF on the utilization and quality of maternal and child care in Burundi. We use the 2010 Burundi Demographic and Health Survey (August 2010-January 2011, n = 4916 women) and exploit the staggered rollout of PBF between 2006 and 2010, to implement a difference-in-differences approach. The quality of care provided during antenatal care (ANC) visits improved significantly, especially among the better off, although timeliness and number of ANC visits did not change. The probability of an institutional delivery increased significantly with 4 percentage points among the better off but no effects were found among the poor. PBF does significantly increase this probability (with 5 percentage points) for women where PBF was in place from the start of their pregnancy, suggesting that women are encouraged during ANC visits to deliver in the facility. PBF also led to a significant increase of 4 percentage points in the probability of a child being fully vaccinated, with effects more pronounced among the poor. PBF improved the utilization and quality of most maternal and child care, mainly among the better off, but did not improve targeting of unmet needs for ANC. Especially types of care which require a behavioral change of health care workers when the patient is already in the clinic show improvements. Improvements are smaller for services which require effort from the provider to change patients' utilization choices. PMID:25462610

Bonfrer, Igna; Van de Poel, Ellen; Van Doorslaer, Eddy

2014-12-01

243

Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR???30 per 100,000 by 2030.

Hounton Sennen

2013-01-01

244

Mother knows best, even when stressed? Effects of maternal exposure to a stressor on offspring performance at different life stages in a wild semelparous fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environment mothers are exposed to has resonating effects on offspring performance. In iteroparous species, maternal exposure to stressors generally results in offspring ill-equipped for survival. Still, opportunities for future fecundity can offset low quality offspring. Little is known, however, as to how intergenerational effects of stress manifest in semelparous species with only a single breeding episode. Such mothers would suffer a total loss of fitness if offspring cannot survive past multiple life stages. We evaluated whether chronic exposure of female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to a chase stressor impaired offspring performance traits. Egg size and early offspring survival were not influenced by maternal exposure to the repeated acute stressor. Later in development, fry reared from stressed mothers swam for shorter periods of time but possessed a superior capacity to re-initiate bouts of burst swimming. In contrast to iteroparous species, the mechanisms driving the observed effects do not appear to be related to cortisol, as egg hormone concentrations did not vary between stressed and undisturbed mothers. Sockeye salmon appear to possess buffering strategies that protect offspring from deleterious effects of maternal stress that would otherwise compromise progeny during highly vulnerable stages of development. Whether stressed sockeye salmon mothers endow offspring with traits that are matched or mismatched for survival in the unpredictable environment they encountered is discussed. This study highlights the importance of examining intergenerational effects among species-specific reproductive strategies, and across offspring life history to fully determine the scope of impact of maternal stress. PMID:24619199

Sopinka, N M; Hinch, S G; Middleton, C T; Hills, J A; Patterson, D A

2014-06-01

245

The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilities at the polyclinic for low-risk deliveries, the introduction of a family planning clinic and a breast-feeding clinic, support from pediatricians for under-5 (well-baby clinics, children's outpatient services and children's emergency care, and the introduction of health agents recruited from the local community. Representative surveys of the population were taken at the project's inception (July 1995 and then 30 months later (December 1997, using a general health questionnaire adapted to the local conditions. Mortality data were collected from local registration systems as well as from an autopsy survey of perinatal and infant deaths. Results. During 1995 there were 4 maternal deaths from 1 195 pregnancies (maternal mortality of 335/100 000; three of the deaths were related to hypertension and one to uterine perforation after an illegal abortion. During 1998 (post-intervention, there were no maternal deaths in pregnancy or childbirth. In 1993 no deliveries took place at the polyclinic, but in 1998 there were 946 deliveries at the clinic without any serious complications. The method of delivery, the incidence of prematurity, and the incidence of low birthweight did not change significantly over the study period. In the post-intervention survey, 75% of women reported receiving contraceptive advice from a doctor in the preceding year, compared to 50% in the first sample. A mortality survey carried out in 1993-1995 estimated the infant mortality rate to be 60/1 000 live births. By 1998, using data collected locally by active surveillance, the infant mortality rate was 37/1 000 live births. The causes of infant death in both those periods were dominated by respiratory infections and diarrheal disease. Over 95% of both samples initiated breast-feeding, but a higher proportion of the post-intervention sample reported breast-feeding for longer than 6 months (41% vs. 32%, P = 0.0005. No differences were apparent in the use of under-5 clinics, but immunization rates improved. Post-intervention, significant improvements were documented in the mothers' understanding of basic hygiene, their knowledge of causes of common diseases, and their management of acute respiratory infections and diarrhea in children. This was particularly true for the households visited by a community health agent. Conclusions. Inequalities in health care in poor urban populations can be reduced by integrated community-based interventions, including the use of health agents recruited from the local community.

Emond Alan

2002-01-01

246

[The gender-specific effect of maternal exposure to dioxin on fetal steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland].  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal exposure to 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes a number of toxic effects on development such as growth retardation and sexual immaturity in the offspring. However, the toxic mechanism remains unknown. Our previous studies have revealed that single oral administration of TCDD (1 jg/kg) to pregnant rats at gestational day (GD) 15 attenuates the fetal expression of testicular steroidogenic proteins such as steroidogenic acute-regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 17 by targeting the fetal production of pituitary gonadotropins. In addition, we provided evidence that TCDD-produced damage on the fetal pituitary-gonad axis leads to imprint defects in sexual behaviors at adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether TCDD also affects fetal steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. When pregnant Wistar rats were orally treated with TCDD, the fetal expression of CYP21, CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNAs was either induced or tended to be induced in the male adrenal gland during GD17 and GD19, while the expression of mRNAs coding for StAR, CYP11A1 and 313-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was insensitive to TCDD treatment. The above alterations did not seem to be caused through a change in the upstream regulator, because TCDD exhibited little ability to attenuate the expression of adrenocorticotropin, a pituitary hormone stimulating adrenal steroidogenesis, in the male and female fetuses. In contrast to the males, TCDD effect on the adrenal gland was not observed in the female fetuses. These results suggest that maternal exposure to TCDD disrupts fetal steroidogenesis in adrenal as well as gonadal glands in a male specific manner, and the mechanism underlying the effect on adrenal gland is independent of the alteration of pituitary regulator. PMID:23858793

Takeda, Tomoki; Hattori, Yukiko; Fujii, Misaki; Taura, Junki; Ishi, Yuji; Yamada, Hideyuki

2013-04-01

247

The effects of maternal depression on child mental health problems based on gender of the child.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depression is a common disorder among women with young children. Compared to non-depressed mothers, depressed mothers tend to display less positive affection, provide less emotional support, and inconsistently respond to their child's every day and emotional needs. We examined the association between maternal depression and child (middle childhood) mental health problems according to the child's gender. This study was conducted between June and August 2006 on 3,911 subjects aged 7-12 years. The data for this study was collected through a questionnaire that included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL). Most of the CBCL scores were higher for children in the depressed mother group. The two way ANOVAs (depressed group by gender) found girls to have significantly higher scores than boys on somatization. Children may experience somatic complaints when they also suffer from emotional disorders, and therefore must be observed closely. PMID:25566948

Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Eu Jin; Lim, Ki-Young; Lee, Ji-Won; Shin, Yun-Mi

2015-04-01

248

Effects of hierarchical roost removal on northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest roosting bats use a variety of ephemeral roosts such as snags and declining live trees. Although conservation of summer maternity habitat is considered critical for forest-roosting bats, bat response to roost loss still is poorly understood. To address this, we monitored 3 northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies on Fort Knox Military Reservation, Kentucky, USA, before and after targeted roost removal during the dormant season when bats were hibernating in caves. We used 2 treatments: removal of a single highly used (primary) roost and removal of 24% of less used (secondary) roosts, and an un-manipulated control. Neither treatment altered the number of roosts used by individual bats, but secondary roost removal doubled the distances moved between sequentially used roosts. However, overall space use by and location of colonies was similar pre- and post-treatment. Patterns of roost use before and after removal treatments also were similar but bats maintained closer social connections after our treatments. Roost height, diameter at breast height, percent canopy openness, and roost species composition were similar pre- and post-treatment. We detected differences in the distribution of roosts among decay stages and crown classes pre- and post-roost removal, but this may have been a result of temperature differences between treatment years. Our results suggest that loss of a primary roost or ? 20% of secondary roosts in the dormant season may not cause northern long-eared bats to abandon roosting areas or substantially alter some roosting behaviors in the following active season when tree-roosts are used. Critically, tolerance limits to roost loss may be dependent upon local forest conditions, and continued research on this topic will be necessary for conservation of the northern long-eared bat across its range. PMID:25611060

Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W Mark; Britzke, Eric R

2015-01-01

249

Effect of essential oil from Citrus aurantium in maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly frequency in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Citrus aurantium L., conhecida popularmente como laranja amarga, é amplamente utilizada na medicina popular, mas há poucos dados na literatura sobre seus efeitos na gestação. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influencia do óleo essencial obtido das frutas de Citrus aurantium no desempenho [...] reprodutivo materno e na incidência de anomalias fetais em ratos. Ratas Wistar prenhes foram randomizadas em quarto grupos (n mínimo = 12 animais/grupo): G1 = controle, G2 à G4 = tratados com óleo essencial de C. aurantium nas doses de 125, 250 e 500 mg/kg, respectivamente. Ratas foram tratadas oralmente, por gavage, com óleo essencial da planta ou veículo durante os períodos de pré-implantação e organogênese (dias de prenhez 0-14). No dia 20 de prenhez as ratas foram anestesiadas e o útero foi pesado com seu conteúdo e os fetos foram analisados. Resultados mostraram que o grupo tratado com 500 mg/kg apresentou diminuição do peso e índice placentário, embora o tratamento com óleo essencial de laranja amarga não mostrou nenhuma alteração no desempenho reprodutivo materno, efeito tóxico, mudanças na ossificação e nas taxas de malformações. Concluindo, o tratamento com óleo essencial de Citrus aurantium não foi teratogênico e não alterou o desempenho reprodutivo materno. Abstract in english Citrus aurantium L., commonly known as bitter orange, is widely used in folk medicine, but there is little data in the literature about the effects on pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of essential oil obtained from fruits of Citrus aurantium on the maternal repr [...] oductive outcome and fetal anomaly incidence in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n minimum = 12 animals/group): G1 = control, G2 to G4 = treated with essential oil from C. aurantium at dose 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Rats were orally treated, by gavage, with plant essential oil or vehicle during pre-implantation and organogenic period (gestational day 0-14). On gestational day 20 the rats were anaesthetized and the gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and the fetuses were analyzed. Results showed that the treated group with 500 mg/kg presented decreased placental weights and placental index, although the treatment with bitter orange essential oil did not show any alteration in maternal reproductive performance, toxicological effect, changes in ossification sites, and malformation index. In conclusion, the treatment of Citrus aurantium essential oil was not teratogenic and did not alter the maternal reproductive outcome.

Gustavo T., Volpato; Luis A.D., Francia-Farje; Débora C., Damasceno; Renata V., Oliveira; Clélia A., Hiruma-Lima; Wilma G., Kempinas.

2015-03-01

250

Effects of selenium supply and dietary restriction on maternal and fetal body weight, visceral organ mass, cellularity estimates, and jejeunal vascularity in pregnant ewe lambs.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine effects of nutrient restriction and dietary Se on maternal and fetal visceral tissues, 36 pregnant Targhee-cross ewe lambs were allotted randomly to one of four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Factors were nutrition [control nutrition (CON, 100% of requirements) vs. restricted nu...

251

EFFECTS ON THE FETAL RAT INTESTINE OF MATERNAL MALNUTRITION AND EXPOSURE TO NITROFEN (2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL-P-NITROPHENYL ETHER)  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of maternal protein-energy malnutrition and exposure to nitrofen on selected aspects of intestinal morphology and function were studied in the fetal rat. Pregnant rats were fed, throughout gestation, diets containing 24% or 6% casein as the sole source of protein. Red...

252

No evidence for pathogenic variants or maternal effect of ZFP57 as the cause of Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome, which, in 50-60% of sporadic cases, is caused by hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1 differentially methylated region (DMR) at chromosome 11p15.5. The underlying defect of this hypomethylation is largely unknown. Recently, recessive mutations of the ZFP57 gene were reported in patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 1, showing hypomethylation at multiple imprinted loci, including KCNQ1OT1 DMR in some. The aim of our study was to determine whether ZFP57 alterations were a genetic cause of the hypomethylation at KCNQ1OT1 DMR in patients with BWS. We sequenced ZFP57 in 27 BWS probands and in 23 available mothers to test for a maternal effect. We identified three novel, presumably benign sequence variants in ZFP57; thus, we found no evidence for ZFP57 alterations as a major cause in sporadic BWS cases.

Boonen, Susanne E; Hahnemann, Johanne M D

2012-01-01

253

Effects of maternal n-3 fatty acid supplementation on placental cytokines, pro-resolving lipid mediators and their precursors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) during pregnancy modifies placental PUFA composition, the accumulation of specialised pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs, specifically resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD) and upstream precursors) and inflammatory gene expression. Placentas were collected from women (n=51) enrolled in a randomised, placebo controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation from 20-week gestation. Lipids were extracted for fatty acid analysis and SPMs were quantitated by mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Using multiple regression analysis, data were correlated for placental n-3 PUFA and SPM levels with PUFA levels in maternal and cord blood erythrocytes. Supplementation with n-3 PUFAs increased placental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels (P<0.05), and increased the levels of the SPM precursors 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) by two- to threefold (P<0.0005). RvD1, 17R-RvD1, RvD2 and PD1 were detectable in all placentas, but concentrations were not significantly increased by n-3 PUFA supplementation. Placental DHA levels were positively associated with maternal and cord DHA levels (P<0.005), and with placental 17-HDHA concentrations (P<0.0001). Placental mRNA expression of PTGS2, IL1?, IL6 and IL10 was unaffected by n-3 PUFA supplementation, but TNF? expression was increased by 14-fold (P<0.05). We conclude that n-3 PUFA supplementation in pregnancy i) enhances placental accumulation of DHA and SPM precursors, ii) does not alter placental EPA levels, and iii) has no stimulatory effects on inflammatory gene expression. Further studies are required to ascertain the biological significance of SPMs in the placenta and the potential immunomodulatory effects of elevating placental SPM levels. PMID:25504868

Keelan, Jeffrey A; Mas, Emilie; D'Vaz, Nina; Dunstan, Janet A; Li, Shaofu; Barden, Anne E; Mark, Peter J; Waddell, Brendan J; Prescott, Susan L; Mori, Trevor A

2015-02-01

254

Superiority of extra-pair offspring: maternal but not genetic effects as revealed by a mixed cross-fostering design.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extra-pair copulations (EPC) are the rule rather than an exception in socially monogamous birds, but despite widespread occurrences, the benefits of female infidelity remain elusive. Most attention has been paid to the possibility that females gain genetic benefits from EPC, and fitness comparisons between maternal half-siblings are considered to be a defining test of this hypothesis. Recently, it was shown that these comparisons may be confounded by within-brood maternal effects where one such effect may be the distribution of half-siblings in the laying order. However, this possibility is difficult to study as it would be necessary to detect the egg from which each chick hatched. In this study, we used a new approach for egg-chick assignment and cross-fostered eggs on an individual basis among a set of nests of the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. After hatching, chicks were ascribed to mothers and therefore to individual eggs by molecular genetic methods. Extra-pair young predominated early in the laying order. Under natural conditions, this should give them a competitive advantage over their half-siblings, mediated by hatching asynchrony. However, we experimentally synchronized hatching, and after this treatment, extra-pair young did not outperform within-pair young in any studied trait including survival up to recruitment and several indicators of reproductive success and attractiveness. We obtained only modest sample sizes for the last two traits and did not test for extra-pair success of male offspring. Thus, we cannot exclude the possibility of advantages of extra-pair young during the adult phase of life. However, our data tentatively suggest that the more likely reason for females' EPCs is the insurance against the infertility of a social mate. PMID:22061105

Krist, Miloš; Munclinger, Pavel

2011-12-01

255

Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the outcomes of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited amounts of work by mothers benefit youths who are relatively disadvantaged and even long hours, which occur relatively rarely, are unlikely to leave them much worse off. By contrast, maternal labor supply is estimated to have much more harmful effects on advantaged adolescents. Particular...

Ruhm, Christopher J.

2008-01-01

256

Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is effective in preventing maternal and placental malaria in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP is currently the recommended regimen for prevention of malaria in pregnancy in endemic areas. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of IPT-SP in the prevention of maternal and placental malaria in parturient mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria, where the risk of malaria is present all year round. Method During a larger study evaluating the epidemiology of congenital malaria, the effect of malaria prophylaxis was examined in 983 parturient mothers. Five hundred and ninety eight mothers (60.8% received IPT-SP, 214 (21.8% received pyrimethamine (PYR and 171 (17.4% did not take any chemoprophylactic agent (NC. Results The prevalence of maternal parasitaemia in the IPT-SP, PYR and NC groups was 10.4%, 15.9% and 17% respectively (p = 0.021. The prevalence of placental parasitaemia was 10.5% in the IPT-SP, 16.8% PYR and 17% NC groups, respectively (p = 0.015. The prevalence of maternal anaemia (haematocrit Conclusion IPT-SP is effective in preventing maternal and placental malaria as well as improving pregnancy outcomes among parturient women in Ibadan, Nigeria. The implementation of the recently adopted IPT-SP strategy should be pursued with vigour as it holds great promise for reducing the burden of malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria.

Mokuolu Olugbenga A

2007-07-01

257

Maternal obesity and late effects on offspring metabolism / Obesidade materna e efeitos tardios sobre o metabolismo da prole  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos tardios da obesidade materna induzida por lesão do núcleo ventromedial do hipotálamo sobre o metabolismo da prole. Trinta dias após a lesão bilateral do hipotálamo ventromedial, ratos fêmeas foram colocadas para acasalar e divididas em dois grupos de animais gestantes: Co [...] ntrole (C) – falsa lesão e Obeso (OB) – lesionados. Três meses após o nascimento, de acordo com os grupos das mães, os filhotes foram divididos em animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta normocalórica (C-N and OB-N) e animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta hipercalórica (C-H and OB-H). Aos 120 dias de idade, os animais foram eutanasiados e as carcaças, fezes e ração foram submetidas à análise calorimétrica para determinação do balanço energético e composição corporal.Resultados Durante o período de crescimento, os filhos de mães obesas mostraram maiores valores de peso corporal e ingestão alimentar que animais controle. Os animais obesos apresentaram maiores valores de ganho de peso corporal e eficiência metabólica que os animais controle quando adultos. A dieta hipercalórica levou ao aumento da energia metabolizável, percentagem de energia absorvida e gasto energético para ambos os grupos. A composição corporal foi somente afetada pela associação da dieta hipercalórica com a obesidade materna que levou ao aumento da gordura corporal.Conclusões : A obesidade materna levou ao sobrepeso tardio na prole, sugerindo uma programação fetal. Pela tendência apresentada, acreditamos que a ingestão prolongada de dietas hipercalóricas em animais adultos possa induzir uma piora no quadro de sobrepeso induzido pela obesidade materna. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7 Abstract in english Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism.Materials and methods : Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 [...] groups of pregnant animals: Control (C) – false lesion (sham) and Obese (OB) – lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N), and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H). At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition.Results : During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat.Conclusions : Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7

Daniele Sá, Vido; Mariana Bocca, Nejm; Neila Ribeiro, Silva; Sylvia Maria Affonso, Silva; Sérgio Luiz, Cravo; Jacqueline, Luz.

2014-04-01

258

Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) : [plus] Corrigendum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains. Maternal plasma and egg cortisol levels were correlated, but no difference between the HR and LR strains was detected in either parameter. LR females produced larger eggs, and larvae with larger yolk sacs compared to HR females, however no differences in larval body size (excluding the yolk) was detected between strains. Considering that the HR and LR strains have a number of correlated behavioral and physiological traits that resemble the reactive and proactive stress coping styles, respectively, the results suggest that proactive mothers invest more energy into their offspring, producing larvae with larger energy reserves. It is possible that larger energy reserves in proactive larvae support the energy requirement for establishing and defending territory in salmonid fish. Furthermore, in the present study we found a positive relationship between mother plasma cortisol and egg cortisol; however neither mother plasma cortisol nor egg cortisol differed between strains. These results indicate that cortisol endowment from the mother to the offspring plays a minor role in the transfer of the behavioral and physiological traits which separates these strains.

Andersson, M. Åberg; Silva, P. I. M.

2011-01-01

259

Neurofunctional maps of the 'maternal brain' and the effects of oxytocin: a multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have tried to understand the possible neurobiological basis of mothering. The putative involvement of oxytocin, in this regard, has been deeply investigated. Performing a voxel-based meta-analysis, we aimed at testing the hypothesis of overlapping brain activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the mother-infant interaction and the oxytocin modulation of emotional stimuli in humans. We performed two systematic literature searches: fMRI studies investigating the neurofunctional correlates of the 'maternal brain' by employing mother-infant paradigms; and fMRI studies employing oxytocin during emotional tasks. A unimodal voxel-based meta-analysis was performed on each database, whereas a multimodal voxel-based meta-analytical tool was adopted to assess the hypothesis that the neurofunctional effects of oxytocin are detected in brain areas implicated in the 'maternal brain.' We found greater activation in the bilateral insula extending to the inferior frontal gyrus, basal ganglia and thalamus during mother-infant interaction and greater left insular activation associated with oxytocin administration versus placebo. Left insula extending to basal ganglia and frontotemporal gyri as well as bilateral thalamus and amygdala showed consistent activation across the two paradigms. Right insula also showed activation across the two paradigms, and dorsomedial frontal cortex activation in mothers but deactivation with oxytocin. Significant activation in areas involved in empathy, emotion regulation, motivation, social cognition and theory of mind emerged from our multimodal meta-analysis, supporting the need for further studies directly investigating the neurobiology of oxytocin in the mother-infant relationship. PMID:24734987

Rocchetti, Matteo; Radua, Joaquim; Paloyelis, Yannis; Xenaki, Lida-Alkisti; Frascarelli, Marianna; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Politi, Pierluigi; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

2014-10-01

260

Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective(sDuring recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking water from day 2 to day 21 of lactation. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, the testis weight and volume of offspring were measured and their epididymal semen analyzed. Following tissue processing, 5 ?m sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Testicular parameters in different groups were compared by one-way ANOVA.ResultsTestis weight and volume of offspring decreased significantly in a dose-related manner in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups. Dose-dependent significant reductions were seen in seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height during neonatal, prepubertal and postpubertal periods in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in mean sperm density of offspring at puberty in moderate and high doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Testosterone levels decreased significantly in a dose-related manner at puberty in moderate and high doses groups. ConclusionPresent study showed maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation caused dose-related and long-term alterations of testicular parameters in offspring rats.

Mehran Dorostghoal

2011-03-01

261

A maternal high fat diet has long-lasting effects on skeletal muscle lipid and PLIN protein content in rat offspring at young adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

A maternal high fat diet (HFD) can have adverse effects on skeletal muscle development. Skeletal muscle PLIN proteins (PLIN2, 3 and 5) are thought to play critical roles in lipid metabolism, however effects of HFD on PLIN and lipases (HSL, ATGL, CGI-58) in mothers as well as their offspring have yet to be investigated. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether maternal HFD would influence skeletal muscle lipase and PLIN protein content in offspring at weaning (19 d) and young adulthood (3 mo). Female rats (28 d old, n = 9/group) were fed control (CON, AIN93G, 7% soybean oil) or HFD (AIN93G, 20% lard) for 10 weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. All offspring were weaned to CON [n = 18/group, 1 female and 1 male pup per litter were studied at weaning (19 d) and 3 mo of age]. There was no effect of sex for the main outcomes measured in plantaris, therefore male and female data was combined. Maternal HFD resulted in higher triacylglycerol content in pups at 3 mo (p < 0.05), as well as in the dams (p = 0.015). Maternal HFD resulted in higher PLIN5 content in pups at weaning and 3 mo (p = 0.05). PLIN2 and PLIN5 content decreased at 3 mo versus weaning (p < 0.001). HFD dams had a higher PLIN3 content (p = 0.016). Diet had no effect on ATGL, CGI-58, or HSL content. In conclusion, exposure to a maternal HFD resulted in higher skeletal muscle lipid and PLIN5 content in plantaris of offspring through to young adulthood. PMID:25552350

MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Castelli, Laura M; Miotto, Paula M; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Milburn, Amanda; Roy, Brian D; LeBlanc, Paul J; Ward, Wendy E; Peters, Sandra J

2015-02-01

262

Maternal macronutrient and energy intakes in pregnancy and offspring intake at 10 y: exploring parental comparisons and prenatal effects1234  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: High maternal dietary intakes in pregnancy may lead to increased fetal growth and program neuroendocrine pathways that result in greater appetite, energy intake, and adiposity in offspring later in life. Few prospective dietary studies have explored this relation. Objective: The objective was to assess associations of maternal dietary intake in pregnancy and maternal and paternal dietary intake postnatally with child dietary intake and adiposity. Design: Dietary intakes of energy, protein, total fat, and carbohydrate were assessed prospectively in mothers during pregnancy, in mothers and their partners at 47 mo postnatally, and in children at 10 y (n = 5717 mother-child pairs prenatally, 5593 mother-child pairs postnatally, and 3009 father-child pairs). Child body composition was assessed at 9 and 11 y (n = 5725). Results: Maternal dietary intakes of protein, fat (when adjusted for energy intake), and carbohydrate in pregnancy were positively associated with child dietary intakes of the same nutrients, and these associations were greater than those observed for paternal dietary intake, which was not strongly associated with offspring diet. Associations of maternal prenatal-offspring intakes were stronger than those of maternal postnatal-offspring intakes for protein and fat. Greater child energy and macronutrient intakes were only associated with greater adiposity in children when adjusted for potential energy underreporting. Maternal diet during pregnancy was not associated with offspring adiposity or lean mass. Conclusion: The stronger prenatal maternal associations with child dietary intake, particularly protein and fat, compared with both paternal intake associations and maternal postnatal intake associations provide some evidence for in utero programming of offspring appetite by maternal intake during pregnancy. PMID:20053880

Brion, Marie-Jo A; Ness, Andy R; Rogers, Imogen; Emmett, Pauline; Cribb, Victoria; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A

2010-01-01

263

Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

Choi Hyeon-Jeong

2011-11-01

264

The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior  

OpenAIRE

In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or post...

Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

2010-01-01

265

Efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en el oligohidramnios aislado: its effectiveness in isolated oligohydramnios Parenteral maternal hydrotherapy:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El oligohidramnios u oligoamnios es la disminución del líquido amniótico a cifras patológicas con un índice de líquido amniótico (ILA menor o igual a 5 cm, y constituye un alto riego fetal y secundariamente materno. OBJETIVO: demostrar a través de un ensayo clínico controlado la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en oligoamnios aislados, en el aumento del ILA y consecutivamente su repercusión en esos resultados perinatológicos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado para valorar la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral (HMP en gestantes con oligoamnios aislado, de 28 sem o más de embarazo, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Docente de Guanabacoa, entre el 1ro de enero del 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004. La muestra fue de 141 oligoamnios aislados y se dividió en 2 grupos: grupo estudio: 56 y el grupo control: 85. Al grupo estudio se le aplicó HMP con 2000 mL de solución salina isotónica al 0,9 %, y con el grupo control se mantuvo conducta expectante. RESULTADOS: el oligoamnios aislado es más frecuente en el embarazo a término. Al administrar HMP aumenta el ILA en un 43 % (grupo estudio y solo en un 22 % de los casos del grupo control. Igualmente, se logra aumentar la edad gestacional en 2 sem desde el diagnóstico. Fue mayor el parto transpelviano en el grupo estudio; la principal causa de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo en ambos, principalmente en el grupo control. En el grupo estudio no hubo recién nacidos con Síndrome de distress respiratorio ni bronconeumonía congénita. CONCLUSIONES: la HMP parece ser efectiva en el manejo del oligoamnios aislado, lo cual disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal y secundariamente el bienestar materno.Oligohydramnios or oligoamnios is the amniotic fluid decrease to pathological figures with a high amniotic fluid rate (AFR less or similar to 5 cm, and it is a fetal high risk, and secondarily maternal. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate through a controlled clinical assay the effectiveness of parenteral maternal hydrotherapy (PMH in isolated oligoamnios, in increase of AFR, and consecutively its repercussion on those perinatal results. METHODS: We made a controlled clinical assay to assess effectiveness of PHM in pregnants with isolated oligoamnios of 28 weeks or more of pregnancy in Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. Sample included 141 isolated oligoamnios and it was divided in two groups: study group with 56 patients and control-group with 85 patients. In study group, we administered PHM with 2000 mL of 0,9% isotopic saline solution, and in control-group there was an expectant behavior RESULTS: Isolated aligoamnios is more frequent in term pregnancy. Administration of PHM increases AFR in 43% (study group, and only in 22% of cases from control- group. Likewise, it was possible to increase gestational age in two weeks from diagnosis. In study group, transpelvic pregnancy; main cause of cesarean section was the acute fetal suffering in both groups, mainly in the control one. In study group there were not newborns presenting with neither respiratory syndrome nor congenital bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: PMH looks to be effective in management o isolated oligoamnios, decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality, and secondarily, maternal wellbeing.

Itsel Cárdenas Ramón

2009-09-01

266

Maternal macronutrient and energy intakes in pregnancy and offspring intake at 10 y: exploring parental comparisons and prenatal effects1234  

OpenAIRE

Background: High maternal dietary intakes in pregnancy may lead to increased fetal growth and program neuroendocrine pathways that result in greater appetite, energy intake, and adiposity in offspring later in life. Few prospective dietary studies have explored this relation.

Brion, Marie-jo A.; Ness, Andy R.; Rogers, Imogen; Emmett, Pauline; Cribb, Victoria; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A.

2010-01-01

267

Effect of Maternal Intake of Organically or Conventionally Produced Feed on Oral Tolerance Development in Offspring Rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings’ response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother’s milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups’ anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L).

Melballe Jensen, Maja; Halekoh, Ulrich

2013-01-01

268

Metabolismo mineral óseo durante la gestación y efectos sobre la masa ósea de la madre / Bone mineral metabolism during gestation and its effects on maternal bone mass  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La gestación y lactancia son periodos de alta demanda de calcio, para el crecimiento fetal y para la producción de leche materna. Durante la gestación, la madre transfiere al feto 25 a 30 g de calcio y durante la lactancia se secretan 200 a 240 mg de calcio diario en la leche materna. Durante la ges [...] tación, los mecanismos adaptativos más importantes son el incremento en la absorción de calcio y el incremento del recambio óseo materno; durante la lactancia, hay tendencia a conservar más calcio a nivel renal, pero la desmineralización temporal del esqueleto materno parece ser el mecanismo más importante. Los estudios que emplean absorciometría dual de rayos X (DXA) son escasos, por el riesgo de radiación materna y fetal; pero, con otras técnicas, como el ultrasonido cuantitativo, se ha descrito una pérdida de masa ósea durante la gestación predominantemente dependiente del hueso trabecular. Mediante marcadores bioquímicos del remodelamiento óseo se ha demostrado que los suplementos de calcio reducen la tasa de remodelamiento durante el embarazo y parecen tener efecto benéfico sobre la pérdida ósea materna. Estudios longitudinales que emplean ultrasonido cuantitativo también han encontrado una disminución de la pérdida ósea, entre las mujeres que recibieron aporte o suplemento adecuado de calcio durante la gestación. Abstract in english Pregnancy and lactation are periods of high calcium demand for skeletal growth and maternal milk production. Approximately 25-30 g of calcium are transferred to the fetus during pregnancy, and breast-feeding mothers secrete 200-240 mg/day of calcium in breast milk every day. During pregnancy, major [...] physiologic adaptations include increased both calcium intestinal absorption and rate of maternal bone turnover; during lactation, there is a contribution of renal calcium conservation, but temporary maternal bone demineralization is the main mechanism to meet calcium requirements. Data on bone mineral density assessed by dual energy x-ray absortiometry (DXA) are sparse mainly due to concern about potential risk of radiation exposure to the fetus. Other radiation-free techniques like quantitative ultrasound have been used to assess maternal bone mass changes during pregnancy. Maternal bone loss mainly depending on trabecular areas during pregnancy has been described. Calcium supplements reduce maternal skeletal-bone turnover as evaluated by bone resorption markers during pregnancy and seem to have beneficial effects on maternal bone loss. Longitudinal studies with repeated measurements of quantitative ultrasound during pregnancy have found decrease in bone loss in pregnant women with adequate calcium intake or supplementation.

Luis, Vidal; Maritza, Vidal; Santiago, Cabrera; Eduardo, Ortega; Vicente, Santiváñez; Jorge, Polo; Jorge, Barnaby; Rolando, Vargas; Angélica, del Castillo.

2008-09-01

269

Effects of Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes during Pregnancy: A Single-Center Cohort Study of a Chinese Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Adverse maternal outcomes and perinatal complications are closely associated with overt maternal hypothyroidism, but whether these complications occur in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) during pregnancy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCH on maternal and perinatal outcomes during pregnancy. Methods A prospective study of data from 8012 pregnant women (371 women with SCH, 7641 euthyroid women) was performed. Maternal serum samples were collected in different trimesters to examine thyroid hormone concentrations. SCH was defined as a thyroid stimulating hormone concentration exceeding the trimester-specific reference value with a normal free thyroxine concentration. The occurrence of maternal outcomes, including gestational hypertension (GH), gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta previa, placental abruption, prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM), and premature delivery; and perinatal outcomes, including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), fetal distress, low birth weight (LBW; live birth weight ?2500 g), stillbirth, and malformation, was recorded. Logistic regression with adjustment for confounding demographic and medical factors was used to determine the risks of adverse outcomes in patients with SCH. Results Compared with euthyroid status, SCH was associated with higher rates of GH (1.819% vs. 3.504%, P?=?0.020; ?2?=?7.345; odds ratio (OR), 2.243; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.251–4.024), PROM (4.973% vs. 8.625%, P?=?0.002; ?2?=?72.102; adjusted OR, 6.014; 95% CI, 3.975–9.099), IUGR (1.008% vs. 2.965%, <0.001; ?2?=?13.272; adjusted OR, 3.336; 95% CI, 1.745–6.377), and LBW (1.885% vs. 4.582%, P<0.001; ?2?=?13.558; adjusted OR, 2.919; 95% CI, 1.650–5.163). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that pregnant women with SCH had increased risks of GH and PROM, and their fetuses and infants had increased risks of IUGR and LBW. Thus, routine maternal thyroid function testing is necessary to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:25353960

Dai, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Si, Guang-Xin; Yang, Hong; Ye, En-Ling; Chen, Qing-Shou; Yu, Le-Chu; Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xue-Mian

2014-01-01

270

The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission ...

de Jongh Beatriz E; Locke Robert; Paul David A; Hoffman Matthew

2012-01-01

271

No maternal effects after stimulation of the melanization response in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti  

OpenAIRE

The costs and benefits of activating the immune system can reach across generations. Thus, in vertebrates and in several invertebrates, stimulating the immune system of a female can enhance immunity of her offspring or decrease offspring fitness. We evaluated the potential maternally transmitted costs and benefits of the melanization response, an innate immune response of insects that helps to protect mosquitoes from malaria parasites. We manipulated the maternal melanization response of the ...

Voordouw, Maarten J.; Lambrechts, Louis; Koella, Jacob

2011-01-01

272

Protective Effect of Pregnancy in Rural South Africa : Questioning the Concept of "Indirect Cause'' of Maternal Death  

OpenAIRE

Background: Measurement of the level and composition of maternal mortality depends on the definition used, with inconsistencies leading to inflated rates and invalid comparisons across settings. This study investigates the differences in risk of death for women in their reproductive years during and outside the maternal risk period (pregnancy, delivery, puerperium), focusing on specific causes of infectious, non-communicable and external causes of death after separating out direct obstetrical...

Garenne, Michel; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Gomez-olive, Xavier; Tollman, Stephen

2013-01-01

273

Maternal health and child mortality in rural India  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, the effect of maternal health on the under-five mortality has been examined. Third wave of micro-level National Family Health Survey 2005-06 data for rural India is used. Using various alternative measures of maternal health, the paper finds strong association between maternal health and child mortality. In particular, the effects of maternal height, weight, presence of any disease and anemia are found significant. Based on our findings, we argue that if the possible generation...

Pandey, Manoj K.

2009-01-01

274

Physiological effect of natural humic acid during pregnancy on fetuses and maternal alterations induced by irradiation in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Humic acid is a mixture of macromolecular heterogeneous substances which have high molecular weight. Humic acid is a soil constituent, playing an important role in forming and transferring the nutrients from the soil to the living organism to perform many physiological processes. Thus, the current study was performed to study the chemical characteristics of extracted humic acid (soil constituent in Egypt) and evaluate its physiological effects on irradiated pregnant rats and some maternal biochemical parameter humic acid extract was obtained from the fine fraction of Egyptian soil (undersize 12 mesh sieve). The chemical characters were evaluated by means of IR, ESR, elemental and chemical analyses. It was found to contain all functional groups characterize natural humic acids but it contains high concentration of free radicals (73 x 1018 spin /g). Humic acid was supplemented daily to rats at two separate doses (150 mg and 300 mg/kg) during the interval 1st to 13 th day of gestation. Irradiation (2.5 Gy) was applied one hour post the last dose of humic acid. Experimental investigations were performed on the day 21 of gestation. The results showed that supplementation of rats with humic acid at a dose of 150 mg/kg increased the number of fetuses and placental weight as well as fetal measurement. These morphological effects were paralleled with some biochemical effects in justifying the radioprotective potency of humic acid. Also, the humic acid given at the same dose im, the humic acid given at the same dose improved the radiation induced disturbances in serum progesterone, calcium, phosphorus, calcitonin, total proteins and albumin levels whereas administration of humic acid at the high dose (300 mg/kg) induced harmful effect on most of the studied parameters and did not show any protective role against gamma irradiation. It could be concluded that administration of humic acid at the dose of 150 mg/kg during pregnancy of rats exerted a beneficial radioprotective effects on the tested physiological and biochemical parameters

275

Effects of kangaroo mother care on maternal mood and interaction patterns between parents and their preterm, low birth weight infants: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The birth of a premature infant can have adverse effects on the mood of mothers and on the interaction patterns between parents and their preterm babies. The aim of the present systematic review was to examine whether the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) intervention can attenuate these adverse psychological effects of a premature birth by ameliorating negative maternal mood and/or promoting more positive interactions between preterm infants and their parents. The results showed that although findings of studies were inconclusive, there is some evidence to suggest that KMC can make a positive difference on these areas. Specifically, it was found that KMC can improve negative maternal mood (e.g., anxiety or depression) and promote more positive parent-child interactions. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25798479

Athanasopoulou, Eirini; Fox, John R E

2014-05-01

276

A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-? and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using ?2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-? responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-? > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-? responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.

Nampijja Margaret

2005-12-01

277

Neonatal mydriasis due to effects of atropine used for maternal Tik-20 poisoning.  

OpenAIRE

A neonate was born to a mother who had consumed an organophosphorus(OPC) compound with suicidal intent. The mother was administered atropine and this caused mydriasis in the neonate without any other pharmacological effects. There was no evidence of placental dysfunction. There are no case reports of OPC consumed in pregnancy and its effect on neonates or of effects of massive doses of atropine in the mother and its effects on the fetus or the newborn.

Shah A; Chattopadhyay A; Khambadkone S; Dixit K; Irani S

1995-01-01

278

Neonatal mydriasis due to effects of atropine used for maternal Tik-20 poisoning.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A neonate was born to a mother who had consumed an organophosphorus(OPC compound with suicidal intent. The mother was administered atropine and this caused mydriasis in the neonate without any other pharmacological effects. There was no evidence of placental dysfunction. There are no case reports of OPC consumed in pregnancy and its effect on neonates or of effects of massive doses of atropine in the mother and its effects on the fetus or the newborn.

Shah A

1995-01-01

279

Young Adults' Attachment: Does Maternal Employment Make a Difference? Attachments Correlates of Maternal Employment after Infancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

As growing numbers of mothers enter the workforce, understanding the effects of maternal employment on children and adolescents has become increasingly important. The effects of maternal employment after infancy on adult attachment, and how these effects vary as a function of children's personality style are examined in this paper. It was…

Domingo, Meera; Keppley, Sharon; Chambliss, Catherine

280

Effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed extracts on growth performance and aspects of gastrointestinal health of newly weaned piglets after challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed extracts ( - SWE v. +SWE, n 20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on post-weaning (PW) growth performance, faecal score, faecal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) toxin quantification, intestinal histology and cytokine mRNA of unchallenged and ETEC-challenged pigs. Pigs were ETEC challenged on day 9 PW. There was a maternal treatment × challenge (SWE × ETEC) interaction effect on growth performance and faecal score (P0.10). Pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows had reduced heat-labile enterotoxin gene copy numbers than those from the basal-fed sows (P< 0.05). Maternal SWE supplementation increased the villus height in the ileum of pigs (P< 0.05). There was a SWE × ETEC interaction effect (P< 0.05) on IL-6 mRNA and a SWE × gastrointestinal (GI) region interaction effect (P< 0.05) on transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and TNF-? mRNA. IL-6 mRNA was down-regulated in SC pigs than BC pigs (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference in IL-6 mRNA between SE and BE pigs. The mRNA of TGF-?1 and TNF-? was down-regulated in the colon of pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows compared with those from the basal-fed sows (P< 0.05). However, there was no difference in TGF-?1 and TNF-? mRNA in the ileum between the pigs from the SWE-supplemented sows and basal-fed sows. In conclusion, maternal SWE supplementation improves ADG and the aspects of GI health of weaned pigs following an ETEC challenge. PMID:25345748

Heim, G; Sweeney, T; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; O'Doherty, J V

2014-12-01

281

Effects of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome: a randomized controlled trial on pregnant women in Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome. Methods: The case-control study was conducted between January and July, 2011. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Toyserkan Azad University, and data was collected at prenatal clinics and delivery centres located in Hamedan, Iran. It comprised 80 pregnant women between 20-26 weeks of gestation randomly assigned to two equal and matching groups of cases and controls. The intervention group did exercise continuously on a bicycle ergometre for 15 minutes, three times a week; the intensity being 50-60% of maximal heart rate. The control group did not do any exercise training. All information was obtained from the clinics, delivery centres, and from the reports of delivery room midwives. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in gestational weight gain, pregnancy length, mode of delivery, first and second stage of labour, perineal tear, and 1st and 5th min Apgar score. Mean neonatal weight was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Exercising on a bicycle ergometer during pregnancy seems to be safe for the mother and the neonate. (author)

282

The Effect of Maternal Employment on the Elementary and Junior High School Students’ Mental Health in Maku  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Most experts view the childhood period as a foundation for shaping the individuals’ fundamental future characteristics and behaviors. They believe that parents’ personality and behavior quality exert a greater effect on the development of a child’s personality than other factors. Given the mothers’ role in children’s mental health and considering the fact that children are a nation’s future makers, the present study was designed to investigate the impact of maternal employment on students’ mental health in Maku. Materials and Methods: The present study is descriptive and cross-sectional, and the population of the study encompasses all students in the fifth, sixth, and seventh grades (n=583 who are studying in 2013-2014 academic year in Maku. General Heath Questionnaire was employed for gathering data, and the SPSS software was used for analyzing the data. Findings: The results of the study indicated that there was a significant difference between the mental health problems, somatic problems, social functioning, anxiety, and depression of the students with employed and non-employed mothers. In other words, the students with non-working mothers experienced greater mental disorders than those with working mothers. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that children with working mothers showed a better mental health than non-working mothers’ children.

Fatemeh Bakhtari Aghdam

2014-09-01

283

Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper [...] sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.

Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira, Lôbo; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo; Samuel Rezende, Paiva.

284

Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PMID:22004338

Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

2012-03-01

285

Limited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ?-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (?-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n?=?120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n?=?180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, ?1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. PMID:25576140

Koppenol, Astrid; Delezie, Evelyne; Parmentier, Henk K; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia

2015-02-01

286

Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology.

RachelYehuda

2014-07-01

287

Effect of age and maternally-derived antibody status on humoral and cellular immune responses to vaccination of pigs against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of age and maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) on the immune response to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae were investigated in piglets orally vaccinated with a live E. rhusiopathiae vaccine at 6, 8 or 10 weeks of age. Seroconversion, determined by ELISA, was evident in MDA positive piglets vaccinated at 8 or 10 weeks of age and in all MDA negative vaccinates. Two weeks after vaccination in the presence of MDA, a T cell response, measured by a lymphocyte proliferation assay, was observed in 25% of piglets vaccinated at 6 weeks of age and in 100% of piglets vaccinated at 8 or 10 weeks of age. The post-vaccinal response to E. rhusiopathiae was more strongly influenced by the maternal antibody status of the piglet at the time of vaccination than the age of the piglet. PMID:22498786

Pomorska-Mól, Ma?gorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

2012-10-01

288

Sepsis and maternal mortality.  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite global progress towards reducing maternal mortality, sepsis remains a leading cause of preventable maternal death. This review focuses on current measurement challenges, trends, causes and efforts to curb maternal death from sepsis in high and low-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Under-reporting using routine registration data, compounded by misclassification and unreported deaths, results in significant underestimation of the burden of maternal death from sepsis....

Acosta, Cd; Knight, M.

2013-01-01

289

Exercise before and during pregnancy prevents the deleterious effects of maternal high-fat feeding on metabolic health of male offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intrauterine environment during pregnancy is a critical factor in the development of diabetes and obesity in offspring. To determine the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on the metabolic health of offspring, 6-week-old C57BL/6 virgin female mice were fed a chow (21%) or high-fat (60%) diet and divided into four subgroups: trained (housed with running wheels for 2 weeks preconception and during gestation), prepregnancy trained (housed with running wheels for 2 weeks preconception), gestation trained (housed with running wheels during gestation), or sedentary (static cages). Male offspring were chow fed, sedentary, and studied at 8, 12, 24, 36, and 52 weeks of age. Offspring from chow-fed dams that trained both before and during gestation had improved glucose tolerance beginning at 8 weeks of age and continuing throughout the 1st year of life, and at 52 weeks of age had significantly lower serum insulin concentrations and percent body fat compared with all other groups. High-fat feeding of sedentary dams resulted in impaired glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin concentrations, and increased percent body fat in offspring. Remarkably, maternal exercise before and during gestation ameliorated the detrimental effect of a maternal high-fat diet on the metabolic profile of offspring. Exercise before and during pregnancy may be a critical component for combating the increasing rates of diabetes and obesity. PMID:25204976

Stanford, Kristin I; Lee, Min-Young; Getchell, Kristen M; So, Kawai; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

2015-02-01

290

Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon  

OpenAIRE

Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional change...

Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao

2009-01-01

291

Responses of the Embryonic Epigenome to Maternal Diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Maternal diabetes and obesity are independent risk factors for neural tube defects, although it is unclear whether the effects are mediated by common pathogenic mechanisms. In this manuscript, we report a genome-wide survey of histone acetylation in neurulation stage embryos from mouse pregnancies with different metabolic conditions: maternal diabetes, and maternal consumption of a high fat content diet. We find that maternal diabetes, and independently, exposure to high-fat diet, are associa...

Salbaum, J. Michael; Kappen, Claudia

2012-01-01

292

EFFECTS ON THE FETUS OF MATERNAL BENOMYL EXPOSURE IN THE PROTEIN-DEPRIVED RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The separate and combined effects of protein deprivation and benomyl ((methyl 1-butylcarbomoyl)2-benzimidazole carbamate) exposure were studied in the pregnant rat fed a diet containing 24% (control) or 8% (deficient) casein throughout gestation. Within each diet group, subgroups...

293

Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage  

OpenAIRE

The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P) were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum), low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density...

Rossi, Valeria; Sei, Sandra; Gorbi, Gessica; Moroni, Fernanda

2011-01-01

294

Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Studies on formula-fed infants indicate a beneficial effect of dietary DHA on visual acuity. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between breast-milk DHA levels and visual acuity in breast-fed infants. The objective in this study was to evaluate the biochemical and functional effects of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00). The intervention started within a week after delivery and lasted 4 mon. Mothers with habitual high fish intake and their infants were included as a reference group. Ninety-seven infants completed the trial (44 OO-group, 53 FO-group) and 47 reference infants were followed up. The primary outcome measures were: DHA content of milk samples (0, 2, and 4 mon postnatal) and of infant red blood cell (RBC) membranes (4 mon postnatal), and infant visual acuity (measured by swept visual evoked potential at 2 and 4 mon of age). FO supplementation gave rise to a threefold increase in the DHA content of the 4-mon milk samples (P <0.001). DHA in infant RBC reflected milk contents (r = 0.564, P <0.001) and was increased by almost 50% (P <0.001). Infant visual acuity was not significantly different in the randomized groups but was positively associated at 4 mon with infant RBC-DHA (P = 0.004, multiple regression). We concluded that maternal FO supplementation during lactation did not enhance visual acuity of the infants who completed the intervention. However, the results showed that infants with higher RBC levels of n-3 LCPUFA had a better visual acuity at 4 mon of age, suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA may influence visual maturation.

Lauritzen, L.; JØrgensen, M.H.

2004-01-01

295

Phenotypic effects of maternal immune activation and early postnatal milieu in mice mutant for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk of schizophrenia is likely to involve gene × environment (G × E) interactions. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a schizophrenia risk gene, hence any interaction with environmental adversity, such as maternal infection, may provide further insights into the basis of the disease. This study examined the individual and combined effects of prenatal immune activation with polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (Poly I:C) and disruption of the schizophrenia risk gene NRG1 on the expression of behavioral phenotypes related to schizophrenia. NRG1 heterozygous (NRG1 HET) mutant breeding pairs were time-mated. Pregnant dams received a single injection (5mg/kg i.p.) of Poly I:C or vehicle on gestation day 9 (GD9). Offspring were then cross-fostered to vehicle-treated or Poly I:C-treated dams. Expression of schizophrenia-related behavioral endophenotypes was assessed at adolescence and in adulthood. Combining NRG1 disruption and prenatal environmental insult (Poly I:C) caused developmental stage-specific deficits in social behavior, spatial working memory and prepulse inhibition (PPI). However, combining Poly I:C and cross-fostering produced a number of behavioral deficits in the open field, social behavior and PPI. This became more complex by combining NRG1 deletion with both Poly I:C exposure and cross-fostering, which had a robust effect on PPI. These findings suggest that concepts of G × E interaction in risk of schizophrenia should be elaborated to multiple interactions that involve individual genes interacting with diverse biological and psychosocial environmental factors over early life, to differentially influence particular domains of psychopathology, sometimes over specific stages of development. PMID:24969132

O'Leary, C; Desbonnet, L; Clarke, N; Petit, E; Tighe, O; Lai, D; Harvey, R; Waddington, J L; O'Tuathaigh, C

2014-09-26

296

Protective effect of maternal prenatal melatonin administration on rat pups born to mothers submitted to constant light during gestation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the effects of adverse conditions such as constant light (LL on the circadian rhythm of malate (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and lactate (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27 dehydrogenase activities of the testes of male Wistar rats on postnatal day 28 (PN28, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test at PN60 and sexual behavior at PN120. The rats were assigned to mother groups on day 10 of pregnancy: control (12-h light/dark, LL (light from day 10 to 21 of pregnancy, and LL+Mel (LL and sc injection to the mothers of a daily dose of melatonin, 1 mg/kg body weight at circadian time 12, from day 17 to 21 of pregnancy. LL offspring did not show circadian rhythms of MDH (N = 62 and LDH (N = 63 activities (cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher. They presented a 44.7% decrease in open-arm entries and a 67.9% decrease in time (plus-maze test, N = 15, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, an increase in mounting (94.4%, intromission (94.5% and ejaculation (56.6% latencies (N = 12, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test and lower numbers of these events (61, 59 and 73%, respectively; P < 0.01, N = 12 compared to controls. The offspring of the LL+Mel group presented MDH and LDH circadian rhythms (P < 0.05, N = 50, cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher, anxiety-like and sexual behaviors similar to control. These findings supported the importance of the melatonin signal and provide evidence for the protective effects of hormones on maternal programming during gestation. This protective action of melatonin is probably related to its entrainment capacity, favoring internal coupling of the fetal multioscillatory system.

C.D. Cisternas

2010-09-01

297

Mechanisms for the adverse effects of late gestational increases in maternal cortisol on the heart revealed by transcriptomic analyses of the fetal septum.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously shown in sheep that 10 days of modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol resulting from maternal infusion of cortisol (1 mg/kg/day) caused fetal heart enlargement and Purkinje cell apoptosis. In subsequent studies we extended the cortisol infusion to term, finding a dramatic incidence of stillbirth in the pregnancies with chronically increased cortisol. To investigate effects of maternal cortisol on the heart, we performed transcriptomic analyses on the septa using ovine microarrays and Webgestalt and Cytoscape programs for pathway inference. Analyses of the transcriptomic effects of maternal cortisol infusion for 10 days (130 day cortisol vs 130 day control), or ?25 days (140 day cortisol vs 140 day control) and of normal maturation (140 day control vs 130 day control) were performed. Gene ontology terms related to immune function and cytokine actions were significantly overrepresented as genes altered by both cortisol and maturation in the septa. After 10 days of cortisol, growth factor and muscle cell apoptosis pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with our previous histologic findings. In the term fetuses (?25 days of cortisol) nutrient pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with altered metabolism and reduced mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial number by mitochondrial DNA expression confirmed a significant decrease in mitochondria. The metabolic pathways modeled as altered by cortisol treatment to term were different from those modeled during maturation of the heart to term, and thus changes in gene expression in these metabolic pathways may be indicative of the fetal heart pathophysiologies seen in pregnancies complicated by stillbirth, including gestational diabetes, Cushing's disease and chronic stress. PMID:24867915

Richards, Elaine M; Wood, Charles E; Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Antolic, Andrew; Keller-Wood, Maureen

2014-08-01

298

Prenatal lipopolysaccharide increases maternal behavior, decreases maternal odor preference, and induces lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study investigated whether late maternal inflammation disrupts the mother/pup interaction, resulting in long-lasting effects on pup behavior and alterations in biological pathways, thereby programming prepubertal behavior and the pups' inflammatory responses after bacterial endotoxin tre [...] atment. Female rats received 100 ?g/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or .9% saline solution on gestation day 18. Reproductive performance was observed at birth. On lactation days (LD) 5 and LD 6, respectively, maternal behavior and maternal aggressive behavior were assessed. In pups, maternal odor preference on LD 7, open field behavior on LD 21, and serum tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) levels after LPS challenge on LD 21 were investigated. The results showed that prenatal LPS exposure improved maternal care and reduced maternal aggressive behavior but did not alter maternal reproductive performance. Male offspring exhibited increased body weights at birth and reduced maternal odor preference. Lipopolysaccharide challenge increased the duration of immobility in the open field and induced a slight increase in serum TNF-? levels. Prenatal exposure to LPS during late pregnancy improved maternal care, reduced maternal olfactory preference, and induced TNF-? hyporesponsiveness to a single dose of LPS in pups.

Sandra, Penteado; Cristina de Oliveira Massoco-Salles, Gomes; Thiago, Kirsten; Thiago, Reis-Silva; Rafael César de, Melo; Michelli, Acenjo; Nicolle, Queiroz-Hazarbassanov; Maria Martha, Bernardi.

2013-06-01

299

Efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en el oligohidramnios aislado: its effectiveness in isolated oligohydramnios / Parenteral maternal hydrotherapy:  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El oligohidramnios u oligoamnios es la disminución del líquido amniótico a cifras patológicas con un índice de líquido amniótico (ILA) menor o igual a 5 cm, y constituye un alto riego fetal y secundariamente materno. OBJETIVO: demostrar a través de un ensayo clínico controlado la efectividad de la h [...] idroterapia materna parenteral en oligoamnios aislados, en el aumento del ILA y consecutivamente su repercusión en esos resultados perinatológicos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado para valorar la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral (HMP) en gestantes con oligoamnios aislado, de 28 sem o más de embarazo, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Docente de Guanabacoa, entre el 1ro de enero del 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004. La muestra fue de 141 oligoamnios aislados y se dividió en 2 grupos: grupo estudio: 56 y el grupo control: 85. Al grupo estudio se le aplicó HMP con 2000 mL de solución salina isotónica al 0,9 %, y con el grupo control se mantuvo conducta expectante. RESULTADOS: el oligoamnios aislado es más frecuente en el embarazo a término. Al administrar HMP aumenta el ILA en un 43 % (grupo estudio) y solo en un 22 % de los casos del grupo control. Igualmente, se logra aumentar la edad gestacional en 2 sem desde el diagnóstico. Fue mayor el parto transpelviano en el grupo estudio; la principal causa de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo en ambos, principalmente en el grupo control. En el grupo estudio no hubo recién nacidos con Síndrome de distress respiratorio ni bronconeumonía congénita. CONCLUSIONES: la HMP parece ser efectiva en el manejo del oligoamnios aislado, lo cual disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal y secundariamente el bienestar materno. Abstract in english Oligohydramnios or oligoamnios is the amniotic fluid decrease to pathological figures with a high amniotic fluid rate (AFR) less or similar to 5 cm, and it is a fetal high risk, and secondarily maternal. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate through a controlled clinical assay the effectiveness of parenteral ma [...] ternal hydrotherapy (PMH) in isolated oligoamnios, in increase of AFR, and consecutively its repercussion on those perinatal results. METHODS: We made a controlled clinical assay to assess effectiveness of PHM in pregnants with isolated oligoamnios of 28 weeks or more of pregnancy in Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. Sample included 141 isolated oligoamnios and it was divided in two groups: study group with 56 patients and control-group with 85 patients. In study group, we administered PHM with 2000 mL of 0,9% isotopic saline solution, and in control-group there was an expectant behavior RESULTS: Isolated aligoamnios is more frequent in term pregnancy. Administration of PHM increases AFR in 43% (study group), and only in 22% of cases from control- group. Likewise, it was possible to increase gestational age in two weeks from diagnosis. In study group, transpelvic pregnancy; main cause of cesarean section was the acute fetal suffering in both groups, mainly in the control one. In study group there were not newborns presenting with neither respiratory syndrome nor congenital bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: PMH looks to be effective in management o isolated oligoamnios, decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality, and secondarily, maternal wellbeing.

Itsel, Cárdenas Ramón; Sonia, Águila Setién; Jacinta, Otero Iglesias.

2009-09-01

300

Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl2) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks n both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

301

EFFECTS ON THE FETUS OF MATERNAL NITROFEN EXPOSURE IN THE PROTEIN-DEPRIVED RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The separate and combined effects of protein deprivation and nitrofen exposure were studied in the pregnant rat. Animals were fed diets containing 24, 8, 6 or 4% casein throughout gestation. Within each diet group, sub-groups were gavage-fed with 12.5 (lower dose) and 25 (higher ...

302

Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Berg, A.H. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S.J.; Hinton, D.E. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M. [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

1999-02-01

303

Developmental Programming Resulting from Maternal Obesity: Effects on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

OpenAIRE

A comprehensive number of epidemiological and animal studies suggest that prenatal and early life events are important determinants for disorders later in life. Among them, prenatal stress (i.e. stress experienced by the pregnant mother with impact on the fetal ontogeny) has clear programming effects on the cardiovascular system. A fetus developing under adverse conditions becomes an adult who is susceptible to disease, which may include hypertension, insulin resistance, altered blood lipid l...

Calvert, John W.; Lefer, David J.; Gundewar, Susheel; Poston, Lucilla; Coetzee, William A.

2009-01-01

304

The effects of maternal social phobia on mother-infant interactions and infant social responsiveness  

OpenAIRE

Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We addressed these problems in the current study.Methods: We assessed mothers with social phobia (N = 84) and control mothers (N = 89) at 10 weeks in face-...

Murray, L.; Cooper, P.; Creswell, C.; Schofield, E.; Sack, C.

2007-01-01

305

Phenotypic and molecular analysis of mes-3, a maternal-effect gene required for proliferation and viability of the germ line in C. elegans.  

Science.gov (United States)

mes-3 is one of four maternal-effect sterile genes that encode maternal components required for normal postembryonic development of the germ line in Caenorhabditis elegans. mes-3 mutant mothers produce sterile progeny, which contain few germ cells and no gametes. This terminal phenotype reflects two problems: reduced proliferation of the germ line and germ cell death. Both the appearance of the dying germ cells and the results of genetic tests indicate that germ cells in mes-3 animals undergo a necrotic-like death, not programmed cell death. The few germ cells that appear healthy in mes-3 worms do not differentiate into gametes, even after elimination of the signaling pathway that normally maintains the undifferentiated population of germ cells. Thus, mes-3 encodes a maternally supplied product that is required both for proliferation of the germ line and for maintenance of viable germ cells that are competent to differentiate into gametes. Cloning and molecular characterization of mes-3 revealed that it is the upstream gene in an operon. The genes in the operon display parallel expression patterns; transcripts are present throughout development and are not restricted to germ-line tissue. Both mes-3 and the downstream gene in the operon encode novel proteins. PMID:8601481

Paulsen, J E; Capowski, E E; Strome, S

1995-12-01

306

Effect of undernutrition on the uterine environment during maternal recognition of pregnancy in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of pregnancy and undernutrition on endometrial gene expression were investigated in ewes fed all or half their maintenance requirements and killed on Day 14 of pregnancy or of the oestrous cycle. The endometrial expression of progesterone, oestrogen, oxytocin and interferon receptors (PR, ERalpha, OXTR and IFNAR, respectively), cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II, and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was studied by immunohistochemistry or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The luminal epithelium of cyclic control ewes was devoid of PR staining and had relatively high levels of ERalpha, OXTR, COX-2 and IFNAR2. The presence of a conceptus decreased the in vitro uterine secretion of prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) and the expression of IFNAR2 in most cell types, and increased the gene expression of IGF-I and IGF-II. Undernutrition tended to increase ERalpha protein and gene, but decreased in vitro uterine secretion of PGE(2) and the gene expression of IFNAR2 in cyclic ewes. There was no effect of undernutrition on pregnancy rates or the number of conceptuses recovered. Consistent with this, undernutrition of pregnant ewes did not have any effect on uterine gene expression. Moreover, in cases where changes were observed in cyclic ewes, these changes were negated when a conceptus was present. PMID:19698291

Sosa, C; Abecia, J A; Carriquiry, M; Vázquez, M I; Fernández-Foren, A; Talmon, M; Forcada, F; Meikle, A

2009-01-01

307

Effect of maternal morphine sulfate exposure on neuronal plasticity of dentate gyrus in Balb/c mice offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study carried out to evaluate the effects of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation period on the neuronal cells of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days Balb/c mice offspring. In this experimental study 10 female mice were randomly allocated into cases and controls. In experimental group, animals were received morphine sulfate 10 mg/kg/body weight intraperitoneally during 7 days before mating, gestational period (GD0-21), 18 and 32 days after delivery. The control animals were received an equivalent volume normal saline. Cerebrum of six infant for each group were removed and stained with cresyl violet and monoclonal anti-neuronal nuclei (NeuN) antibody. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on dentate gyrus of hippocampus. In the P18 mice, the numbers of granular cells in dentate gyrus medial blade and dentate gyrus lateral blade significantly reduced from 171.45 +/- 4.2 and 174.51 +/- 3.1 cells in control group to 153.32 +/- 2.8 and 151.23 +/- 3.2 cells in 10000 microm2 area of granular layer in treated group (p P32 mice the numbers of granular cells in mb and lb of dentate gyrus significantly decreased from 155.31 +/- 4.1 and 153.77 +/- 3.4 in control group to 138.33 +/- 4.5 and 135.13 +/- 4.3 in treated group, respectively (p P32 mice (p < 0.05). This study revealed that morphine administration before, during pregnancy and lactation period causes neuronal cells loss of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days old infant mice. PMID:24498791

Golalipour, M J; Ghafari, S; Kafshgiri, S Kaboli; Moghadam, M H Latifi; Moharri, A R

2013-03-15

308

Effect of number of pig embryos in the uterus on their survival and development and on maternal metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of pig embryo number on fetal survival and growth and maternal metabolism were evaluated with 114 Large White gilts. Gilts were assigned at 38 kg to three treatments: control (CTR), ligature of the left oviduct (LIG), or right hemi-hysteroovariectomy (HHO). Insemination occurred at 311 +/- 18 d of age. A laparotomy was performed at d 35 of gestation, and gilts were slaughtered at d 112. Ovulation rate per uterine horn was 4.30, 8.70, and 17.12 in the LIG, CTR, and HHO groups, respectively. The hierarchy was the same for litter size at d 35 of gestation, but the relative differences were reduced (3.24, 5.98, and 8.40 fetuses/uterine horn, respectively). Litter size per uterine horn was similar in the CTR and HHO groups at d 112 of pregnancy (2.93, 4.69, and 4.76 fetuses in the LIG, CTR, and HHO groups, respectively). Early (before d 35 of gestation), late, and total fetal mortality increased with embryo potential per uterine horn. There was a compensation between early and late fetal mortality in the CTR and HHO groups. Fetal weight at d 112 was related to litter size in early pregnancy (1.50, 1.38, and 1.27 kg in the LIG, CTR, and HHO groups, respectively). Uterine capacity limits litter size and fetal development, even in sows with a conventional potential of embryos. Availability of energetic and gluconeogenic substrates was higher at 110 than at 60 d of gestation in the three groups. Blood substrate levels suggested that lipid mobilization and glucose uptake were higher in the gilts with a larger litter weight. PMID:9159282

Père, M C; Dourmad, J Y; Etienne, M

1997-05-01

309

Effect of Maternal Morphine Sulfate Exposure on Neuronal Plasticity of Dentate Gyrus in Balb/c Mice Offspring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effects of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation period on the neuronal cells of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days Balb/c mice offspring. In this experimental study 10 female mice were randomly allocated into cases and controls. In experimental group, animals were received morphine sulfate 10 mg/kg/body weight intraperitoneally during 7 days before mating, gestational period (GD0-21, 18 and 32 days after delivery. The control animals were received an equivalent volume normal saline. Cerebrum of six infant for each group were removed and stained with cresyl violet and monoclonal anti-neuronal nuclei (NeuN antibody. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on dentate gyrus of hippocampus. In the P18 mice , the numbers of granular cells in dentate gyrus medial blade and dentate gyrus lateral blade significantly reduced from 171.45±4.2 and 174.51±3.1 cells in control group to 153.32±2.8 and 151.23±3.2 cells in 10000 ?m2 area of granular layer in treated group (p<0.001. In P32 mice the numbers of granular cells in mb and lb of dentate gyrus significantly decreased from 155.31±4.1 and 153.77±3.4 in control group to 138.33±4.5 and 135.13±4.3 in treated group, respectively (p<0.001. The granular layer thickness in mb and lb area of dentate gyrus significantly reduced in treated mice in compared to controls in P18 and P32 mice (p<0.05. This study revealed that morphine administration before, during pregnancy and lactation period causes neuronal cells loss of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days old infant mice.

S. Kaboli Kafshgiri

2013-01-01

310

The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil Eficacia de intervenciones en la comunidad para mejorar la salud maternoinfantil en el nordeste de Brasil  

OpenAIRE

Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilitie...

Alan Emond; Jon Pollock; Nilma da Costa; Técia Maranhão; Albanita Macedo

2002-01-01

311

Central V1b receptor antagonism in lactating rats: impairment of maternal care but not of maternal aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal behaviour in rodents is mediated by the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems, amongst others. The role of vasopressin, acting via the V1a receptor (V1aR), on maternal care and maternal aggression has recently been described. However, a potential involvement of the V1b receptor (V1bR) in maternal behaviour has only been demonstrated in knockout mice. The present study aimed to examine the effects of central pharmacological manipulation of the V1bR on maternal behaviour in lactating Wistar rats. On pregnancy day 18, female rats were implanted with a guide cannula targeting the lateral ventricle. After parturition, dams received an acute central infusion of a specific V1bR agonist (d[Leu4,Lys8]VP) or V1bR antagonist (SSR149415) once daily, followed by observations of maternal care [lactation day (LD) 1], maternal motivation in the pup retrieval test (LD 2), anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus-maze (LD 3) and maternal aggression in the maternal defence test followed by maternal care monitoring (LD 4). Our data demonstrate that, under nonstress conditions, the V1bR antagonist decreased the occurrence of both nursing and mother-pup interaction, whereas the V1bR agonist did not affect either parameter. Under stress conditions (i.e. after the maternal defence test), mother-pup interaction was decreased by infusion of the V1bR antagonist. During the maternal defence test, neither treatment affected aggressive or non-aggressive behaviour. Finally, neither treatment altered maternal motivation or anxiety. In conclusion, central V1bR antagonism modulates aspects of maternal care but not of maternal aggression or maternal motivation in lactating rats. These findings further extend our knowledge on the vasopressin system as a vital mediator of maternal behaviour. PMID:25283607

Bayerl, D S; Klampfl, S M; Bosch, O J

2014-12-01

312

Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... study published in the journal Pediatrics investigates the effect of maternal depression on a teenager’s engagement in ... Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

313

Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10), early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10) and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10). During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (Pinternal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values) at slaughter (70 days of age). Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings. PMID:25671602

Symeon, George K; Goliomytis, Michael; Bizelis, Iosif; Papadomichelakis, George; Pagonopoulou, Olga; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Chadio, Stella E

2015-01-01

314

Effects of inadequate maternal dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy on offspring immunity in pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n?=?13, low (LP, 6.5%; n?=?15, or high (HP, 30%; n?=?14 protein content, made isoenergetic by varying carbohydrate levels. Cortisol, total protein and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA concentrations were measured in the blood of sows over the course of pregnancy. Cortisol, total protein, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation, immune cell counts, and cytokines were assessed in the blood of offspring at baseline and under challenging conditions (weaning; lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration. Results In sows, the LP diet increased cortisol (P?P?P?P?+ cell percentage and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased after weaning (P?P?=?0.09 and HP (P?P? Conclusions Our results indicate that both low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant sows can induce short-term as well as long-lasting effects on immune competence in piglets that may have serious consequences for host defence against bacterial pathogens.

Tuchscherer Margret

2012-11-01

315

Effects of maternally administered sulphur-35 on the pre- and postnatal mortality and development in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was taken up to screen the effects of 35S on the prenatal development of mouse. Pregnant mice of CBA strain were injected intraperitoneally with a doze of 20 ?Ci of 35S on 10.5 days of gestation and allowed to go to term. No mortality was observed in treated animals. However, a slight reduction in the number of fertile matings was noted in 35S group. But the reduction was statistically insignificant. A significant decrease in litter size was noted in 35S -treated group. While the litter size was 7.5/female in the control, it was 5.9/female in 35S group. The reduced litter size might be due to 35S-induced prenatal mortality. A further reduction in litter size was noted at weaning. This reduction was due to a significant increase in the neo- and postnatal mortality of F1 progeny in the treated group. There was no effect of 35S on the sex ratio and body weights of F1 progeny. (auth.)

316

Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

2008-01-01

317

Anger and Positive Reactivity in Infancy: Effects on Maternal Report of Surgency and Attention Focusing in Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined two aspects of temperamental approach in early infancy, positive reactivity and anger, and their unique and combined influences on maternal reports of child surgency and attention focusing at 4 years of age. One hundred and fourteen infants were observed for their positive reactions to novel stimuli at 4 months, and their anger…

He, Jie; Hane, Amie Ashley; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Henderson, Heather A.; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

2013-01-01

318

Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

2008-01-01

319

Comparison of the effects of perinatal and neonatal administration of sodium ferulate on repair following excitotoxic neuronal damages induced by maternal oral administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage of pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Our previous studies have revealed that ferulic acid (FA and sodium ferulate (SF show significant protective effect on excitotoxicity, the present study was conducted to compare its potential favorable effects of maternal?newborn?and both maternal and newborn intraperitoneal (ip injection of SF on repair following excitotoxic neuronal damages induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG. Methods: The maternal mice were assigned randomly into seven groups (n = 10 animals in each group: control, 3SF, 20SF, 23SF, MSG, MSG + 3SF, MSG + 20SF, MSG + 23SF groups. The mice at 17 days of pregnancy were treated with or without MSG (2.0 g/kg body weight, ig, once or/and SF (40 mg/kg body weight, ip, and their offerings treated with or without SF. And then their filial behaviors and hippocampal histopathology were studied. Results: The results showed that maternal, newborn, and both maternal and newborn administration of SF facilitated their filial brain repair, and attenuated the behavioral disorders and histopathological damages of their filial mice in MSG + 3SF, MSG + 20SF, and MSG + 23SF groups in varying degrees. However, the best effects were detected in the filial mice in MSG + 23SF group. Conclusion: Both maternal and newborn administration of SF is conducive to the filial neuronal repair following excitotoxic damages induced by glutamate.

Yongping Zhang

2012-08-01

320

Modelagem do efeito materno e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos para pesos corporais de caprinos Anglo Nubiano / Modeling the maternal effect and estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Anglo Nubian goats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o modelo mais adequado, bem como estimar os parâmetros genéticos do peso ao nascimento até os 196 dias de idade de caprinos da raça Anglo-nubiana. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML), utilizando o pro [...] grama WOMBAT. Doze diferentes modelos animais foram ajustados por meio da inclusão ou exclusão do efeito genético materno, ambiente permanente materno, ambiente temporário materno e a covariância genética entre os efeitos direto e materno. Com base no critério de informação Bayesiano de Schwarz (BIC), o modelo II, que incluiu os efeitos genético direto e de ambiente temporário da mãe, foi o mais apropriado para todas as características. O efeito de ambiente temporário materno foi a mais importante fonte de variação. Este efeito contribuiu com 33% a 44% da variação fenotípica de acordo com o peso analisado. Estes resultados indicam que a seleção para efeitos direto e/ou materno em caprinos da raça Anglo-nubiana podem gerar progresso genético em características de crescimento. Abstract in english The aim of the study were to determine the most appropriate model, and to estimate genetic parameters of birth weight to the 196 day-old Anglo-Nubian breed goat. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML procedure using WOMBAT program. Twelve different animal models were fitted by including or exclu [...] ding maternal genetic effect, maternal permanent environmental effect, maternal temporary environmental effect and covariance between direct-maternal genetic effects. On the basis of Bayesian information criterion results, model II, which included direct genetic and maternal temporary environmental effects, was determined to be the most appropriate model for both traits. The maternal temporary environmental effect was the most important source of variation for both traits. This effect contributed about 33% at 44% to the phenotypic variance for weight analized. These results indicate that selecting for improved maternal and/or direct effects in Anglo-nubian goats would generate genetic progress in growth traits.

Gleyson Vieira dos, Santos; José Ernandes Rufino de, Sousa; José Lindenberg Rocha, Sarmento; Severino Cavalcante de, Sousa Júnior; Wandrick Hauss de, Sousa; Daniel, Biagiotti; Natanael Pereira da Silva, Santos; Aurino de Araujo, Rêgo Neto.

2013-06-01

321

Effects of maternal exposure to ?-rays on eye organogenesis in the mouse embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study involved the irradiation of mouse embryos at different stages of pregnancy, using dose of 4 Gy ?-radiation, at 10, 12, 14 and 16 days of pregnancy. Pregnant mice were killed after 2, 4 and 6 days post irradiation. Embryo's heads were isolated and serial cross sections were made to investigate the effect of irradiation on the different components of the eye at different periods of eye organogenesis. It was proved from this study that irradiation causes microphtalmia and decrease in the growth of lens, retina and corneal stroma, as well severe disruption in its development and disfigurement in its hitogenesis. These defects have shown great differences in their severity according to the age of embryos at exposure and the number of days post irradiation. (author)

322

Embryo transfers between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice: Examination of a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic factors influence fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) in both humans and animals. Experiments using inbred and selectively bred mouse stocks that controlled for (1) ethanol dose, (2) maternal and fetal blood ethanol levels, and (3) fetal developmental exposure stage, show genotype can affect teratogenic outcome. Other experiments distinguish the teratogenic effects mediated by maternal genotype from those mediated by fetal genotype. One technique to distinguish maternal versus fetal genotype effect is to utilize embryo transfers. This study is the first to examine ethanol teratogenesis - fetal weight deficits and mortality, and digit, kidney, and vertebral malformations - in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) fetuses that were transferred as blastocysts into B6 and D2 dams. We hypothesized that, following maternal alcohol exposure, B6 and D2 fetuses gestating within B6 mothers, as compared to D2 mothers, will exhibit a higher frequency of malformations. On day 9 of pregnancy, females were intubated (IG) with either 5.8 g/kg ethanol (E) or maltose-dextrin (MD). Other females were mated within strain and treated with either ethanol or maltose, or were not exposed to either treatment. Implantation rates were affected by genotype. Results show more B6 embryos implanted into D2 females than B6 females (p < 0.05; 47% vs. 23%, respectively). There was no difference in the percentage of D2 embryos implanting into B6 and D2 females (14 and 16%, respectfully). Litter mortality averaged 24% across all experimental groups. Overall, in utero ethanol exposure reduced mean litter weight compared to maltose treatment (E = 1.01 g; MD = 1.19 g; p < 0.05); but maltose exposed litters with transferred embryos weighed more than similarly treated natural litters (1.30 g vs. 1.11 g; p < 0.05). Approximately 50% of all ethanol exposed B6 fetuses exhibited some malformation (digit, vertebral, and/or kidney) regardless of whether they were transferred into a B6 or D2 female, or were naturally conceived. This suggests the D2 maternal uterine environment did not offer any protection against ethanol teratogenesis for B6 fetuses. One of the questions remaining is the how the B6 uterine environment affects D2 teratogenesis. No definitive conclusions can be drawn because too few viable D2 litters were produced. PMID:25566321

Gilliam, David

2014-01-01

323

Towards ending preventable maternal deaths by 2035.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal mortality has been reduced by half from 1990 to 2010, yet a woman in sub-Saharan Africa has a lifetime risk of maternal death of 1 in 39 compared with around 1 in 10,000 in industrialized countries. Annual rates of reduction of maternal mortality of over 10% have been achieved in several countries. Highly cost-effective interventions exist and are being scaled up, such as family planning, emergency obstetric and newborn care, quality service delivery, midwifery, maternal death surveillance and response, and girls' education; however, coverage still remains low. Maternal mortality reduction is now high on the global agenda. We examined scenarios of reduction of maternal mortality by 2035. Ending preventable maternal deaths could be achieved in nearly all countries by 2035 with challenging yet realistic efforts: (1) massive scaling-up and skilling up of human resources for family planning and maternal health; (2) reaching every village in every district and every urban slum toward universal health coverage; (3) enhanced financing; (4) knowledge for action: enhanced monitoring, accountability, evaluation, and R&D. PMID:25565508

Bergevin, Yves; Fauveau, Vincent; McKinnon, Britt

2015-01-01

324

The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

de Jongh Beatriz E

2012-09-01

325

Effect of Irradiation Maternal Diets on the Post-natal Development of Brain Rat Pups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Effect of Protein-calorie malnutrition was studied on the pups born to mothers receiving either irradiated normal diet (consisted equal parts of gram and wheat) or irradiation low protein diet (consisted one part of normal diet and three parts of heat). Level of DNA, RNA and protein content were found markedly reduced in the brain of irradiated low protein diet fed pups than in the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found lower while catalase and lipid peroxidation activity were higher in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, compared whit the pups fed irradiated normal diet. On the whole both the irradiated low protein diet as well as irradiated normal diet fed pups showed higher index of biochemical changes than in the unirradiated low protein diet fed pups. Post-natal mortality was 60% in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, whereas the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet did not show any death. The study given evidence that feeding of the irradiated low protein diet interferes more with the development of brain compared with the pups fed on irradiated normal diet

326

Effect of maternal excessive sodium intake on postnatal brain development in rat offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Postnatal brain development is affected by the in utero environment. Modern people usually have a high sodium intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium hyperingestion during pregnancy on the postnatal brain development of rat offspring. Methods The sodium-overloaded rats received 1.8% NaCl in their drinking water for 7 days during the last week of gestation. Their body weight, urine, and blood levels of sodium and other parameters were measured. Some rats were sacrificed at pregnancy day 22 and the weight and length of the placenta and foetus were measured. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus were obtained from their offspring at postnatal day 1 and at postnatal weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Western blot analyses were conducted with brain tissue lysates. Results The sodium-overloaded animals had decreased weight gain in the last week of gestation as well as decreased food intake, increased water intake, urine volume, urine sodium, and serum sodium. There were no differences in placental weight and length. The foetuses of sodium-overloaded rats showed decreased body weight and size, and this difference was maintained postnatally for 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring, the protein levels of myelin basic protein, calmodulin/calcium-dependent protein kinase II, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were decreased or aberrantly expressed. Discussion The present data suggest that increased sodium intake during pregnancy affects the brain development of the offspring. PMID:24621066

Shin, Jung-A; Ahn, Young-Mo; Lee, Hye-Ah; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young-Ju; Lee, Hwa-Young

2015-04-01

327

Effect of Maternal Nutrition on Kits During Pre and Post Partum Period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 15 young rabbits (kits of 35 days old were randomly allocated to same concentrate mixture (T2 in a completely randomized design. All the rabbits were offered ad-libitum green grass with same concentrate mixture. All the animals were kept in the same management. The feed intake, live weight changes and feed conversion efficiency was recorded. DM intake in three different groups (A, B, C were 350.53?46.57, 403.62 ± 41.89 and 389.30 ± 53.71 (g/wk which were not significant. The average daily gains in group A, B and C were 11.25 ± 8.71, 15.20 ± 8.33 and 14.43 ± 9.84 respectively and the differences among groups were not significant. The differences in growth velocity among different groups were not significant. Feed conversion efficiency were 4.45, 3.79 and 3.85 for group A, B and C respectively and the values were found non-significantly different. The result indicated that feeding of mother in terms of energy did not have any significant effect on DM intake, live weight changes, growth velocity and feed conversion efficiency upon their kits.

M. Hasanuzzaman

2002-01-01

328

Effects of induced maternal hypothyroidism on the ovarian development of offspring rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of propylthyouracil (PTU induced hypothyroidism of rats during pregnancy and lactation on offspring ovarian development and maturation were studied. Thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations were determined using the radioimmunoassay method in order to verify the hypothyroid status of treated mothers and their two months old pups. The ovaries of the offspring were processed for light microscopy analysis on the day of the first estrus after the 60th day of age. Histological analysis including follicle count was performed on serial sections stained with haematoxyline/eosin and on semithin sections stained with methylene blue. A significant increase of serum TSH and decrease in T3 and T4 levels was observed in treated mothers compared to controls. The levels of measured hormones in the control and PTU-treated two months old rats were not significantly different. Ten percent of 60-dayold treated females did not reach estrus and they were sacrificed in diestrus. The secondary interstitial cells were the dominant structures in the ovaries. The number of healthy growing and early antral follicles was markedly decreased. Ovaries of treated rats contained relatively few antral follicles, significantly more atretic antral follicles and a decreased number of corpora lutea, compared to controls. These results indicate that lack of thyroid hormones during prenatal and early postnatal development impair ovarian development in rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

Radovanovi? Anita

2012-01-01

329

Aerobic Exercise during Pregnancy and Presence of Fetal-Maternal Heart Rate Synchronization  

OpenAIRE

It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.

Leeuwen, Peter; Gustafson, Kathleen M.; Cysarz, Dirk; Geue, Daniel; May, Linda E.; Gro?nemeyer, Dietrich

2014-01-01

330

Immunomodulatory effects of maternal atrazine exposure on male Balb/c mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atrazine is a widely used herbicide applied to corn, sugar and other crops as a broad leaf weed inhibitor. Using the Balb/c mouse model, we have determined that prenatal/lactational exposure to atrazine alters adult immune function. Pregnant Balb/c dams were exposed subcutaneously for 21 days via time release pellets to 700 ?g per day of atrazine beginning between days 10 and 12 of pregnancy. Prenatal/Lactational exposure caused no overt physical malformations in the offspring and had no effect on the number of litters carried to term or the litter size. Upon reaching early adulthood (approximately 3 months of age), the state of their immune system was evaluated. There were no changes in body weight or in the organ to body weight ratio of the spleen. Additionally, no changes were observed in the number of CD8+ T cell, CD4+ T cell, or B220+ B cell subpopulations in the spleen. T cell function was assessed by measuring proliferation and cytolytic activity after in vitro allogeneic stimulation. Male mice which had been prenatally/lactationally exposed to atrazine had an increase in both T cell proliferation and cytolytic activity. The humoral immune response was assessed after immunization with heat killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP). There was a significant increase in the number of HKSP-specific IgM secreting B cells in the spleen of prenatal/lactational exposed male mice. Inasmuch as atrazine is a widespread environmental contaminne is a widespread environmental contaminant, this immunopotentiation raises concerns that it may potentiate clinical diseases, such as autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity, and needs to be carefully monitored and studied

331

Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the levels of urinary cotinine and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex of both smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. We also looked for a relationship between those findings and fetal growth and birth weight. Methods In a prospective design, thirty pregnant smokers and thirty-four pregnant non-smokers were studied. The volunteers signed consent forms, completed a self-applied questionnaire and were subjected to Doppler velocimetry. Tobacco smoking exposure was quantified by subject provided information and confirmed by the measurement of urinary cotinine levels and by the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex. The weight of newborns was evaluated immediately after birth. Results Comparing smoking to non-smoking pregnant women, a significant increase in the resistance index was observed in the uterine arteries (P = 0.001 and umbilical artery (P = 0.001, and a decrease in the middle cerebral artery (P = 0.450. These findings were associated with progressively higher concentrations of COex and urinary cotinine. A decrease in the birth weight was also detected (P Conclusions In pregnant women who smoke, higher arterial resistance indices and lower birth weights were observed, and these findings were associated with increasing levels of tobacco smoking exposure. The values were significantly different when compared to those found in non-smoking pregnant women. This study contributes to the findings that smoking damage during pregnancy is dose-dependent, as demonstrated by the objective methods for measuring tobacco smoking exposure.

Petersen Guilherme O

2011-03-01

332

Creating a collaborative culture in maternity care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective collaboration between professional groups is increasingly seen as an essential element in good quality and safe health care. This is especially important in the context of maternity care, where most women have straightforward labour and birth experiences, but some require rapid transfer between care providers and settings. This article presents current accounts of collaboration--or lack of it--in maternity care in the United Kingdom, United States, and Australia. It then examines tools designed to measure collaboration and teamwork within general health care contexts. Finally, a set of characteristics are proposed for effective collaboration in maternity care, as a basis for further empirical work in this area. PMID:20434085

Downe, Soo; Finlayson, Kenny; Fleming, Anita

2010-01-01

333

Prenatal programming in an obese swine model: sex-related effects of maternal energy restriction on morphology, metabolism and hypothalamic gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal energy restriction during pregnancy predisposes to metabolic alterations in the offspring. The present study was designed to evaluate phenotypic and metabolic consequences following maternal undernutrition in an obese pig model and to define the potential role of hypothalamic gene expression in programming effects. Iberian sows were fed a control or a 50 % restricted diet for the last two-thirds of gestation. Newborns were assessed for body and organ weights, hormonal and metabolic status, and hypothalamic expression of genes implicated in energy homeostasis, glucocorticoid function and methylation. Weight and adiposity were measured in adult littermates. Newborns of the restricted sows were lighter (P <0·01), but brain growth was spared. The plasma concentration of TAG was lower in the restricted newborns than in the control newborns of both the sexes (P <0·01), while the concentration of cortisol was higher in females born to the restricted sows (P <0·04), reflecting a situation of metabolic stress by nutrient insufficiency. A lower hypothalamic expression of anorexigenic peptides (LEPR and POMC, P <0·01 and P <0·04, respectively) was observed in females born to the restricted sows, but no effect was observed in the males. The expression of HSD11B1 gene was down-regulated in the restricted animals (P <0·05), suggesting an adaptive mechanism for reducing the harmful effects of elevated concentrations of cortisol. At 4 and 7 months of age, the restricted females were heavier and fatter than the controls (P< 0·01). Maternal feed restriction induces asymmetrical growth retardation and metabolic alterations in the offspring. Differences in gene expression at birth and higher growth and adiposity in adulthood suggest a female-specific programming effect for a positive energy balance, possibly due to overexposure to endogenous stress-induced glucocorticoids. PMID:24528940

Óvilo, Cristina; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Benítez, Rita; Ayuso, Miriam; Barbero, Alicia; Pérez-Solana, Maria L; Barragán, Carmen; Astiz, Susana; Fernández, Almudena; López-Bote, Clemente

2014-02-01

334

Effect of maternal deprivation on the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH-associated peptide neurobiology in lambs during the transition from infancy to prepuberty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using morphological criteria we describe the effect of maternal deprivation on the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) of the GnRH prohormone (proGnRH) in the preoptic area (POA)-hypothalamus during the weaning period. The immunohistochemical GnRH- and GAP-neuroanatomy was investigated in female 12-week-old weanling and maternally deprived lambs and 15-week-old weaned lambs. The GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) nerve elements in the POA were more numerous in weanling and weaned lambs in comparison with maternally deprived lambs, whereas the nerve elements ir for GAP were numerous in weanlings and scarce in remaining lambs. In the hypothalamus, GnRH-ir fibers were more numerous in weaned lambs in comparison with others. Immunoreactive GnRH in the median eminence was scarce in weanlings and comparable greater in maternally deprived and weaned lambs. In contrast to ir GnRH, the GAP-ir fibers and nerve terminals in the hypothalamus and median eminence were numerous in weanlings and maternally deprived lambs and scarce in weaned lambs. In conclusion, maternal deprivation affects the intraneuronal locations involved in the maturation of GnRH from proGnRH in the POA-hypothalamus of weanlings. The described effect involves the increase in the GnRH posttranslational processing and terminal accumulation in the median eminence, which reflects the maturational increase from the low infantile terminal storage to the high prepubertal one. PMID:20529810

Wa?kowska, Marta; Polkowska, Jolanta

2010-01-01

335

The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave of 32 days. We find limited evidence that the increase in the length of maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effcts on children's later developmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any benecial effects of increasing the length of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families.

Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth

2014-01-01

336

An ultrastructural study of the maternal-effect embryos of the ac/ac mutant of Pleurodeles waltl showing a gastrulation defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryos of the ac/ac maternal-effect mutant in Pleurodeles waltl show disturbed epibolic movement during gastrulation. At the early gastrula stage, ectoderm cells begin to sink in at random sites in the animal half of the embryo. At the advanced gastrula stage the ectodermal pits develop into grooves. Electron microscopical analysis shows that many cells in the bottom of the pits and grooves have narrowed apices and bear many microvilli, while the cortical cytoplasm is dense, filamentous and underlain by a stratum of vesicles. These findings are interpreted as indicating that ectoderm cells contract rather than expand leading to disturbed epibolic movement. PMID:7310295

Bluemink, J G; Beetschen, J C

1981-06-01

337

Effects of food abundance on genetic and maternal variation in the growth rate of juvenile red squirrels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sources of variation in growth in body mass were assessed in natural and experimental conditions of high and low food abundance using reciprocal cross-fostering techniques and long-term data (1987-2002) for a population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Growth rates were significantly higher in naturally good and food supplemented conditions, than in poor conditions. Mother-offspring resemblance was higher in poor conditions as a result of large increases in both the direct genetic variance and direct-maternal genetic covariance and a smaller increase in the coefficient of maternal variation. Furthermore, the genetic correlation across environments was significantly less than one indicating that sources of heritable variation differed between the two environments. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection has eroded heritable variation for growth more in good conditions and indicate the potential for independent adaptation of growth rates in good and poor conditions. PMID:14640416

McAdam, A G; Boutin, S

2003-11-01

338

Effect of maternal vitamin and mineral restrictions on the body fat content and adipocytokine levels of WNIN rat offspring  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Intrauterine growth retardation due to maternal under-nutrition increases susceptibility to obesity and insulin resistance. We reported earlier in the offspring of mineral or vitamin restricted rat dams, a high body fat percentage and decreased insulin secretion to glucose challenge. This study determined whether or not central adiposity and altered adipocytokine profile were associated with high body fat content. Methods Body fat percentage; glucose, insulin and adipocyto...

Nandiwada Vijaya; Lagishetty Venu; Kalashikam Rajender; Manchala Raghunath

2007-01-01

339

Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123  

OpenAIRE

There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

2012-01-01

340

Effects of maternal and sibling deprivation on basal and stress induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal components in the infant rat  

OpenAIRE

Prolonged maternal deprivation during early infancy increases basal- and stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) levels, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. In general, stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with secretion and compensatory synthesis of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In the infant rat, we have demonstrated that maximally tolerated acute cold stress induced a robust elevation of plasma CORT throughout the first 2 postnatal wee...

Avishai-eliner, Sarit; Yi, Su-jin; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Baram, Tallie Z.

1995-01-01

341

Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children’s Physiological Regulation  

OpenAIRE

Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children’s physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation (?RSA) were explored as predictors of individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation and negativity (mother-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist; A. M. Shields & D....

Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O’brien, Marion

2008-01-01

342

The Effect of Ephedrine on Fetal Outcome in Treatment of Maternal Hypotension Caused by Spinal Anesthesia During Cesarean Section  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To compare maternal complications and labor outcome in obese and non-obese women. Materials and methods: It is a retrospective comparative study conducted at the Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Unit 1, Civil Hospital, Karachi from December 2008 to December 2009. A sample size of 220 gravid women is selected by Non Probability Convenience sampling technique. In these 110 obese women as cases was compared with 110 non-obese women as controls, booked at <20 weeks of ge...

Fardin Yousefshahi; Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Mahbod Kaveh; Roghayeh Hamidian; Khosro Barkhordari

2010-01-01

343

Effect of Maternal Lipopolysaccharide Administration on the Development of Dopaminergic Receptors and Transporter in the Rat Offspring  

OpenAIRE

Epidemiological evidence supports that maternal infection during gestation are notable risk factors for developmental mental illnesses including schizophrenia and autism. In prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of immune activation in rats, the offspring exhibit significant impairments in behaviors mediated by central dopamine (DA) system. This study aimed to examine the temporal and regional pattern of postnatal DA development in the male offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats administ...

Baharnoori, Moogeh; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K.; Srivastava, Lalit K.

2013-01-01

344

Some of the experimental and clinical aspects of the effects of the maternal diabetes on developing hippocampus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of multiple congenital anomalies in progeny. There are sufficient evidence suggesting that the children of diabetic women exhibit intellectual and behavioral abnormalities accompanied by modification of hippocampus structure and function. Although, the exact mechanism by which maternal diabetes affects the developing hippocampus remains to be defined. Multiple biological alterations, including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and iron deficiency occur in pregnancies with diabetes and affect the development of central nervous system (CNS) of the fetus. The conclusion from several studies is that disturbance in glucose and insulin homeostasis in mothers and infants are major teratogenic factor in the development of CNS. Insulin and Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are two key regulators of CNS function and development. Insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR and IGF1R, respectively) are distributed in a highly specific pattern with the high density in some brain regions such as hippocampus. Recent researches have clearly established that maternal diabetes disrupts the regulation of both IR and IGF1R in the hippocampus of rat newborn. Dissecting out the mechanisms responsible for maternal diabetes-related changes in the development of hippocampus is helping to prevent from impaired cognitive and memory functions in offspring. PMID:25897352

Hami, Javad; Shojae, Fatemeh; Vafaee-Nezhad, Saeed; Lotfi, Nasim; Kheradmand, Hamed; Haghir, Hossein

2015-04-15

345

Direct and Indirect Effects of Maternal and Peer Influences on Sexual Intention among Urban African American and Hispanic Females.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peer and family influences are interconnected in complex ways. These influences shape adolescent decision-making regarding engagement in sexual behaviors. Evidence indicates the more proximal (and direct) a process is to an individual, the more likely it is to affect his/her development and behavior. Therefore, family factors (e.g., parenting practices) and peer influence (e.g., peer norms) tend to be more strongly associated with adolescent behavior than distal factors (e.g., media or the economy). Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored how maternal influence variables interact with perceptions of peer influence to affect daughters' intentions to have sex. A nonprobability sample of 176 mother-daughter dyads was recruited in clinics and service organizations in the northeastern United States. Results from path analysis revealed that maternal influence variables had a significant indirect relationship with daughters' intentions to have sex through daughters' perceptions of peer influence. Maternal processes can act as protective factors for adolescent girls who perceive their peers are engaged in sexual behaviors. Therefore, risk reduction interventions with adolescents should include opportunities for parents to learn about sex-related issues and develop skills that will allow them to buffer negative peer influence. PMID:25422533

Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Cederbaum, Julie; Sathoff, Chelsea; Toro, Rosa

2014-12-01

346

Early life exposure to maternal insulin resistance has persistent effects on hepatic NAFLD in juvenile nonhuman primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The origins of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may lie in early intrauterine exposures. Here we examined the maternal response to chronic maternal high-fat (HF) diet and the impact of postweaning healthy diet on mechanisms for NAFLD development in juvenile nonhuman primate (NHP) offspring at 1 year of age. Pregnant females on HF diet were segregated as insulin resistant (IR; HF+IR) or insulin sensitive (IS; HF+IS) compared with control (CON)-fed mothers. HF+IR mothers have increased body mass, higher triglycerides, and increased placental cytokines. At weaning, offspring were placed on a CON or HF diet. Only offspring from HF+IR mothers had increased liver triglycerides and upregulated pathways for hepatic de novo lipid synthesis and inflammation that was irreversible upon switching to a healthy diet. These juvenile livers also showed a combination of classical and alternatively activated hepatic macrophages and natural killer T cells, in the absence of obesity or insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that maternal insulin resistance, including elevated triglycerides, insulin, and weight gain, initiates dysregulation of the juvenile hepatic immune system and development of de novo lipogenic pathways that persist in vitro and may be an irreversible "first hit" in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in NHP. PMID:24705404

Thorn, Stephanie R; Baquero, Karalee C; Newsom, Sean A; El Kasmi, Karim C; Bergman, Bryan C; Shulman, Gerald I; Grove, Kevin L; Friedman, Jacob E

2014-08-01

347

Is prenatal childbirth preparation effective in decreasing adverse maternal and neonatal response to labor? A nested case-control study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sophrology, based on a combination of Western relaxation therapy and Eastern yoga and meditation might decrease maternal stress during labor. This study aimed to evaluate whether prenatal sophrologic childbirth preparation may decrease maternal and neonatal adverse response associated with delivery. In a nested case-control study, 69 nulliparous, singleton pregnant women who underwent an educational course of sophrologic childbirth preparation were compared to 69 nulliparous, singleton, age- and gestational age-matched pregnant women who did not receive any childbirth preparation. All babies were vaginally delivered. Groups were not different (P > 0.05) in the number of neonates born with meconium-stained amniotic fluid as well as in the number of babies with Apgar score sophrologic childbirth preparation, i.e. 58.0% vs 72.5% (P = 0.07) and 1.4% vs 10.9% (P = 0.06), respectively. In conclusion, we were unable to confirm that prenatal sophrologic childbirth preparation has a definitive role in decreasing adverse maternal and fetal response to pain or in shortening labor. Prospective cohort studies with a larger sample size or randomized trials may help to clarify this gap. PMID:18551817

Kim, Hyun Hee; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Kim, Sun Kyung; Kim, Seo Hui; Kim, Yun Ju; Han, Jung Yeol; Ahn, Hyun Kyong; Ryu, Hyun Mee; Yang, Jae Hyug; Kim, Moon Young

2008-04-01

348

Climate change and the potential effects on maternal and pregnancy outcomes: an assessment of the most vulnerable--the mother, fetus, and newborn child.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented a large amount of evidence about global warming and the impact of human activities on global climate change. The Lancet Commission have identified a number of ways in which climate change can influence human health: lack of food and safe drinking water, poor sanitation, population migration, changing disease patterns and morbidity, more frequent extreme weather events, and lack of shelter. Pregnant women, the developing fetus, and young children are considered the most vulnerable members of our species and are already marginalized in many countries. Therefore, they may have increased sensitivity to the effects of climate change. Published literature in the fields of climate change, human health, tropical diseases, and direct heat exposure were assessed through the regular search engines. This article demonstrates that climate change will increase the risk of infant and maternal mortality, birth complications, and poorer reproductive health, especially in tropical, developing countries. Thus, climate change will have a substantial impact on the health and survival of the next generation among already challenged populations. There is limited knowledge regarding which regions will be most heavily affected. Research efforts are therefore required to identify the most vulnerable populations, fill knowledge gaps, and coordinate efforts to reduce negative health consequences. The effects of malnutrition, infectious diseases, environmental problems, and direct heat exposure on maternal health outcomes will lead to severe health risks for mothers and children. Increased focus on antenatal care is recommended to prevent worsening maternal health and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Interventions to reduce the negative health impacts caused by climate change are also crucial. Every effort should be made to develop and maintain good antenatal care during extreme life conditions as a result of climate change. PMID:23481091

Rylander, Charlotta; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

2013-01-01

349

Effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status and responses to lipopolysaccharide challenge in postnatal young goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of maternal malnutrition of ruminants and effects on development of the immune system of their offspring is lacking. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status of their offspring at different ages. Sixty-three pregnant goats (local breed, Liuyang black goat, 22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were fed control (CON, ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), or 40% energy restricted (ER) diets from d 91 of gestation to parturition, after which all animals received an adequate diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma concentrations of complement components (C3, C4), C-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM), jejunum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10) expression levels and morphology in the offspring were measured. Additionally, plasma concentration of complement and IL-6, and cytokines expression levels in gastrointestinal tract obtained at 6 wk from young goats were assessed under saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenging conditions. Maternal PR or ER decreased (P 0.05) plasma CRP concentration. The IL-10 mRNA expression of jejunum from PR kids was also less (P crypt depth (P 0.05) in any plasma or tissue immune parameters among the 3 treatments. However, when given a LPS challenge, ER and PR kids had greater (P = 0.02) IL-6 concentration compared with CON kids. Our results suggest that both PR and ER during late gestation induced short-term as well as long-lasting alterations on immune responses in their offspring, which may make the animals more susceptible to a bacterial pathogen challenge. The present findings expand the existing knowledge in immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of disease in later life. PMID:25253814

He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Tan, Z L

2014-11-01

350

Influence of maternal restraint stress on the long-lasting effects induced by prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The behavioral effects of concurrent maternal exposure to restraint stress and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were assessed in the offspring of mice at 3 months of age. Plug positive females were divided into two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One-half of the animals in each group were subjected to restraint stress (30min/session, three sessions per day) during the same period. At 3 months, mice were evaluated for general activity in an open-field, and for learning and memory in a water maze task. The group prenatally exposed to PFOS and restraint presented a reduced mobility in the open-field. In the water maze, an interaction between sex and restraint was observed. Delayed task learning was also detected in females prenatally exposed to PFOS and restraint. An overall effect of restraint was observed in mice on retention of the task, suggesting a better retention in restrained animals. On the other hand, corticosterone levels were lower in animals prenatally subjected to restraint stress. The current results suggest interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress. PMID:17590290

Fuentes, Silvia; Colomina, M Teresa; Vicens, Paloma; Domingo, José L

2007-07-10

351

Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased risk of maternal worry was found if the mother herself had type 1 diabetes (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.2-4.78. Conclusions This study did not find evidence supporting the notion that genetic risk information about newborns has a negative impact on the mental health of Norwegian mothers.

Magnus Per

2010-07-01

352

EL CAFÉ Y SUS EFECTOS EN LA SALUD CARDIOVASCULAR Y EN LA SALUD MATERNA COFFEE, CAFFEINE, AND ITS EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND MATERNAL HEALTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La cafeína es el principal componente activo del café y los efectos del consumo de café se asocian mayoritariamente a la cafeína, una metilxantina que actúa como antagonista de los receptores de adenina en el sistema nervioso. Son numerosos los efectos en la salud atribuidos a la cafeína, siendo algunos benéficos y otros deletéreos: en la salud cardiovascular, diabetes tipo 2, tolerancia a la glucosa y sensibilidad a la insulina, en la cinosis hepática y el carcinoma hepatocelular, entre otros efectos. Este artículo realiza una revisión de dos aspectos de preocupación en la salud pública relacionados con el consumo de café y la cafeína: su efecto en la salud cardiovascular y en la salud maternal (período perinatal. La conclusión general es que el consumo de cafeína, hasta 300 mg/día, no constituye un mayor riesgo de infarto al miocardio, de hipertensión, o de modificación de los niveles plasmáticos de indicadores de riesgo cardiovascular, como la proteína C reactiva y la homocisteína. En relación a la salud maternal, las conclusiones son similares, un consumo moderado de cafeína (300 mg/día o menos no constituye un riesgo de menor concepción, de diabetes gestacional, de menor crecimiento fetal, o de defectos congénitos. La ausencia de riesgo, sin embargo, no constituye un estímulo al consumo de café durante el embarazo. Si el consumo de café por parte de la futura madre es moderado, puede considerarse la continuación del consumo durante el embarazo bajo supervisión médica.Caffeine is the principal active component of coffee and the effects of coffee consumption are mainly associated to this component. Caffeine is a methylxanthine, which acts as antagonist of adenine receptors at the nervous system. A great number of health effects, both beneficial and detrimental, have been associated to caffeine consumption: such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, hepatic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, are included as the main targets. The present work reviews two of the main concerns about coffee and caffeine consumption: cardiovascular disease and maternal health (perinatal period. The general conclusion is that caffeine consumption up to 300 mg/day does not constitute a risk of myocardial infarction, hypertension, or modification of cardiovascular risk markers such as reactive C protein or homocysteine plasmatic levels. Similar conclusions are reached about the maternal health. Moderate caffeine consumption (300 mg/day or less does not constitute a major risk of less conception, increased gestational diabetes, decrease fetal growth, or congenital defects. However, absence frisk may not be interpreted as a signal to stimulate coffee consumption during pregnancy. Future mothers, which are moderated coffee consumers, may be suggested to continue this consumption during pregnancy, but under medical supervision.

Alfonso Valenzuela B

2010-12-01

353

EL CAFÉ Y SUS EFECTOS EN LA SALUD CARDIOVASCULAR Y EN LA SALUD MATERNA / COFFEE, CAFFEINE, AND ITS EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND MATERNAL HEALTH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La cafeína es el principal componente activo del café y los efectos del consumo de café se asocian mayoritariamente a la cafeína, una metilxantina que actúa como antagonista de los receptores de adenina en el sistema nervioso. Son numerosos los efectos en la salud atribuidos a la cafeína, siendo alg [...] unos benéficos y otros deletéreos: en la salud cardiovascular, diabetes tipo 2, tolerancia a la glucosa y sensibilidad a la insulina, en la cinosis hepática y el carcinoma hepatocelular, entre otros efectos. Este artículo realiza una revisión de dos aspectos de preocupación en la salud pública relacionados con el consumo de café y la cafeína: su efecto en la salud cardiovascular y en la salud maternal (período perinatal). La conclusión general es que el consumo de cafeína, hasta 300 mg/día, no constituye un mayor riesgo de infarto al miocardio, de hipertensión, o de modificación de los niveles plasmáticos de indicadores de riesgo cardiovascular, como la proteína C reactiva y la homocisteína. En relación a la salud maternal, las conclusiones son similares, un consumo moderado de cafeína (300 mg/día o menos) no constituye un riesgo de menor concepción, de diabetes gestacional, de menor crecimiento fetal, o de defectos congénitos. La ausencia de riesgo, sin embargo, no constituye un estímulo al consumo de café durante el embarazo. Si el consumo de café por parte de la futura madre es moderado, puede considerarse la continuación del consumo durante el embarazo bajo supervisión médica. Abstract in english Caffeine is the principal active component of coffee and the effects of coffee consumption are mainly associated to this component. Caffeine is a methylxanthine, which acts as antagonist of adenine receptors at the nervous system. A great number of health effects, both beneficial and detrimental, ha [...] ve been associated to caffeine consumption: such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, hepatic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, are included as the main targets. The present work reviews two of the main concerns about coffee and caffeine consumption: cardiovascular disease and maternal health (perinatal period). The general conclusion is that caffeine consumption up to 300 mg/day does not constitute a risk of myocardial infarction, hypertension, or modification of cardiovascular risk markers such as reactive C protein or homocysteine plasmatic levels. Similar conclusions are reached about the maternal health. Moderate caffeine consumption (300 mg/day or less) does not constitute a major risk of less conception, increased gestational diabetes, decrease fetal growth, or congenital defects. However, absence frisk may not be interpreted as a signal to stimulate coffee consumption during pregnancy. Future mothers, which are moderated coffee consumers, may be suggested to continue this consumption during pregnancy, but under medical supervision.

Alfonso, Valenzuela B.

2010-12-01

354

Maternal Mortality Interventions: A Systematic Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In order to achieve the World Health Organization’s Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters by 2015, a strong global commitment is needed to address this issue in low-income nations where the risk to women is greatest. A comprehensive international effort must include provision of obstetric and general medical care as well as community-based interventions, with an emphasis on the latter in nations where the majority of women deliver babies at home without a trained attendant. Methods: This systematic analysis evaluates interventions published in Medline and CINAHL whose outcome measure is maternal mortality. Analysis includes components of the intervention, nation and maternal death rates. Results: Nine studies documented the effectiveness of various clinical and community-based interventions, including specific drug regimens and procedures, in reducing the risk of maternal death. Six studies reported interventions that did not significantly alter maternal mortality outcomes, and the intervention in one study demonstrated increased risk of maternal death. Conclusion: The dearth of evidence highlights the need for increased focus on translational research that bridges the gap between medical advances and community-based interventions that are feasible in low-income nations. This cannot be accomplished without a stronger commitment to reducing maternal mortality by global health practitioners and researchers.

Gina Marie Piane

2014-09-01

355

The Effects of Implementing the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Criteria for Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In 2010, the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recommended a new strategy for the screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, no study has indicated that adopting the IADPSG recommendations improves perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of implementing the IADPSG criteria for diagnosing GDM on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings Previously, we used a two-step approach (a 1-h, 50-g glucose challenge test followed by a 3-h, 100-g glucose tolerance test when indicated) to screen for and diagnose GDM. In July 2011, we adopted the IADPSG recommendations in our routine obstetric care. In this study, we retrospectively compared the rates of various maternal and neonatal outcomes in all women who delivered after 24 weeks of gestation during the periods before (P1, between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010) and after (P2, between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013) the IADPSG criteria were implemented. Pregnancies complicated by multiple gestations, fetal chromosomal or structural anomalies, and pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus were excluded. Our results showed that the incidence of GDM increased from 4.6% using the two-step method to 12.4% using the IADPSG criteria. Compared to the women in P1, the women in P2 experienced less weight gain during pregnancy, lower birth weights, shorter labor courses, and lower rates of macrosomia (<4000 g) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) infants. P2 was a significant independent factor against macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43–0.90) and LGA (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61–0.89) after multivariable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions/Significance The adoption of the IADPSG criteria for diagnosis of GDM was associated with significant reductions in maternal weight gain during pregnancy, birth weights, and the rates of macrosomia and LGA. PMID:25756838

Hung, Tai-Ho; Hsieh, T’sang-T’ang

2015-01-01

356

Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levelure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

357

Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice. PMID:19909767

Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M Teresa; Domingo, José L

2010-02-15

358

Fortification of maternal milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

Cecilia Di Natale

2013-06-01

359

Maternal serum AFP secreening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) screening is a potentially valuable tool for the in utero detection of fetal neural tube defects. The United Kingdom Collaborative Study of 18,985 pregnancies detected 88% of fetuses with anencephaly and 79% of those with spina bifida through such routine screening. However, the development of a national strategy in the U.S. to submit all pregnancies to AFP screening is being slowed by several problems. Since the normal AFP concentration is different for each gestational week, the precision and sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay must be assured and exact gestational age confirmed by high-quality sonography. In addition to ultrasound, other ancillary services required include cell culture facilities, amniotic fluid AFP assays, and genetic counseling. The detection rate is highest after 18 weeks gestation, leading to time constraints if abortion is elected. Also, many women make their 1st antenatal visit after this point. Still unknown is the frequency of false-positive and false-negative results or the extent of racial variations in serum AFP levels. Since elevated serum AFP levels may also indicate maternal disease, other congenital abnormalities, obstetric complications, or a multiple pregnancy, the screening rather than diagnostic nature of this tool should be emphasized. While rough calculations suggest that the cost to society of the care for neural tube defect patients would be over 10 times that of an effective screening program, cost-benefit analyses are confounded by a lack of knowledge of the degree of patient compliance that can be expected. The greatest cost efficiency, as well as the best care, can be secured through the development of regional centers with all the necessary ancillary services. PMID:75505

Milunsky, A; Alpert, E

1978-03-30

360

Attenuation of maternal psychophysiological stress responses and the maternal cortisol awakening response over the course of human pregnancy  

OpenAIRE

The effects of maternal stress during pregnancy may depend, in part, on the timing in gestation of the occurrence of stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of stage of gestation on maternal psychophysiological responses to stress using a standardized laboratory paradigm and on the cortisol response to awakening (CAR). A longitudinal design was employed to quantify maternal psychophysiological stress reactivity [changes in heart rate (HR), blood pressure, salivary corti...

Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Cammack, Alison L.; Yim, Ilona S.; Chicz-demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.; Wadhwa, Pathik D.

2010-01-01

361

The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk.

Stephen Alison M

2010-02-01

362

Maternal effects on the development of social rank and immunity trade-offs in male laboratory mice (Mus musculus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Social status in randomly constituted groups of male CFLP mice was predictable from early suckling behaviour and rate of weight gain in natal litters. High-ranking males were those that had suckled on more anterior teats and gained weight more quickly. Rank was not predicted by any measures of sibling interaction or hormone (testosterone, corticosterone) concentration. Aggressiveness in eventual high-rankers was associated negatively with the proportion of males in the litter at birth and the amount of maternal attention received. Aggressive social relationships within natal litters did not predict polarized rank relationships in randomized groups. Nevertheless, while still in their natal litters, and in the absence of aggressive rank relationships, eventual rank categories showed the same difference in modulation of testosterone concentration in relation to current immunocompetence (low-rankers modulating, high-rankers not), as has repeatedly been found in randomized groups by earlier studies. The role of maternal condition in determining rank-related life-history development in male mice is discussed. PMID:9842735

Barnard, C J; Behnke, J M; Gage, A R; Brown, H; Smithurst, P R

1998-11-01

363

Effect of Zn-DTPA therapy on the maternal transfer of 241Am or 237Pu to young mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newborn mice exposed to 241Am or 237Pu during gestation and whose mothers were given Zn-DTPA at various times before parturition contained less radioactivity than comparable newborn mice given identical 241Am or 237Pu exposure without Zn-DTPA treatment of the mothers. There was no net increase in radionuclide transfer from mothers to unborn young as a result of maternal administration of Zn-DTPA, regardless of the pregnancy stage during which the radioactivity and decorporation treatments were given. Administration of 241Am followed after three days by extended Zn-DTPA therapy resulted in lower fetal content of radioactivity in litters conceived long after or soon after maternal exposure to 241Am. These data indicate that the risk from Am and Pu to unborn young can be reduced by Zn-DTPA treatment of the pregnant mother and of the female who becomes pregnant subsequently. This information may prove to be of significance with the increasing probability of Am or Pu exposure to women in the nuclear industry who could be pregnant at the time or who may conceive a child in the future. PMID:4030332

Lloyd, R D; Jones, C W; Mays, C W; Brammer, T W; Burnham, J W

1985-09-01

364

Effect of maternal vitamin and mineral restrictions on the body fat content and adipocytokine levels of WNIN rat offspring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrauterine growth retardation due to maternal under-nutrition increases susceptibility to obesity and insulin resistance. We reported earlier in the offspring of mineral or vitamin restricted rat dams, a high body fat percentage and decreased insulin secretion to glucose challenge. This study determined whether or not central adiposity and altered adipocytokine profile were associated with high body fat content. Methods Body fat percentage; glucose, insulin and adipocytokine levels in fasting plasma and fresh weights of epididymal fat pads were determined in the six months old male offspring of Wistar NIN rat dams on chronic 50 percent restriction of vitamins or minerals throughout their growth, gestation, lactation and weaned on to restricted diets or restricted mothers/offspring rehabilitated from different time points. Results In line with high body fat percent, chronic restriction of vitamins and minerals increased the epididymal fat pad weight. Maternal vitamin restriction decreased plasma adiponectin and increased leptin levels whereas mineral restriction decreased both. Both the treatments did not affect plasma TNF-? levels or insulin resistance status (HOMA-IR. Rehabilitation from parturition but not weaning, rescued the changes in the offspring. Conclusion High body fat percentage in the offspring of vitamin restricted or mineral restricted rat dams was associated with increased abdominal adiposity (epididymal fat pad weight and differential expression of adipocytokines but not insulin resistance. The changes could be mitigated by rehabilitation from birth but not weaning.

Nandiwada Vijaya

2007-10-01

365

Maternal immunization: opportunities for scientific advancement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal immunization is an effective strategy to prevent and/or minimize the severity of infectious diseases in pregnant women and their infants. Based on the success of vaccination programs to prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus, maternal immunization has been well received in the United States and globally as a promising strategy for the prevention of other vaccine-preventable diseases that threaten pregnant women and infants, such as influenza and pertussis. Given the promise for reducing the burden of infectious conditions of perinatal significance through the development of vaccines against relevant pathogens, the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored a series of meetings to foster progress toward clinical development of vaccines for use in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary group of stakeholders convened at the NIH in December 2013 to identify potential barriers and opportunities for scientific advancement in maternal immunization. PMID:25425719

Beigi, Richard H; Fortner, Kimberly B; Munoz, Flor M; Roberts, Jeff; Gordon, Jennifer L; Han, Htay Htay; Glenn, Greg; Dormitzer, Philip R; Gu, Xing Xing; Read, Jennifer S; Edwards, Kathryn; Patel, Shital M; Swamy, Geeta K

2014-12-15

366

Embryo transfer cannot delineate between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects in the transgenerational transmission of disease in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse conditions in utero can have transgenerational effects, in the absence of a subsequent insult. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the maternal pregnancy environment vs. germ line effects in mediating alterations to cardiorenal and metabolic physiology in offspring from mothers born small. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (Restricted group) or sham surgery (Control group) in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Restricted and control female offspring (F1) were mated with either breeder males (embryo donor) or vasectomized males (embryo recipient). Embryo transfer was performed at embryonic day (E) 1, whereby second-generation (F2) embryos gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a control (Cont-in-Cont, Rest-in-Cont) or restricted (Cont-in-Rest, Rest-in-Rest) mother. In male and female offspring, glomerular number and size were measured at postnatal day (PN) 35, and systolic blood pressure, glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic ?-cell mass were measured in separate sibling cohorts at 6 mo. Rest-in-Rest offspring were hypothesized to have similar characteristics (reduced growth, altered metabolic control, and hypertension) to non-embryo-transferred Rest, such that embryo transfer would not be a confounding experimental influence. However, embryo-transferred Rest-in-Rest offspring underwent accelerated growth during the peripubertal phase, followed by slowed growth between 2 and 3 mo of age compared with non-embryo-transferred Rest groups. Furthermore, renal function and insulin response to a glucose load were different to respective non-embryo-transferred groups. Our data demonstrate the long-term effects of in vitro embryo manipulation, which confounded the utility of this approach in delineating between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects that drive transgenerational outcomes. PMID:24523338

Tran, Melanie; Gallo, Linda A; Hanvey, Alanna N; Jefferies, Andrew J; Westcott, Kerryn T; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Gardner, David K; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

2014-04-15

367

Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

Howard Cuckle

2014-05-01

368

The Effect of Health Education with modelling Approach on Maternal Confidence and Lactation Status of Infant in Maros District, South Sulawesi Province  

OpenAIRE

Health education with modelling approach can increase knowledge, skill, ability, family support and maternal confidence in doing maternal role (based on Maternal Role Attainment nursing theory) and in optimizing infant growth and development through exclusive breastfeeding and stimulation. Maros District has low health growth level, especially related to mother awareness on infant care as well as infant growth development. If can be seen from only 65.8 % infant visit of 90% the government ex...

Saleh, Ariyanti

2008-01-01

369

Investigating Financial Incentives for Maternal Health: An Introduction  

OpenAIRE

Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance th...

Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Koblinsky, Marge

2013-01-01

370

Efectos genéticos directos y maternos del peso al destete en una población de ganado Cebú de Cuba / Direct and maternal genetic effects for weaning weight in a Zebu beef cattle population in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar los parámetros genéticos para peso al destete en ganado Cebú. Se utilizaron datos de 20,151 terneros nacidos entre 1988 y 2006 en la provincia de Camagüey, Cuba. Se aplicaron seis modelos estadísticos que tuvieron como efecto fijo en común al grupo de contempo [...] ráneas (año-hato-época-sexo) y como covariables la edad al destete lineal y la edad de la madre al parto lineal y cuadrática. El efecto aleatorio del animal fue común a todos los modelos y se alternaron los efectos genético materno, del ambiente permanente y la covarianza genética entre los efectos directo y materno. De acuerdo con la prueba del logaritmo de la verosimilitud, el mejor modelo fue el que incluyó los efectos aleatorios del animal, maternos y del ambiente permanente, además, la covarianza entre los efectos directos y maternos. La heredabilidad de los efectos genéticos directo (0.06 a 0.34) y materno (0.06 a 0.19) varió entre los modelos. La correlación entre el efecto directo y materno varió entre -0.12 ± 0.13 y -0.19 ± 0.15. El efecto materno ambiental determinó un 13 % de la variabilidad total. Se concluyó que la heredabilidad del peso al destete en el ganado Cebú de la población estudiada puede ser sobre estimada cuando el modelo animal no incluye los efectos maternos; y no obstante que los valores de heredabilidad encontrados fueron bajos para los efectos directos y maternos, la ausencia relativa de antagonismo genético entre ellos podría permitir un mejoramiento genético moderado por selección. Abstract in english Genetic parameters for weaning weight were estimated in a Zebu beef cattle population in Camagüey province, Cuba. Data for 20,151 calves born between 1988 and 2006 were used in six variants of the statistical animal model. Contemporary groups (yearherd-season-sex) were used as a common fixed effect, [...] and a weaning age linear regression and dam age linear and quadratic regressions as covariables. Animal random effect was common to all models, and models 2 to 6 had different combinations of genetic maternal effects, maternal permanent environmental effect and covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects. A log likelihood test showed the best model to be that which included animal random effects, maternal effects, covariance between direct and maternal effects and permanent environment. Heritability for direct (0.06 to 0.34) and maternal genetic effects (0.06 to 0.19) varied between models. Correlation between direct and maternal genetic effects varied from -0.12 ± 0.13 to -0.19 ± 0.15. The maternal permanent environmental effect explained 13 % of total variability. Heritability of weaning weight in the studied population can be overestimated when the animal model does not include maternal effects. The direct and maternal effects heritability values were low, but the relative absence of genetic antagonism between these effects indicates the possibility of moderate genetic improvement by selection.

Alejandro, Palacios-Espinosa; José Luis, Espinoza-Villavicencio; Danilo, Guerra-Iglesias; Dianelys, González-Peña Fundora; Rafael, de Luna de la Peña.

2010-03-01

371

Effect of maternal deprivation on the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH-associated peptide neurobiology in lambs during the transition from infancy to prepuberty.  

OpenAIRE

Using morphological criteria we describe the effect of maternal deprivation on the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) of the GnRH prohormone (proGnRH) in the preoptic area (POA)-hypothalamus during the weaning period. The immunohistochemical GnRH- and GAP-neuroanatomy was investigated in female 12-week-old weanling and maternally deprived lambs and 15-week-old weaned lambs. The GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) nerve elements in the POA were more numerous in weanl...

Jolanta Polkowska; Marta Wa?kowska

2010-01-01

372

Litter and sex effects on maternal behavior and DNA methylation of the Nr3c1 exon 17 promoter gene in hippocampus and cerebellum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early life events can alter gene expression through DNA methylation. The methylation status of the exon 17 promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1 gene) in hippocampus associates with frequency of pup licking. Much of this work was conducted with male rats. Because dams more frequently lick male pups, this may contribute to sex differences in phenotypes through DNA methylation. Modifying litter gender composition (LGC), in which offspring of single-sex litters are compared to mixed-sex litters, alters maternal behavior. Previously, we demonstrated that LGC and sex affected pup licking times as well as anxiety and hippocampal DNA methylation of the Nr3c1 exon 17 promoter gene in adolescence. Now, we expand upon this work by examining effects in cerebellum and measuring mRNA levels. We also re-assessed DNA methylation in hippocampus using pyrosequencing and re-analyzed pup licking with the more commonly used frequency measure. Litters, culled to 8 pups on postnatal day 1 (PN1), were assigned to one of three conditions: all male (n = 10), all female (n = 12), or half of each sex (n = 20). Licking was rated on PN4, 7, and 10. On PN35, hippocampal and cerebellar samples were obtained. Single-sex males were licked the least and mixed-sex males, the most. Hippocampal Nr3c1 mRNA levels were lowest in mixed females with no LGC or Sex effects in DNA methylation. Cerebellar DNA methylation levels were lowest in mixed males with no effect on mRNA levels. Maternal pup licking associated with DNA methylation of the Nr3c1 exon 17 promoter gene in cerebellum and with hippocampal mRNA. PMID:24721039

Kosten, Therese A; Nielsen, David A

2014-08-01

373

Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( <10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (? = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (? = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI ? 0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (? = ? 1·7 E%, 95 % CI ? 3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (? = ? 0·9, 95 % CI ? 2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (? = ? 0·8, 95 % CI ? 1·5, ? 0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.

2015-01-01

374

Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level : results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( < 10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (? = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (? = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI - 0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (? = - 1·7 E%, 95 % CI - 3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (? = - 0·9, 95 % CI - 2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (? = - 0·8, 95 % CI - 1·5, - 0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M

2015-01-01

375

Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( intake of dietary fibre increased (? = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (? = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI - 0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (? = - 1·7 E%, 95 % CI - 3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (? = - 0·9, 95 % CI - 2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (? = - 0·8, 95 % CI - 1·5, - 0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging. PMID:25744160

Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

2015-03-01

376

The effect of maternal thyroxine injection on growth, survival and development of the digestive system of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, larvae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study deals with the effect of exogenous treatment of O. niloticus females with L-thyroxine (T4 on the development of the digestive system during larval rearing, and its subsequent effect on larval growth and survival. The development of the digestive tract and accessory glands was investigated histologically and histochemically in the developing O. niloticus larvae, from control and T4-treated spawners. During yolk-sac absorption, the digestive system of the fish underwent further differentiation and the rudimentary alimentary canal became segmented into four different histological regions: the buccopharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestine. The injection of females O. niloticus with thyroxine (1 or 10 ?g T4/g BW greatly enhanced the development of the digestive tract and accessory glands of larvae as indicated by the quantitative and qualitative changes of the mucus composition from predominantly neutral to a mixture of neutral and acid mucosubstances, or acid mucosubstances occurred during the rearing period for the larvae produced from T4-treated females. This may be due to the direct effect of exogenous thyroxine, which might have been transferred from maternal circulation into the oocytes and larvae, on the synthesis of proteins, which increased with larval development. Thus, thyroxine directly or indirectly improved O. niloticus larval growth, since a marked increase in both, length and weight of larvae occurred during the experimental period. In addition, larvae from treated females also gave a significantly higher survival rate than that of control. It could be concluded that exogenous T4 in maternal circulation might have been transferred into oocytes and larvae. The transferred thyroid hormone appears to play some role in the early development of larvae and may confer a distinct advantage for the growth of the offspring of the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

Noha A. Khalil

2011-10-01

377

Long-term effects of maternal separation on the responsiveness of the circadian system to melatonin in the diurnal nonhuman primate (Macaca mulatta).  

Science.gov (United States)

Depression is often linked to early-life adversity and circadian disturbances. Here, we assessed the long-term impact of early-life adversity, particularly preweaning mother-infant separation, on the circadian system's responsiveness to a time giver or synchronizer (Zeitgeber). Mother-reared (MR) and peer-reared (PR) rhesus monkeys were subjected to chronic jet-lag, a forced desynchrony protocol of 22 hr T-cycles [11:11 hr light:dark (LD) cycles] to destabilize the central circadian organization. MR and PR monkeys subjected to the T-cycles showed split locomotor activity rhythms with periods of ~22 hr (entrained) and ~24 hr (free-running), simultaneously. Continuous melatonin treatment in the drinking water (20 ?g/mL) gradually increased the amplitude of the entrained rhythm at the expense of the free-running rhythm, reaching complete entrainment by 1 wk. Upon release into constant dim light, a rearing effect on anticipation for both the predicted light onset and food presentation was observed. In MR monkeys, melatonin did not affect the amplitude of anticipatory behavior. Interestingly, however, PR macaques showed light onset and food anticipatory activities in response to melatonin treatment. These results demonstrate for the first time a rearing-dependent effect of maternal separation in macaques, imprinting long-term plastic changes on the circadian system well into late adulthood. These effects could be counteracted by the synchronizer molecule melatonin. We conclude that the melatonergic system is targeted by early-life adversity of maternal separation and that melatonin supplementation ameliorates the negative impact of stress on the circadian system. PMID:24446898

Rawashdeh, Oliver; Dubocovich, Margarita L

2014-04-01

378

Evolutionary ecology. Cycles of species replacement emerge from locally induced maternal effects on offspring behavior in a passerine bird.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important question in ecology is how mechanistic processes occurring among individuals drive large-scale patterns of community formation and change. Here we show that in two species of bluebirds, cycles of replacement of one by the other emerge as an indirect consequence of maternal influence on offspring behavior in response to local resource availability. Sampling across broad temporal and spatial scales, we found that western bluebirds, the more competitive species, bias the birth order of offspring by sex in a way that influences offspring aggression and dispersal, setting the stage for rapid increases in population density that ultimately result in the replacement of their sister species. Our results provide insight into how predictable community dynamics can occur despite the contingency of local behavioral interactions. PMID:25700519

Duckworth, Renée A; Belloni, Virginia; Anderson, Samantha R

2015-02-20

379

Effects of maternal position on epidural anesthesia for cesarean section, acid-base status, and bupivacaine concentrations at delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 25 patients excellent clinical anesthesia for elective cesarean section was obtained with lumbar epidural block using an average dose of bupivacaine of 130 mg (18 ml of 0.75 per cent solution). Supplemental drugs were not needed. All infants had normal Apgar scores at delivery. Ten patients were kept in a 35--40 degree semi-sitting supine position during induction, while 15 patients were similarly semi-sitting but turned into the left lateral position. Maternal position did not affect the adequacy of the anesthesia or the clinical condition of the infants, but did alter acid-base state and bupivacaine concentrations in the infants. At delivery, the infants whose mothers had been supine had significantly lower pH values in umbilical cord blood than those whose mothers had been in the lateral position. Also, high concentrations of bupivacaine were found in the umbilical vein blood of infants whose mothers were supine. PMID:35044

Datta, S; Alper, M H; Ostheimer, G W; Brown, W U; Weiss, J B

1979-03-01

380

Effects of maternal diet and exposure to bisphenol A on sexually dimorphic responses in conceptuses and offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas sexual differentiation is considered as the onset of differentiation of the male or female gonads, mounting evidence indicates that sex differences in developmental programming are established as early as the zygotic stage. Genetic and epigenetic differences between the sexes might govern how each responds to shifts in their early environment, including in the uterus or culture dish, as in the case of in vitro cultured pre-implantational embryos. Even if no differences are evident between the sexes at birth, divergent conceptus responses to surrounding changes, such as maternal diet and exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), such as bisphenol A (BPA), might predispose one sex over the other to later adult-onset diseases, otherwise termed developmental origin of health and disease (DOHaD). Overall, males subjected to less than optimal in utero conditions tend to be at greater risk for various diseases, including neurobehavioural disorders. As the placenta is the primary nutrient acquisition and communication organ between the dam and foetus, its ability to adapt rapidly to environmental shifts might buffer the conceptus against environmental insults. The placenta of one sex over the other might possess greater ability to respond to environmental fluctuations. In utero environmental changes, including maternal nutrient excess or reduction or exposure to the EDC, BPA, might govern sex-dependent behavioural alterations. In sum, this review examines the evidence to date that male and female zygotes and conceptuses diverge in their responses to shifting environmental conditions and whether these contrasting sexually dimorphic responses underpin later DOHaD outcomes, namely neurobehavioural changes. PMID:22827346

Rosenfeld, C S

2012-08-01

381

The Effect of Ephedrine on Fetal Outcome in Treatment of Maternal Hypotension Caused by Spinal Anesthesia During Cesarean Section  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To compare maternal complications and labor outcome in obese and non-obese women. Materials and methods: It is a retrospective comparative study conducted at the Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Unit 1, Civil Hospital, Karachi from December 2008 to December 2009. A sample size of 220 gravid women is selected by Non Probability Convenience sampling technique. In these 110 obese women as cases was compared with 110 non-obese women as controls, booked at <20 weeks of gestation. Data were collected regarding maternal complication, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome by trained medical officers. Data were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 11.0 through descriptive analysis, chi-square test and independent sample t test. The p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Pregnancy induced hypertension was present in 9 (8.2% women in control group and 21 (19.1% in cases (p=0.01. Gestational diabetes was seen in one (0.9% in control compared to 8 (7.3% in obese women (p=0.01. Obese women were found to be at increased risk of caesarean section [17 (15.5% "nVs. 39 (35.4%, p=0.002]. Apgar score at 1 and 10 minute were lower in cases compared to controls (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Obese women are at increased risk of pregnancy induced obesity and associated with an increased risk of hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolic disease and urinary tract infection.    

Fardin Yousefshahi

2010-12-01

382

Efectos mnemónicos maternos prenatales sobre el sexo psíquico humano. Insuficiencia del mecanismo inmunitario: Nueva propuesta desde la tolerancia-rechazo materno-fetal / Prenatal maternal mnemonic effects on the human neuro-psychic sex: A new proposition from fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In approximately 15% of homosexual men, their phenotype is associated to the fraternal birth order. Older biological brothers induce in their mothers anti-male factors (antibodies) that interfere the brain maleness development ofyounger fetuses. This effect is seldom seen in non-right-handed men and [...] is not seen in women. The influence of older siblings is seen in their sex ratio (SR). In contradiction with previous hypothesis, significant heterogeneities of SR have been found among older siblings of males or females, right or non-right-handed and homo or heterosexual individuáis. This can only be understood as if the ñndings found among homosexuals were part of a general mechanism of fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection processes of placental mammals. We found, in relation to ABO and Rh systems and sex, that embryos with genes different from those of their mothers, induced better pregnancies and maternal tolerance than embryos similar to their mothers. Assuming that homo or heterosexuality and right or non-right-handedness behave similar to ABO or Rh alíeles, the author provides a speculative interpretation ofthese results. Homosexual women (¡esbians) and especially if they are non-right-handed, are preceded by siblings with a high SR (maternal environment with anti-female or pro-male factors); then lesbianism or non-right-handedness may induce tolerance to be a woman in such anti-female environment. Non-right-handedness could induce tolerance for anti-male factors of mothers, thus preventing the production ofgays in a pro-male maternal environment, but leading to the production of non-right-handed gays in anti-male maternal environments. Several new hypotheses and interpretations merge from this newproposition. Also, complete sexual orientation could be acquired after birth.

Carlos Y, Valenzuela.

1552-15-01