WorldWideScience

Sample records for maternal effect

  1. Evolution of maternal effect senescence

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton’s evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton’s age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745

  2. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  3. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations. PMID:24722346

  4. Estimating maternal genetic effects in livestock

    Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the estimation of direct and maternal genetic (co)variances, accounting for environmental covariances between direct and maternal effects. Estimated genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects presented in the literature have often been strongly negative, and their validity has been questioned. Explanations of extreme estimates have focused on the existence of environmental covariances between dam and offspring. As a solution, models including a regression...

  5. The effects of maternal passive smoking on maternal milk lipid.

    Azam Baheiraei; Azar Shamsi; Shahnaz Khaghani; Sedigheh Shams; Maryam Chamari,; Hoda Boushehri; Azam Khedri

    2014-01-01

    Passive smoking was long overlooked by those in the medical and legal professions as being harmful to one's health, but in recent years the negative effect of passive smoking has come to the fore in the media and laws have been changed so that less people are obliged to unwillingly suffer from passive smoking, particularly in the workplace and in indoor settings. To study the effects of environmental tobacco smoking exposure during the breast-feeding period on maternal milk lipids. This cohor...

  6. The effects of maternal passive smoking on maternal milk lipid.

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shamsi, Azar; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Shams, Sedigheh; Chamari, Maryam; Boushehri, Hoda; Khedri, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Passive smoking was long overlooked by those in the medical and legal professions as being harmful to one's health, but in recent years the negative effect of passive smoking has come to the fore in the media and laws have been changed so that less people are obliged to unwillingly suffer from passive smoking, particularly in the workplace and in indoor settings. To study the effects of environmental tobacco smoking exposure during the breast-feeding period on maternal milk lipids. This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers environmental tobacco smoking exposure and 40 non-exposed post-partum mothers referred to the Shahid Ayat health center, Tehran, Iran. Socioeconomic conditions and the demographic characteristics of exposed and non-exposed groups were recorded. Milk samples were collected twice--at baseline (5-7 days after delivery) and four months after delivery. The samples were reserved at -20°C until assay. Milk lipids including cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were evaluated. Dietary intake assessment was performed by means of the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire both times. Maternal occupation status and education levels were significantly different between the two groups. Lipids profiles of milk were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group and four months after delivery. Dietary intake was not significantly different between the two groups. Maternal environmental tobacco smoking exposure affects milk lipids which are essential for infant growth. PMID:24901858

  7. The effects of maternal passive smoking on maternal milk lipid.

    Azam Baheiraei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive smoking was long overlooked by those in the medical and legal professions as being harmful to one's health, but in recent years the negative effect of passive smoking has come to the fore in the media and laws have been changed so that less people are obliged to unwillingly suffer from passive smoking, particularly in the workplace and in indoor settings. To study the effects of environmental tobacco smoking exposure during the breast-feeding period on maternal milk lipids. This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers environmental tobacco smoking exposure and 40 non-exposed post-partum mothers referred to the Shahid Ayat health center, Tehran, Iran. Socioeconomic conditions and the demographic characteristics of exposed and non-exposed groups were recorded. Milk samples were collected twice--at baseline (5-7 days after delivery and four months after delivery. The samples were reserved at -20°C until assay. Milk lipids including cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL were evaluated. Dietary intake assessment was performed by means of the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire both times. Maternal occupation status and education levels were significantly different between the two groups. Lipids profiles of milk were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group and four months after delivery. Dietary intake was not significantly different between the two groups. Maternal environmental tobacco smoking exposure affects milk lipids which are essential for infant growth.

  8. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring

    Gribble, Kristin E.; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-01-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the lifespan and healthspan of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on CR regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increa...

  9. The Effect of Marital Violence on Maternal Parenting Style and Maternal Stress.

    Niesman, Cindy S.

    A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…

  10. Effects of Maternal Depression on Youth Adjustment.

    Alexander, Jennifer

    Depressive disorders are chronic illnesses affecting women and their families for extended periods of time. This paper summarizes research related to the effects of maternal depression on children's short and long term adjustment. Children of depressed mothers are at risk for internalizing and externalizing disorders. Genetics account for a small…

  11. Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being

    Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall health. However, maternal employment is not associated with quality of parenting at 6 months, based on trained assessors’ observations of maternal sensitivity. PMID:23645972

  12. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  13. Genome-wide discovery of maternal effect variants

    Kent, Jack W; Peterson, Charles P.; Thomas D. Dyer; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John

    2009-01-01

    Many phenotypes may be influenced by the prenatal environment of the mother and/or maternal care, and these maternal effects may have a heritable component. We have implemented in the computer program SOLAR a variance components-based method for detecting indirect effects of maternal genotype on offspring phenotype. Of six phenotypes measured in three generations of the Framingham Heart Study, height showed the strongest evidence (P = 0.02) of maternal effect. We conducted a genome-wide assoc...

  14. Effects of maternal nicotine on breastfeeding infants

    Cândida Caniçali Primo; Priscilla Bôa F. Ruela; Léia Damasceno de A. Brotto; Telma Ribeiro Garcia; Eliane de Fátima Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess scientific evidence about the effects of maternal nicotine on infant by an integrative review. DATA SOURCES Studies published in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from 1990 to 2009, with abstracts available in the Latin American Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (Medline) databases. The descriptors were: "breastfeeding", "lactation" and "smoking". DATA SYNTHESIS The main identified effects of nicotine on infants...

  15. Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being

    Chatterji, Pinka; Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall heal...

  16. The Maternal Migration Effect : Exploring Maternal Healthcare in Diaspora Using Qualitative Proxies for Medical Anthropology

    Binder, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the 'maternal migration effect'. Following migration to a high-income country with a low maternal mortality rate, we assume that some immigrant women’s reliance upon maternal practices that respond to a low-income, high-mortality context can adversely affect care-seeking and utilization of treatment facilities. At highest risk in the United Kingdom and Sweden are those from Africa's Horn, particularly Somali women who have experienced diasporic migration. By applying con...

  17. Seed Dispersal as a Maternally Influenced Character: Mechanistic Basis of Maternal Effects and Selection on Maternal Characters in an Annual Plant.

    Donohue

    1999-12-01

    Maternal influences on progeny characters affect phenotypic correlations between characters expressed in maternal and progeny generations and consequently influence evolutionary responses to selection. Net selection on maternally influenced characters depends on selection both on the progeny character and on the maternal characters that influence it. I used seed dispersal in Cakile edentula as a system in which to identify the mechanisms of environmentally mediated maternal effects and to determine how selection on maternal characters alters the adaptive value of dispersal. In C. edentula, maternal morphology responds to conspecific density experienced by the mother. Maternal morphology in turn affects offspring (seed) dispersal and density and thereby offspring morphology and fitness. I estimated the magnitude of density-mediated maternal effects on dispersal and identified their mechanism by characterizing the plasticity of maternal morphology to density. I also measured density-dependent selection on maternal characters that influence dispersal. Maternal plasticity to density was caused by both allometric and nonallometric variation in morphology, and this plasticity resulted in a negative correlation between maternal and progeny density. Such negative maternal effects are expected to retard responses to selection. Maternal morphology influenced maternal fitness, in part through the relationship of fitness to maternal plant size and in part through size-independent fitness effects. Maternal phenotypes that promote dispersal, and thereby increase progeny fitness, were associated with decreased maternal fitness. Selection on dispersal at the level of progeny favors increased dispersal; maternal influences on dispersal, however, not only cause a greatly reduced adaptive value of dispersal but lead to the prediction of a slower response to selection. PMID:10600612

  18. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  19. Effects of Cocaine on Maternal Behavior and Neurochemistry

    NEPHEW, BENJAMIN C.; Febo, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves drug seeking and abuse despite the negative social and health consequences. While the potential effects of cocaine on child development have been extensively studied over the last 30 years, few researchers have focused on the effects of cocaine on maternal behavior, which includes offspring care and maternal aggression towards an unfamiliar individual. In humans, maternal cocaine use can lead to child neglect, abuse, and disrupt the...

  20. The mediated effects of maternal depression and infant temperament on maternal role.

    Rode, Jennifer L; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-02-01

    We examined prenatal depression, postpartum depression, and infant temperament, respectively, in a mediated process model to predict maternal role. Using a prospective, observational design, we surveyed 168 women during pregnancy and then in postpartum. Data analyses supported the contribution of each variable in an ascending fashion (ab?=?-0.01, SE?=?0.004, 95 % CI [-0.021, -0.004]), such that infant temperament had the strongest effects (sr (2) ?=?.124, p?maternal role with both direct effects and indirect effects via infant temperament. These results highlighted the significant impact postpartum depression may have on maternal role. Future interventions targeting mothers experiencing or who are at risk for depression may consider tools to improve mother-baby interactions. The effects of such intervention may subsequently improve both infant temperament and maternal role evaluation. PMID:25994237

  1. Maternal smoking effects on infant growth

    Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of infants (from non-smoking mothers during pregnancy but smokers during lactation) had a growth pattern intermediate to both curves, suggesting the impact of maternal smoking at any period of infant growth. Smoking had a clear effect on infant height during the period of breast feeding, attributable to the effect of the known content of cadmium in smoker's milk, on the bioavailability of essential nutrients such as zinc. (author)

  2. The Effect of Maternal Helminth Infection on Maternal and Neonatal Immune Function and Immunity to Tuberculosis

    Gebreegziabiher, Dawit; Desta, Kassu; Desalegn, Girmay; Howe, Rawleigh; Abebe, Markos

    2014-01-01

    Background M. tuberculosis and helminth infection each affects one third of the world population. Helminth infections down regulate cell mediated immune responses and this may contribute to lower efficacy of BCG vaccination and higher prevalence of tuberculosis. Objective To determine the effect of maternal helminth infection on maternal and neonatal immune function and immunity to TB. Methods In this cross sectional study, eighty five pregnant women were screened for parasitic and latent TB ...

  3. Brief Report: Effect of Maternal Age on Severity of Autism

    Baxter, Alisa C.; Lotspeich, Linda J.; Spiker, Donna; Martin, Jacquelin L.; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim F.

    2007-01-01

    The etiology of autism is complex, consisting of unknown genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have revealed that maternal age is increased in autism compared to controls, making it a possible risk factor. This study examined the effects of maternal age on autism severity using IQ as a measure of cognitive severity and selected…

  4. Fetal and Maternal Effects of Vitamin D

    Ayşenur Alper Gürz1

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since in the early 1900s, the relationship between vitamin D and human health was discovered which led to a cure for rickets. In recent years, studies suggest that besides the rickets, vitamin D deficiency may also have an important role in the development of some clinical situations such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis and tuberculosis. In addition, many studies showed that the maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy influence the development of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, periodontal diseases and for fetal or childhood periods there is a significant impact on the development of the skeletal, respiratory and the central nervous systems. In recent years, light of these studies, the knowledge about the vitamin D has been updated and multiple vitamin D supplementation programs has been applied through the definition of "subclinical vitamin D deficiency" and their effects on the non-skeletal system. In many countries, it has been emphasized that vitamin D supplementation should be given to women, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. However, in developing countries, the presence of vitamin D deficiency continues to be a huge public health problem. In this case, all physicians, especially pediatricians, obstetricians and family physicians should be alert to this important issue.

  5. Strong Maternal Effects on Gene Expression in Arabidopsis lyrata Hybrids.

    Videvall, Elin; Sletvold, Nina; Hagenblad, Jenny; Ågren, Jon; Hansson, Bengt

    2016-04-01

    Hybridization between populations or species can have pronounced fitness consequences. Yet little is known about how hybridization affects gene regulation. Three main models have been put forward to explain gene expression patterns in hybrids: additive, dominance, or parental effects. Here, we use high throughput RNA-sequencing to examine the extent to which hybrid gene expression follows predictions by each of the three models. We performed a reciprocal crossing experiment between two differentiated populations of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata and sequenced RNA in rosette leaves of 12-week-old plants grown in greenhouse conditions. The two parental populations had highly differentiated gene expression patterns. In hybrids, a majority of genes showed intermediate expression relative to that of their parental populations (i.e., additive effects), but expression was frequently more similar to the maternal than to their paternal population (i.e., maternal effects). Allele-specific expression analyses showed that in the vast majority of cases, genes with pronounced maternal effect expressed both the maternal and the paternal allele. Maternal effects on hybrid gene expression have rarely been documented previously and our study suggests it could be more common than previously assumed. Whether the maternal effect on gene expression persists to later life-stages, and whether the variation in gene expression is manifested in other aspects of the phenotype, remain to be elucidated. Our findings are relevant for understanding the consequences of outbreeding and hybridization and open up several questions for future studies. PMID:26685177

  6. Effect of maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles

    Pietroiusti A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of nanotechnology is widely recognized in both biomedical and industrial applications, so the search for new nano materials with improved physical and chemical characteristics is rapidly growing, causing a consequent increase in the risk of exposure by the population.Engineered nanoparticles, defined as particles having a different shape, but at least one dimension less than 100 nm, are constituents of many everyday products, including for example, sunscreens, cosmetics and some food packaging. This implies that an increasing number of people can come into contact with these nanoparticles in occupational settings, and the environment. It then becomes mandatory to assess what potential effects nanoparticles may have on biological systems. Although many nanoparticles may not be a problem for the general population, may instead be a problem for subgroups of susceptible individuals. In this context, we aimed to study the effect that maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs may have on the health of pregnant individuals, with particular attention to the possible harmful effects on the development of the placenta and fetus. To this end we have produced silica nanoparticles of three different sizes: small, medium and large. Each nanoparticle was in turn modified in two different ways, through the introduction of NH2 or COOH functional groups, in order to make their surface positively or negatively charged.SiO2 NPs were intravenously administered to pregnant mice, through the injection into the venous retro-bulbar eye plexus. Administration was performed at two different gestational stages. A group of females received the material 5.5 days after conception, when the placenta is still poorly formed, while a second group was exposed at 12.5 day of pregnancy, a time at which the placenta has completed development. The difference in the administration timing allowed us to evaluate the possible differences in susceptibility of the fetus depending at different stages of placental development. Our results have shown that the smallest SiO2 NP have a high biocompatibility and do not interfere with the development of the embryo, or with placental development. In contrast, the NPs of medium and large size have demonstrated interference with the development of the fetus, leading to the onset of mild structural alterations and the appearance of a large number of identical twins, an extremely rare phenomenon in rodents, generally secondary to a mild teratogenic stimulus. Such effect became apparent only after administration of high doses of nano particles, showing also a relationship with the surface charge.In conclusion, these results suggest caution in the exposure to SiO2 NP of medium and large size during pregnancy.

  7. When to rely on maternal effects and when on phenotypic plasticity?

    Kuijper, B.; Hoyle, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Existing insight suggests that maternal effects have a substantial impact on evolution, yet these predictions assume that maternal effects themselves are evolutionarily constant. Hence, it is poorly understood how natural selection shapes maternal effects in different ecological circumstances. To overcome this, the current study derives an evolutionary model of maternal effects in a quantitative genetics context. In constant environments, we show that maternal effects evolve to slight negativ...

  8. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    Subarna Mitra; Sujata Misra; Nayak, Prasanta K.; Jaya Prakash Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. ...

  9. Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition

    McDougald Dawn M; Hatsu Irene E; Anderson Alex K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers ag...

  10. Effect of maternal iron deficiency anaemia on foetal outcome.

    Rusia, U; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sikka, M; Sood, S K

    1995-07-01

    One hundred and two pregnant women and their neonates were examined to evaluate the effect of maternal haemoglobin concentration (Hb. conc) and iron deficiency anaemia on the placental weight and the foetal outcome. Haematological and serum ferritin values were determined. It was observed that 34.3% of the pregnant women were anaemic. Maternal Hb conc. and serum ferritin showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.40, p < 0.001) indicating that iron deficiency was the most important cause of anaemia amongst them. The maternal Hb conc. showed a significant correlation with placental weight (p < 0.05), birth weight (p < 0.01), Apgar score (p < 0.001) and birth asphyxia. Maternal serum ferritin also correlated positively with cord ferritin (p < 0.001). The study did not reveal any association between high Hb and adverse foetal outcome. PMID:8819659

  11. Effect of maternal lorazepam on the neonate.

    Whitelaw, A G; Cummings, A J; McFadyen, I. R.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-three neonates born to 51 mothers treated with lorazepam were followed up for five days after delivery. Lorazepam had been given by mouth to 35 mothers and intravenously to 16. In general, maternal plasma concentrations of lorazepam were higher than the corresponding cord plasma concentrations. Cord plasma concentrations exceeding 45 micrograms/l were associated with three-quarters of the infants requiring ventilation at birth. Neonates conjugate lorazepam slowly to the pharmacologicall...

  12. When to rely on maternal effects and when on phenotypic plasticity?

    Kuijper, Bram; Hoyle, Rebecca B

    2015-04-01

    Existing insight suggests that maternal effects have a substantial impact on evolution, yet these predictions assume that maternal effects themselves are evolutionarily constant. Hence, it is poorly understood how natural selection shapes maternal effects in different ecological circumstances. To overcome this, the current study derives an evolutionary model of maternal effects in a quantitative genetics context. In constant environments, we show that maternal effects evolve to slight negative values that result in a reduction of the phenotypic variance (canalization). By contrast, in populations experiencing abrupt change, maternal effects transiently evolve to positive values for many generations, facilitating the transmission of beneficial maternal phenotypes to offspring. In periodically fluctuating environments, maternal effects evolve according to the autocorrelation between maternal and offspring environments, favoring positive maternal effects when change is slow, and negative maternal effects when change is rapid. Generally, the strongest maternal effects occur for traits that experience very strong selection and for which plasticity is severely constrained. By contrast, for traits experiencing weak selection, phenotypic plasticity enhances the evolutionary scope of maternal effects, although maternal effects attain much smaller values throughout. As weak selection is common, finding substantial maternal influences on offspring phenotypes may be more challenging than anticipated. PMID:25809121

  13. [Effects of mother-infant interaction on maternal milk secretion and dynamics of maternal serum prolactin levels in puerperium].

    Aisaka, K; Mori, H; Ogawa, T; Kigawa, T

    1985-05-01

    Effects of maternal-infant interaction on maternal milk secretion and the dynamics of maternal serum prolactin levels in puerperium were examined in 183 normally delivered mothers without any complications. No significant change was observed in the amount of maternal milk secretion between the primiparas and the multiparas. However, there was a significant increase in the amount of maternal milk secretion in the breast feeding group compared to the supplementary feeding group from the second to the sixth day of the puerperium (p less than 0.005). Moreover, the amount of maternal milk secretion increased significantly in the group that adopted the rooming-in system compared to the non rooming-in group (p less than 0.005). And also the significant increase occurred in the encouragement of breast feeding following the adoption of the rooming-in system (x2 = 7.244, p less than 0.01). There was no significant correlation between the amount of maternal milk secretion and the puerperal maternal prolactin levels, but the maternal serum prolactin level at 24 hours after delivery was significantly higher in the breast feeding group than in the supplementary feeding group (p less than 0.01). Also, the maternal serum prolactin was increased by the stimulation of the baby crying the same as by suckling or manual expression. These facts suggest that the maternal-infant bonding plays the important role in the encouragement of the breast feeding and the maternal serum prolactin may have some actions on the mechanism of maternal milk secretion. PMID:3839008

  14. Effects of maternal geohelminth infections on allergy in early childhood

    Cooper, Philip J.; Chico, Martha E.; Amorim, Leila D.; Sandoval, Carlos; Vaca, Maritza; Strina, Agostino; Campos, Ana Clara; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Strachan, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal geohelminth infections during pregnancy may protect against allergy development in childhood. Objective We sought to investigate the effect of maternal geohelminths on the development of eczema, wheeze, and atopy during the first 3 years of life. Methods A cohort of 2404 neonates was followed to 3 years of age in a rural district in coastal Ecuador. Data on wheeze and eczema were collected by means of questionnaire and physical examination at 13, 24, and 36 months of age. Atopy was measured based on skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to 9 allergens at 36 months. Maternal stool samples were examined for geohelminths by microscopy. Data on potential confounders was collected after birth by questionnaire. Results Geohelminths were observed in 45.9% of mothers. Eczema and wheeze were reported for 17.7% and 25.9%, respectively, of 2069 (86.1%) children with complete follow-up to 3 years, and allergen SPT reactivity to any allergen was present in 17.2% and to house dust mite in 8.7%. Maternal geohelminth infections were not significantly associated with eczema (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.26; 95% CI, 0.98-1.61), wheeze (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.27), and SPT reactivity to any allergen (adjusted OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.01). In subgroup analyses maternal geohelminths were associated with a significantly reduced risk of SPT reactivity to mite and other perennial allergens, and maternal ascariasis was associated with an increased risk of eczema and reduced risk of SPT reactivity to all allergens. Conclusion Our data do not support a protective effect of maternal infections with geohelminth parasites during pregnancy against the development of eczema and wheeze in early childhood, although there was evidence in subgroup analyses for a reduction in SPT reactivity to house dust mites and perennial allergens. PMID:26395817

  15. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-06-01

    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  16. Effect of Maternal Depression on Child Behavior: A Sensitive Period?

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…

  17. Maternally Administered Interventions for Preterm Infants in the NICU: Effects on Maternal Psychological Distress and Mother-Infant Relationship

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; Levy, Janet A.; O’Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group.

  18. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ??????? Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  19. Effects of prenatal care on maternal postpartum behaviors

    Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira

    2010-01-01

    Most research on the effectiveness of prenatal care has focused on birth outcomes and has found small or no effects. It is possible, however, that prenatal care is “too little too late” to improve pregnancy outcomes in the aggregate, but that it increases the use of pediatric health care or improves maternal health-related parenting practices and, ultimately, child health. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing birth cohort study that have been augmented with hospital medic...

  20. The Effect of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Early Maternal Feeding Behavior on Later Infant Feeding Behavior

    Brown, Lisa F.; Pridham, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive maternal feeding behaviors are sensitive and responsive to the infant and support the infant’s participation in feeding. Adaptive infant behaviors help the infant to participate in the feeding within developmental capacities and to interact in a positive manner with the mother. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of the adaptiveness of early maternal feeding behavior to the adaptiveness of later infant feeding behavior, accounting for maternal depress...

  1. Acute effects of maternal smoking on fetal heart beat intervals.

    Sindberg Eriksen, P; Gennser, G; Lindvall, R; Nilsson, K

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the acute effects of maternal cigarette smoking on the fetal heart beat intervals and their variability during the last trimester of a normal gestation. The fetal heart beat intervals were monitored continuously by abdominal electrocardiography for 60 min before and 60 min after smoking in 10 pregnant women. The mean intervals, their long-term variability (SD) and short-term variability (standard deviation of interval differences (SDID], calculated for 30-sec periods, showed a steady state before smoking. During the control period, the mean beat interval was negatively correlated with daily cigarette consumption and the short-term variability was positively correlated with the maternal plasma nicotine level. After smoking, the mean beat interval and the short-term variability decreased transiently, the values of both these parameters being positively correlated with the maternal nicotine values before smoking. The acute response of fetal heart beat intervals and their variability to one cigarette is distinct but transient, and the results suggest that the effects are modified by the chronic smoking habits of the women. PMID:6496041

  2. Maternal obesity and late effects on offspring metabolism

    Daniele Sá Vido

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism.Materials and methods : Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 groups of pregnant animals: Control (C – false lesion (sham and Obese (OB – lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N, and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H. At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition.Results : During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat.Conclusions : Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3:301-7

  3. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species.

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers' automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother-infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother-infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants' physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders). PMID:25932017

  4. The effect of maternal obesity on the offspring.

    Williams, Christine B; Mackenzie, Kusaynyonon C; Gahagan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    Maternal obesity is inextricably linked to adverse health outcomes for the mother and her children. The peripartum period is a critical period of risk. In this chapter, we examine the importance of maternal prepregnancy weight status, gestational weight gain, breastfeeding, and postpartum weight loss in relation to subsequent risk for maternal obesity and obesity in the offspring. Promoting optimal maternal weight during the preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum periods will provide lifelong benefits for maternal health and the health of her progeny. PMID:24936914

  5. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. PMID:26089530

  6. The Effects of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Infant Anthropometric Measurements

    F Sahin Mutlu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The association between maternal smoking and poor pregnancy outcome, which is well established in medi­cal literature, has also been corroborated by the results of this study conducted in a Turkish hospital. Our objective was to investi­gate the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on infant head circumference, height, weight, and body mass in­dex (BMI."nMethods: In this retrospective study, the data was collected from the Medical Live Birth Registry in a maternity hospital with the largest capacity of births in a city of northwest Turkey during 2002."nResults: We found that 16.4% (1040/6332 of mothers investigated had smoked during their pregnancy, with a mean of 5 ciga­rettes per day. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of male infants whose mothers smoked were found to be less than those of infants whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, for each one. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of female infants whose mothers smoked were less than those whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, P< 0.01, P< 0.05 and P> 0.05, respectively. According to analysis of variance, infant head circumferences, heights and weights in all infants decreased as the rate of the mother's smoking increased (P> 0.05, P< 0.001 and P> 0.05, respec­tively."nConclusions: The results support that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a linear reduction of height meas­urement, and the infants appeared to be more susceptible to the growth retarding effects of cigarette smoking on height. Thus, if cessation-of-smoking programs are initiated before conception, many of the harmful effects of smoking on fe­tal growth might be prevented.

  7. Effects of REM sleep restriction during pregnancy on rodent maternal behavior

    Gabriel N. Pires; Sergio Tufik; Monica L. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of sleep restriction during pregnancy on maternal care and maternal aggression in a rodent model.Methods:Twenty-three female Wistar rats were assigned to one of two groups: control (n=12) or sleep restriction (n=11) during the entire pregnancy. At the fifth postpartum day, the animals were subjected to the resident-intruder paradigm and to the pup retrieval test.Results:Sleep restriction during pregnancy had no direct effects on maternal care. Regarding aggre...

  8. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children’s Academic Performance

    Dunifon, Rachel; Toft Hansen, Anne; Nicholson, Sean; Nielsen, Lisbeth Palmhøj

    of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when...... women work part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance....

  9. Effects of Repeated Maternal Separation On Oxidative Stress In Adolescent Male and Female Rat Brains

    Giray YALAZ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we demonstrated that repeated maternal separation impaired spatial memory performance in both male and female adolescent rats. The mechanisms of these cognitive alterations are unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated maternal separation on oxidative stress in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum regions of the brain of the adolescent male and female rats. The results showed that repeated maternal separation increased antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in adolescent male rat brains; however, maternal separation did not effects antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in adolescent female rat brains. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused damage in repeated maternal separated adolescent male rat brains, also a strong role of gender in the response of adolescent subjects to maternal separation.

  10. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects.

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Proulx, Stephen R; Teotónio, Henrique

    2016-02-01

    All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity) underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging), are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to adaptation than randomizing maternal effects. PMID:26910440

  11. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Proulx, Stephen R.; Teotónio, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity) underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging), are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia–anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia–anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to adaptation than randomizing maternal effects. PMID:26910440

  12. Effects of Maternal Nicotine Exposure on Expression of Laminin Alpha 5 in Lung Tissue of Newborn

    Mojtaba Sankian; Alireza Fazel; Mehdi Jalali; Mohammad Reza Nikravesh; Mahdi Shariati Kohbanani; Alireza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking has been clearly demonstrated to be associated with increased health problems in infants and children. Nicotine is the chemical substance with high level of toxicity. It crosses through the placenta and accumulates in the developing organs of fetus. Previous investigation indicated that maternal nicotine exposures induce decreased fibronectin expression in lung parenchyma. In this study, the effect of maternal nicotine exposure on laminin expression of the newborn mice lungs ...

  13. Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics

    Janine Santos Müller

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factors for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P<0.001 as was the mean fetal heart rate (P=0.044. Maternal systolic blood pressure (P=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.033 were also elevated after smoking. A decrease occurred in the systolic/diastolic ratio in the right uterine artery (P=0.014 and in the left uterine artery (P=0.039. The other hemodynamic variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking can cause changes in physiologic variables of fetal-placental circulation, but it does not change fetal cardiac function, in the dose of nicotine and its components used in this study. The decrease in systolic/diastolic ratio in the uterine arteries is probably related to a dose-dependent nicotine pattern.

  14. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing.

    van den Heuvel, Joost; English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild. PMID:26752635

  15. Maternal dietary effects on embryonic ovarian development in cattle

    Ovarian gametogenesis and folliculogenesis begins early in fetal development with peak numbers of follicles present in bovine fetal ovaries in the second trimester of gestation and may be altered by maternal nutrition. The objective was to determine whether maternal dietary energy intake by replacem...

  16. Maternal environment effects on phenolic defenses in Abutilon theophrasti seeds

    The maternal plant may have considerable influence on a class of phenolic compounds implicated with seed survival, ortho-dihydroxyphenols (hereafter “o-DHP”), because seed phenolic compounds primarily occur in structures derived entirely from the maternal plant (e.g., seed coats). Based on reports ...

  17. Effect of Pilates exercises on postpartum maternal fatigue

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniiat; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postpartum fatigue is a pervasive phenomenon and often affects mothers immediately after delivery. The present study aimed to assess the effect Pilates home exercises had on postpartum maternal fatigue. METHODS A total of 80 women participated in our clinical trial study. The women were randomly divided into two groups – the intervention group (n = 40) and the control group (n = 40). In the intervention group, the women performed Pilates exercises five times a week (30 min per session) for eight consecutive weeks. The first session was conducted 72 hours after delivery. The control group did not receive any intervention. Each woman’s level of fatigue was evaluated at hospital discharge (as a baseline), and at four and eight weeks after delivery, using the standard Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) questionnaire and repeated measures analysis. RESULTS During the eight weeks of follow-up, we found that the intervention group had lower mean MFI-20 scores than the control group with regard to general fatigue (7.80 ± 2.07 vs. 12.72 ± 1.79; p < 0.001), physical fatigue (7.12 ± 1.41 vs. 10.42 ± 2.02; p < 0.001), reduced activity (6.95 ± 1.35 vs. 11.27 ± 1.70; p < 0.001), reduced motivation (6.20 ± 1.01 vs. 9.80 ± 2.04; p < 0.001) and mental fatigue (6.85 ± 1.45 vs. 10.72 ± 1.98; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION The present study’s findings show that physical exercise can significantly reduce postpartum maternal fatigue in all subscales. PMID:25820848

  18. Inheritable effect of unpredictable maternal separation on behavioral responses in mice

    Tamara B Franklin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact of early stress on behavior and emotions is well documented in humans, and can be modeled in experimental animals. In mice, maternal separation during early postnatal development induces poor and disorganized maternal care, and results in behavioral deficits that persist through adulthood. Here, we examined the long-term effect of unpredictable maternal separation combined with maternal stress (MSUS on behavior and its transmissibility. We report that unpredictable maternal separation from birth to postnatal day (PND 14 in C57Bl/6J mice has mild behavioral effects in the animals when adult, but that its combination with maternal stress exacerbates this effect. Further, the behavioral deficits are transmitted to the following generation through females, an effect that is independent of maternal care and is not affected by cross-fostering. The combined manipulation does not alter basic components of the HPA axis but decreases the expression of the corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2 in several nuclei of the amygdala and the hypothalamus in the brain of maternal-separated females. These results suggest a non-genomic mode of transmission of the impact of early stress in mice.

  19. Transgenerational plasticity in the sea: context-dependent maternal effects across the life history.

    Marshall, Dustin J

    2008-02-01

    Maternal effects can have dramatic influences on the phenotype of offspring. Maternal effects can act as a conduit by which the maternal environment negatively affects offspring fitness, but they can also buffer offspring from environmental change by altering the phenotype of offspring according to local environmental conditions and as such, are a form of transgenerational plasticity. The benefits of maternal effects can be highly context dependent, increasing performance in one life-history stage but reducing it in another. While maternal effects are increasingly well understood in terrestrial systems, studies in the marine environment are typically restricted to a single, early life-history stage. Here, I examine the role of maternal effects across the life history of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. I exposed maternal colonies to a common pollution stress (copper) in the laboratory and then placed them in the field for one week to brood offspring. I then examined the resistance of offspring to copper from toxicant-exposed and toxicant-naïve mothers and found that offspring from toxicant-exposed mothers were larger, more dispersive, and more resistant to copper stress than offspring from naïve mothers. However, maternal exposure history had pervasive, negative effects on the post-metamorphic performance (particularly survival) of offspring: offspring from toxicant-exposed mothers had poorer performance after six weeks in the field, especially when facing high levels of intraspecific competition. Maternal experience can have complex effects on offspring phenotype, enhancing performance in one life-history stage while decreasing performance in another. The context-dependent costs and benefits associated with maternally derived pollution resistance may account for why such resistance is induced rather than continually expressed: mothers must balance the benefits of producing pollution-resistant larvae with the costs of producing poorer performing adults (in the absence of pollution). PMID:18409431

  20. Estimation of direct and maternal effects for weaning and yearling weight in Bali cattle

    Lisa Praharani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth trait is a function of its inherent ability for growth, milk production and mothering ability of its dam. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal on the genetic evaluation of Bali cattle. There were 8.320 calves used to analyze genetik parameters affecting W205 and W365. A connectedness program was used to evaluate genetik linkages between contemporary groups (CG. Data were analyzed to observe non-genetik factors using PROC MIXED (SAS. Single and multiple trait analyses were done including CG, sex of calf and dam age as fixed effects. Variance components were computed by the ASREML package using animal models BLUP with matrix inverse of relationship. A sequential analysis was performed by including additional random effect to evaluate the inclusion of maternal effects, which were compared using likelihood-ratio tests (LRT. Estimates of direct and maternal effects of single-trait and multiple-traits were different. Heritability for W205-D, W365-D, W205-M, W365-M were 0.31; 0.48; 0.08 and 0.01, respectively. Negatif correlation between direct and maternal effects for both W205-DM and W365-DM were quite moderate. Although the estimates of maternal effects in Bali cattle were low; the inclusion of maternal effects has to be considered due to moderate correlation between direct and maternal effects in order to obtain accurate genetic variances.

  1. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO African region.

    Kirigia, Joses M; Oluwole, Doyin; Mwabu, Germano M; Gatwiri, Doris; Kainyu, Lenity H

    2006-01-01

    WHO African region has got the highest maternal mortality rate compared to the other five regions. Maternal mortality is hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on the gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of the current study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to maternal mortality in the WHO African Region. The burden of maternal mortality on GDP was estimated using a double-log econometric model. The analysis is based on cross-sectional data for 45 of the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region. Data were obtained from UNDP and the World Bank publications. All the explanatory variables included in the double-log model were found to have statistically significant effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at 5 % level in a t-distribution test. The coefficients for land (D), capital (K), educational enrollment (EN) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while labor (L), imports (M) and maternal mortality rate (MMR) were found to impact negatively on GDP. Maternal mortality of a single person was found to reduce per capita GDP by US $ 0.36 per year. The study has demonstrated that maternal mortality has a statistically significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through land reform programs, capital investments, export promotion and increase in educational enrollment, they should always remember that investment in maternal mortality-reducing interventions promises significant economic returns. PMID:17348747

  2. Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom

    A. A. S. Barão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg. The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10. The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

  3. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Sz?nyi, László

    2013-05-01

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently. PMID:23628728

  4. Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition

    McDougald Dawn M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072. There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg. However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg, but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034 but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08. Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need to encourage mothers to exclusively breastfeed as a means of overweight and obesity prevention.

  5. Maternally administered interventions for preterm infants in the NICU: effects on maternal psychological distress and mother-infant relationship.

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C; Levy, Janet A; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J

    2014-11-01

    Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993 g for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-min videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal distress variable. Kangaroo care mothers showed a more rapid decline in worry than the other mothers. The only interactive dimensions that differed between the groups were child social behaviors and developmental maturity, which were both higher for kangaroo care infants. Change over time in several individual infant behaviors was affected by the interventions. When mothers reported on the interventions they performed, regardless of group assignment, massage (any form including ATVV) was associated with a more rapid decline in depressive symptoms and higher HOME scores. Performing either intervention was associated with lower parenting stress. These findings suggest that as short-term interventions, KC and ATVV have important effects on mothers and their preterm infants, especially in the first half of the first year. PMID:25247740

  6. Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Tissier, Mathilde L; Williams, Tony D; Criscuolo, François

    2014-01-01

    Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother's fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were in...

  7. Interactions between prenatal maternal effects and posthatching conditions in a wild bird population

    Giordano, Marta; Groothuis, Ton G G; Tschirren, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Resources and cues provided by the mother before birth are important mediators of developmental plasticity. It has been suggested that the adaptive value of such prenatal maternal effects may depend on the environment encountered by the offspring after birth, and that offspring may perform better when environmental conditions encountered by the mother and the offspring match, than when a mismatch occurs. Here, we test how prenatal maternal effects and postnatal conditions interact in influenc...

  8. Effects of maternal postpartum depression in a well-resourced sample

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Væver, Mette Skovgaard

    Background: It is well documented that maternal postpartum depression (PPD) has the potential to disrupt aspects of caregiving known to be critical for healthy child development. However, with regard to long term effects of PPD on global indices of infant development measured by standardized...... postpartum, it is possible that potential adverse effects of PPD on infant development for a large part have diminished or buffered by protective factors at the time when infant development is measured. However, little is known about how the concurrent exposure to maternal depressed mood impacts on infant...... development before 6 months of age, that is, at the time when maternal postpartum depressive symptoms are most present. To address this issue, additionally to a long-term measure of infant development, the present study examines early concurrent effects of maternal clinical depression. Method: Mothers (N=85...

  9. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  10. The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of newborns

    To evaluate the relation between maternal prenatal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal anthropometric measurements. All pregnant women who gave birth at the Obstetrics Department of Dr. LK Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006, and their newborns were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The newborns weight, height, head, and chest circumference were recorded. Mothers with hemoglobin concentration less than 11g/dl were evaluated as anemic. The anemic mothers were then grouped into 3 categories according to the corresponding hemoglobin concentration: mild (10.9-9.0g/dl), moderate (8.9-7.0 g/dl), and severe anemic (less than 7 g/dl). The anthropometric measurements of newborns from non-anemic and anemic mother groups were compared. Of the 3688 pregnant women, 1588 (43%) were found to be anemic. Among the anemic mothers, 1245 had mild (78.5%), 311 had moderate (19.5%), and 32 (2%) had severe anemia. The anthropometric measurements (height, weight, head and chest circumference) of newborns of anemic and non-anemic mother groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.036, p=0.044, p=0.013, and p=0.0002). There was a statistically significant difference in height, weight, and chest circumference of newborns of severe anemic and mild anemic mothers (p=0.017, p=0.008 and p=0.02). The height (1.1 cm), weight (260 g), head (0.42 cm), and chest (1 cm) circumference of neonates in the severe anemic group is less than the mild anemic group. Anemia during pregnancy affect the anthropometric measurements of a newborn. Severe anemia had significant negative effect on neonatal anthropometric measurements. (author)

  11. Effect of maternal antibiotics on breast feeding infants

    Mathew, J.

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic usage is fairly common among breastfeeding mothers and there is potential for transfer to infants through breast milk. While most medicines taken by lactating women cause no harm to their babies, at times it can result in serious consequences. This article reviews the principles governing tranfer of maternal antibiotics to breast milk, its clinical significance, and ways to minimise inadvertent infant exposure.

  12. Maternal effects on offspring consumption can stabilize fluctuating predator-prey systems.

    Garbutt, Jennie S; Little, Tom J; Hoyle, Andy

    2015-12-01

    Maternal effects, where the conditions experienced by mothers affect the phenotype of their offspring, are widespread in nature and have the potential to influence population dynamics. However, they are very rarely included in models of population dynamics. Here, we investigate a recently discovered maternal effect, where maternal food availability affects the feeding rate of offspring so that well-fed mothers produce fast-feeding offspring. To understand how this maternal effect influences population dynamics, we explore novel predator-prey models where the consumption rate of predators is modified by changes in maternal prey availability. We address the 'paradox of enrichment', a theoretical prediction that nutrient enrichment destabilizes populations, leading to cycling behaviour and an increased risk of extinction, which has proved difficult to confirm in the wild. Our models show that enriched populations can be stabilized by maternal effects on feeding rate, thus presenting an intriguing potential explanation for the general absence of 'paradox of enrichment' behaviour in natural populations. This stabilizing influence should also reduce a population's risk of extinction and vulnerability to harvesting. PMID:26631563

  13. No Detectable Maternal Effects of Elevated CO2 on Arabidopsis thaliana Over 15 Generations

    Teng, Nianjun; Jin, Biao; Wang, Qinli; Hao, Huaiqing; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Kuang, Tingyun; Lin, Jinxing

    2009-01-01

    Maternal environment has been demonstrated to produce considerable impact on offspring growth. However, few studies have been carried out to investigate multi-generational maternal effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth and development. Here we present the first report on the responses of plant reproductive, photosynthetic, and cellular characteristics to elevated CO2 over 15 generations using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. We found that within an individual generation, elevated CO2...

  14. The effects of maternal iron deficiency on infant fibroblast growth factor-23 and mineral metabolism.

    Braithwaite, VS; Prentice, A.; Darboe, MK; Prentice, AM; Moore, SE

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate (Phos) metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral meta...

  15. Modeling variation in early life mortality in the western lowland gorilla: Genetic, maternal and other effects.

    Ahsan, Monica H; Blomquist, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Uncovering sources of variation in gorilla infant mortality informs conservation and life history research efforts. The international studbook for the western lowland gorilla provides information on a sample of captive gorillas large enough for which to analyze genetic, maternal, and various other effects on early life mortality in this critically endangered species. We assess the importance of variables such as sex, maternal parity, paternal age, and hand rearing with regard to infant survival. We also quantify the proportions of variation in mortality influenced by heritable variation and maternal effects from these pedigree and survival data using variance component estimation. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of generalized linear mixed models produce variance component distributions in an animal model framework that employs all pedigree information. Two models, one with a maternal identity component and one with both additive genetic and maternal identity components, estimate variance components for different age classes during the first 2 years of life. This is informative of the extent to which mortality risk factors change over time during gorilla infancy. Our results indicate that gorilla mortality is moderately heritable with the strongest genetic influence just after birth. Maternal effects are most important during the first 6 months of life. Interestingly, hand-reared infants have lower mortality for the first 6 months of life. Aside from hand rearing, we found other predictors commonly used in studies of primate infant mortality to have little influence in these gorilla data. PMID:25809396

  16. Exploration of cytoplasmic inheritance as a contributor to maternal effects in Welsh Mountain sheep

    Dewi Ioan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytoplasmic effects were investigated using a dataset comprising three breeding groups of Welsh Mountain sheep. The influences of cytoplasmic effects were investigated by comparing animal models with and without a random term representing cytoplasmic effects. The models were applied to the eight-week weight, scan weight (mean 152 days and ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth. The animal model included the random effects of animals and the maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and maternal common environmental effects. In total there were 24 569, 10 509, 8389, 8369 records for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth respectively. Four subsets were further analysed containing maternal lines with at least five, ten, fifteen and twenty animals/line. There was no evidence of cytoplasmic effects on eight-week weight and muscle depth. Cytoplasmic effects contributed 1–2% of phenotypic variance for scan-weight and fat depth, but the effect was generally non-significant (P > 0.05. As the number of animals per maternal line increased, the magnitude of cytoplasmic effects also increased for these traits. Direct heritability estimates for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth using the full dataset were 0.18, 0.25, 0.24, and 0.21 respectively.

  17. Effectiveness of a normative nutrition intervention (diet, physical activity and breastfeeding) on maternal nutrition and offspring growth: the Chilean maternal and infant nutrition cohort study (CHiMINCs)

    Garmendia, ML; Corvalan, C; Araya, M.; Casanello, P; Kusanovic, JP; R Uauy

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity before and during pregnancy predicts maternal and infant risks of obesity and its associated metabolic conditions. Dietary and physical activity recommendations during pregnancy as well as weight monitoring are currently available in the Chilean primary health care system. However some of these recommendations are not updated and most of them are poorly implemented. We seek to assess the effectiveness of an intervention that enhances the implementation of updated nutrition he...

  18. Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat

    The distribution of 14C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed

  19. Maternal methyl supplemented diets and effects on offspring health

    O'Neill, Rachel J; Vrana, Paul B.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2014-01-01

    Women seeking to become pregnant and pregnant women are currently advised to consume high amounts of folic acid and other methyl donors to prevent neural tube defects in their offspring. These diets can alter methylation patterns of several biomolecules, including nucleic acids, and histone proteins. Limited animal model data suggests that developmental exposure to these maternal methyl supplemented (MS) diets leads to beneficial epimutations. However, other rodent and humans studies have yie...

  20. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior

    Purcell, Ryan H.; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L.; POWER, MICHAEL L.; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was t...

  1. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Benjamin C. Nephew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3 and mid (day 10 lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing. AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress.

  2. Distinct Effects of Estrogen on Mouse Maternal Behavior: The Contribution of Estrogen Synthesis in the Brain.

    Murakami, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen surge following progesterone withdrawal at parturition plays an important role in initiating maternal behavior in various rodent species. Systemic estrogen treatment shortens the latency to onset of maternal behavior in nulliparous female rats that have not experienced parturition. In contrast, nulliparous laboratory mice show rapid onset of maternal behavior without estrogen treatment, and the role of estrogen still remains unclear. Here the effect of systemic estrogen treatment (for 2 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) after progesterone withdrawal was examined on maternal behavior of C57BL/6 mice. This estrogen regimen led to different effects on nursing, pup retrieval, and nest building behaviors. Latency to nursing was shortened by estrogen treatment within 2 h. Moreover, pup retrieval and nest building were decreased. mRNA expression was also investigated for estrogen receptor α (ERα) and for genes involved in regulating maternal behavior, specifically, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor in the medial amygdala (MeA) and medial preoptic area (MPOA). Estrogen treatment led to decreased ERα mRNA in both regions. Although OTR mRNA was increased in the MeA, OTR and vasopressin receptor mRNA were reduced in the MPOA, showing region-dependent transcription regulation. To determine the mechanisms for the actions of estrogen treatment, the contribution of estrogen synthesis in the brain was examined. Blockade of estrogen synthesis in the brain by systemic letrozole treatment in ovariectomized mice interfered with pup retrieval and nest building but not nursing behavior, indicating different contributions of estrogen synthesis to maternal behavior. Furthermore, letrozole treatment led to an increase in ERα mRNA in the MeA but not in the MPOA, suggesting that involvement of estrogen synthesis is brain region dependent. Altogether, these results suggest that region-dependent estrogen synthesis leads to differential transcriptional activation due to exogenous estrogen treatment, and thereby results in different effects on maternal behavior. PMID:27007402

  3. Effects of Maternal Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal on Maternal Request Strategies and Child Compliance and Noncompliance

    Grunzeweig, Naomi; Stack, Dale M.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study investigated the influences of maternal histories of childhood aggression and social withdrawal on maternal request strategies and child compliance and noncompliance. Seventy-four women from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, who were rated during childhood using peer nomination measures of…

  4. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI. PMID:27013353

  5. Effects of REM sleep restriction during pregnancy on rodent maternal behavior

    Gabriel N. Pires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the effects of sleep restriction during pregnancy on maternal care and maternal aggression in a rodent model.Methods:Twenty-three female Wistar rats were assigned to one of two groups: control (n=12 or sleep restriction (n=11 during the entire pregnancy. At the fifth postpartum day, the animals were subjected to the resident-intruder paradigm and to the pup retrieval test.Results:Sleep restriction during pregnancy had no direct effects on maternal care. Regarding aggressive behavior, defensive aggression was increased by sleep loss, with a lower responsiveness threshold to hostile environmental stimuli. Sleep deprivation during gestation also reduced self-grooming behavior.Conclusion:Taking increased self-grooming as a behavioral correlate of anxiety in rodents, this study provides evidence that lactating dams were in a condition of reduced anxiety. From an adaptive perspective, this pattern of stress response may function to ensure proper maternal behavior, thereby guaranteeing the survival and viability of the litter. Under a translational perspective, the present article confronts the importance of biological and adaptive features to rodent maternal behavior with the relevance of sociocultural factors to the human mother-infant relationship and to the onset of postpartum depression.

  6. Maternal work and child-care strategies in peri-urban Guatemala: nutritional effects.

    Engle, P L

    1991-10-01

    Associations of 293 mothers' work for earnings and child-care arrangements with the anthropometric status of their children were examined in urban Guatemala. It was hypothesized that during the period of life in which growth often falters (8 through 35 months), maternal employment could be beneficial for children. Informal workers tended to be poorer, less educated, and have more undernourished children than formal workers or nonworkers. When poverty and mother's education were controlled for, no effects of maternal employment on children's anthropometric growth patterns were seen. However, the percent of the family income the mother earned was positively associated with all anthropometric indicators, controlling for confounds. Children taken care of by preteen siblings had significantly lower weight for height than those in other situations, even controlling for SES and maternal employment status. These effects were not found in a 36-48-month-old sample. PMID:1756668

  7. The effect of maternal stress on birth outcomes: exploiting a natural experiment.

    Torche, Florencia

    2011-11-01

    A growing body of research highlights that in utero conditions are consequential for individual outcomes throughout the life cycle, but research assessing causal processes is scarce. This article examines the effect of one such condition-prenatal maternal stress-on birth weight, an early outcome shown to affect cognitive, educational, and socioeconomic attainment later in life. Exploiting a major earthquake as a source of acute stress and using a difference-in-difference methodology, I find that maternal exposure to stress results in a significant decline in birth weight and an increase in the proportion of low birth weight. This effect is focused on the first trimester of gestation, and it is mediated by reduced gestational age rather than by factors affecting the intrauterine growth of term infants. The findings highlight the relevance of understanding the early emergence of unequal outcomes and of investing in maternal well-being since the onset of pregnancy. PMID:21870187

  8. The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants

    Schmalisch Gerd

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Africa low birth weight (LBW ( Methods In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002 with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p 12 years of education. Conclusion Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

  9. Nutrition education and counselling provided during pregnancy: effects on maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes.

    Girard, Amy Webb; Olude, Oluwafunke

    2012-07-01

    Nutrition education and counselling (NEC) is a commonly applied strategy to improve maternal nutrition during pregnancy. However, with the exception special populations and specific diets, the effect of NEC on maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes has not been systematically reviewed. Using a modified Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group method we systematically reviewed the literature and identified and abstracted 37 articles. We conducted meta-analyses for the effect of NEC on maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes including gestational weight gain, maternal anaemia, birthweight, low birthweight and preterm delivery. NEC significantly improved gestational weight gain by 0.45 kg, reduced the risk of anaemia in late pregnancy by 30%, increased birthweight by 105 g and lowered the risk of preterm delivery by 19%. The effect of NEC on risk of low birthweight was not significant. The effect of NEC was greater when provided with nutrition support, for example, food or micronutrient supplements or nutrition safety nets. The overall quality of the body of evidence was deemed low for all outcomes due to high heterogeneity, poor study designs and other biases. Additional well-designed research that is grounded in appropriate theories of behaviour change is needed to improve confidence in the effect of NEC. Further, cost-effectiveness research is needed to clarify the added benefit and sustainability of providing NEC with nutritional support and/or safety nets, especially in areas where food insecurity and gender bias may limit women's capacity to adhere to NEC messages. PMID:22742611

  10. The Effects of Marriage and Maternal Education in Reducing Child Poverty. A Report of the Heritage Center for Data Analysis.

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.

    This paper examines whether marriage is effective in reducing child poverty and notes the comparative effects of marriage and maternal education on combatting child poverty. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicate that marriage plays a powerful role in lifting children out of poverty. While both marriage and maternal education…

  11. Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing world: a simple, cost-effective example

    Browning A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Browning,1,2 Birhanu Menber21Maternity Africa, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Vision Maternity Care, Barhirdar, Ethiopia Objectives: To determine the impact of volunteer obstetricians and midwife teams on obstetric services in a rural hospital in Ethiopia.Methods: The intervention was undertaken in Mota district hospital, a rural hospital in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, which is the only hospital for 1.2 million people. Before the placement of volunteer teams it had a rudimentary basic obstetric service, no blood transfusion service, and no operative delivery. The study prospectively analyzed delivery data before, during, and after the placement of volunteer obstetrician and midwife teams. The volunteers established emergency obstetric care, and trained and supervised local staff over a 3-year period. Measurable outcomes consisted of the number of women delivering, the number of referrals of pregnant women, the number of maternal deaths, and the number of referrals of obstetric fistula patients.Results: With the establishment of the service the number of women attending hospital for delivery increased by 40%. In the hospital maternal mortality decreased from 7.1% to <0.5%, and morbidity, as measured by number of obstetric fistulae, decreased from 1.5% deliveries to 0.5% over the 3-year intervention period. The improvements were sustained after handing the project back to the government.Conclusion: The placement of volunteer teams was an effective method of decreasing maternal mortality and morbidity. Keywords: emergency obstetric care, volunteers, obstetric fistula, emergency obstetric care

  12. Predation risk-mediated maternal effects in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    Freinschlag, Julia; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, physiology, life history and/or behavior. As a prime stressor, predation risk may even induce trans-generational alterations, called maternal effects. Accordingly, maternal predation risk during offspring production may influence offspring life history and anti-predator behavior. Here, we assessed whether different levels of predation risk, posed by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, induce graded maternal effects in its prey, the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. First, we generated four types of predation risk-stressed spider mite mothers by exposing them to living predators, direct and indirect predator cue combinations or no predator cues, respectively. Then, we investigated the life history (offspring developmental time, sex) and anti-predator response (activity, position on the leaf) of their offspring on leaves with and without direct and indirect predator cues. Maternal stress, no matter of the predation risk level, prolonged the offspring developmental time, as compared to offspring from unstressed mothers. This pattern was more pronounced on leaves with than without predator cues. Offspring from stressed mothers resided more likely on the leaf blade than close to the leaf vein. Offspring sex ratio and activity were not influenced by maternal predation risk but activity was higher on leaves with than without predator cues. We argue that the prolonged developmental time is non-adaptive, yet the changed site preference is adaptive because reducing the encounter likelihood with predators. Our study represents a key example for predation risk-mediated maternal effects on developmental trajectories of offspring. PMID:26923463

  13. Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk

    Müller Wendt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption.

  14. Late or later? A sibling analysis of the effect of maternal age on children's schooling

    KALMIJN, Matthijs; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have found that children born to young mothers face handicaps in their educational career. Considerable debate exists as to whether these effects are real age effects, or whether they are due to measured and unmeasured family background effects that are correlated with having children at a young age. In this study, we examine this problem by comparing siblings who were born at different ages of their mother. When effects of maternal age remain in sibling comparisons, they can be ...

  15. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  16. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  17. MATERNAL HEPATIC AND EMBRYONIC EFFECTS OF 1,2,3,4-TETRACHLOROBENZENE IN THE RAT

    To assess possible maternal hepatic and reproductive effects of this uncharged, low molecular weight, lipophilic chlorinated bezene 0,100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day of 1,2,3,4,-tetrachlorobenzene (TCB) was orally administered to pregnant rats on days 9 -13 of gestation and the anima...

  18. Effects of Individualized Video Feedback Combined with Group Parent Training on Inappropriate Maternal Behavior

    Phaneuf, Leah; McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2007-01-01

    The effects of adding individualized video feedback (IVF) to Webster-Stratton's (2000, 2001) group-based parent training program (GT) were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across four mother-child dyads. During all phases of the study, inappropriate maternal behavior was recorded from videotapes of playtime with their preschoolers with…

  19. Maternity Leave in Turbulent Times: Effects on Labor Market Transitions and Fertility in Russia, 1985-2000

    Gerber, Theodore P.; Perelli-Harris, Brienna

    2012-01-01

    Maternity leave policies are designed to ease the tension between women's employment and fertility, but whether they actually play such a role remains unclear. We analyze the individual-level effects of maternity leave on employment outcomes and on second conception rates among Russian first-time mothers from 1985-2000 using retrospective job and…

  20. Maternal antibodies in a wild altricial bird: effects on offspring immunity, growth and survival.

    Pihlaja, Marjo; Siitari, Heli; Alatalo, Rauno V

    2006-09-01

    1. In many animals immunity is not fully developed until adulthood but the young still need protection against various sets of pathogens. Thus, bird nestlings are highly dependent on antibodies received from their mother (in the eggs) during their rapid early growth period. The relationship between maternal immunity and the development of neonates' own immunity has been poorly studied. 2. It has been suggested that immune function plays an important part in mediating resource competition between different life-history traits, e.g. growth and reproduction. Maternal investment of antibodies has potentially permanent effects on offspring phenotype. Thus, the trade-offs between the immune function and other important life-history traits in the offspring will also affect the fitness of the mother. 3. Our supplemental feeding experiment in the magpie Pica pica indicates that the immunoglobulin levels of offspring at hatching are dependent on a mother's nutritional condition. In addition, the amount of maternal immunoglobulins transferred to offspring increases along the laying order within a nest. 4. We also found that at the age of 8-10 days the immunoglobulin production of the offspring has already begun. Furthermore, the maternal immunoglobulin levels of the offspring at hatching were positively related to their immunoglobulin levels on day 10. 5. Maternal immunoglobulins did not significantly affect offspring growth, but there was a negative relationship between self-produced immunoglobulins and growth over the first 10 days, indicating a trade-off between these traits. Nestlings' weight, however, had a positive relationship with immunoglobulin production suggesting that the observed trade-off between growth and immunoglobulin production is due to catch-up growth of nestlings with a low hatching weight. We found that within nests nestlings with higher maternal antibody levels had higher survival rate until day 20, but between nests there was an opposite relationship. 6. Evidently, there is a trade-off, in magpies, between maternal resources, immune function and growth, shaping the evolution of maternal investment in offspring immunity. PMID:16922851

  1. Neuroplasticity in the maternal hippocampus: Relation to cognition and effects of repeated stress.

    Pawluski, Jodi L; Lambert, Kelly G; Kinsley, Craig H

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". It is becoming clear that the female brain has an inherent plasticity that is expressed during reproduction. The changes that occur benefit the offspring, which in turn secures the survival of the mother's genetic legacy. Thus, the onset of maternal motivation involves basic mechanisms from genetic expression profiles, to hormone release, to hormone-neuron interactions, all of which fundamentally change the neural architecture - and for a period of time that extends, interestingly, beyond the reproductive life of the female. Although multiple brain areas involved in maternal responses are discussed, this review focuses primarily on plasticity in the maternal hippocampus during pregnancy, the postpartum period and well into aging as it pertains to changes in cognition. In addition, the effects of prolonged and repeated stress on these dynamic responses are considered. The maternal brain is a marvel of directed change, extending into behaviors both obvious (infant-directed) and less obvious (predation, cognition). In sum, the far-reaching effects of reproduction on the female nervous system provide an opportunity to investigate neuroplasticity and behavioral flexibility in a natural mammalian model. PMID:26122302

  2. Maternal Nutrition in Early Pregnancy Effects Placental Development

    J. J. Babu Geddam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent experimental and clinical studies have identified maternal malnutrition at conception or during early period of gestation as an important factor determining the fetal growth as early as the first trimester of pregnancy. Placenta is a transient embryonic organ of communication between mother and fetus during pregnancy and is the only source of nutrient transfer to the fetus. Hence its proper development is essential for fetal growth and development right from embryonic stages of development. Objective: To assess and compare the placental morphology by measuring the villous structure, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEG F and placental growth factor (PLGF expression from placental tissue at 7-10 weeks of gestation of low socioeconomic status (LSES and high socioeconomic status (HSES groups, in relation to their nutritional status. Material: Placental tissue samples obtained at 7-10 weeks of gestation from healthy women undergoing medical termination of pregnancy constituted the study material. Methodology: A total of 99 placental tissue samples, 59 from LSES and 40 from HSES groups were examined to assess the morphology of placental villi and also stained for VEG F and PLGF expression. Nutritional status of the subjects was measured by recording weight, height and hemoglobin, serum retinol, serum zinc and folic acid using standard methods. Results: Women belonging to both the income groups were of comparable to age. Body Mass Index (BMI was significantly lower (P < 0.001 in the LSES group. Hemoglobin concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05 more in HSES groups when compared to LSES group. Hematoxylin-eosin stained placental tissue sections showed that number of floating villi (P < 0.001, villous vascular density (P < 0.001, central disposition of blood vessels (P < 0.05 and syncytial sprouts (SS (P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the LSES group. While the intensity of staining for VEGF was higher, the decidual vascular density was significantly (P < 0.05 lower in the LSES group. Serum retinol, folic acid and zinc of both groups were within normal range and comparable. Conclusions: The significant disparity in placental morphology observed in this study between LSES and HSES groups at a comparable gestational period is interesting and suggestive of predominant hypoxemic placental development under the stress of under nutrition.

  3. Effect of Maternal Iron Deficiency Anemia on the Iron Store of Newborns in Ethiopia

    Birhanu, Asaye; Nigussie, Paulos; Tsegaye, Aster

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women is a widespread problem in developing countries including Ethiopia, though its influence on neonatal iron status was inconsistently reported in literature. This cross-sectional study was conducted to compare hematologic profiles and iron status of newborns from mothers with different anemia status and determine correlation between maternal and neonatal hematologic profiles and iron status in Ethiopian context. We included 89 mothers and their respective newborns and performed complete blood count and assessed serum ferritin and C-reactive protein levels from blood samples collected from study participants. Maternal median hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were 12.2?g/dL and 47.0?ng/mL, respectively. The median hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels for the newborns were 16.2?g/dL and 187.6?ng/mL, respectively. The mothers were classified into two groups based on hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels as iron deficient anemic (IDA) and nonanemic (NA) and newborns of IDA mothers had significantly lower levels of serum ferritin (P = 0.017) and hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.024). Besides, newborns' ferritin and hemoglobin levels showed significant correlation with maternal hemoglobin (P = 0.018; P = 0.039) and ferritin (P = 0.000; P = 0.008) levels. We concluded that maternal IDA may have an effect on the iron stores of newborns. PMID:25734012

  4. Effect of Himatanthus sucuuba in Maternal Reproductive Outcome and Fetal Anomaly Frequency in Rats.

    de Sousa Soares, Thaigra; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava; Resende, Flávia Mayara Campos; Correa dos Santos, Maria Aparecida; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Himatanthus sucuuba on the maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly incidence in rats. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups as follows: Control = treated with water (vehicle), treated 250 = treated with H. sucuuba at dose 250 mg/kg, and treated 500 = treated with H. sucuuba at dose 500 mg/kg. The rats were orally treated, by gavage, with H. sucuuba or vehicle (water) during preimplantation and organogenic period (from gestational day 0-14). At day 21 of pregnancy, all rats were killed to obtain maternal-fetal data. The treatment with H. sucuuba at dose of 250 mg/kg caused reduction in placental efficiency and an increase preimplantation loss rate and placenta weight compared with the control. The treated 500 group presented a significant decrease in maternal weight gain, maternal weight gain minus gravid uterus weight, fetal weight, and placental efficiency compared with the control. In this group, there was a decrease in body weight at day 20 of pregnancy and metacarpus ossification and an increase in the preimplantation loss rate and skeletal anomalies compared with other groups. Himatanthus sucuuba extract caused intrauterine growth restriction, preimplantation loss, and developmental delay in the high doses tested. PMID:26339763

  5. The subtle intracapsular survival of the fittest: maternal investment, sibling conflict, or environmental effects?

    Smith, Kathryn E; Thatje, Sven

    2013-10-01

    Developmental resource partitioning and the consequent offspring size variations are of fundamental importance for marine invertebrates, in both an ecological and evolutionary context. Typically, differences are attributed to maternal investment and the environmental factors determining this; additional variables, such as environmental factors affecting development, are rarely discussed. During intracapsular development, for example, sibling conflict has the potential to affect resource partitioning. Here, we investigate encapsulated development in the marine gastropod Buccinum undatum. We examine the effects of maternal investment and temperature on intracapsular resource partitioning in this species. Reproductive output was positively influenced by maternal investment, but additionally, temperature and sibling conflict significantly affected offspring size, number, and quality during development. Increased temperature led to reduced offspring number, and a combination of high sibling competition and asynchronous early development resulted in a common occurrence of "empty" embryos, which received no nutrition at all. The proportion of empty embryos increased with both temperature and capsule size. Additionally, a novel example ofa risk in sibling conflict was observed; embryos cannibalized by others during early development ingested nurse eggs from inside the consumer, killing it in a "Trojan horse" scenario. Our results highlight the complexity surrounding offspring fitness. Encapsulation should be considered as significant in determining maternal output. Considering predicted increases in ocean temperatures, this may impact offspring quality and consequently species distribution and abundance. PMID:24358712

  6. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088

  7. Maternal and health care workers’ perceptions of the effects of exclusive breastfeeding by HIV positive mothers on maternal and infant health in Blantyre, Malawi

    Kafulafula, Ursula K.; Hutchinson, Mary K; Gennaro, Susan; Guttmacher, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-positive mothers are likely to exclusively breastfeed if they perceive exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) beneficial to them and their infants. Nevertheless, very little is known in Malawi about HIV-positive mothers’ perceptions regarding EBF. In order to effectively promote EBF among these mothers, it is important to first understand their perceptions on benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. This study therefore, explored maternal and health care workers’ perceptions of the effects ...

  8. Linear and threshold analysis of direct and maternal genetic effects for secondary sex ratio in Iranian buffaloes.

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Navid

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for secondary sex ratio (SSR) in Iranian buffaloes. Calving records from April 1995 to June 2010 comprising 15,207 calving events from the first three lactations of 1066 buffalo herds of Iran were analyzed using linear and threshold animal models to estimate variance components, heritabilities and genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects for SSR. Linear and threshold animal models included direct and maternal genetic effects with covariance between them and maternal permanent environmental effects were implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. Posterior means of direct and maternal heritabilities and repeatability for SSR obtained from linear animal model were 0.15, 0.10, and 0.17, respectively. Threshold estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities and repeatability for SSR were 0.48, 0.27, and 0.52, respectively. The results showed that the correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects of SSR were negative and high in both models. In addition, the ratios of maternal permanent environmental variance were low. Exploitable genetic variation in SSR can take advantage of sexual dimorphism for economically important traits which may facilitate greater selection intensity and thus greater response to selection, as well as reducing the replacement costs. Threshold animal model may be applied in selection programs where animals are to be genetically ranked for female rate. PMID:24648274

  9. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  10. Genetic evidence for a maternal effect locus controlling genomic imprinting and growth.

    Duselis, Amanda R; Wiley, Christopher D; O'Neill, Michael J; Vrana, Paul B

    2005-12-01

    Crosses between two species of deer mouse (Peromyscus) yield dramatic parent-of-origin effects. Female P. maniculatus (BW) crossed with male P. polionotus (PO) produce animals smaller than either parent. PO females crossed with BW males yield lethal overgrowth that has been associated with loss-of-imprinting (LOI). Previously, we mapped two loci influencing fetal growth. These two loci, however, do not account for the LOI, nor for the dysmorphic phenotypes. Here we report that maternal genetic background strongly influences the LOI. Analyses of crosses wherein maternal genetic background is varied suggest that this effect is likely due to the action of a small number of loci. We have termed these putative loci Meil. Estimation of Meil loci number was confounded by skewed allelic ratios in the intercross line employed. We show that the Meil loci are not identical to any of the DNA methyltransferases shown to be involved in regulation of genomic imprinting. PMID:16283622

  11. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of parenting programmes in improving maternal psychosocial health.

    Barlow, Jane; Coren, Esther; Stewart-Brown, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving maternal psychosocial health. Data sources used were English and non-English language articles published between January 1970 and July 2000, retrieved using a keyword search of a number of biomedical, social science, educational, and general reference electronic databases. Two independent reviewers selected the relevant abstracts and articles. Only controlled trials were included in ...

  12. Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring

    Zhang Le; Teng Weiping; Liu Yuhui; Li Jing; Mao Jinyuan; Fan Chenling; Wang Hong; Zhang Hongmei; Shan Zhongyan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats mainta...

  13. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Hippocampus Neuronal Density in Neonatal Rats

    M Tehranipour; M.R. Khakzad

    2008-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken the effects of maternal diabetes on Hippocampus structure 1 day neonate individual`s rats from diabetic mothers in both control and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by stereptozotocin (60 mg kg-1) given by a single intraperitoneal injection to female Wistar rats. Control rats were injected with phosphate buffered saline. In neonates brains rapidly were removed and in all sample the number of neurons in CA1, CA2, CA3 was measured via stereologi...

  14. Effect of parity on fetal and maternal microchimerism: interaction of grafts within a host?

    Gammill, Hilary S; GUTHRIE, KATHERINE A.; Aydelotte, Tessa M; Waldorf, Kristina M. Adams; NELSON, J. LEE

    2010-01-01

    Small amounts of genetically foreign cells (microchimerism, Mc) traffic between a mother and fetus during pregnancy. Commonly, these grafts durably persist. For women, multiple naturally acquired Mc grafts can accrue, as they harbor Mc from their own mothers (maternal Mc, MMc) and subsequently acquire fetal Mc (FMc) through pregnancy. The nature of interactions between these naturally acquired grafts may inform, and be informed by, observations in transplantation, including the effect of noni...

  15. Transgenerational plasticity in marine sticklebacks: maternal effects mediate impacts of a warming ocean

    Shama, Lisa N. S.; Strobel, Anneli; Mark, Felix Christopher; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2014-01-01

    1) Our study addresses the role of non-genetic and genetic inheritance in shaping the adaptive potential of populations under a warming ocean scenario. We used a combined experimental approach (transgenerational plasticity and quantitative genetics) to partition the relative contribution of maternal vs. paternal (additive genetic) effects to offspring body size (a key component of fitness), and investigated a potential physiological mechanism (mitochondrial respiration capacities) underlying ...

  16. The effect of all-day primary school programs on maternal labor supply

    Nemitz, Janina

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of all-day (AD) primary school programs on maternal labor supply. To account for AD school selectivity and selection into AD primary school programs I estimate bivariate probit models. To identify these models I exploit variation in the allocation of investments to AD primary schools across time and counties. This variation results from the public investment program "Future Education and Care" (IZBB) which was introduced by the German federal government in 2003....

  17. The Effects of Maternal Obesity on Neonates, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Adults.

    Hemond, Joni; Robbins, Riann B; Young, Paul C

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity, including among women of childbearing age, there is increasing concern regarding the short-term and long-term effects on the offspring of women who are overweight and obese. In this paper we report the results of our review of the recent literature suggesting important adverse short-term and long-term consequences of maternal obesity on their children. PMID:26694497

  18. Effect of pregestational maternal, obstetric and perinatal factors on neonatal outcome in extreme prematurity

    WANG, YUN; Tanbo, Tom; Ellingsen, Liv; Åbyholm, Thomas; Henriksen, Tore

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of pregestational maternal, obstetric and perinatal factors on neonatal outcome in extreme preterm deliveries. Methods Retrospective study of deliveries in a Norwegian tertiary teaching hospital. All women with live births at 24+0– 27+6 weeks of gestation between 2004 and 2007 were included. Major morbidity is defined as intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3–4, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia or necrotizing enterocolitis. Pregestationa...

  19. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the brain development of the progeny. Maternal TSH influences on neuropsychomotor development of infant only. Keywords: iodine deficiency, persistenci-neuropsychology, plasticity     ABSTRAK Penelitian tentang disfungsi neuropsikologis berkelanjutan karena defisiensi iodium semasa ibu mengandung masih jarang. Mengonfirmasi persistensi disfungsi neuropsikologis pada anak 12 tahun akibat defisiensi iodium maternal di daerah endemik defisiensi iodium.  Rancangan penelitian ini kohor 13 tahun sejak janin. Status iodium maternal awal penelitian diukur dari total T4, TSH dan EIU. Disfungsi neurologis bayi/anak diperiksa setiap enam minggu sampai bayi/anak berusia 24 bulan dengan INFANT IB, sedangkan disfungsi neuropsikologis anak 12 tahun diperiksa dengan uji neuropsikologis Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE. Anak dengan skor MMSE < 28 disebut kasus dan sebaliknya. Hubungan disfungsi neurologis dan kognitif anak dengan status iodium awal kehamilan dan disfungsi neurologis bayi pada usia 2 bulan di analisis. Persistensi disfungsi neuropsikologis anak pada usia 12 ditemukan dengan risiko sebesar delapan persen (95%CI:1-15%. Status iodium ibu dan neonatus dengan indikator TSH dan T4 merupakan faktor risiko persistensi disfungsi neurologis pada umur 12 tahun. Keterlambatan perkembangan neurologis pada usia dua bulan ditemukan sebagai faktor risiko langsung terutama gangguan perkembangan tonus otot dan refleks postural. Median Intelligent Qoutient (IQ-Total semua partisipan di bawah batas rentang normal. Median IQ Total kasus lebih rendah rujukan  (p=0,000. Analisis diskrepansi IQV-IQP mengindikasikan adanya lesi otak dalam bentuk ‘halus’, seperti diadokokinesis, praksis, memori, mudah beralih perhatian (distractibility danrendahnya tingkat kecerdasan. Persistensi disfungsi neuropsikologis masih ditemukan pada usia 12 tahun. Defisiensi iodium maternal selama kehamilan dengan indikator (T4 terbukti secara langsung berpengaruh terhadap persistensi disfungsi neurologis dan kognisi anak pada usia 12 tahun, sedangkan TSH maternal hanya berpengaruh terhadap perkembangan neuropsikologis bayi. [Penel Gizi Makan 2012, 35(1: 23-33]   Kata kunci: defisiensi iodium maternal, persistensi-neuropsikologis, plastisitas

  20. Human rights and maternal health: exploring the effectiveness of the Alyne decision.

    Cook, Rebecca J

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of the decision of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in the case of Alyne da Silva Pimentel Teixeira (deceased) v. Brazil, concerning a poor, Afro-Brazilian woman. This is the first decision of an international human rights treaty body to hold a state accountable for its failure to prevent an avoidable death in childbirth. Assessing the future effectiveness of this decision might be undertaken concretely by determining the degree of Brazil's actual compliance with the Committee's recommendations, and how this decision influences pending domestic litigation arising from the maternal death. Alternative approaches include: determining whether, over time, the decision leads to the elimination of discrimination against women of poor, minority racial status in the health sector, and if it narrows the wide gap between rates of maternal mortality of poor, Afro-Brazilian women and the country's general female population. Determining the effectiveness of this decision will guide whether to pursue a more general strategy of judicializing maternal mortality. PMID:23581660

  1. Parity and litter size effects on maternal behavior of Small Tail Han sheep in China.

    Lv, Shen-Jin; Yang, Yan; Li, Fu-Kuan

    2016-03-01

    The effects of parity and litter size on maternal behavior of Small Tail Han sheep was investigated at Linyi University, China. Sixty-eight ewes were observed from parturition to weaning. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviors. Ewe feces were collected every 2 days and estradiol concentration was measured with an enzyme immunoassay kit. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at 35 days of age. Parity increased sucking, following, grooming, low-pitched bleat, head-up and udder-refusal behavior and decreased aggressive behavior (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively), and litter size showed significant effect on sucking, following and low-pitched bleat behavior (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). The lambs of multiparous ewes were significantly heavier than primiparous ewes at birth (P < 0.01) and were significantly heavier at weaning age (P < 0.01). Similar results were founded for birth weight and weaning weight gain in litter size (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). Estradiol concentration in feces was higher in multiparous ewes than primiparous ewes. Parity and litter size may have effects on maternal behavior during lactation. Ewes that have 2-3 lambs may be more suitable for production of Small Tail Han sheep in China. PMID:26213127

  2. Effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on growth and metabolism of calves.

    Monteiro, A P A; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Ahmed, B M; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E; Bernard, J K; Tao, S

    2016-05-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that maternal heat stress (HS) during late gestation exerts carryover effects on a calf's insulin response after weaning, but a comprehensive evaluation of how maternal HS affects calf intake, growth, and metabolic response from birth to weaning is lacking. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of maternal HS during the dry period on dry matter intake, growth, and metabolism from birth to weaning. After birth, 20 heifers born to either HS (n=10) or cooled (CL, n=10) dry cows were immediately separated from their dams and fed 3.8 L of colostrum from a common pool within 4h of birth. All heifers were managed identically and weaned at 49 d of age (DOA). Calf starter intake was recorded daily, and body weight was assessed at birth and every 2 wk from birth to 56 DOA. Blood samples were collected twice a week until 56 DOA to assess hematocrit and concentrations of insulin and metabolites. To evaluate metabolic responses to maternal HS, a glucose tolerance test, insulin, and epinephrine challenge were performed on 3 consecutive days for all heifers at 8, 29, and 57 DOA. Maternal HS during the dry period did not affect heifer birth weight. Compared with HS, CL calves consumed more starter (0.53 vs. 0.34kg/d) from birth to 56 DOA and were heavier (71.7 vs. 61.4kg) at 56 DOA. Relative to HS calves, CL calves tended to have higher hematocrit (27.4 vs. 24.7%). No differences were found between treatments in plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose, but HS calves had higher nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations after 32 DOA. Compared with CL, HS calves had a faster glucose clearance after a glucose tolerance test and a slower insulin clearance after an insulin challenge. In conclusion, maternal HS during late gestation reduces calf starter intake and growth, alters blood metabolite profile, and increases noninsulin-dependent glucose uptake. PMID:26947308

  3. A comparison of three vasopressors for tight control of maternal blood pressure during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: Effect on maternal and fetal outcome

    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Results: The umbilical pH was comparable in all the three groups (P > 0.05. The mean SBP from spinal block until delivery was similar over time for all the three groups. The incidence of reactive hypertension was more in group M (P < 0.05 than in group E and group P. Total drug consumption to meet target blood pressure till delivery was 39.3 ± 14.6 mg in group E, 1.7 ± 0.9 mg in group M, and 283.6 ± 99.8 mcg in group P. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was comparable in the three groups. Conclusion: All the three vasopressors were equally effective in maintaining maternal blood pressure as well as umbilical pH during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section without any detrimental effects on fetal and maternal outcome.

  4. Combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding.

    Kitano, Naomi; Nomura, Kyoko; Kido, Michiko; Murakami, Keiko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ueno, Masami; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Maternal age at first childbirth has increased in most developed countries in the past 20 years. The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of maternal age at delivery and parity on successful initiation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This retrospective study investigated 1193 singleton dyads with vaginal-delivered at 37-42 gestational weeks during January and December in 2011 at one large "Baby-Friendly" certified hospital in Japan. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to evaluate individual and combined effects of maternal age and parity on successful initiation of EBF after adjusted for pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications, mothers' underlying illness, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, gestational week at delivery, child's sex and nurturing support from grandparents. Success rates of EBF at one month after child delivery was 69.4% in primiparous aged ≥ 35 (group A: n = 284), 73.5% in multiparous aged ≥ 35 (group B: n = 268), 74.3% in primiparous aged < 35 (group C: n = 432), and 82.3% in multiparous aged < 35 (group D: n = 209). Older maternal age and primiparous became independently associated with EBF initiation. The combined effect for successful initiation of EBF was the lowest in group A referent to group D both at discharge and at one month (odds ratio (OR) 5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0-11.9, and OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4-3.4, respectively). Primiparous mothers in late child-bearing aged 35 years or older are at the greatest risk of EBF initiation. PMID:26844198

  5. The effects of dietary fructose and salt on maternal, fetal and adult offspring growth, metabolic status and cardiovascular health

    Gray, Clint

    2011-01-01

    The modern Western diet is typically high in salt and fructose. Variations in maternal diet can have delayed developmental effects on the adult offspring’s cardiovascular function leading to acute or chronic hypertension. The aim of the work in this thesis was to determine the effect of moderate dietary salt and/or fructose intake on maternal and fetal growth, metabolic status and cardiovascular health of the adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were fed either 1) control diet (chow) with tap...

  6. Exercise partially reverses the effect of maternal separation on hippocampal proteins in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat brain

    Dimatelis, JJ; Hendricks, S; Hsieh, J.; Vlok, NM; Bugarith, K; Daniels, WMU; Russell, VA

    2012-01-01

    Animals subjected to maternal separation stress during the early stages of development display behavioural, endocrine and growth factor abnormalities that mirror the clinical findings in anxiety/depression. In addition, maternal separation has been shown to exacerbate the behavioural deficits induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. In contrast, voluntary exercise reduced the detrimental effects of 6-OHDA in the rat model. The beneficial effects of exercise...

  7. Absence of Maternal Methylation in Biparental Hydatidiform Moles from Women with NLRP7 Maternal-Effect Mutations Reveals Widespread Placenta-Specific Imprinting

    Sanchez-Delgado, Marta; Martin-Trujillo, Alejandro; Tayama, Chiharu; Vidal, Enrique; Esteller, Manel; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Deo, Nandita; Barney, Olivia; Maclean, Ken; Hata, Kenichiro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Fisher, Rosemary; Monk, David

    2015-01-01

    Familial recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) is a maternal-effect autosomal recessive disorder usually associated with mutations of the NLRP7 gene. It is characterized by HM with excessive trophoblastic proliferation, which mimics the appearance of androgenetic molar conceptuses despite their diploid biparental constitution. It has been proposed that the phenotypes of both types of mole are associated with aberrant genomic imprinting. However no systematic analyses for imprinting defects have b...

  8. The effect of Ramadan fasting and maternal hypoalbuminaemia on neonatal anthropometric parameters and placental weight.

    Sakar, M N; Balsak, D; Verit, F F; Zebitay, A G; Buyuk, A; Akay, E; Turfan, M; Demir, S; Yayla, M

    2016-05-01

    In Islamic religion, daytime fasting during the month called Ramadan is an annual practice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting and maternal hypoalbuminaemia on neonatal growth parameters. A prospective case-control study was conducted in Diyarbakir and Istanbul, Turkey. The sample size of fasting group was 168 and that of non-fasting group was 170. Demographic characteristics, obstetrics ultrasonographic findings and laboratory parameters of the participants were recorded. Neonatal anthropometric parameters and placental weight were noted. The mean placental weight was significantly higher in the fasting group (p = 0.037). Also, in the fasting group, pregnant women with hypoalbuminaemia had significantly higher placental weight (p = 0.009). In conclusion, the mean placental weight in the fasting group was significantly higher. Also a significant correlation between placental weight and maternal serum albumin level was observed in the fasting group. PMID:26467047

  9. The effects of EITC payment expansion on maternal smoking

    Averett, Susan L.; Wang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is the largest anti-poverty program in the U.S. In 1993, the EITC benefit levels were changed significantly based on the number of children in the family such that families with two or more children experienced an exogenous expansion in their incomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we employ a triple differences plus Fixed-Effects framework to examine the effect of this change on the probability of smoking among low-e...

  10. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension: effects on maternal and neonatal magnesium and calcium homeostasis

    Rudnicki, M; Frølich, A; Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double-blind man......The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double......-blind manner, either to intravenous magnesium for 2 days followed by oral magnesium (n = 12) until delivery or placebo (n = 13). In women supplemented with magnesium the level of magnesium increased from 0.74 to 1.02 mmol/l during the first 24 h of inclusion and simultaneously we observed an increased urinary...... loss of magnesium. Serum level and the urinary excretion of magnesium returned to pretreatment level at delivery. Maternal magnesium supplement increased the concentrations of magnesium in umbilical cord and neonatal blood 1 day after delivery. Serum ionized calcium did not change during the study...

  11. Birthdate, mass and survival in mountain goat kids: effects of maternal characteristics and forage quality.

    Côté, S D; Festa-Bianchet, M

    2001-04-01

    In temperate environments, early-born ungulates may enjoy a longer growth period before winter, and so attain a higher body mass and an increased probability of survival compared to late-born ones. We assessed the effects of maternal characteristics, forage quality and population density on kid birthdate, mass and survival in a population of marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Alberta. The duration and timing of the birth season were similar in all years. Births were highly synchronised: 80% of kids were born within 2 weeks of the first birth. Maternal age, maternal social rank and density did not affect kid birthdate or mass. Previous breeding experience was not related to kid birthdate, but kids born to pluriparous mothers were heavier during summer than kids born to primiparous mothers. Male and female kids had similar mass and accumulated mass linearly during summer. Early-born kids were heavier than late-born kids. Faecal crude protein (FCP) in late spring and maternal mass were positively related to kid mass. Survival to weaning appeared higher for males (90%) than for females (78%), but survival to 1 year was 65% for both sexes. FCP in late spring, density, birthdate and mass did not affect kid survival to weaning in either sex. Survival to 1 year increased with FCP in late spring for females, but not for males. Survival to 1 year was independent of birthdate for both sexes, but heavy females survived better than light ones. Multiple logistic regression revealed a positive effect of mass on survival to 1 year when the sexes were pooled. Our results suggest that mountain goats are constrained to give birth in a short birth season synchronised with forage productivity. PMID:24577654

  12. Maternal intimate partner violence predicts increased asthma incidence in children: Buffering effects of supportive caregiving

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kullowatz, Antje; Wright, Rosalind J

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the relationship between maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) and asthma onset in children and the role of supportive caregiving factors in modifying this relationship. DESIGN Prospective birth cohort. SETTING In-person interview at enrollment as well as in-home interviews during study follow-up. PARTICIPANTS Children (N=3116) enrolled in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. MAIN EXPOSURES Maternal-report of IPV assessed after the child’s birth and at 12 and 36 months. In addition mothers indicated how many days a week they participated in activities with the child and the amount and type of educational/recreational toys available for the child. MAIN OUTCOME Maternal-report of physician-diagnosed asthma by age 36 months. RESULTS Asthma was diagnosed in 19% of children. In adjusted analysis, children of mothers experiencing IPV chronically, compared to those not exposed, had a 2-fold increased risk of developing asthma. In stratified analysis, children of mothers experiencing IPV and low levels of mother-child activities (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6, 4.7) had a significant increased risk for asthma. Those exposed to IPV and high levels of mother-child activities had a lower risk for asthma (RR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9, 3.2). A similar buffering effect was noted among children with high numbers of educational/recreational toys. CONCLUSIONS IPV is associated with increased early childhood asthma risk. Maternal ability to maintain positive caregiving processes in this context may buffer the effects of violence on child asthma risk. The best way to promote positive health in toddlers may be to help their mothers. PMID:19255392

  13. Neonatally Induced Mild Diabetes in Rats and Its Effect on Maternal, Placental, and Fetal Parameters

    Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Iessi, Isabela Lovizutto; Bueno, Aline; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess placental changes and reproductive outcomes in neonatally induced mild diabetic dams and fetal development in their offspring. At birth, female rats were assigned either to control or diabetic group (100?mg of streptozotocin/Kg, subcutaneously). At adulthood, the female rats were mated. During pregnancy, the blood glucose levels and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. At term, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal and placental weight, and placental morphology were analyzed. Diabetic rats had smaller number of living fetuses, implantations and corpora lutea, and increased rate of embryonic loss. Placenta showed morphometric alterations in decidua area. Our results showed that mild diabetes was sufficient to trigger alterations in maternal organism leading to impaired decidua development contributing to failure in embryonic implantation and early embryonic losses. Regardless placental decidua alteration, the labyrinth, which is responsible for the maternal-fetal exchanges, showed no morphometric changes contributing to an appropriate fetal development, which was able to maintain normal fetal weight at term in mild diabetic rats. Thus, this experimental model of diabetes induction at the day of birth was more effective to reproduce the reproductive alterations of diabetic women. PMID:22778712

  14. Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight

    Yazdani Shahla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, pre- and post-term delivery, induction of labor, macrosomia, increased rate of caesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal Body Mass Index (BMI on pregnancy outcomes. Methods 1000 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. In order to explore the relationship between maternal first trimester Body Mass Index and pregnancy outcomes, participants were categorized into five groups based on their first trimester Body Mass Index. The data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square tests in SPSS 18. Differences were considered significant if p Results Women with an above-normal Body Mass Index had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia, induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor, and macrosomia than women with a normal Body Mass Index (controls. There was no significant difference in the incidence of post-term delivery between the control group and other groups. Conclusion Increased BMI increases the incidence of induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor and macrosomia. The BMI of women in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.

  15. Maternal effects influencing DNA endoreduplication in developing endosperm of Zea mays.

    Kowles, R V; Yerk, G L; Haas, K M; Phillips, R L

    1997-12-01

    A large proportion of the nuclei in developing endosperm of Zea mays L. undergoes endoreduplication. Nuclear preparations of the entire endosperm from maize kernels of inbred lines, their reciprocal hybrids, and in some cases, F2 and F3 endosperm tissue were evaluated using flow cytometry. Data relative to DNA endoreduplication patterns, percentage of nuclei undergoing endoreduplication, and mean DNA content per nucleus were obtained. The patterns of endoreduplication and extent of DNA amplification differ among some inbreds. In all experiments, the endoreduplication patterns show that the F1 endosperm is more similar to the maternal parent than to the paternal parent. F2 endosperms reveal little difference in endoreduplication patterns among individuals within an F2 family and no more variation than the F1 endosperms. In contrast, F3 endosperms showed greater variation among their endoreduplication patterns. These results indicate a maternal effect on endoreduplication; that is, the genotype of the maternal parent's nuclear genome exerts control over the endoreduplication activities of endosperm tissue. PMID:18464865

  16. The importance of effective communication in interprofessional practice: perspectives of maternity clinicians.

    Watson, Bernadette M; Heatley, Michelle L; Gallois, Cindy; Kruske, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Midwives and doctors require effective information-sharing strategies to provide safe and evidence-based care for women and infants, but this can be difficult to achieve. This article describes maternity care professionals' perceptions of communication in their current workplace in Australia. We invoke social identity theory (SIT) to explore how these perceptions affect interprofessional practice. A survey was conducted with 337 participants (281 midwives and 56 doctors). Using exploratory factor analysis we developed three scales that measured interprofessional workplace practice collaboration. Results indicated an intergroup environment in maternity care in which the professionals found exchange of ideas difficult, and where differences with respect to decision making and professional skills were apparent. Although scores on some measures of collaboration were high, the two professions differed on their ratings of the importance of team behaviors, information sharing, and interprofessional socialization as indicators of collaborative practice. These results highlight the complexities among maternity care providers with different professional identities, and demonstrate the impact of professional identity on interprofessional communication. PMID:26362334

  17. Effect of the number of Ramadan fasting days on maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gynecologists and perinatologists are left with many unanswered questions and concerns regarding fasting during pregnancy and its effects on maternal and neonatal health. The current study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the number of Ramadan fasting days and pregnancy outcomes. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive, analytical study, 641 newborns, whose mothers had fasting experience during pregnancy, were enrolled and allocated to three groups, based on the number of maternal fasting days during pregnancy (group A: ≤10 days, group B: 11-20 days, and group C: 21-30 days. Demographic and anthropometric data of neonates and mothers were recorded. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and non-parametric tests were performed for data analysis. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in maternal weight (during the last month of pregnancy, neonatal height, incidence of pre-term labor, or neonatal congenital abnormality in the three groups. Increased number of fasting days was not correlated with decreased neonatal head circumference or weight, while 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores significantly improved (P

  18. Effects of Maternal Nicotine Exposure on Expression of Laminin Alpha 5 in Lung Tissue of Newborn

    Mojtaba Sankian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been clearly demonstrated to be associated with increased health problems in infants and children. Nicotine is the chemical substance with high level of toxicity. It crosses through the placenta and accumulates in the developing organs of fetus. Previous investigation indicated that maternal nicotine exposures induce decreased fibronectin expression in lung parenchyma. In this study, the effect of maternal nicotine exposure on laminin expression of the newborn mice lungs has been evaluated. Female pregnant Balb/C mice were divided randomly in to four groups as fallow: Experimental group1 (Exp D1; was received 3 mg kg-1 nicotine intra peritoneal injection (IP from gestational day 7 (GD7 to the last day of pregnancy, Experimental group 2 (Exp D14; was received 3 mg kg-1 nicotine from GD7 to postnatal day 14, Groups 3 and 4; as sham control groups (Sha-Con were received the same volume (3 mg kg-1 of normal saline parallel to experimental groups. At the end of exposure times, all of newborns were anesthetized; their lungs were removed and prepared for immunohistochemical method and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The finding indicated that laminin alpha 5 (Lama5 mRNA expressions in the lung of newborn in the nicotine treated Exp D1 decreased by 0.63 fold but increased in Exp D14 by 1.57 fold comparing to Sh-Con groups. Lama5 immunoreactivity was not similar in different parts of the lungs including alveoli and bronchiole, having a significant increase in the experimental groups in contrast to the Sh-Con groups. However, increase in immunoreactivity observed more in Exp D14. Immunoreactivity intensity in small vessels of all experimental groups was not significantly different. These data also indicate that maternal nicotine exposure may induce abnormal laminin expression which may cause defects in lung function during life time.

  19. Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris)

    We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced bioavailability of trace elements in aged CCW. Most importantly, maternal exposure to contaminants coupled with larval exposure to fresh CCW interacted to reduce survival to metamorphosis by 85% compared to reference conditions. Our study yields further evidence that disposal of CCW in aquatic basins potentially creates ecological traps for some amphibian populations. - Highlights: ► The interaction of maternal exposure and larval exposure to CCW reduced survival. ► Previous maternal exposure to CCW had a latent effect on survival to metamorphosis. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW experienced prolonged larval periods. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced growth rates. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced mass at metamorphosis. - Maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes interact to decrease survival in larval amphibians.

  20. The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil

    Emond Alan; Pollock Jon; Costa Nilma da; Maranhão Técia; Macedo Albanita

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilitie...

  1. Effects of User Fee Exemptions on the Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services: A Review of Literature

    Laurel E. Hatt; Makinen, Marty; Madhavan, Supriya; Conlon, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    User fee removal has been put forward as an approach to increasing priority health service utilization, reducing impoverishment, and ultimately reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. However, user fees are a source of facility revenue in many low-income countries, often used for purchasing drugs and supplies and paying incentives to health workers. This paper reviews evidence on the effects of user fee exemptions on maternal health service utilization, service provision, and outcomes, incl...

  2. The effect of maternal healthcare on the probability of child survival in Azerbaijan.

    Habibov, Nazim; Fan, Lida

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of maternal healthcare on child survival by using nonrandomized data from a cross-sectional survey in Azerbaijan. Using 2SLS and simultaneous equation bivariate probit models, we estimate the effects of delivering in healthcare facility on probability of child survival taking into account self-selection into the treatment. For women who delivered at healthcare facilities, the probability of child survival increases by approximately 18%. Furthermore, if every woman had the opportunity to deliver in healthcare facility, then the probability of child survival in Azerbaijan as a whole would have increased by approximately 16%. PMID:25110673

  3. Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings show that long-term effects of maternal ID and prenatal LPS were additive, such that offspring exposed to both insults displayed more adult behavioral abnormalities than offspring exposed to one alone. PMID:24930842

  4. Effects of Home Visitation on Maternal Competencies, Family Environment, and Child Development: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Sierau, Susan; Dähne, Verena; Brand, Tilman; Kurtz, Vivien; von Klitzing, Kai; Jungmann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Based on the US Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) program, the German home visiting program "Pro Kind" offered support for socially and financially disadvantaged first-time mothers from pregnancy until the children's second birthday. A multi-centered, longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess its effectiveness on mothers and children. A total of 755 women with multiple risk factors were recruited, 394 received regular home visits (treatment group), while 361 only had access to standard community services (control group). Program influences on family environment (e.g., quality of home, social support), maternal competencies (e.g., maternal self-efficacy, empathy, parenting style), and child development (e.g., cognitive and motor development) were assessed from mothers' program intake in pregnancy to children's second birthday based on self-reports in regular interviews and developmental tests. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models showed small, but significant positive treatment effects on parental self-efficacy, and marginally significant effects on social support, and knowledge on child rearing. Maternal stress, self-efficacy, and feelings of attachment in the TG tend to show a more positive development over time. Subgroup effects were found for high-risk mothers in the TG, who reported more social support over time and, generally, had children with higher developmental scores compared to their CG counterparts. Post hoc analyses of implementation variables revealed the quality of the helping relationship as a significant indicator of treatment effects. Results are discussed in terms of implementation and public policy differences between NFP and Pro Kind. PMID:26103919

  5. Effect of cocaine on periadolescent rats with or without early maternal separation.

    Planeta, C S; Marin, M T

    2002-11-01

    Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and weight loss were investigated in periadolescent Wistar rats kept with their mothers or subjected to repeated maternal separation. Litters allocated to the separation procedure were placed in a temperature-controlled (33 degrees C) chamber for 3 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P20. Non-handled rats were left undisturbed until weaning. Treatments were started on P30-31 and the test was performed on P36-37. Animals received injections of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, sc) twice daily for 5 days. On day 6 all animals received saline. On day 7 animals were challenged with 10 mg/kg cocaine and their locomotion was evaluated in activity cages. A third group received saline throughout the 7-day period. Body weights were recorded on P30-31 and P36-37. Two-way ANOVA on body weights showed a main effect of treatment group (F(1,35) = 10.446, P = 0.003; N = 10-12). Non-handled rats treated with cocaine for 5 days gained significantly less weight, while no significant effect was observed in maternally separated rats. Two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of drug treatment on locomotor activity (F(2,32) = 15.209, P<0.001; N = 6-8), but not on rearing condition (F(1,32)<0.001, P = 0.998). Animals pretreated with cocaine showed a clear behavioral sensitization relative to the saline group. No difference in the magnitude of sensitization was found between separated and non-handled animals. Only the effect of cocaine on weight gain was significantly affected by repeated episodes of early maternal separation during the pre-weaning period. PMID:12426637

  6. PREMIM and EMIM: tools for estimation of maternal, imprinting and interaction effects using multinomial modelling

    Howey Richard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we present two new computer tools, PREMIM and EMIM, for the estimation of parental and child genetic effects, based on genotype data from a variety of different child-parent configurations. PREMIM allows the extraction of child-parent genotype data from standard-format pedigree data files, while EMIM uses the extracted genotype data to perform subsequent statistical analysis. The use of genotype data from the parents as well as from the child in question allows the estimation of complex genetic effects such as maternal genotype effects, maternal-foetal interactions and parent-of-origin (imprinting effects. These effects are estimated by EMIM, incorporating chosen assumptions such as Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or exchangeability of parental matings as required. Results In application to simulated data, we show that the inference provided by EMIM is essentially equivalent to that provided by alternative (competing software packages such as MENDEL and LEM. However, PREMIM and EMIM (used in combination considerably outperform MENDEL and LEM in terms of speed and ease of execution. Conclusions Together, EMIM and PREMIM provide easy-to-use command-line tools for the analysis of pedigree data, giving unbiased estimates of parental and child genotype relative risks.

  7. Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Programs Reproductive Dysfunction in Female Mice Offspring Through Adverse Effects on the Neuroendocrine Axis.

    Nicholas, Cari; Davis, Joseph; Fisher, Thomas; Segal, Thalia; Petti, Marilena; Sun, Yan; Wolfe, Andrew; Neal-Perry, Genevieve

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency affects more than 1 billion people worldwide with a higher prevalence in reproductive-aged women and children. The physiological effects of maternal VitD deficiency on the reproductive health of the offspring has not been studied. To determine whether maternal VitD deficiency affects reproductive physiology in female offspring, we monitored the reproductive physiology of C57BL/6J female offspring exposed to diet-induced maternal VitD deficiency at three specific developmental stages: 1) in utero, 2) preweaning, or 3) in utero and preweaning. We hypothesized that exposure to maternal VitD deficiency disrupts reproductive function in exposed female offspring. To test this hypothesis, we assessed vaginal opening and cytology and ovary and pituitary function as well as gonadotropin and gonadal steroid levels in female offspring. The in utero, preweaning, and in utero and preweaning VitD deficiency did not affect puberty. However, all female mice exposed to maternal VitD deficiency developed prolonged and irregular estrous cycles characterized by oligoovulation and extended periods of diestrus. Despite similar gonadal steroid levels and GnRH neuron density, females exposed to maternal VitD deficiency released less LH on the evening of proestrus. When compared with control female offspring, there was no significant difference in the ability of females exposed to maternal VitD deficiency to respond robustly to exogenous GnRH peptide or controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. These findings suggest that maternal VitD deficiency programs reproductive dysfunction in adult female offspring through adverse effects on hypothalamic function. PMID:26741195

  8. [Maternal effect obscures adaptation to adverse environments and hinders divergence in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Markov, A V; Ivnitsky, S B; Kornilova, M B; Naimark, E B; Shirokova, N G; Perfilieva, K S

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to contrasting environments can facilitate ecological divergence and sympatric speciation. Factors that influence the probability and tempo of these processes are poorly known. We performed an evolutionary experiment on Drosophila melanogaster in order to attain better understanding of adaptation dynamics and to model the initial steps of sympatric speciation. In our experiment, several populations are being cultured either on standard rich medium (RM) or on nutrient-deficient starch-based medium (SM). After 10 generations, experimental populations demonstrated unexpected changes in their fitness: on the starch medium, flies grown on RM (FRM) outcompeted those that were cultured on SM (FSM), while on the rich medium, FRM were outcompeted by FSM. That is, experimental populations demonstrated higher fitness on the foreign medium, but were outcompeted by the aliens on the one they had been accustomed to. To explain the paradox, we hypothesize that the observed low fitness of FSM on SM was due to maternal effect, or the "effect of starving mother". The FSM flies are probably better adapted to SM, but the phenotypic outcome of their adaptations is obscured because the females grown on the poor medium invest less in their offspring (for instance, they may produce nutrient-deficient eggs). Larvae hatched from such eggs develop successfully on the rich medium RM, but experience delayed growth and/or lower survival rate on the nutrient-deficient medium SM. To test the hypothesis, we measured the fitness of the flies FSM after culturing them for one generation on RM, in order to remove the assumed maternal effect. As expected, this time FSM demonstrated higher fitness on SM compared to control flies (FRM) and to FSM before the removal of the maternal effect. The results support the idea that non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity and maternal effects can mask adaptation to adverse environments and prohibit ecological divergence and speciation by allowing the migrants from favourable habitats to outcompete resident individuals in adverse ecotopes despite the possible presence of specific adaptations in the latter. PMID:26852569

  9. The effect of a maternal low protein diet on renal development and function in the offspring

    Dunford, Louise Jane

    2013-01-01

    A poor maternal diet leads to offspring with a greater risk of developing chronic diseases later in life. This thesis considered whether a low protein diet during pregnancy in sheep affected the development of the fetal kidney, and how this impacted upon adult renal function when challenged by obesity. Pregnant ewes were fed either a control diet or a diet that was isocaloric but contained only 50% of the protein, in either early or late gestation. The effects of the diet were assessed on the...

  10. Estimation of direct and maternal effects for weaning and yearling weight in Bali cattle

    Lisa Praharani

    2007-01-01

    Growth trait is a function of its inherent ability for growth, milk production and mothering ability of its dam. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal on the genetic evaluation of Bali cattle. There were 8.320 calves used to analyze genetik parameters affecting W205 and W365. A connectedness program was used to evaluate genetik linkages between contemporary groups (CG). Data were analyzed to observe non-genetik factors using PROC MIXED (SAS). Single and multiple trait a...

  11. The Effect of Pregnancy on Production of Maternal Endogenous Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    El-Badri, Nagwa S.; Groer, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Fetal microchimerism refers to the presence of fetal cells in maternal blood and tissues during pregnancy. This microchimerism may result from trafficking of fetal and maternal blood across the placenta during pregnancy. Physiological changes in the maternal blood cellular milieu are also recognized during pregnancy and in the early post partum period. Earlier studies showed that maternal blood contains CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that bear paternal genetic markers or male phenotype...

  12. Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects

    Wang Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration.

  13. Development of Infant Positive Emotionality: The Contribution of Maternal Characteristics and Effects on Subsequent Parenting

    Bridgett, David J.; Laake, Lauren M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Dorn, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of maternal characteristics on the development of infant smiling and laughter, a marker of early positive emotionality (PE) and how maternal characteristics and the development of infant PE contributed to subsequent maternal parenting. One hundred fifty-nine mothers with 4-month-old infants participated.…

  14. Effect of GLP-1 Receptor Activation on Offspring Kidney Health in a Rat Model of Maternal Obesity.

    Glastras, Sarah J; Chen, Hui; McGrath, Rachel T; Zaky, Amgad A; Gill, Anthony J; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease in offspring, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Exendin-4 (Exd-4) activates the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor thereby decreasing serum glucose levels and body weight. In addition, Exd-4 has been shown to reduce renal and cardiac complications in experimental models of T2D. We hypothesized that treatment with Exd-4 would ameliorate the detrimental effects of maternal and diet-induced obesity on renal characteristics in offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either normal or high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy and lactation, and their offspring were weaned to normal or HFD. The offspring were randomized to Exd-4 or placebo from weaning and their kidneys harvested at Week 9. We found that the kidneys of offspring from obese mothers, regardless of postnatal diet, had significantly increased markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Exd-4 ameliorated the negative renal effects of maternal obesity and in particular, reduced renal inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. In conclusion, maternal obesity has persisting effects on renal structure in the offspring. GLP-1 analogues are potentially useful for protecting against the deleterious effects of maternal obesity on renal physiology in offspring. PMID:27004609

  15. Effect of acute maternal starvation on tyrosine metabolism and protein synthesis in fetal sheep

    To determine the effects of acute maternal starvation on intrauterine growth, tyrosine concentration and specific activity values in plasma, intracellular free and protein bound pools were determined in catheterized ovine fetuses following an 8 h continuous infusion of L-[2,3,5,6 3H] or L-[U-14C] tyrosine into the ewe and fetus respectively at 115-125 days of gestation. From the kinetic data the rates of whole body and tissue fractional protein synthesis were calculated. Although placental protein synthesis was not significantly changed as a result of acute maternal starvation, fetal whole body protein synthesis was reduced from 63 g/d/kg in the fed to 25 g/d/kg in the starved condition. There was also a 10 fold reduction in the net placental transfer of tyrosine to the fetus in the starved ewes. In addition, a three fold increase was observed in the quantity of tyrosine used for oxidation by the fetuses of starved ewes, changing from 5.2% of tyrosine net utilization in the fed to 13.7% in the starved condition. Significant reductions in tissue fractional protein synthesis rates were also seen in the liver, brain, lung kidney and GIT tissues from 78, 37, 65, 45 and 71%/d respectively in the fed to 12, 10, 23, 22 and 35%/d in the fetuses of starved ewes. The data indicate that during acute maternal starvation the sheep fetus utilizes more tyrosine for oxidation and less for anabolic purposes which is reflected in a decrease both in whole body and tissue fractional rates of protein synthesis

  16. Effect of maternal exercise on biochemical parameters in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Marcelino, Thiago Beltram; de Lemos Rodrigues, Patrícia Idalina; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Silva, Lenir Orlandi; Matté, Cristiane

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy is a critical period for brain metabolic programming, being affected by individual environment, such as nutrition, stress, and physical exercise. In this context, we previously reported a cerebral antioxidant upregulation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the offspring delivered from exercised mothers, which could provide neuroprotection against neonatal insults. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) encephalopathy is one of the most studied models of neonatal brain injury; disrupting motor, cognitive, and learning abilities. Physiopathology includes oxidative stress, allied to mitochondria energy production failure, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and cell death. In this study we evaluated the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on offspring׳s brain oxidative status evaluated fourteen days after HI stablishment. Swimming exercise was performed by female adult rats one week before and during pregnancy, in controlled environment. Their offspring was submitted to HI on postnatal day 7, and the brain samples for biochemical assays were obtained in the weaning. Contrary to our expectations, maternal exercise did not prevent the oxidative alterations observed in brain from HI-rats. In a general way, we found a positive modulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, measured two weeks after HI, in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum of pups delivered from exercised mothers. Reactive species levels were modulated differently in each structure evaluated. Considering the scenery presented, we concluded that HI elicited a neurometabolic adaptation in both brain hemispheres, particularly in hippocampus, parietal cortex, and cerebellum; while striatum appears to be most damaged. The protocol of aerobic maternal exercise was not enough to fully prevent HI-induced brain damages. PMID:26119914

  17. Effect of maternal autonomy and relatedness and borderline personality disorder on adolescent symptomatology.

    Frankel-Waldheter, Miriam; Macfie, Jenny; Strimpfel, Jennifer M; Watkins, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Several theories propose a relationship between deficits in autonomy and relatedness and the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Empirical work supports relationships between maternal BPD and adolescent symptomatology, as well as between maternal autonomy and relatedness and adolescent symptomatology. However, no study has examined how individuals with BPD differ from normative comparisons on autonomy and relatedness, or whether mothers' BPD mediates the relationship between their autonomy and relatedness and their adolescents' symptomatology. We sampled 28 mothers with BPD and their adolescents aged 14-17 years, as well as 28 normative comparisons matched on demographic variables. We assessed BPD as a categorical diagnosis and along a continuum of self-reported borderline features. In a videotaped problem-solving interaction, controlling for current major depressive disorder, mothers with BPD were less likely to promote and more likely to inhibit relatedness, and they were marginally more likely to inhibit but equally likely to promote autonomy with their adolescents. Mothers' total borderline features mediated the relationship between mothers' promotion of autonomy plus relatedness and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms (anxious depression, withdrawn depression, somatic problems, rule breaking, and aggression) and adolescent borderline features (affective instability and self-harm). Mothers' total borderline features also mediated the relationship between mothers' inhibition of autonomy plus relatedness and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms (anxious depression, withdrawn depression, somatic problems, and aggression but not rule breaking) and adolescent borderline features (affective instability and self-harm). We discuss findings in terms of light shed on BPD and the effect of maternal BPD on adolescent development. PMID:25867839

  18. Evidence of maternal effects on temperature preference in side-blotched lizards: implications for evolutionary response to climate change.

    Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Patten, Amy; Cooper, Robert D; Sinervo, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Natural populations respond to selection pressures like increasing local temperatures in many ways, including plasticity and adaptation. To predict the response of ectotherms like lizards to local temperature increase, it is essential to estimate phenotypic variation in and determine the heritability of temperature-related traits like average field body temperature (T b) and preferred temperature (T p). We measured T p of Uta stansburiana in a laboratory thermal gradient and assessed the contribution of sex, reproductive status and throat color genotype to phenotypic variation in T b of adult lizards. Females had higher T p than males. However, they temporarily preferred lower temperature when gravid than when nongravid. Using a nested half-sib design for genetic crosses in the laboratory, we estimated relative contributions of additive genetic variation and maternal effects to T p of hatchlings. Our results show that maternal effects, but not additive genetic variation, influence T p of hatchlings in U. stansburiana. Maternal T p and the presence or absence of blue throat color alleles significantly influenced T p of hatchlings. We discuss ecological and evolutionary consequences of these maternal effects in the context of rapid climate change and natural selection that we measure on progeny survival to maturity as a function of maternal T p. PMID:23919144

  19. Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts

    Shi, Min; Murray, Jeff; Marazita, Mary L; Munger, Ronald G; Ruczinski, Ingo; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Wu, Tao; Murray, Tanda; Redett, Richard J; Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Chen, Philip K; Wang, Hong; Ye, Xiaoqian; Yeow, Vincent; Chong, Samuel S; Shi, Bing; Christensen, Kaare; Scott, Alan F; Patel, Poorav; Cheah, Felicia; Beaty, Terri H

    We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects on risk of orofacial clefting (OC) using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test...

  20. Effects of combinations of maternal agents on the fetal cerebrum in rat

    Fetal cerebral development influenced by maternal ethanol or caffeine either singly or in combination with X-irradiation was investigated in rat. Female Wistar rats were given 20 % ethanol, 0.04 % caffeine and water during the premating period and pregnancy, and 0.03 % vitamin E only during pregnancy. Pregnant rats were X-irradiated with 100 R or sham-irradiated on gestational day 13. Ethanol-treatment alone much reduced the fetal body and cerebral weights, and X-irradiation alone resulted in great reductions in weight and DNA concentration in the fetal cerebrum. The reduction in body weight with ethanol exceeded that with X-irradiation, therefore, the addition of X-irradiation had no effect on that of ethanol. The reduction in cerebral weight on X-irradiation exceeded that with ethanol, thus the addition of ethanol had only a slight effect on that with X-irradiation. The decrease in body and cerebral weights and the increase in lipid peroxide (LP) formation on caffeine-treatment and the decrease in cerebral weight and the increase in LP on vitamin E-treatment were inhibited by X-irradiation as compared to the combined effects of the other drink treatments. The increase in placental weight and the decrease in cerebral weight on ethanol-treatment and the decrease in placental, body and cerebral weights on caffeine-treatment, which findings were covered by the addition of X-irradiation, became much clearer on single drink treatment. Independently of X-irradiation, ethanol-treatment resulted in increased fetal mortality and LP, and decreased body weight. These results suggest that the combined effects of maternal agents on live fetuses should be investigated as to whether they act independently of or dependently with each other and how the effects appear either singly or mixed. (author)

  1. The effects of maternal depression and use of antidepressants during pregnancy on risk of a child small for gestational age

    Jensen, Hans Mørch; Grøn, Randi; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Andersen, Per Kragh; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    antidepressants on SGA in a nationwide sample and to separate the effect of exposure to antidepressants in utero from the effect of maternal depression. METHODS: A register study was conducted on all pregnant women in Denmark from 1996 to 2006 linking nationwide individualized data from the Medical Birth Register......, the Psychiatric Central Register, and a prescription database. The rate of SGA (birth weight below the 10 percentile at given gestational week) was investigated for children exposed in utero to antidepressants or to a maternal psychiatric diagnosis of depression compared to children not prenatally...... exposed to antidepressants or maternal diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 673,853 pregnancies were included in the study of which 35.737 women had a diagnosis of depression and/or used antidepressants before end of pregnancy. Antidepressant use during pregnancy was weakly associated with SGA (hazard ratios...

  2. Evaluation of maternal and embryotoxic effects following the treatment of chloral hydrate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Ayar, Arif; Çolak, Deniz Altun; Uysal, Handan

    2016-03-01

    Chloral hydrate (CH) is commonly used as a sedative and a hypnotic in pediatric medicine. In this study, the effects of CH on various developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. Different concentrations of CH (0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 1 mg/mL) were used during development of the flies. Maternal toxicity due to increasing the concentration of CH was observed as a large number of adult flies died. When the F1 progeny of the control and application groups were compared, CH was found to extend the process of metamorphosis and to decrease the total number of offspring. The embryotoxic effects on the offspring and an increase in the number of malformed offspring was identified as depending on feeding. It was found that the difference between the groups was significantly important (p < 0.05). PMID:25098686

  3. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on rat maternal behavior

    Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has several deleterious effects on the nervous system such as alterations in the concentrations of neurotransmitters in the brain and/or behavioral changes, myelination rate, ganglioside pattern [Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R., Antonelli, M., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 2002. Increased sensitivity in dopamine D(2)-like brain receptors from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-exposed and amphetamine-challenged rats. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 965, 314-323; Duffard, R., Garcia, G., Rosso, S., Bortolozzi, A., Madariaga, M., DiPaolo, O., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 1996. Central nervous system myelin deficit in rats exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid throughout lactation. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 18, 691-696; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Orta, C., Duffard, R., 1990. Behavioral changes in rats fed a diet containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic butyl ester. Neurotoxicology 11, 563-572; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R.O., 1995. Altered behavioral responses in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated and amphetamine challenged rats. Neurotoxicology 16, 479-488; Munro, I.C., Carlo, G.L., Orr, J.C., Sund, K., Wilson, R.M. Kennepohl, E. Lynch, B., Jablinske, M., Lee, N., 1992. A comprehensive, integrated review and evaluation of the scientific evidence relating to the safety of the herbicide 2,4-D. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 11, 559-664; Rosso et al., 2000], and its administration to pregnant and lactating rats adversely affects litter growth and milk quality. Since normal growth of the offspring depends on adequate maternal nursing and care, we evaluated the effect of 2,4-D on rat maternal behavior as well as the dam's monoamine levels in arcuate nucleus (AcN) and serum prolactin (PRL) levels. Wistar dams were exposed to the herbicide through the food from post partum day (PPD) 1 to PPD 7. Dams were fed either with a 2,4-D treated diet (15, 25 or 50 mg 2,4-D/kg/day bw) or with a control diet. We observed that maternal nesting behavior was not modified by 2,4-D treatment. However, mother-pup interactions, specially the nursing behavior, were altered. Retrieval, crouching and licking of pups were reduced or suspended after 2,4-D treatment. We also observed an increase in the latency of retrieval and crouching in the dams treated with the herbicide. Dams showed movement along cage peripheries, food consumption during the light phase and high self-grooming. In addition of the deficits observed in maternal behavior parameters, increased catecholamine levels and a drastic decrease in indolamine levels in the AcN of treated dams were determined. Serum PRL levels were also diminished by 62%, 68% and 70% with respect to control dams in the 15, 25 and 50 mg 2,4-D/kg bw treated dams, respectively. In conclusion, exposure to 2,4-D during the first post partum days produced changes in maternal behavior, serum prolactin and monoamine levels in the AcN of treated dams

  4. Protective effects of maternal nutritional supplementation with lactoferrin on growth and brain metabolism

    Somm, Emmanuel; Larvaron, Pierre; van de Looij, Yohan; Toulotte, Audrey; Chatagner, Alexandra; Faure, Magali; Métairon, Sylviane; Mansourian, Robert; RAYMOND, Frédéric; Gruetter, Rolf; Wang, Bing; Sizonenko, Stéphane V.; Hüppi, Petra S

    2014-01-01

    Background:Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major risk factor for both perinatal and long-term morbidity. Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a major milk glycoprotein considered as a pleiotropic functional nutrient. The impact of maternal supplementation with bLf on IUGR-induced sequelae, including inadequate growth and altered cerebral development, remains unknown.Methods:IUGR was induced through maternal dexamethasone infusion (100 mug/kg during last gestational week) in rats. Maternal ...

  5. Are female children more vulnerable to the long-term effects of maternal depression during pregnancy?

    Quarini, C.; Pearson, R M; Stein, A.; Ramchandani, P. G.; Lewis, G.; J. Evans

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female fetuses are more vulnerable to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids. We examined whether exposure to prenatal maternal depression, a condition associated with high glucocorticoids, carries greater risk for depression at 12 and 18 years in girls. METHODS: Our sample comprised 7959 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children following imputation for missing data. Maternal depression was assessed pre-and post-natally, and offspring depressi...

  6. Methyl Donor Supplementation Blocks the Adverse Effects of Maternal High Fat Diet on Offspring Physiology

    Carlin, JesseLea; George, Robert; Reyes, Teresa M

    2013-01-01

    Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation cou...

  7. Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers’ adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11–13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reve...

  8. Maternal Oxytocin Administration Before Birth Influences the Effects of Birth Anoxia on the Neonatal Rat Brain.

    Boksa, Patricia; Zhang, Ying; Nouel, Dominique

    2015-08-01

    Ineffective contractions and prolonged labor are common birth complications in primiparous women, and oxytocin is the most common agent given for induction or augmentation of labor. Clinical studies in humans suggest oxytocin might adversely affect the CNS response to hypoxia at birth. In this study, we used a rat model of global anoxia during Cesarean section birth to test if administering oxytocin to pregnant dams prior to birth affects the acute neonatal CNS response to birth anoxia. Anoxic pups born from dams pre-treated with intravenous injections or infusions of oxytocin before birth showed significantly increased brain lactate, a metabolic indicator of CNS hypoxia, compared to anoxic pups from dams pre-treated with saline. Anoxic pups born from dams given oxytocin before birth also showed decreased brain ATP compared to anoxic pups from saline dams. Direct injection of oxytocin to postnatal day 2 rat pups followed by exposure to anoxia also resulted in increased brain lactate and decreased brain ATP, compared to anoxia exposure alone. Oxytocin pre-treatment of the dam decreased brain malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, as well as protein kinase C activity, both in anoxic pups and controls, suggesting oxytocin may reduce aspects of oxidative stress. Finally, when dams were pretreated with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, maternal oxytocin no longer potentiated effects of anoxia on neonatal brain lactate, suggesting this effect of oxytocin may be mediated via prostaglandin production or other COX-derived products. The results indicate that maternal oxytocin administration may have multiple acute effects on CNS metabolic responses to anoxia at birth. PMID:26108713

  9. Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten.

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2004-12-01

    This research investigated whether father involvement in infancy may reduce or exacerbate the well-established adverse effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on behavior problems in childhood. In a community sample (N = 350), the authors found that fathers' self-reported parenting styles interacted with the amount of time fathers spent caring for their infants to moderate the longitudinal effect of maternal depression during the child's infancy on children's internalizing, but not externalizing, behaviors. Low to medium amounts of high-warmth father involvement and high amounts of medium- or high-control father involvement at this time were associated with lower child internalizing behaviors. Paternal depression during a child's infancy exacerbated the effect of maternal depression, but this moderating effect was limited to depressed fathers spending medium to high amounts of time caring for their infants. Results emphasize the moderating role fathers may play in reducing or exacerbating the adverse long-term effects of maternal depression during a child's infancy on later child behavior problems. PMID:15598163

  10. Investigating the Effect of Maternal Elective Position during Active Phase on the First Pregnancy Outcome

    Seyed- Mahmoud Latefi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Final hours of human pregnancy are diagnosed with floored uterine contractions that induce the dilatation of cervix and pushing of the fetus throughout the delivery passage. Mothers position during labor can influence uterine contractions as well as the mothers psychological status. This study aimed at investigating the effect of maternal elective position in labor stage on the pregnancy outcome. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial (quasi-experimental study a total of 100 people were randomly selected from the population of first pregnancy women referring to Ya Zahra Maternity Hospital and they were randomized into a 50- person usual care or control group and a 50-person elective position or case group. At admission (4- cm dilatation women in the control group remained confined to the labor bed and received the usual medical care. But women in elective position were allowed to choose their preferred position such as walking sitting standing knee-chest etc. The Data were collected through information forms scale clock Burford pain scale and observation record forms and they were analyzed by t-test and Chi-square statistical tests. Results: The results indicated that relative length of the active phase in the case and control groups was 142.2 and 212.4 minutes respectively which shows a significant reduction. The mean labor scores in the case and control groups were respectively reported as 6.9±1.1 and 8.1±1.2 which indicate a significant difference. The need for oxytocin augmentation reduced (8% vs 64% and mothers satisfaction of child birth experience significantly increased. The incidence of fetal heart rate abnormalities was significantly smaller in the case group. When asked whether they would choose elective position during future labors 76% of women in the case group answered positively. Conclusion: Maternal elective position during active phase not only has no abnormal effects on the pregnancy outcome but also it improves many of pregnancy outcomes and it can therefore be used as an appropriate and harmless method in normal deliveries.

  11. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Hippocampus Neuronal Density in Neonatal Rats

    M. Tehranipour

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been undertaken the effects of maternal diabetes on Hippocampus structure 1 day neonate individual`s rats from diabetic mothers in both control and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by stereptozotocin (60 mg kg-1 given by a single intraperitoneal injection to female Wistar rats. Control rats were injected with phosphate buffered saline. In neonates brains rapidly were removed and in all sample the number of neurons in CA1, CA2, CA3 was measured via stereological method in both control and experimental groups. Statistical analysis determines that there is a meaningful reduction in number of neurons in CA3 in neonate of diabetic mothers (p<0.05. That may be the reason for memory problem in these neonates.

  12. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers....... Passive vocabulary at one year was lower in the children of the FO-compared with the OO-group ( P <0.05), but no differences were found at two years of age. Word comprehension at one year was inversely associated with erythrocyte-DHA at four months. The trial indicate a small effect of DHA levels in...... breast-milk on early language development of breast-fed infants....

  13. The Effect of Maternal Thyroid Disorders (Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism During Pregnancy and Lactation on Skin Development in Wistar Rat Newborns

    Maryam Amerion

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Previous studies have shown that thyroid hormones are necessary for normal development of many organs and because of the importance of skin as the largest and the most important organ in human body protection in spite of external environment, the study of thyroid hormones effects on skin development is considerable. In this survey we have tried to study the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on skin development in fetus during pregnancy and lactation by immunohistochemistry technique.   Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups, hypothyroids, hyperthyroids, hypothyroids are treated with levothyroxin and a control group. The rat mothers were exposed to PTU with 50 mg/lit dosage and levothyroxin with 1 mg/lit dosage and PTU and levothyroxin simultaneously and with the same dosage respectively in hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and treated hypothyroids with levothyroxin groups. After 14 days, blood sample was taken from mothers, and if thyroid hormones level had change well, mating was allowed. After pregnancy and delivery, 1th day dorsal skin (as the sample for pregnancy assay and 10th day skin (as for lactation assay was used for immunohystochemical and morphometric studies. Results: In this study it was observed that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes significant increase in laminin expression, in most areas of skin, and maternal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes significant decrease in laminin expression. Also significant decrease was observed in hair follicles number and epidermis thickness in hypothyroidism groups. Conclusion: This study showed maternal hypothyroidism causes significant decrease in epidermis thickness and hair follicles number and it causes less hair in fetus. Also maternal hypothyroidism causes large changes in laminin expression in different parts of skin. At the same time,maternal hyperthyroidism causes opposite results. In fact, thyroid hormones regulate laminin expression negatively which means increase in thyroid hormone level, decreases laminin expression. So changes in thyroid hormones level can influence skin development significantly.

  14. Effects of Temperament, Symptom Severity and Level of Functioning on Maternal Stress in Greek Children and Youth with ASD

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Papageorgiou, Vaya

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of child temperament, symptom severity, verbal ability and level of functioning on maternal stress in 43 Greek mothers of children and young people with autism spectrum disorder. Symptom severity was assessed by the CARS, level of functioning by the PEP, temperament by the Dimensions of Temperament Scale (DOTS-R) and…

  15. Effects of Maternal Stimulant Medication on Observed Parenting in Mother-Child Dyads with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rooney, Mary; Seymour, Karen E.; Lavin, Heather Jones; Pian, Jessica; Robb, Adelaide; Efron, Lisa; Conlon, Charles; Stein, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study of 23 mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their offspring with ADHD examined the effects of maternal stimulant medication on observed interactions. Parent-child interactions were observed using a structured protocol before and after mothers underwent a 5-week, double-blind stimulant titration. Despite…

  16. The effects of maternal iron deficiency on infant fibroblast growth factor-23 and mineral metabolism.

    Braithwaite, V S; Prentice, A; Darboe, M K; Prentice, A M; Moore, S E

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate(Phos)-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral metabolites over the first 2years of life. Infants born to mothers with normal (NIn=25,) and low (LIn=25) iron status during pregnancy, from a mother-infant trial (ISRCTN49285450) in rural Gambia, West Africa, had blood and plasma samples analysed at 12, 24, 52, 78 and 104weeks (wk) of age. Circulating intact-FGF23 (I-FGF23), Phos, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and haemoglobin (Hb) decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased over time [all P≤0.0001)]. C-terminal-FGF23 (C-FGF23) and TALP were significantly higher in LI compared with NI, from 52wk for C-FGF23 [Beta coefficient (SE) 18.1 (0.04) %, P=0.04] and from 24wk for TALP [44.7 (29.6) U/L, P=0.04]. Infant Hb was the strongest negative predictor of C-FGF23 concentration [-21% (4%) RU/mL, P≤0.0001], Phos was the strongest positive predictor of I-FGF23 [32.0(3.9) pg/mL, P≤0.0001] and I-FGF23 did not predict C-FGF23 over time [-0.5% (0.5%), P=0.3]. In conclusion, this study suggests that poor maternal iron status is associated with a higher infant C-FGF23 and TALP but similar I-FGF23 concentrations in infants and young children. These findings further highlight the likely public health importance of preventing iron deficiency during pregnancy. Whether or not children who are born to iron deficient mothers have persistently high concentrations of these metabolites and are more likely to be at risk of impaired bone development and pre-disposed to rickets requires further research. PMID:26453792

  17. The effect of maternal Inflammation on foetal programming of metabolic disease

    Ingvorsen, Camilla; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Ozanne, S. E.; Hellgren, Lars

    2015-01-01

    exposures result in increased adiposity and impaired metabolic homeostasis in the offspring, similar to the phenotype observed after exposure to maternal obesity. The cytokine levels might be specifically important for the metabolic imprinting, as cytokines are both transferable from maternal to foetal...

  18. Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD

    Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

  19. The effects of non-uniform environmental conditions on piglet crushing and maternal behavior of sows

    Crushing is one of the main causes of piglet death in swine farrowing systems. Studies have shown a wide variability of piglet mortality rate among distinct litters, which has been associated with maternal ability of sows. In an effort to understand factors that affect sow maternal ability, this stu...

  20. Methyl donor supplementation in rats reverses the deleterious effect of maternal separation on depression-like behaviour.

    Paternain, Laura; Martisova, Eva; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Ramírez, Maria J; Milagro, Fermin I

    2016-02-15

    Adverse early life events are associated with altered stress responsiveness and metabolic disturbances in the adult life. Dietary methyl donor supplementation could be able to reverse the negative effects of maternal separation by affecting DNA methylation in the brain. In this study, maternal separation during lactation reduced body weight gain in the female adult offspring without affecting food intake, and altered total and HDL-cholesterol levels. Also, maternal separation induced a cognitive deficit as measured by NORT and an increase in the immobility time in the Porsolt forced swimming test, consistent with increased depression-like behaviour. An 18-week dietary supplementation with methyl donors (choline, betaine, folate and vitamin B12) from postnatal day 60 also reduced body weight without affecting food intake. Some of the deleterious effects induced by maternal separation, such as the abnormal levels of total and HDL-cholesterol, but especially the depression-like behaviour as measured by the Porsolt test, were reversed by methyl donor supplementation. Also, the administration of methyl donors increased total DNA methylation (measured by immunohistochemistry) and affected the expression of insulin receptor in the hippocampus of the adult offspring. However, no changes were observed in the DNA methylation status of insulin receptor and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) promoter regions in the hypothalamus. In summary, methyl donor supplementation reversed some of the deleterious effects of an early life-induced model of depression in rats and altered the DNA methylation profile in the brain. PMID:26628207

  1. Variation in maternal effects and embryonic development rates among passerine species

    Martin, T.E.; Schwabl, H.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development rates are reflected by the length of incubation period in birds, and these vary substantially among species within and among geographical regions. The incubation periods are consistently shorter in North America (Arizona study site) than in tropical (Venezuela) and subtropical (Argentina) South America based on the study of 83 passerine species in 17 clades. Parents, mothers in particular, may influence incubation periods and resulting offspring quality through proximate pathways, while variation in maternal strategies among species can result from selection by adult and offspring mortality. Parents of long-lived species, as is common in the tropics and subtropics, may be under selection to minimize costs to themselves during incubation. Indeed, time spent incubating is often lower in the tropical and subtropical species than the related north temperate species, causing cooler average egg temperatures in the southern regions. Decreased egg temperatures result in longer incubation periods and reflect a cost imposed on offspring by parents because energy cost to the embryo and risk of offspring predation are both increased. Mothers may adjust egg size and constituents as a means to partially offset such costs. For example, reduced androgen concentrations in egg yolks may slow development rates, but may enhance offspring quality through physiological trade-offs that may be particularly beneficial in longer-lived species, as in the tropics and subtropics. We provide initial data to show that yolks of tropical birds contain substantially lower concentrations of growth-promoting androgens than north temperate relatives. Thus, maternal (and parental) effects on embryonic development rates may include contrasting and complementary proximate influences on offspring quality and deserve further field study among species. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  2. Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Åberg Andersson, M; Silva, P I M; Steffensen, J F; Höglund, E

    2011-11-01

    Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains. Maternal plasma and egg cortisol levels were correlated, but no difference between the HR and LR strains was detected in either parameter. LR females produced larger eggs, and larvae with larger yolk sacs compared to HR females, however no differences in larval body size (excluding the yolk) was detected between strains. Considering that the HR and LR strains have a number of correlated behavioral and physiological traits that resemble the reactive and proactive stress coping styles, respectively, the results suggest that proactive mothers invest more energy into their offspring, producing larvae with larger energy reserves. It is possible that larger energy reserves in proactive larvae support the energy requirement for establishing and defending territory in salmonid fish. Furthermore, in the present study we found a positive relationship between mother plasma cortisol and egg cortisol; however neither mother plasma cortisol nor egg cortisol differed between strains. These results indicate that cortisol endowment from the mother to the offspring plays a minor role in the transfer of the behavioral and physiological traits which separates these strains. PMID:21983227

  3. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum

    Evellyn C. Grilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.

  4. Effects of user fee exemptions on the provision and use of maternal health services: a review of literature.

    Hatt, Laurel E; Makinen, Marty; Madhavan, Supriya; Conlon, Claudia M

    2013-12-01

    User fee removal has been put forward as an approach to increasing priority health service utilization, reducing impoverishment, and ultimately reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. However, user fees are a source of facility revenue in many low-income countries, often used for purchasing drugs and supplies and paying incentives to health workers. This paper reviews evidence on the effects of user fee exemptions on maternal health service utilization, service provision, and outcomes, including both supply-side and demand-side effects. We reviewed 19 peer-reviewed research articles addressing user fee exemptions and maternal health services or outcomes published since 1990. Studies were identified through a USAID-commissioned call for evidence, key word search, and screening process. Teams of reviewers assigned criteria-based quality scores to each paper and prepared structured narrative reviews. The grade of the evidence was found to be relatively weak, mainly from short-term, non-controlled studies. The introduction of user fee exemptions appears to have resulted in increased rates of facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections in some contexts. Impacts on maternal and neonatal mortality have not been conclusively demonstrated; exemptions for delivery care may contribute to modest reductions in institutional maternal mortality but the evidence is very weak. User fee exemptions were found to have negative, neutral, or inconclusive effects on availability of inputs, provider motivation, and quality of services. The extent to which user fee revenue lost by facilities is replaced can directly affect service provision and may have unintended consequences for provider motivation. Few studies have looked at the equity effects of fee removal, despite clear evidence that fees disproportionately burden the poor. This review highlights potential and documented benefits (increased use of maternity services) as well as risks (decreased provider motivation and quality) of user fee exemption policies for maternal health services. Governments should link user fee exemption policies with the replacement of lost revenue for facilities as well as broader health system improvements, including facility upgrades, ensured supply of needed inputs, and improved human resources for health. Removing user fees may increase uptake but will not reduce mortality proportionally if the quality of facility-based care is poor. More rigorous evaluations of both demand- and supply-side effects of mature fee exemption programmes are needed. PMID:24992804

  5. The genetics of maternal care: Direct and indirect genetic effects on phenotype in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Hunt, John; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2002-01-01

    While theoretical models of the evolution of parental care are based on the assumption of underlying genetic variance, surprisingly few quantitative genetic studies of this life-history trait exist. Estimation of the degree of genetic variance in parental care is important because it can be a significant source of maternal effects, which, if genetically based, represent indirect genetic effects. A major prediction of indirect genetic effect theory is that traits without heritable variation ca...

  6. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This review evaluates the evidence of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, in comparison with standard iron-folate supplements, on specific maternal and pregnancy outcomes of relevance to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Data sources/review methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Search engines used were PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the WHO regional databases and hand search of bibliographies. A standardized data abstraction and Child Health Epidemiology Reference (CHERG adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE technique were used for data abstraction and overall quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary estimates of utility to the LiST model for the specified outcome of incidence of SGA births. We also evaluated the potential impact of multiple micronutrients on neonatal mortality according to the proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities (using a threshold of 60% to indicate functionality of health systems for skilled births. Results We included 17 studies for detailed data abstraction. There was no significant benefit of multiple micronutrients as compared to iron folate on maternal anemia in third trimester [Relative risk (RR = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87 – 1.22 (random model]. Our analysis, however, showed a significant reduction in SGA by 9% [RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 – 0.96 (fixed model]. In the fixed model, the SGA outcome remained significant only in women with mean body mass index (BMI ≥ 22 kg/m2. There was an increased risk of neonatal mortality in studies with majority of births at home [RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.92]; such an effect was not evident where ≥ 60% of births occurred in facility settings [RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81-1.09]. Overall there was no increase in the risk of neonatal mortality [RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92 – 1.19 (fixed model]. Conclusion This review provides evidence of a significant benefit of MMN supplementation during pregnancy on reducing SGA births as compared to iron-folate, with no significant increase in the risk of neonatal mortality in populations where skilled birth care is available and majority of births take place in facilities. Given comparability of impacts on maternal anemia, the decision to replace iron-folate with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy may be taken in the context of available services in health systems and birth outcomes monitored.

  7. Maternal effects are long-lasting and influence female offspring's reproductive strategy in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus.

    Murphy, A D; Goedert, D; Morris, M R

    2014-08-01

    The adaptive benefits of maternal investment into individual offspring (inherited environmental effects) will be shaped by selection on mothers as well as their offspring, often across variable environments. We examined how a mother's nutritional environment interacted with her offspring's nutritional and social environment in Xiphophorus multilineatus, a live-bearing fish. Fry from mothers reared on two different nutritional diets (HQ=high quality and LQ=low quality) were all reared on a LQ diet in addition to being split between two social treatments: exposed to a large adult male during development and not exposed. Mothers raised on a HQ diet produce offspring that were not only initially larger (at 14 days of age), but grew faster, and were larger at sexual maturity. Male offspring from mothers raised on both diets responded to the exposure to courter males by growing faster; however, the response of their sisters varied with mother's diet; females from HQ diet mothers reduced growth if exposed to a courter male, whereas females from LQ diet mothers increased growth. Therefore, we detected variation in maternal investment depending on female size and diet, and the effects of this variation on offspring were long-lasting and sex specific. Our results support the maternal stress hypothesis, with selection on mothers to reduce investment in low-quality environments. In addition, the interaction we detected between the mother's nutritional environment and the female offspring's social environment suggests that female offspring adopted different reproductive strategies depending on maternal investment. PMID:24823268

  8. Effects of maternal dietary exposure to cadmium during pregnancy on mammary cancer risk among female offspring

    Jennifer Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since heavy metal cadmium is an endocrine disrupting chemical, we investigated whether maternal exposure to cadmium during the pregnancy alters mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring. Methods: From gestation day 10 to day 19, pregnant rat dams were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93G diet containing 39% energy from fat (baseline diet, or the baseline diet containing moderate (75 μg/kg of feed or high (150 μg/kg cadmium levels. Some dams were injected with 10 μg 17β-estradiol (E2 daily between gestation days 10 and 19. Results: Rats exposed to a moderate cadmium dose in utero were heavier and exhibited accelerated puberty onset. Both moderate and high cadmium dose led to increased circulating testosterone levels and reduced the expression of androgen receptor in the mammary gland. The moderate cadmium dose mimicked the effects of in utero E2 exposure on mammary gland morphology and increased both the number of terminal end buds and pre-malignant hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HANs, but in contrast to the E2, it did not increase 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Conclusions: The effects of in utero cadmium exposure were dependent on the dose given to pregnant dams: Moderate, but not high, cadmium dose mimicked some of the effects seen in the in utero E2 exposed rats, such as increased HANs in the mammary gland.

  9. What is the effect of supervised group exercise on maternal psychological outcomes and common pregnancy complaints?: A randomized controlled trial

    Torset, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Background: Being pregnant is followed by several physiological changes and pregnancy symptoms, which have the potential to reduce quality of life and well-being for pregnant women. To date, there is scant knowledge about the effect of regular exercise in relation to maternal psychological outcomes and common pregnancy complaints. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of supervised group exercise on psychological outcomes including well-being, qualit...

  10. MATERNAL AGE EFFECT: THE ENIGMA OF DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER TRISOMIC CONDITIONS

    Aneuploidy is the most frequently observed chromosome abnormality in human liveborn, abortuses, and oocytes. he only etiological factor that has been established is advanced maternal age for the occurrence of trisomies, particularly trisomy 21 which causes Down syndrome. he mater...

  11. BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

  12. Hormonal Sensitivity of Preterm versus Full-Term Infants to the Effects of Maternal Depression

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Beaulieu, David; Schwartz, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Comparisons were made of differences in the hormonal sensitivity of preterm versus full-term infants to maternal depression, as reflected in children's cortisol levels. In Study 1 (N = 25), a comparison was made between preterm versus healthy full-term children. In Study 2 (N = 80), a comparison was made between preterm infants and full-term infants with mild or moderate medical problems. Preterm infants were found be highly reactive to maternal depression (as measured by the Beck Depression ...

  13. STUDY OF EFFECT OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE RELATED RISKS FOR DOWN SYNDROME & OTHER TRISOMIES.

    kinnar somabhai desai; Neha Harjivanbhai Pandya; Amita Mevada; Vaishali Patel; toral goswami; Mitesh Suthar

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTBack ground: Down syndrome is the most frequent live born aneuploidy & recognizable form of mental retardation among all the ethnic groups of human population across the globe. The most common risk factor for DS is advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to find out risks of advanced maternal age for chromosomal abnormalities.  Materials & methods: The chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed by cytogenetic study of 30 clinically diagnosed cases of DS attending paedia...

  14. Effects of Early Life Social Stress on Maternal Behavior and Neuroendocrinology

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A.; Benjamin C. Nephew

    2012-01-01

    Maternal mood disorders such as depression and chronic anxiety can negatively affect the lives of both mothers and their adult offspring. An active focus of maternal depression and anxiety research has been the role of chronic social stress in the development of these disorders. Chronic exposure to social stress is common in humans, especially in lactating mothers, and postpartum mood disorders have been correlated with high levels of social conflict and low levels of social support. Recent s...

  15. Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression

    Boyd, Rhonda C.; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...

  16. Effect of oxygen and maternal dietary iodine on embryonic carbohydrate metabolism and hatchability of turkey eggs.

    Christensen, V L; Donaldson, W E

    1992-04-01

    Fertile turkey eggs were produced by hens fed supplemental iodine to decrease eggshell conductance. The eggs were then incubated in an oxygen-enriched environment during Days 25 and 26 of incubation to test the hypothesis that maternal dietary iodine has separate effects on the eggshell permeability and the developing embryo. Oxygen supplementation improved hatchability regardless of dietary iodine treatment, suggesting that oxygen availability may limit hatching of eggs with normal gas conductance. Oxygen and dietary iodine did not affect body weight but interacted prior to pipping to affect embryonic liver and heart glycogen. Dietary iodine increased liver glycogen at internal pipping. The effects of oxygen on embryos, which were correlated directly with hatchability, were increased liver growth prior to pipping and increased heart weight at external pipping and posthatching. It was concluded that supplementing oxygen to incubating turkey eggs may improve hatchability by increasing liver and heart growth. Dietary iodine played only a minor or modulating role in assisting embryos to survive. PMID:1594526

  17. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  18. Mortality, temporary sterilization, and maternal effects of sublethal heat in bed bugs.

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Aak, Anders; Edgar, Kristin Skarsfjord

    2015-01-01

    Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring's feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions. PMID:25996999

  19. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior

    Gotardo, André T.; Pfister, James A.; Raspantini, Paulo C. F.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), and 5.0 (IC5) from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids’ ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival. PMID:26999204

  20. Effect of Skin to Skin Contact on Maternal State Anxiety in a Cesarean Section Ward

    Hamid Haghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at investigating the effect of skin to skin contact (SSC on maternal state anxiety (MSA in cesarean section unit in Akbarabadi Hospital in Tehran. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 60 Iranian mothers with at least one record of cesarean section delivery were assigned to two intervention (SSC and control groups. In the morning shift and two hours after the operation, as a routine postoperative care, pain-killers were given to all mothers. Then the mothers’ pain scores were measured using visual analog scale (VAS. If VAS was≤3, MSA was measured by using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Scale (Spiel Berger. Thirty minutes of SSC intervention was done for mothers in the intervention group. Six hours later, in case VAS was ≤ 3, MSA was re-measured by using the Spiel Berger Scale for all mothers. Results: Six hours after implementing the intervention, there were no meaningful statistical differences between the MSA mean scores of the two groups, but severity of MSA in intervention group was less than that of the control group (P=0.037. Six hours after the intervention, there was a significant decrease in the MSA mean score in SSC group (P=0.002. Conclusion: As regards the important role of constant anxiety in developing postpartum depression, and as the results of this study indicate, SSC is recommended in postpartum and especially cesarean section wards.

  1. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior

    André T. Gotardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group, 1.0 (IC1, 3.0 (IC3, and 5.0 (IC5 from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids’ ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival.

  2. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior.

    Gotardo, André T; Pfister, James A; Raspantini, Paulo C F; Górniak, Silvana L

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), and 5.0 (IC5) from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids' ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival. PMID:26999204

  3. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ≤1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ≥2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ≥2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

  4. The effect of toddler emotion regulation on maternal emotion socialization: Moderation by toddler gender.

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2014-08-01

    Although developmental research continues to connect parenting behaviors with child outcomes, it is critical to examine how child behaviors influence parenting behaviors. Given the emotional, cognitive, and social costs of maladaptive parenting, it is vital to understand the factors that influence maternal socialization behaviors. The current study examined children's observed emotion regulatory behaviors in two contexts (low-threat and high-threat novelty) as one influence. Mother-child dyads (n = 106) with toddlers of 24 months of age participated in novelty episodes from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., caregiver-focused, attention, and self-soothing) were coded, and mothers reported their use of emotion socialization strategies when children were 24 and 36 months. We hypothesized that gender-specific predictive relations would occur, particularly from regulatory behaviors in the low-threat contexts. Gender moderated the relation between caregiver-focused emotion regulation in low-threat contexts and nonsupportive emotion socialization. Results from the current study inform the literature on the salience of child-elicited effects on the parent-child relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24821395

  5. The relationship between umbilical and maternal blood leptin and it's effect in fetal growth

    Objective: To study the correlation of leptin between maternal serum and cord blood and to know relationship between leptin and fetal growth, and the origin of leptin. Methods: The concentration of leptin in 55 cases of maternal serum and cord arterial and venous blood were measured by ELISA assay. According to the neonatal weight and gestational age, three groups were divided into small gestational age (SGA), appropriate gestational age (AGA) and large gestational age (LGA). The nutrition status of neonatal was evaluated by index of Pondernal. The comparision was made in these groups. Results: The concentration of leptin in the cord artery, venous and maternal serum among 55 cases was 16.58 ± 8.13 ng/ml, 12.05 ± 9.87 ng/ml, 13.24 ± 10.58 ng/ml respectively; The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of cord artery. The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of venous serum leptin slightly. There was significant difference between cord artery and venous in different gestational age groups. Serum leptin levels of cord artery and venous were well correlated with the one of the weight and gestational age of neonatal. Maternal serum leptin level was not correlated with birth weight, placental weight and gestational age. Conclusions: The leptin from placenta is concerned with the adjustment of fetal growth. Cord leptin can reflect the status of fetal growth. Cord venous leptin indicate that the leptin be from placenta. Cord artery leptin demonstrates a part of placenta leptin, which acts on the fetus and then induces the fetal fat tissue to produce leptin. The maternal leptin does not adjust fetal weight directly. It only adjusts fat content itself and energy metabolism. (authors)

  6. Understanding the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact in maternal and child mortality reduction

    Mickey Chopra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unexpected outcomes arising from the efforts towards maternal and child mortality reduction is that all too often the objective success has been coupled with increased inequity in the population. The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equity and suggest strategies that will promote an impact on mortality that reduce population child health inequities.

  7. The Effect of Maternal Employment on the Elementary and Junior High School Students’ Mental Health in Maku

    Fatemeh Bakhtari Aghdam; Sakineh Ahmadzadeh; Zahra HassanAlizadeh; Fatemeh Ebrahimi; Leila Sabzmakan; Zeinab Javadivala

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Most experts view the childhood period as a foundation for shaping the individuals’ fundamental future characteristics and behaviors. They believe that parents’ personality and behavior quality exert a greater effect on the development of a child’s personality than other factors. Given the mothers’ role in children’s mental health and considering the fact that children are a nation’s future makers, the present study was designed to investigate the impact of maternal ...

  8. Maternally derived chemical defences are an effective deterrent against some predators of poison frog tadpoles (Oophaga pumilio)

    Stynoski, Jennifer L.; Shelton, Georgia; Stynoski, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Parents defend their young in many ways, including provisioning chemical defences. Recent work in a poison frog system offers the first example of an animal that provisions its young with alkaloids after hatching or birth rather than before. But it is not yet known whether maternally derived alkaloids are an effective defence against offspring predators. We identified the predators of Oophaga pumilio tadpoles and conducted laboratory and field choice tests to determine whether predators are d...

  9. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V.; Malaba, Thokozile R.; Majo, Florence D.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7–12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient inta...

  10. The maternal and neonatal effects of adding tramadol to 2% lidocaine in epidural anesthesia for cesarean section

    Imani, Farnad; Entezary, Saeid Reza; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud Reza; Parhizgar, Suzan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Opioid analgesics are commonly added to epidural local anesthetics to improve analgesia during surgery. Objectives: The goal of this study was to evaluate the maternal and neonatal effects of adding different doses of tramadol to 2% lidocaine in the epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. Patients and Methods: Ninety pregnant patients who were candidates for cesarean section under epidural anesthesia were randomly categorized into three groups. Group L received 2% lidocaine. In ...

  11. Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.

    Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2015-02-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and β-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders. PMID:24916330

  12. Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage

    Valeria ROSSI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum, low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density but they had different food availability. In the two latter conditions, daphnids had the same per capita, low, food availability but they lived at different algae and daphnid densities. Moreover, the response of crowded females to recovery at high food availability and low population density was evaluated. Low food availability reduced growth and fecundity of both clones and increased male production only in the Clone L. Crowding per se did not affect growth but reduced fecundity. In both clones, low food availability due to low algae density enhanced investment in offspring size and resistance to starvation. In response to food shortage either due to low algae density and to crowding, Clone P increased the investment in offspring size and starvation tolerance but reduced fecundity to a lesser extent than Clone L and did not produce males. Clone L, in response to food shortage due to crowding at high algae density, increased development time, produced more males, as at low algae density, but halved fecundity producing offspring that were not starvationtolerant. These results might reflect differences in anticipatory maternal effects between clones and suggest that neonate quality varies according to either, the environment the mother experienced and the competitive environment the neonates will cope due to their mother life strategy.

  13. Pathogenic effects of maternal antinuclear antibodies during pregnancy in women with lupus

    Rafael Herrera-Esparza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lupus is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects young women of childbearing age. Fertility rates in lupus patients depend on various factors, including disease activity, nephritis, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies; however, after lupus patients become pregnant, different factors may affect the course of pregnancy, such as the production of autoantibodies, pre-existing renal disease, and eclampsia, among others. The placenta is a temporary hemochorial organ that prevents immunological conflict due to exposure to alloantigens at the maternal-fetal interface; placental regulatory T cells play a major role in maternal-fetal tolerance. Typically, significant amounts of maternal IgG class antibodies cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. This transition depends on the distribution of Fc receptors along the syncytiotrophoblast. The production of antinuclear antibodies (ANA is a hallmark of lupus, and these autoantibodies can form immune complexes that are typically trapped in the placenta during gestation. However, the entry of ANA into the fetal circulation depends on the IgG-ANA concentration and the FcR placental density. Maternal antinuclear antibodies with anti-Ro or anti-La specificity might be pathogenic to the fetus if transfused by the placental pathway and could induce neonatal pathologies, such as neonatal lupus and congenital heart block. Here, we review the experimental and clinical data supporting a pathogenic role for maternal autoantibodies transmitted to the fetus

  14. Attachment affects social information processing: Specific electrophysiological effects of maternal stimuli.

    Wu, Lili; Gu, Ruolei; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Attachment is critical to each individual. It affects the cognitive-affective processing of social information. The present study examines how attachment affects the processing of social information, specifically maternal information. We assessed the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to maternal information (compared to non-specific others) in a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT) with 22 participants. The results illustrated that attachment affected maternal information processing during three sequential stages of information processing. First, attachment affected visual perception, reflected by enhanced P100 and N170 elicited by maternal information as compared to others information. Second, compared to others, mother obtained more attentional resources, reflected by faster behavioral response to maternal information and larger P200 and P300. Finally, mother was evaluated positively, reflected by shorter P300 latency in a mother + good condition as compared to a mother + bad condition. These findings indicated that the processing of attachment-relevant information is neurologically differentiated from other types of social information from an early stage of perceptual processing to late high-level processing. PMID:26192557

  15. The Effect of Maternal Hypothyroidism on Fetal Umbilical Cord Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels

    Hüsnü Alptekin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is the most important neurotrophin, which helps the differen­tiation and growth of central and peripheral neurons, and facilitates synaptic transmission. In this study we aimed to investigate fetal cord BDNF levels of infants born from subclinical and clinical maternal hypothyroidism. Methods: This study was conducted on a total of 67 preg­nant women who were followed up in Obstetrics and Gy­necology outpatient clinics, 27 with maternal hypothyroid­ism and 40 age-parity matched healthy pregnants without hypothyroidism. Immediately after vaginal or cesarean delivery fetal cord blood samples were taken from these patients and BDNF levels were measured. Results: BDNF levels of infants born from pregnants with maternal hypothyroidism were significantly lower than the control group (23.3 ± 17.4 ng/dl and 50.7 ± 28.3 ng/dl respectively; p<0.001. In multiple linear regression analysis, while BDNF level was related with maternal hy­pothyroidism and infant sex, it was not associated with mode of delivery, maternal age, total weight gain during pregnancy, gestational age at birth, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels and other neonatal data. Conclusion: This study showed that fetal cord BDNF lev­els significantly decreased in infants of the pregnants with hypothyroidism.

  16. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

    Amorim Elaine MP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and possible multigenerational effects.

  17. The Effect of Acupressure at GB-21 and SP-6 Acupoints on Anxiety Level and Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Primiparous Women: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Moradi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Moradi, Parvin; Toosi, Monieh; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Delivery is one of the most stressful events in women’s life. Excessive anxiety, in turn, increases delivery and pregnancy complications. Mother’s positive experience of delivery leads to more effective maternal-fetal attachment in the first few hours of birth. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of acupressure at two different acupoints on anxiety level and maternal-fetal attachment in primiparous women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 150 primiparous...

  18. Perceptions of the effects of armed conflict on maternal and reproductive health services and outcomes in Burundi and Northern Uganda: a qualitative study

    Chi, Primus Che; Bulage, Patience; Urdal, Henrik; Sundby, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Armed conflict potentially poses serious challenges to access and quality of maternal and reproductive health (MRH) services, resulting in increased maternal morbidity and mortality. The effects of armed conflict may vary from one setting to another, including the mechanisms/channels through which the conflict may lead to poor access to and quality of health services. This study aims to explore the effects of armed conflict on MRH in Burundi and Northern Uganda. Methods This is a d...

  19. The Effect of Quality of the Relationship Between Mothers and Adult Children With Schizophrenia, Autism, or Down Syndrome on Maternal Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Optimism

    Greenberg, Jan Steven; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden; Chou, Rita Jing-Ann; Hong, Jinkuk

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of the quality of the relationship between maternal caregivers and their adult child with disabilities on maternal well-being and whether this effect is mediated by dispositional optimism. Mothers caring for an adult child with Down syndrome (n = 126), schizophrenia (n = 292), or autism (n = 102) were surveyed. Mothers of adults with schizophrenia and autism had better psychological well-being when the mother/adult child relationship was positive, but thi...

  20. A comparative study of evaluate dose related feto-maternal effects of syntocinon during labor

    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: There is significant reduction in the duration of labor by augmenting labor with slow low regulated dose of syntocinon drip, thus reducing the maternal exhaustion and morbidity due to prolonged labor. There is significant reduction in the operative interference like LSCS, vacuum and forceps delivery, thus reducing maternal morbidity associated with operative interference and anesthesia. It also reduces the cost of medical services. The incidence of fetal distress and LSCS for the same does not increase in the augmentation group, indicating that syntocinon can be safely used for the augmentation. At this time, much attention in the field of obstetrics is focused on attempting to reduce the rate of cesarean section, not only to reduce maternal morbidity, but to lower the cost of medical care. Our finding is that syntocinon administration can significantly reduce the cesarean section rate. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1344-1348

  1. Effects of Gestational Maternal Undernutrition on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Rabbit Offspring

    Symeon, George K.; Goliomytis, Michael; Bizelis, Iosif; Papadomichelakis, George; Pagonopoulou, Olga; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G.; Chadio, Stella E.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10), early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7–19 of gestation, n = 10) and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10). During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (P<0.05). At kindling, C does produced litters with higher proportions of stillborn kits (P<0.05) while the total litter size (alive and stillborn kits) was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively). Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values) at slaughter (70 days of age). Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings. PMID:25671602

  2. Maternal milk as methylmercury source for suckling mice: neurotoxic effects involved with the cerebellar glutamatergic system.

    Manfroi, C B; Schwalm, F D; Cereser, V; Abreu, F; Oliveira, A; Bizarro, L; Rocha, J B T; Frizzo, M E S; Souza, D O; Farina, M

    2004-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly neurotoxic compound and several studies have reported intoxication signs in children whose mothers were exposed to this environmental toxicant. Although it is well established that the in utero exposure to MeHg causes neurological deficits in animals and humans, there is no evidence of the exclusive contribution of lactational exposure to MeHg as a possible cause of neurotoxicity in the offspring. In this study, we investigated the exclusive contribution of MeHg exposure through maternal milk on biochemical parameters related to the glutamatergic homeostasis (glutamate uptake by slices) and to the oxidative stress (total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, nonprotein hydroperoxides, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) in the cerebellum of suckling mice (Swiss albino). The same parameters were also evaluated in the cerebellum of mothers. Our results showed, for the first time, that lactational exposure to MeHg caused a high percent of inhibition (50%) on glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in pups. Contrarily, this effect was not observed in mothers, which were submitted to a direct oral exposure to MeHg (15 mg/l in drinking water). In addition, behavioral/functional changes were observed in the weaning mice exposed to MeHg. It was observed an increase in the levels of nonprotein hydroperoxides in cerebellum, and this increase was negatively correlated to the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices. This study indicates that (1) the exposure of lactating mice to MeHg causes inhibition of the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in the offspring; (2) this inhibitory effect seems to be related to increased levels of hydroperoxide. PMID:15201443

  3. Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Andersson, M. Åberg; Silva, P. I. M.; Steffensen, John Fleng; Höglund, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered and...... strains. Maternal plasma and egg cortisol levels were correlated, but no difference between the HR and LR strains was detected in either parameter. LR females produced larger eggs, and larvae with larger yolk sacs compared to HR females, however no differences in larval body size (excluding the yolk) was......; however neither mother plasma cortisol nor egg cortisol differed between strains. These results indicate that cortisol endowment from the mother to the offspring plays a minor role in the transfer of the behavioral and physiological traits which separates these strains....

  4. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes. PMID:26602298

  5. Differential Effects of Maternal Yolk Androgens on Male and Female Offspring: A Role for Sex-Specific Selection?

    Tschirren, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in animals. Although their effects on offspring phenotype are often sex-specific, the reason why sometimes sons are more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure and sometimes daughters is not well understood. Here I combine an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone concentration in the egg and quantification of selection acting on yolk androgen-sensitive traits in a natural population of great tits (Parus major) with a literature review to test the hypothesis that sex-specific selection on traits affected by yolk androgens determines which sex is more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure. An experimental increase of the testosterone content in the egg boosted the post-hatching growth of male, but not female great tit nestlings. However, I found no evidence that survival selection on body mass or size is acting differently in the two sexes. A literature review revealed that yolk androgen manipulations affect the growth of males and females differently across species. Interestingly, in studies performed in the wild a significant association between the strength and direction of sexual size dimorphism and sex-specific sensitivities to yolk androgens was observed. In studies performed in captivity, no such relationship was found. Thus, across species there is some evidence that sex-specific selection on body size influences how strongly growth trajectories of males and females are affected by maternally-derived yolk androgens. PMID:26192990

  6. Effect of essential oil from Citrus aurantium in maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly frequency in rats.

    Volpato, Gustavo T; Francia-Farje, Luis A D; Damasceno, Débora C; Oliveira, Renata V; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Kempinas, Wilma G

    2015-03-01

    Citrus aurantium L., commonly known as bitter orange, is widely used in folk medicine, but there is little data in the literature about the effects on pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of essential oil obtained from fruits of Citrus aurantium on the maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly incidence in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n minimum = 12 animals/group): G1 = control, G2 to G4 = treated with essential oil from C. aurantium at dose 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Rats were orally treated, by gavage, with plant essential oil or vehicle during pre-implantation and organogenic period (gestational day 0-14). On gestational day 20 the rats were anaesthetized and the gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and the fetuses were analyzed. Results showed that the treated group with 500 mg/kg presented decreased placental weights and placental index, although the treatment with bitter orange essential oil did not show any alteration in maternal reproductive performance, toxicological effect, changes in ossification sites, and malformation index. In conclusion, the treatment of Citrus aurantium essential oil was not teratogenic and did not alter the maternal reproductive outcome. PMID:25806990

  7. The effects of maternal dietary vitamin premixes, canthaxanthin, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the performance of progeny ducklings.

    Ren, Z Z; Wang, J P; Zeng, Q F; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Luo, Y H; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2016-03-01

    This trial studied the effects of maternal dietary vitamin premixes, and the mixture of canthaxanthin (CX) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on the performance of progeny ducklings. Four maternal diets were used under a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 kinds of vitamin premixes (Regular and High; High premix had higher levels of all vitamins except K3 than the Regular premix), and with or without the addition of the mixture of CX (6 mg/kg) and 25-OH-D3 (0.069 mg/kg). Cherry Valley duck breeders (38-wk-old) were fed with corn-wheat flour-soybean meal-based diets for 8 wk, and then eggs were collected and hatched. Healthy ducklings (equal number of female and male) from each maternal group were randomly selected and received the same commercial starter (1 to 14 d) and grower (15 to 35 d) pellet diet for 35 d. Maternal High vitamin premix increased shank pigmentation (1 d, P = 0.001), BW (1 d, P < 0.001 and 14 d, P = 0.006), BW gain (1 to 14 d, P = 0.008), G:F ratio (1 to 14 d, P = 0.007), superoxide dismutase (SOD; 1 d liver, P = 0.027 and 14 d serum, P = 0.031), and total antioxidant capacity (1 d liver, P < 0.001); and decreased protein carbonyl (14 d serum, P = 0.011) of ducklings. The mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 increased yolk pigmentation (P < 0.001); increased shank pigmentation (1 d, P < 0.001 and 14 d, P < 0.001), BW (1 d, P < 0.001), feed intake (15-35 d, P = 0.014), SOD (1 d liver, P = 0.032), and tibia ash (14 d, P = 0.010) of ducklings; and decreased malondialdehyde (P < 0.001) and protein carbonyl (P = 0.044) of yolks, and malondialdehyde (14 d serum, P < 0.001) of ducklings. In conclusion, either maternal High vitamin premix or maternal supplementation of the CX and 25-OH-D3 mixture improves growth performance and antioxidant status of ducklings. PMID:26755656

  8. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively, preparing at least their major offspring for the sexual competition they will face in the future. This new type of maternal effect in dung beetles represents a novel transgenerational response of alternative reproductive tactics to population density.

  9. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 μg OVA with 200 μg aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue

  10. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young [Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 483 Expo-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Sang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun-young [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa-Young [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Youl, E-mail: youl10@hanmail.net [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 μg OVA with 200 μg aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue.

  11. Maternal guilt.

    Rotkirch, Anna; Janhunen, Kristiina

    2010-01-01

    The recent emphasis on humans as cooperative breeders invites new research on human family dynamics. In this paper we look at maternal guilt as a consequence of conditional maternal investment. Solicited texts written by Finnish mothers with under school-aged children in 2007 (n = 63) described maternal emotions perceived as difficult and forbidden. Content analysis of guilt-inducing situations showed that guilt arose from diverging interest and negotiations between the mother and child (i.e., classic parent- offspring conflict). Also cultural expectations of extensive and perpetual high-quality maternal investment or the "motherhood myth" induced guilt in mothers. We argue that guilt plays an important role in maternal-investment regulation. Maternal guilt is predicted to vary with social and cultural context but also to show universal characteristics due to parent-offspring conflict and allomaternal manipulation. Results are preliminary and intended to stimulate research into the mechanisms, gender differences and cultural variations of guilt and other social emotions in human parenting. PMID:22947781

  12. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcome: A randomized clinical trial

    Mahdieh Mojibian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been supposed to defend against adverse gestational outcomes. Objective: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted to assess the effects of 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks supplementation on the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm labor, vitamin D status at term and neonatal outcomes contrasted with pregnant women that received 400 IU vitamin D daily. Materials and Methods: 500 women with gestational age 12-16 weeks and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH D less than 30 ng/ml randomly categorized in two groups. Group A received 400 IU vitamin D daily and group B 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks orally until delivery. Maternal and Neonatal outcomes were assessed in two groups. Results: The incidence of GDM in group B was significantly lower than group A (6.7% versus 13.4% and odds ratio (95% Confidence interval was 0.46 (0.24-0.87 (P=0.01. The mean ± SD level of 25 (OH D at the time of delivery in mothers in group B was significantly higher than A (37.9 ± 19.8 versus 27.2 ± 18.8 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.001. There were no differences in the incidence of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm labor, and low birth weight between two groups. The mean level of 25 (OH D in cord blood of group B was significantly higher than group A (37.9 ± 18 versus 29.7 ± 19ng/ml, respectively. Anthropometric measures between neonates were not significantly different. Conclusion: Our study showed 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks decreased the incidence of GDM.

  13. Effects of somatotropin on the conceptus, uterus, and ovary during maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle.

    Lucy, M C; Thatcher, W W; Collier, R J; Simmen, F A; Ko, Y; Savio, J D; Badinga, L

    1995-01-01

    Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on ovarian and uterine function and the production of components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system were examined during the period of maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle. Lactating dairy cows were treated with 25 mg/d rbST (n = 8) or saline (n = 8) for 16 d after estrus. Ovaries, uteri, and conceptuses were collected on Day 17 after estrus. The length (millimeters) of the conceptus was recorded. The concentration of IGF-I and the content of IGF-binding proteins (BP) in uterine flushings were determined. Corpora lutea (CL) were weighed, and the number of follicles (> or = 2 mm in diameter) were counted. Follicular fluid from the largest and second-largest follicles was assayed for the concentration of IGF-I, IGFBP, progesterone, and estradiol. The length of the conceptus and the total amount of IGF-I in uterine fluid were similar for rbST and control. Recombinant bST increased 1) the weight of the CL, 2) the number of largest follicles (10 to 15 mm in diameter), 3) the concentration of IGF-I in the follicular fluid, 4) the follicular fluid content of IGFBP of the largest estrogenic follicle, and 5) the quantity of IGFBP in uterine flushings. The concentration of progesterone in the follicular fluid tended to be increased in rbST-treated cows, whereas the concentration of estradiol was similar to that of control cows. The concentration of progesterone in plasma was similar for rbST compared with control. In conclusion, the administration of rbST in lactating dairy cows for 16 d after estrus did not alter the growth of the conceptus collected on Day 17. The greatest responses to rbST were found within the ovary, where rbST increased the weight of the CL and altered the amount of IGF-I and IGFBP in the follicular fluid. PMID:7542581

  14. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-10-28

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

  15. Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development

    Schmidt GS

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

  16. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development

  17. Effects of maternal dietary olive oil on pathways involved in diabetic embryopathy.

    Higa, Romina; Roberti, Sabrina Lorena; Musikant, Daniel; Mazzucco, María Belén; White, Verónica; Jawerbaum, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Maternal diabetes induces a pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory intrauterine environment related to the induction of congenital anomalies. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that regulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. We investigated whether maternal diets supplemented with olive oil, enriched in oleic acid, a PPAR agonist, can regulate the expression of PPAR system genes, levels of lipoperoxidation and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats. The embryos and decidua from diabetic rats showed reduced expression of PPARs and increased concentration of lipoperoxidation, MMPs and TIMPs, whereas the maternal treatments enriched in olive oil increased PPAR? in embryos and PPAR? and PPAR?-coactivator-1? expression in decidua, and increased TIMPs concentrations and decreased lipoperoxidation and MMPs activity in both tissues. Thus, maternal diets enriched in olive oil can regulate embryonic and decidual PPAR system genes expression and reduce the pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory environment during rat early organogenesis. PMID:25246140

  18. Perceived parenting stress in the course of postpartum depression: the buffering effect of maternal bonding.

    Reck, C; Zietlow, A-L; Müller, M; Dubber, S

    2016-06-01

    Research investigating maternal bonding and parenting stress in the course of postpartum depression is lacking. Aim of the study was to investigate the development and potential mediation of both constructs in the course of postpartum depression. n = 31 mothers with postpartum depression according to DSM-IV and n = 32 healthy controls completed the German version of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index at two measuring times: acute depression (T1) and remission (T2). At T1, the clinical group reported lower bonding and higher parenting stress. Bonding was found to partially mediate the link between maternal diagnosis and parenting stress. Furthermore, the clinical group reported lower bonding and higher parenting stress averaged over both measurement times. However, at T2, the clinical group still differed from the controls even though they improved in bonding and reported less parenting stress. A significant increase of bonding was also observed in the control group. Maternal bonding seems to buffer the negative impact of postpartum depression on parenting stress. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on maternal bonding and mother-infant interaction in order to prevent impairment of the mother-child relationship. PMID:26592705

  19. Effect of Sustained Maternal Responsivity on Later Vocabulary Development in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Brady, Nancy; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace; Keller, Juliana; Sterling, Audra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored whether sustained maternal responsivity (a parent-child interaction style characterized by warmth, nurturance, and stability as well as specific behaviors, such as contingent positive responses to child initiations) was a significant variable predicting vocabulary development of children with fragile X syndrome…

  20. Gender-dependent effects of maternal deprivation on the neurodevelopment of newborn rats

    József Farkas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Early maternal deprivation, a model of neonatal stress, has been shown to cause several short- and long-term neurochemical and behavioral deficits. Little is known about the early neurobehavioral development after postnatal stress. The aim our study was to investigate the development of reflexes and motor coordination in male and female pups subjected to maternal deprivation. Pups were removed from their mothers from postnatal day 1-14, for 3 hours daily. Daily testing during the first 3 weeks was performed for somatic and reflex development (crossed extensor, grasping, placing, gait, righting and sensory reflexes, and negative geotaxis. Timely performance of negative geotaxis, righting and gait were also tested daily. Motor coordination and open-field tests were performed on postnatal weeks 3-5 (rotarod, elevated grid walk, footfault, rope suspension, inclined board and walk initiation tests. The results revealed that a 3-hour-long daily maternal separation did not lead to a marked delay or enhancement in reflex development and motor coordination. A subtle enhancement was observed in the appearance of hindlimb grasp and gait reflexes, and a better performance in footfault test in male rats suffering from maternal deprivation. In contrast, female rats displayed a slight delay in forelimb grasp and air righting reflex appearance, and surface righting performance. Open-field activity was not altered. In summary, our present observations indicate that maternal deprivation does not induce drastic changes in early neurodevelopment. Gender differences described in this study could help to understand how gender-specific differences in early life experience-induced stress-related disorders appear in adult life. Support: OTKA:K72592;F67830;78480

  1. Effects of treadmill exercise-intensity on short-term memory in the rats born of the lipopolysaccharide-exposed maternal rats

    Kim, Kijeong; SUNG, YUN-HEE; Seo, Jin-Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-01-01

    Maternal infection is an important factor causing neonatal brain injury and later developmental disability. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise intensity on short-term memory, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in the rats born of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed maternal rats. The rats were divided into six groups: control group, mild-intensity exercise group, moderate...

  2. Effect of Village Health Team Home Visits and Mobile Phone Consultations on Maternal and Newborn Care Practices in Masindi and Kiryandongo, Uganda: A Community-Intervention Trial

    Mangwi Ayiasi, Richard; Kolsteren, Patrick; Batwala, Vincent; Criel, Bart; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organisation recommends home visits conducted by Community Health Workers (in Uganda known as Village Health Teams—VHTs) in order to improve maternal and newborn health. This study measured the effect of home visits combined with mobile phone consultations on maternal and newborn care practices. Method In a community intervention trial design 16 health centres in Masindi and Kiryandongo districts, Uganda were randomly and equally allocated to one of two arms: con...

  3. The Effect of Intramuscular Administration of Atropine and Hyoscine Combination on Labor Progress and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Primigravid Women

    Mehri Jamilian; Maryam Karamali; Bahman Sadeghi; Maasoumeh Ghazi Mirsaeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported that neonatal and maternal complications as well as duration of labor could be diminished through labor management. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of intramuscular (IM) administration of atropine and hyoscine combination on labor progress and maternal and neonatal outcomes in primigravid women admitted to Taleghani Hospital of Arak, Iran. Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 216 primigravid women were randomly a...

  4. Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function

    Oliveira A.O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1 compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1. Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively. Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for control animals and showed lower differentiation compared to fetuses from the control group. These effects were probably caused by caloric restriction, hypoxia and reduction of umbilical cord length.

  5. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

    2015-02-01

    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information and data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The cohort was established in 1994 and baseline information from the enrolled 100,418 pregnancies was gathered from 1996 to 2002. At their first antenatal visit pregnant women were invited to participate in the cohort by their general practitioner. To contribute the women had to be pregnant, have intentions of carrying the pregnancy to term, reside in Denmark and speak Danish sufficiently well to participate in telephone interviews. When enrolled the women were asked to participate in two telephone interviews during pregnancy at approximately 12-14 and 30-32 weeks of gestation and two after birth when the child was six and 18 months old and a follow-up questionnaire at age seven years.  Exposure to work-related stress was assessed based on information from the first interview on two questions regarding job control and job demands. These questions were interpreted as dimensions of demands and control, and hereafter used as a proxy for the dimensions of the job strain model by Karasek.  Based on their answers, the women were divided into the four job strain categories: high strain, active, passive and low strain. Gestational age at birth, birthweight and congenital malformations were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The outcome variable on asthma and atopic dermatitis were based on maternal self-reports from the fourth (child 18 months) and fifth (child seven years old) interviews/questionnaires. All studies in the thesis were based on protocols describing methods, analyses etc. prior to handling. No associations were found between exposure to high strain (high demands, low control) during pregnancy and preterm birth, small for gestational age, congenital malformations and asthma in the children when compared to women exposed to low strain (low demands, high control). A protective effect on large for gestational age was observed when exposed to high strain, suggesting an impact on the birthweight although it was not seen among the small for gestational age children. An association between high strain exposure and ever atopic dermatitis in seven-year-old children was observed, with 15% higher odds of atopic dermatitis when compared to women exposed to low strain during their pregnancy. The effects of high strain found were modest, but even modest effects might be relevant with high prevalence as with atopic dermatitis (lifetime prevalence of 15-20%). The studies included in this thesis add to the rather limited knowledge of prenatal exposure to work-related stress end health implications for the child. In the Danish work environment recommendations for women being pregnant or breastfeeding work-related stress is only mentioned very briefly. Findings from this thesis do not support rewriting in regards to risk of preterm birth, low birth weight or malformations. Results did show effects in regards to allergic diseases, but as the study is the only one of its kind, other studies are needed to replicate the findings if to reconsider the recommendations for pregnant women. Future research could benefit of validation of the use of two single-item measures of job strain compared to fully validated multi-item instruments. A shift toward more "functional endpoints" as overweight and cognitive behavioural disorders in the children could be of relevance.     PMID:25634513

  6. Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?

    Silvia Fuentes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces “detrimental” effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first postnatal days and exposure to a “substitute” mother. The maternal care of biological and “substitute” mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM, acoustic startle response (ASR and forced swim test (FST. In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects. Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behaviour by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT. ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the “substitute” mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of “detrimental” and “beneficial” effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behaviour. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may “buffer” the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner.

  7. Effect of maternal dietary energy and protein on live performance and yield dynamics of broiler progeny from young breeders.

    Moraes, T G V; Pishnamazi, A; Mba, E T; Wenger, I I; Renema, R A; Zuidhof, M J

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate effects of female broiler breeder dietary ME and CP during rearing and dietary ME during early lay on broiler offspring performance and carcass yield dynamics. A factorial arrangement of treatments, with 2 ME levels, and 2 balanced protein levels from 3 to 24 wk, followed by 2 ME levels in the lay diets, and in the broilers, 2 sexes. A total of 1,635 broilers were housed in 32 pens, with 8 replicate pens according to maternal laying diet and sex. Maternal pullet diets were nested within pen (n = 9 to 14, depending on hatch rate). The broilers originated from 384 Ross 708 hens, which had been fed diets containing high (2,736 kcal/kg, HEREAR) or low ME (2,528 kcal/kg, LEREAR) combined with either high (15.3%, HPREAR) or low balanced protein (13.7% CP, LPREAR). Equal numbers of hens from each pullet treatment were then fed either a high (2,900 kcal/kg, HELAY) or low ME diet (2,800 kcal/kg, LELAY) containing 15% CP. Broilers were hatched from eggs collected at 28 wk of age, and fed identical diets. Broilers were individually weighed weekly. Serial dissections were conducted to evaluate yield breast muscle and abdominal fatpad dynamics. At 39 d, 180 broilers were processed to measure carcass yield. Female progeny of hens with the lowest CP intake during rearing (HEREAR × LPREAR) were lighter from 22 to 36 d of age than female offspring from hens that consumed more CP as pullets. We predicted the heaviest female progeny would result from an ME:CP ratio of 18.25 kcal/g in maternal pullet diets (P = 0.0063). Broiler breast yield increased when maternal EM:CP ratio increased after switching from pullet to laying diets. Hens fed HEREAR were fatter and had fatter progeny than LEREAR. Maternal diet, even during the pullet phase, influenced progeny growth and yield. PMID:25193254

  8. Effects of treadmill exercise-intensity on short-term memory in the rats born of the lipopolysaccharide-exposed maternal rats.

    Kim, Kijeong; Sung, Yun-Hee; Seo, Jin-Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Maternal infection is an important factor causing neonatal brain injury and later developmental disability. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise intensity on short-term memory, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in the rats born of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed maternal rats. The rats were divided into six groups: control group, mild-intensity exercise group, moderate-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed group, maternal LPS-exposed and mild-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed and moderate-intensity exercise group. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The exercise load consisted of running at the speed of 8 m/min for the mild-intensity exercise groups and 14 m/min for moderate-intensity exercise groups. The latency in the step-down avoidance task was deter-mined for the short-term memory. Immunohistochemistry for 5-bro-mo-2'-deoxyuridine was performed to determine hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Western blot analysis was performed for the detection of BDNF and TrkB expression. In the present study, tread-mill exercise improved short-term memory deteriorated by maternal LPS exposure. Treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. Treadmill exercise increased BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. These effects of treadmill exercise were similarly appeared at both mild-intensity and moderate-intensity. PMID:26730379

  9. Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring

    Zhang Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2 μg/d, normal iodine (NI, 5–6 μg/d, and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16 μg/d. The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45 of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12 weeks of treatment (before pregnancy, iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P  0.05, all On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A level than the NI controls on PN7 (P  0.05. NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P > 0.05. Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were mild and temporary, likely related to the changes in hippocampal protein expressions of BDNF and NSP-A.

  10. Effect of maternal diabetes on female offspring / Efeito do diabetes materno na prole feminina

    Juliana de Oliveira, Martins; Maurício Isaac, Panício; Marcos Paulo Suehiro, Dantas; Guiomar Nascimento, Gomes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Avaliar o efeito do diabetes materno sobre a pressão arterial e a função renal da prole feminina, bem como verificar se as alterações observadas se exacerbam durante a prenhez. Métodos O diabetes mellitus foi induzido em ratas com a adminis [...] tração de estreptozocina em dose única, uma semana antes do cruzamento. Durante a prenhez, foram feitas medidas da pressão arterial por pletismografia. No 20o dia da prenhez, os animais foram colocados durante 24 horas em gaiolas metabólicas para obtenção de amostras de urina. Após a retirada dos animais das gaiolas, foram obtidas amostras de sangue. Um mês após a prenhez, foram obtidas novas amostras de sangue e urina para as determinações. A função renal foi avaliada por meio de proteinúria, ureia plasmática, creatinina plasmática, carga excretada de creatinina, fluxo urinário e clearance de creatinina. Resultados As fêmeas da prole de mães diabéticas apresentaram elevação da pressão arterial e redução do ritmo de filtração glomerular em relação ao grupo controle. Conclusão A hiperglicemia durante a gestação foi capaz de causar elevação da pressão arterial e disfunção renal na prole de sexo feminino. Abstract in english Objective To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on the blood pressure and kidney function of female offspring, as well as if such changes exacerbate during pregnancy. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in female rats with the administ [...] ration of streptozotocin in a single dose, one week before mating. During pregnancy, blood pressure was measured through plethysmography. On the 20th day of pregnancy, the animals were placed for 24 hours in metabolic cages to obtain urine samples. After the animals were removed from the cages, blood samples were withdrawn. One month after pregnancy, new blood and urine sample were collected. Kidney function was evaluated through proteinuria, plasma urea, plasma creatinine, creatinine excretion rate, urinary flow, and creatinine clearance. Results The female offspring from diabetic mothers showed an increase in blood pressure, and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate in relation to the control group. Conclusion Hyperglycemia during pregnancy was capable of causing an increase in blood pressure and kidney dysfunction in the female offspring.

  11. Effects of maternal dietary exposure to cadmium during pregnancy on mammary cancer risk among female offspring

    Jennifer Davis; Galam Khan; Mary Beth Martin; Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since heavy metal cadmium is an endocrine disrupting chemical, we investigated whether maternal exposure to cadmium during the pregnancy alters mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring. Methods: From gestation day 10 to day 19, pregnant rat dams were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93G) diet containing 39% energy from fat (baseline diet), or the baseline diet containing moderate (75 μg/kg of feed) or high (150 μg/kg) cadmium levels. Some dams were injected wit...

  12. Neonatally Induced Mild Diabetes in Rats and Its Effect on Maternal, Placental, and Fetal Parameters

    Yuri Karen Sinzato; Gustavo Tadeu Volpato; Isabela Lovizutto Iessi; Aline Bueno; Iracema Mattos Paranhos Calderon; Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge; Débora Cristina Damasceno

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess placental changes and reproductive outcomes in neonatally induced mild diabetic dams and fetal development in their offspring. At birth, female rats were assigned either to control or diabetic group (100?mg of streptozotocin/Kg, subcutaneously). At adulthood, the female rats were mated. During pregnancy, the blood glucose levels and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. At term, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal and placental weight, and p...

  13. Increased consumer fitness following transfer of toxin tolerance to offspring via maternal effects

    Gustafsson, Susanne; Rengefors, Karin; Hansson, Lars-Anders

    2005-01-01

    Adaptations and, counteradaptations are common in coevolving predatorprey systems, but little is known of the role of maternal transfer of adaptive traits in mediating species interactions. Here, we focused on tolerance against cyanobacterial toxins and asked whether this tolerance was an induced defense developed during Daphnia's lifetime, whether it was a trait that is constantly expressed, and whether such tolerance to the toxin can be transferred to the next generation through materna...

  14. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-01-01

    Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of...

  15. Effects of maternal obesity on early and long-term outcomes for offspring

    Stirrat LI; Reynolds RM

    2014-01-01

    Laura I Stirrat,1,2 Rebecca M Reynolds2,3 1Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Tommy's Centre for Maternal and Fetal Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 3Endocrinology Unit, University/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The prevalence of m...

  16. Alternative Strategies to Reduce Maternal Mortality in India: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Hu, Delphine; Goldie, Sue J.; Sweet, Steven Goldie; Carvalho, Natalie Ida; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli

    2010-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-quarter of all pregnancy- and delivery-related maternal deaths worldwide occur in India. Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in India. Methods and Findings: Country- and region-specific data were synthesized using a computer-based model that simulates the natural histor...

  17. Neuroplasticity in the maternal hippocampus: Relation to cognition and effects of repeated stress

    Jodi L. Pawluski; Kelly G Lambert; Kinsley, Craig H

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming clear that the female brain has an inherent plasticity that is expressed during reproduction. The changes that occur benefit the offspring, which in turn secures the survival of the mother’s genetic legacy. Thus, the onset of maternal motivation involves basic mechanisms from genetic expression profiles, to hormone release, to hormone-neuron interactions, all of which fundamentally change the neural architecture – and for a period of time that extends, interestingly, beyond the...

  18. Nobody Home: The Effect of Maternal Labor Force Participation on Long-Term Child Outcomes

    Haaland, Venke Furre; Rege, Mari; Votruba, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how mother’s employment during childhood affects long term child outcomes. We utilize rich longitudinal data from Norway covering the entire Norwegian population between the years 1970 to 2007. The data allows us to match all family members and to measure maternal labor force participation throughout the child’s entire childhood. Our empirical approach exploits the variation in exposure to a working mother that exists across older and younger siblings in different family types....

  19. Use of a computerised maternity information system to improve clinical effectiveness: thromboprophylaxis at caesarean section

    Taylor, G.; McKenzie, C.; Mires, G.

    2000-01-01

    An audit of the introduction of a protocol for thromboprophylaxis at caesarean section revealed over treatment of low risk women and the under treatment of high risk women. A routine computer generated risk assessment profile was introduced as part of a maternity information system. Reaudit showed a significant improvement in adherence to the thromboprophylaxis protocol in all risk groups.


Keywords: thromboprophylaxis; caesarean section; computerised assessment

  20. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody levels.

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Alam, Jahangir; Afsar, Nure Alam; Huda, Nazmul; Kabir, Yearul; Qadri, Firdausi; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy. Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. TT and PT anti-IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes was measured at 15 wk. Plasma antibodies were measured at 6 wk (pre-vaccination), 15 wk and 1 y of age. Prior to vaccination, TT and PT antibody were detected in 94.6% and 15.2% of infants. At 15 wk anti-TT-IgG and anti-PT-IgG in plasma was increased by 7-9 fold over pre-vaccination levels, while at 1 y plasma anti-TT-IgG was decreased by approximately 5-fold from the peak and had returned to near the pre-vaccination level. At 1 y plasma anti-PT-IgG was decreased by 2-fold 1 yfrom the 15 wk level. However, 89.5% and 82.3% of infants at 1 y had protective levels of anti-TT and anti-PT IgG, respectively. Pre-vaccination plasma IgG levels were associated with lower vaccine-specific IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes at 15 wk (p < 0.10). This apparent inhibition was seen for anti-TT-IgG at both 15 wk (p < 0.05) and t 1 y (p < 0.10) of age. In summary, we report an apparent inhibitory effect of passively derived maternal antibody on an infants' own antibody response to the same vaccine. However, since the cut-off values for protective titers are low, infants had protective antibody levels throughout infancy. PMID:27176823

  1. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Mediates the Effect of Child Maltreatment on Behavioral and Physiological Functioning

    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E. Mark; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socio-emotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3–6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on two consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  2. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

  3. Effects of early maternal separation of lambs and rearing with minimal and maximal human contact on meat quality.

    Napolitano, F; Caroprese, M; Girolami, A; Marino, R; Muscio, A; Sevi, A

    2006-04-01

    The present study aims to assess the effect of gentling on behaviour and meat quality of lambs. Thirty-two Comisana lambs were divided into four groups of eight animals: ER (ewe reared), AR (artificially reared) and the corresponding gentled groups ERG and ARG. The provision of human contacts stimulated gentled subjects to explore, whereas the proportion of idling subjects was reduced (Panimals, although animals benefiting from both maternal care and gentling, had the highest dressing percentage (Panimals than from ungentled subjects (Panimal relationship can play an important role in affecting welfare, productive performances and meat quality of lambs, in particular when young subjects are prematurely separated from mothers. PMID:22061873

  4. Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats

    Zhao-Xiang Bian, Man Zhang, Quan-Bin Han, Hong-Xi Xu, Joseph JY Sung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021, a Chinese herbal formula, and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS: JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials. All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005. In a neonatal maternal separation (NMS model, male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14, or no specific handling (NH. Starting from postnatal day 60, rats were administered JCM-16021 (2, 4, 8 g/kg per day orally twice a day for 28 d. Pain threshold pressure and electromyographic activities of external oblique muscles in response to colorectal distention recorded with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International, were tested as pain indices. Changes in serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA concentrations in the colon of rats were analyzed; the enterochromaffin cell numbers and serotonin transporter in the colon of rats were also evaluated with an immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: NMS treatment significantly reduced pain threshold pressure (37.4 ± 1.4 mmHg, as compared to that of NH rats (57.7 ± 1.9 mmHg, P < 0.05. After JCM-16021 treatment, the pain threshold pressure significantly increased when compared to that before treatment (34.2 ± 0.9 mmHg vs 52.8 ± 2.3 mmHg in the high dose group, 40.2 ± 1.6 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.3 mmHg in the middle dose group, and 39.3 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.6 mmHg in the low dose group, P < 0.05. Also JCM-16021 significantly and dose-dependently decreased electromyographic activity to the graded colorectal distension (CRD, (the mean ?AUC values were: 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.06 ± 0.18, 1.22 ± 0.24 in the high dose group; 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.68 ± 0.17, 1.27 ± 0.26, 1.8 ± 0.3 in the middle dose group; and 0.29 ± 0.06, 0.8 ± 0.16, 1.53 ± 0.24, 2.1 ± 0.21 in the low dose group for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg, as compared to the NMS vehicle group. The mean ?AUC values were: 0.57 ± 0.12, 1.33 ± 0.18, 2.57 ± 0.37, 3.08 ± 0.37 for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg (P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly reduced the 5-HT concentrations (from high, middle and low dosage groups: 60.25 ± 5.98 ng/100 mg, 60.32 ± 4.22 ng/100 mg, 73.31 ± 7.65 ng/100 mg, as compared to the NMS vehicle groups (93.11 ± 9.85 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; and increased the 5-HIAA concentrations (after treatment, from high, middle and low dosage groups: 54.24 ± 3.27 ng/100 mg, 50.34 ± 1.26 ng/100 mg, 51.37 ± 2.13 ng/100 mg when compared to that in the NMS vehicle group (51.75 ± 1.98 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; but did not change the enterochromaffin cell numbers in the colon of rats. In addition, NMS rats had higher SERT expression (n = 10 than NH rats (n = 8, P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly decreased SERT expression when compared to the NMS group (P < 0.01-0.001.CONCLUSION: JCM-16021 can attenuate visceral hypersensitivity, and this analgesic effect may be mediated through the serotonin signaling pathway in the colon of rats.

  5. Reciprocal crosses between two populations of Trissolcus vassilievi (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) reveal maternal effects on thermal phenotypes.

    Iranipour, S; BenaMolaei, P; Asgari, S; Michaud, J P

    2015-06-01

    The egg parasitoid Trissolcus vassilievi (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is a significant natural enemy of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), the most important pest of wheat in Iran. This study examined the developmental time and egg-to-adult survival of two geographically separate populations of T. vassilievi on two corresponding host populations at five constant temperatures ranging from 15.0 to 35.0 ± 1°C. No wasps of either population emerged at 15.0°C and the temperature threshold for development was similar between populations, ranging from 13.1 ± 0.3 to 13.8 ± 0.4°C for males and 12.2 ± 0.1 to 12.6 ± 0.1°C for females, but the thermal constant varied with gender and parasitoid population. Development of wasps from the colder Tabriz location was slower, with thermal constants for males and females of 172.6 ± 3.1 and 204.1 ± 1.2 degree-days, respectively, compared to Varamin wasps with 164.7 ± 3.0 and 195.6 ± 1.3 degree-days, respectively. Based on genetic inheritance patterns, reciprocal crosses between the two populations were expected to result in females with thermal phenotypes intermediate to their parental populations, and males that resembled their mothers. However, female progeny of crosses more closely resembled their maternal population, indicating a maternal effect on thermal phenotype. Furthermore, the magnitude of the maternal effect on the thermal constant was asymmetric and was more strongly expressed by Varmin than Tabriz females. These results suggest the possibility of using selective crosses between wasp populations, in combination with artificial selection in the laboratory, to tune the thermal phenotype of parasitoids to specific regions prior to augmentative releases. PMID:25809416

  6. Decreasing maternal nutrient intake during the final third of pregnancy in previously overnourished adolescent sheep: effects on maternal nutrient partitioning and feto-placental development.

    Redmer, D A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Johnson, M L; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Wallace, J M

    2012-02-01

    When pregnant adolescent sheep are overnourished during pregnancy normal nutrient partitioning priorities to the gravid uterus are altered, leading to impaired placental development and fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that decreasing dietary intake in overnourished dams during the final third of gestation may reverse this inappropriate nutrient partitioning in favor of the fetus. Adolescent ewes were offered control (C; n = 12) or high (H; n = 20) dietary intakes to induce normal vs. compromised placental development. Ten ewes receiving the H intake were switched to a low intake at d90 of gestation (HL). Between d90 to 130, HL dams lost weight and adiposity, and metabolic hormones and glucose at d130 were less than H and similar to C. In spite of these maternal changes, at d130 fetal bodyweight was equivalent in HL and H groups and ∼20% less than in C. A greater degree of brain sparing was evident in HL fetuses and glucose and insulin concentrations were more perturbed than in H fetuses. Relative to C, placentome weight was reduced by 46 and 32% in H and HL and the fetal:placentome weight ratio was H > HL > C. Placental vascular morphology was largely unaffected by maternal diet during late gestation but mRNA expression of five angiogenic genes was up-regulated in the fetal cotyledon of HL pregnancies, commensurate with blood vessel remodeling. Nevertheless, overfeeding to promote maternal anabolic growth during adolescent pregnancy impairs feto-placental development that cannot be rescued by reducing maternal intake during the final third of gestation. PMID:22154692

  7. Simulation analysis to test the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits with direct and maternal effects

    Bouix Jacques

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulations were used to study the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits governed by direct and maternal effects. To test model adequacy, several data sets were simulated according to different underlying genetic assumptions and analysed by comparing the correct and incorrect models. Results showed that omission of one of the random effects leads to an incorrect decomposition of the other components. If maternal genetic effects exist but are neglected, direct heritability is overestimated, and sometimes more than double. The bias depends on the value of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects. To study the influence of data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters, several populations were simulated, with different degrees of known paternity and different levels of genetic connectedness between flocks. Results showed that the lack of connectedness affects estimates when flocks have different genetic means because no distinction can be made between genetic and environmental differences between flocks. In this case, direct and maternal heritabilities are under-estimated, whereas maternal environmental effects are overestimated. The insufficiency of pedigree leads to biased estimates of genetic parameters.

  8. Assessing the Effect of mHealth Interventions in Improving Maternal and Neonatal Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Sondaal, Stephanie Felicie Victoria; Browne, Joyce Linda; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Borgstein, Alexander; Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; Verwijs, Mirjam; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal and neonatal mortality remains high in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Availability and use of mobile phones is increasing rapidly with 90% of persons in developing countries having a mobile-cellular subscription. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been proposed as effective solutions to improve maternal and neonatal health. This systematic review assessed the effect of mHealth interventions that support pregnant women during the antenatal, birth and postnatal period in LMIC. Methods The review was registered with Prospero (CRD42014010292). Six databases were searched from June 2014–April 2015, accompanied by grey literature search using pre-defined search terms linked to pregnant women in LMIC and mHealth. Quality of articles was assessed with an adapted Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Because of heterogeneity in outcomes, settings and study designs a narrative synthesis of quantitative results of intervention studies on maternal outcomes, neonatal outcomes, service utilization, and healthy pregnancy education was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative results were synthesized with a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis. Results In total, 3777 articles were found, of which 27 studies were included: twelve intervention studies and fifteen descriptive studies. mHealth interventions targeted at pregnant women increased maternal and neonatal service utilization shown through increased antenatal care attendance, facility-service utilization, skilled attendance at birth, and vaccination rates. Few articles assessed the effect on maternal or neonatal health outcomes, with inconsistent results. Conclusion mHealth interventions may be effective solutions to improve maternal and neonatal service utilization. Further studies assessing mHealth’s impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes are recommended. The emerging trend of strong experimental research designs with randomized controlled trials, combined with feasibility research, government involvement and integration of mHealth interventions into the healthcare system is encouraging and can pave the way to improved decision making on best practice implementation of mHealth interventions. PMID:27144393

  9. The importance of maternal nutrition for health

    Irene Cetin; Arianna Laoreti

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in maternal and child health and it is widely recognized that optimum nutrition in early life is the foundation for long-term health. A healthy maternal dietary pattern, along with adequate maternal body composition, metabolism and placental nutrient supply, reduces the risk of maternal, fetal and long-term effects in the offspring. While undernutrition is mainly an issue of low-income countries, malnutrition, due to poor quality diet, is becoming a global health ...

  10. Effects of Maternal Choline Supplementation on the Septohippocampal Cholinergic System in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    Kelley, Christy M; Ash, Jessica A; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Alldred, Melissa J; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Strupp, Barbara J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology including hippocampal cholinergic projection system degeneration. Here we determined the effects of age and maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on hippocampal cholinergic deficits in Ts65Dn mice compared to 2N mice sacrificed at 6-8 and 14-18 months of age. Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates sacrificed at ages 6-8 and 14-18 mos were used for an aging study and Ts65Dn and 2N mice derived from Ts65Dn dams were maintained on either a choline-supplemented or a choline-controlled diet (conception to weaning) and examined at 14-18 mos for MCS studies. In the latter, mice were behaviorally tested on the radial arm Morris water maze (RAWM) and hippocampal tissue was examined for intensity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. Hippocampal ChAT activity was evaluated in a separate cohort. ChAT-positive fiber innervation was significantly higher in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus in Ts65Dn mice compared with 2N mice, independent of age or maternal diet. Similarly, hippocampal ChAT activity was significantly elevated in Ts65Dn mice compared to 2N mice, independent of maternal diet. A significant increase with age was seen in hippocampal cholinergic innervation of 2N mice, but not Ts65Dn mice. Degree of ChAT intensity correlated negatively with spatial memory ability in unsupplemented 2N and Ts65Dn mice, but positively in MCS 2N mice. The increased innervation produced by MCS appears to improve hippocampal function, making this a therapy that may be exploited for future translational approaches in human DS. PMID:26391045

  11. Maternal and ambient environmental effects of light on germination in Plantago lanceolata: correlated responses to selection on leaf length

    1. Seeds from artificial selection lines were exposed to different maternal and ambient conditions, simulating sunlight and vegetation shade. 2. Lines selected for longer leaves also produced larger seeds, indicating a positive genetic correlation between leaf length and seed size. 3. Light conditions during maturation had no large effect on seed size. 4. Seed germination was reduced by a low ratio of red to far-red light (R/FR ratio) in the ambient environment. 5. Seeds maturated under simulated vegetation shade germinated less readily and were more inhibited by a low ambient R/FR ratio than seeds maturated under full sunlight or R/FR-neutral shade. Thus, low R/FR-ratios in the maternal and ambient environment operated synergistically. 6. Large genotypic variation in the germination responses to both maternal and ambient light conditions was found among and within selection lines, indicating that such responses might have the potential to evolve in response to natural selection. 7. Artificial selection for leaf length had affected seed germination characteristics but correlated responses and thus genetic correlations largely depended on light conditions in the selective environment. Selection for longer leaves under a low R/FR ratio increased seed dormancy and plasticity of germination in response to the R/FR ratio. However, in the opposite selective environment selection for longer leaves reduced seed dormancy and plasticity to the R/FR ratio. It is argued that leaf length and seed germination characteristics are somehow linked by shared physiological mechanisms, which may facilitate concerted changes in shade avoidance responses

  12. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study

    Abdulahi Abdulreshid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ≥ six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Effects of maternal diet and environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides on newborn weight in Southern Spain.

    Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Heras-Gonzalez, L; Ibañez-Peinado, D; Rivas, A; Olea-Serrano, F

    2016-08-01

    An appropriate eating pattern is essential during childbearing years and pregnancy to ensure a healthy pregnancy and newborn. Our group developed a Mediterranean Diet Score for Pregnancy (MDS-P) based on the MD and the specific need of pregnant women for Fe, Ca, and folic acid. Humans are daily exposed to endocrine disruptors, which may alter body weight and hormone system regulation. This study analyzed the relationship of maternal diet and in utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with newborn weight in mothers and newborns from Southern Spain. Higher MDS-P score, folic acid supplementation, and greater in utero exposure to endosulfan-diol and endosulfan-1 were related to higher newborn weight. MDS-P score was not associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy (above or below 12 Kg). Residues from one or more OCPs were detected in 96.5% of umbilical cord serum samples from 320 newborns. The most frequent residues were endosulfans (96.5%). The presence of endosulfan-diol, endosulfan-I, p-p´DDT, folic acid supplementation, and a higher MDS-P (>8) were predictive factors for newborn overweight (>3500 g). Conversely, smoking during pregnancy, shorter gestation time (32-36 vs. 37-39 weeks), and lesser maternal weight gain during pregnancy predicted lower newborn weight (<2500 g). These results indicate prenatal exposure to OCPs in Southern Spain and its possible impact on the weight of healthy full-term newborns. Further studies are warranted to interpret the consequences of this exposure and identify preventive measures. Adherence to the MD and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy emerged as predictive factors for overweight in newborns. PMID:27174826

  14. Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood

    Kim, Byung Mi; Choi, Anna L.; Ha, Eun Hee; Pedersen, Lise; Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pal; Hong, Yun Chul; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The cord-blood mercury concentration is usually considered the best biomarker in regard to developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity. However, the mercury concentration may be affected by the binding of methylmercury to hemoglobin and perhaps also selenium. As cord-blood mercury analyses appear to...... adjustment for other exposure biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in...

  15. Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol

    Madhu Gupta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM, launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective: To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design: A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012 and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the broader themes across the interviews and FGDs. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research.

  16. Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies

    Emre Yanikkerem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364

  17. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy: Do the Effects on Innate (Toll-Like Receptor Function Have Implications for Subsequent Allergic Disease?

    Prescott Susan L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Subtle increases in immaturity of immune function in early infancy have been implicated in the rising susceptibility to allergic disease, particularly relative impairment of type 1 interferon (IFN-γ responses in the neonatal period. Although genetic predisposition is a clear risk factor, the escalating rates of allergic disease in infancy suggest that environmental factors are also implicated. We previously showed that maternal smoking in pregnancy may impair neonatal IFN-γ responses. Our more recent studies now indicate that this common avoidable toxic exposure is also associated with attenuation of innate immune function, with attenuated Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated microbial responses (including TLR-2, -3, -4, and -9 responses. Most notably, the effects were more marked if the mothers were also allergic. In this review, we discuss the significance of these observations in the context of the emerging hypothesis that variations in TLR function in early life may be implicated in allergic propensity. There is now growing evidence that many of the key pathways involved in subsequent T-cell programming and regulation (namely, antigen-presenting cells and regulatory T cells rely heavily on microbe-driven TLR activation for maturation and function. Factors that influence the function and activity of these innate pathways in early life may contribute to the increasing predisposition for allergic disease. Although "cleaner" environments have been implicated, here we explore the possibility that other common environmental exposures (such as maternal smoking could also play a role.

  18. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

    Mihić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  19. Maternally derived chemical defences are an effective deterrent against some predators of poison frog tadpoles (Oophaga pumilio).

    Stynoski, Jennifer L; Shelton, Georgia; Stynoski, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Parents defend their young in many ways, including provisioning chemical defences. Recent work in a poison frog system offers the first example of an animal that provisions its young with alkaloids after hatching or birth rather than before. But it is not yet known whether maternally derived alkaloids are an effective defence against offspring predators. We identified the predators of Oophaga pumilio tadpoles and conducted laboratory and field choice tests to determine whether predators are deterred by alkaloids in tadpoles. We found that snakes, spiders and beetle larvae are common predators of O. pumilio tadpoles. Snakes were not deterred by alkaloids in tadpoles. However, spiders were less likely to consume mother-fed O. pumilio tadpoles than either alkaloid-free tadpoles of the red-eyed treefrog, Agalychnis callidryas, or alkaloid-free O. pumilio tadpoles that had been hand-fed with A. callidryas eggs. Thus, maternally derived alkaloids reduce the risk of predation for tadpoles, but only against some predators. PMID:24850895

  20. Ethanol exposure during late gestation and nursing in the rat: effects upon maternal care, ethanol metabolism and infantile milk intake.

    Pueta, Mariana; Abate, Paula; Haymal, Olga B; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2008-11-01

    Ethanol experiences, during late gestation as well as during nursing, modify the behavioral dynamics of the dam/pup dyad, and leads to heightened ethanol intake in the offspring. This study focuses on: a) behavioral and metabolic changes in intoxicated dams with previous exposure to ethanol during pregnancy and b) infantile consumption of milk when the dam is either under the effects of ethanol or sober. Pregnant rats received water, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol, and were administered with water or ethanol during the postpartum period. Intoxication during nursing disrupted the capability of the dam to retrieve the pups and to adopt a crouching posture. These disruptions were attenuated when dams had exposure to ethanol during pregnancy. Ethanol experiences during gestation did not affect pharmacokinetic processes during nursing, whereas progressive postpartum ethanol experience resulted in metabolic tolerance. Pups suckling from intoxicated dams, with previous ethanol experiences, ingested more milk than did infants suckling from ethanol-intoxicated dams without such experience. Ethanol gestational experience results in subsequent resistance to the drug's disruptions in maternal care. Consequently, better maternal care by an intoxicated dam with ethanol experience during gestation facilitates access of pups to milk which could be contaminated with ethanol. PMID:18602418

  1. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  2. The Effect of the Timing of Intramuscular Oxytocin Injection on Maternal Bleeding during the Third Stage of Labour

    Sakine Mohamadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The third stage of labour is one of the most troublesome stages of child delivery. The basic principle of the third stage management is administrating prophylactic uterotonics. However, the time of its administration varies in different hospitals. This study aimed to determine the effect of intramuscular oxytocin injection after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder or placental expulsion on bleeding in the third stage of labour. Methodology: This clinical trial was conducted on 100 pregnant women with gestational age of 38-42 weeks, and singleton pregnancies. Subjects were selected using convenience sampling and were then randomly assigned to intervention (injection of 10 IU intramuscular oxytocin after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder and control (injection of 10 IU intramuscular oxytocin after placental expulsion groups. Blood was collected in containers and weighed with a weighing scale.  A checklist was used to record labor and delivery related data. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5, using Chi-square and t-test. Findings: The mean amount of bleeding during the third stage of labour was 183.4 ± 145.8 and 202.2 ±208.8 ml in intervention and control group, respectively. No significant difference was found between two groups in terms of maternal bleeding. Conclusion: Injection of intramuscular oxytocin either after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder or placental expulsion does not affect the amount of maternal bleeding during the third stage of labour.

  3. Maternal Microchimerism

    Kanold, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Microchimerism refers to one individual harboring cells or DNA at a low level that derive from another individual. The most common source is pregnancy when cells from the fetus and the mother pass the placenta bidirectionally, and give rise to maternal microchimerism (cells from the mother in the fetus) and fetal microchimerism (cells from the fetus in the mother). The cells persist in the individual, at least until middleage. Several hypotheses have addressed the consequences ...

  4. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  5. Analysis of maternal effect mutant combinations elucidates regulation and function of the overlap of hunchback and Krüppel gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo.

    Gaul, U; Jäckle, H

    1989-11-01

    The metameric organisation of the Drosophila embryo is generated early during development, due to the action of maternal effect and zygotic segmentation and homeotic genes. The gap genes participate in the complex process of pattern formation by providing a link between the maternal and the zygotic gene activities. Under the influence of maternal gene products they become expressed in distinct domains along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo; negative interactions between neighboring gap genes are thought to be involved in establishing the expression domains. The gap gene activities in turn are required for the correct patterning of the pair-rule genes; little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms. We have monitored the distribution of gap and pair-rule genes in wild-type embryos and in embryos in which the anteroposterior body pattern is greatly simplified due to combinations of maternal effect mutations (staufen exuperantia, vasa exuperantia, vasa exuperantia, bicoid oskar, bicoid oskar torsolike, vasa torso exuperantia). We show that the domains of protein distribution of the gap genes hunchback and Krüppel overlap in wild-type embryos. Based on the analysis of the maternal mutant combinations, we suggest an explanation of how this overlap is generated. Furthermore, our data show that different constellations of gap gene activities provide different input for the pair-rule genes, and thus strongly suggest that the overlap of hunchback and Krüppel in wild-type is functional in the formation of the patterns of pair-rule genes. PMID:2612383

  6. Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.

    ElizabethMcConeByrnes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

  7. Effects of environmental enrichment and stereotypic behavior on maternal behavior and infant viability in a model carnivore, the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Díez-León, María; Mason, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In several species, stress compromises maternal behaviors that are important for infant viability (e.g. licking and grooming). Understanding how stress in captivity affects maternal behavior could therefore be beneficial, especially for carnivores in zoos and breeding centers where infant mortality is often high. We used a model carnivore-American mink-to test two hypotheses, namely that maternal investment and/or behavior is i. improved by environmental enrichment; and ii. compromised by stereotypic behavior. We observed 22 females raised in an indoor facility, 9 enriched, 13 non-enriched. At birth, and at post-natal day 20 when altricial infants were still fully dependent on their mothers, the following offspring variables were recorded: litter size, infant mortality, litter sex ratio (post-natal day 1), and weight. Maternal behavior was assessed by recording nest shape (post-natal day 1), and the frequency of licking and grooming (post-natal days 1-7). Non-enriched females stereotyped more, had female-skewed litters at birth, and tended to make poorer, flatter nests. Maternal licking and grooming showed large, stable individual differences, but appeared unaffected by enrichment. High levels of maternal stereotypic behavior predicted slower offspring growth, replicating previous findings for farmed mink. Nevertheless, enrichment did not significantly increase infant growth rates nor decrease infant mortality. Due to small sample sizes, our study now needs replicating, particularly to explore the potential benefits of enrichment on nest building, sex ratio effects, and the implications of maternal licking and grooming for offspring stress reactivity. Findings could then apply to endangered mustelids like the European mink. Zoo Biol. 35:19-28, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26536278

  8. Fish oil supplementation of maternal rats on an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet prevents depletion of maternal brain regional docosahexaenoic acid levels and has a postpartum anxiolytic effect.

    Chen, Hui-Feng; Su, Hui-Min

    2012-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the neuronal membrane. Most DHA and AA accumulation in the brain occurs during the perinatal period via placenta and milk. This study examined whether maternal brain levels of DHA and AA are depleted during pregnancy and lactation due to meeting the high demand of the developing nervous system in the offspring and evaluated the effects of the reproductive cycle on serotonin metabolism and of fish oil (FO) on postpartum anxiety. Pregnant rats were fed during pregnancy and lactation with a sunflower oil-based n-3 PUFA-deficient diet without or with FO supplementation, which provided 0.37% of the energy source as n-3 PUFA, and the age-matched virgin rats were fed the same diets for 41 days. In both sets of postpartum rats, decreased DHA levels compared to those in virgin females were seen in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, frontal cortex, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and retina, while AA depletion was seen only in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Serotonin levels were decreased and turnover increased in the brainstem and frontal cortex in postpartum rats compared to virgin rats. FO supplementation during pregnancy and lactation prevented the decrease in maternal brain regional DHA levels, inhibited monoamine oxidase-A activity in the brainstem and decreased anxiety-like behavior. We propose that the reproductive cycle depletes maternal brain DHA levels and modulates maternal brain serotonin metabolism to cause postpartum anxiety and suggest that FO supplementation may be beneficial for postpartum anxiety in women on an n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. PMID:21543216

  9. Study of the effects of maternal hypothyroidism and thyroxin therapy on the neuronal density of subiculum in rat newborns

    Zahra Delshad

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well established that thyroid hormones are essential for normal development of mammalian brain. Thyroid hormone deficiency during critical period of brain development can exert devastative and irreversible effects on neuronal functions as well as on learning abilities and memory. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on the neuronal structures of the subiculum in an experimental model of cretinism. Methods: Twenty five female Wistar rats were divided into experimental groups 1 and 2 and control. The experimental groups were made hypothyroid (500 mg/L PTU in drinking water. The experimental group 2 received PTU+Levothyroxin (1mg/L in drinking water. The controls only received drinking water. After two weeks the animals were mated. During pregnancy and lactation, the treatment regime of all groups was continued as above. The brain of 20 days old newborns were dissected and fixed for histological preparation. The numerical density (NV of subicular neurons was estimated by applying a stereological technique "dissector". Results: In addition to the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on the litter size and offspring weights, the results showed significant increase of subicular neuronal density in experimental group 1 when compared with control (p<0.001. There was also a significant difference (p<0.001 between the Nv of experimental groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: The increased of neuronal Nv in hypothyroid rats was probably due to the retardation of the neuronal normal growth and extension of their dendritic arborization. It seems that thyroxin therapy can improve the effects of hypothyroidism on the neuronal structure of subiculum.

  10. Maternal mortality in developing countries.

    Harrison, K A

    1989-01-01

    A commentary on the state of maternal mortality is developing countries is presented. Of the estimated half million maternal deaths worldwide yearly, 150,000 occur in Africa, 282,000 in Southern and South Eastern Asia, 26,000 in Western and East Asia, 34,000 in tropical South America, 1,000 in temperate South America, and 2,000 in Oceania. 494,000 maternal deaths occur in developing countries, with 6,000 in all developing countries. Maternal death rates are highest in developing countries due primarily to flaws in the social, economic, and political conditions of the countries involved, combined with a grossly inadequate quantity and quality of available health care services. Here, major causes of maternal death include abortion, anemia, eclampsia, infection, hemorrhage, and obstructed labor and its accompanying complications. Attempts at lowering maternal mortality should include health intervention policies on a global scale, utilizing the intervention of developing countries with their necessary financial and technological support. Universal formal education appears to be the most effective weapon against maternal death. This approach is an effort to modernize most developing societies. Still, a few obstacles remain. These include: discarding cherished traditional customs of health care in favor of modernized techniques, restricting existing health services, and providing faster and more efficient operative intervention procedures. Family planning is also stressed as an important initiative. The most contentious of all methods to lower maternal death rates is the retraining of illiterate traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Activities of TBAs should be viewed cautiously as results of the techniques - in areas such as the Sudan, Africa, and Asia, - have proven to be of little consequence in lowering maternal mortality. Attention to retraining TBAs should be replaced with sufficient training and proper utilization of midwives. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has undertaken pioneering efforts towards lowering global maternal mortality. PMID:2647128

  11. Effects of maternal education on infant mortality and stillbirths in Denmark

    Olsen, O; Madsen, Mette

    1999-01-01

    This study examined inequalities in infant mortality in Denmark in relation to maternal educational level, and compared the inequalities to those observed in a similar study 10 years earlier. It was a register-based study of all singleton births in Denmark 1991-92, a study population of 113......,814 births. When adjusted for mother's age, parity, and smoking, the stillbirth rate was independent of mother's educational level, but a clear social gradient in infant mortality was observed. Compared with a similar study in 1982-83, infant mortality has decreased most in the highest educational group and...... has increased in the lowest educational group. In conclusion, social inequality in infant mortality in Denmark is pronounced and cannot be explained by differences in smoking habits. The social gap between different educational groups has widened during the last decade, but may partly be explained by...

  12. The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil

    Emond Alan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilities at the polyclinic for low-risk deliveries, the introduction of a family planning clinic and a breast-feeding clinic, support from pediatricians for under-5 (well-baby clinics, children's outpatient services and children's emergency care, and the introduction of health agents recruited from the local community. Representative surveys of the population were taken at the project's inception (July 1995 and then 30 months later (December 1997, using a general health questionnaire adapted to the local conditions. Mortality data were collected from local registration systems as well as from an autopsy survey of perinatal and infant deaths. Results. During 1995 there were 4 maternal deaths from 1 195 pregnancies (maternal mortality of 335/100 000; three of the deaths were related to hypertension and one to uterine perforation after an illegal abortion. During 1998 (post-intervention, there were no maternal deaths in pregnancy or childbirth. In 1993 no deliveries took place at the polyclinic, but in 1998 there were 946 deliveries at the clinic without any serious complications. The method of delivery, the incidence of prematurity, and the incidence of low birthweight did not change significantly over the study period. In the post-intervention survey, 75% of women reported receiving contraceptive advice from a doctor in the preceding year, compared to 50% in the first sample. A mortality survey carried out in 1993-1995 estimated the infant mortality rate to be 60/1 000 live births. By 1998, using data collected locally by active surveillance, the infant mortality rate was 37/1 000 live births. The causes of infant death in both those periods were dominated by respiratory infections and diarrheal disease. Over 95% of both samples initiated breast-feeding, but a higher proportion of the post-intervention sample reported breast-feeding for longer than 6 months (41% vs. 32%, P = 0.0005. No differences were apparent in the use of under-5 clinics, but immunization rates improved. Post-intervention, significant improvements were documented in the mothers' understanding of basic hygiene, their knowledge of causes of common diseases, and their management of acute respiratory infections and diarrhea in children. This was particularly true for the households visited by a community health agent. Conclusions. Inequalities in health care in poor urban populations can be reduced by integrated community-based interventions, including the use of health agents recruited from the local community.

  13. Mother knows best, even when stressed? Effects of maternal exposure to a stressor on offspring performance at different life stages in a wild semelparous fish.

    Sopinka, N M; Hinch, S G; Middleton, C T; Hills, J A; Patterson, D A

    2014-06-01

    The environment mothers are exposed to has resonating effects on offspring performance. In iteroparous species, maternal exposure to stressors generally results in offspring ill-equipped for survival. Still, opportunities for future fecundity can offset low quality offspring. Little is known, however, as to how intergenerational effects of stress manifest in semelparous species with only a single breeding episode. Such mothers would suffer a total loss of fitness if offspring cannot survive past multiple life stages. We evaluated whether chronic exposure of female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to a chase stressor impaired offspring performance traits. Egg size and early offspring survival were not influenced by maternal exposure to the repeated acute stressor. Later in development, fry reared from stressed mothers swam for shorter periods of time but possessed a superior capacity to re-initiate bouts of burst swimming. In contrast to iteroparous species, the mechanisms driving the observed effects do not appear to be related to cortisol, as egg hormone concentrations did not vary between stressed and undisturbed mothers. Sockeye salmon appear to possess buffering strategies that protect offspring from deleterious effects of maternal stress that would otherwise compromise progeny during highly vulnerable stages of development. Whether stressed sockeye salmon mothers endow offspring with traits that are matched or mismatched for survival in the unpredictable environment they encountered is discussed. This study highlights the importance of examining intergenerational effects among species-specific reproductive strategies, and across offspring life history to fully determine the scope of impact of maternal stress. PMID:24619199

  14. Effect of pay for performance to improve quality of maternal and child care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    Das, A.; Gopalan, SS; Chandramohan, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pay for Performance (P4P) mechanisms to health facilities and providers are currently being tested in several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to improve maternal and child health (MCH). This paper reviews the existing evidence on the effect of P4P program on quality of MCH care in LMICs. Methods A systematic review of literature was conducted according to a registered protocol. MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase were searched using the key words maternal care, quality of c...

  15. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response

    Hounton Sennen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030.

  16. Effects of chronic stress during pregnancy on maternal performance in the guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus).

    Klaus, Teresa; Schöpper, Hanna; Huber, Susanne

    2013-03-01

    Stress experienced during pregnancy can have persistent impact on the female's physiology and behaviour not only during but even beyond pregnancy. The present study aimed to evaluate such long-term effects of stress in terms of repeated strobe light exposure during early to mid gestation on behavioural aspects of mothering activities and lactational effort in lactating guinea pigs. We found that maternal behaviour was negatively affected by stress experience during pregnancy with treatment females developing a higher level of offspring-directed aggression than controls. In addition, our measure of lactational performances showed tendencies of lowered milk supply and longer pup suckling durations in stressed females. We suggest that this may represent a strategy to advance infant weaning following demanding conditions caused by chronic stress experience during pregnancy. PMID:23287615

  17. Alcohol abuse in pregnant women: effects on the fetus and newborn, mode of action and maternal treatment.

    Ornoy, Asher; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2010-02-01

    Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6-10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised. PMID:20616979

  18. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment

    Asher Ornoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.

  19. Effects of oral administration of caffeine on some physiological parameters and maternal behaviour of sows at farrowing.

    Superchi, Paola; Saleri, Roberta; Farina, Elena; Cavalli, Valeria; Riccardi, Enzo; Sabbioni, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine has been demonstrated to have a protective effect on neonatal viability of piglets. In order to assess whether caffeine, administered to parturient sows, also affects maternal behaviour, respiratory rate, and dopamine, nitric oxide and serotonin plasma levels, 20 sows, with induced parturition, received orally 27mg/kg of body weight of caffeine (T group; n=10) or not (NT group; n=10), on day 113 of gestation. Treatment did not affect the farrowing length. There were less stillborn piglets in T group than NT group (0.67 vs 2.44; Pbirth was observed. Caffeine did not affect physiological parameters of sows, as the behaviour score of sows laying on belly was reduced (P<0.05). In conclusion, although the present study was carried out with a limited number of sows, administration of caffeine to parturient sows has the potential for reducing the number of stillborn. PMID:27033919

  20. EFFECTS ON THE FETAL RAT INTESTINE OF MATERNAL MALNUTRITION AND EXPOSURE TO NITROFEN (2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL-P-NITROPHENYL ETHER)

    The effects of maternal protein-energy malnutrition and exposure to nitrofen on selected aspects of intestinal morphology and function were studied in the fetal rat. Pregnant rats were fed, throughout gestation, diets containing 24% or 6% casein as the sole source of protein. Red...

  1. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    Ball, S; Ekelund, C; Wright, D; Kirkegaard, I; Nørgaard, P; Petersen, O B; Tabor, A; Sperling, Lene

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate gestational age-dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. METHODS...

  2. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum PAPP-A and free β-hCG at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    Ball, Susan; Ekelund, Charlotte; Wright, Dave; Kirkegaard, Ida; Nørgaard, Pernille; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Tabor, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Investigate gestational age dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. Methods: Data arise from prospective...

  3. Effects of selenium supply and dietary restriction on maternal and fetal body weight, visceral organ mass, cellularity estimates, and jejeunal vascularity in pregnant ewe lambs.

    To examine effects of nutrient restriction and dietary Se on maternal and fetal visceral tissues, 36 pregnant Targhee-cross ewe lambs were allotted randomly to one of four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Factors were nutrition [control nutrition (CON, 100% of requirements) vs. restricted nu...

  4. Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability

    Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

  5. Achieving Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health.

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Edwards, Joan E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) remain high globally, and in the United States there have been recent increases in MMR. Interventions to improve global maternal health are described. Nurses should be aware of the enduring epidemic of global maternal mortality, advocate for childbearing women, and contribute to implementing effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality. PMID:20673318

  6. Maternal obesity and late effects on offspring metabolism / Obesidade materna e efeitos tardios sobre o metabolismo da prole

    Daniele Sá, Vido; Mariana Bocca, Nejm; Neila Ribeiro, Silva; Sylvia Maria Affonso, Silva; Sérgio Luiz, Cravo; Jacqueline, Luz.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos tardios da obesidade materna induzida por lesão do núcleo ventromedial do hipotálamo sobre o metabolismo da prole. Trinta dias após a lesão bilateral do hipotálamo ventromedial, ratos fêmeas foram colocadas para acasalar e divididas em dois grupos de animais gestantes: Co [...] ntrole (C) – falsa lesão e Obeso (OB) – lesionados. Três meses após o nascimento, de acordo com os grupos das mães, os filhotes foram divididos em animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta normocalórica (C-N and OB-N) e animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta hipercalórica (C-H and OB-H). Aos 120 dias de idade, os animais foram eutanasiados e as carcaças, fezes e ração foram submetidas à análise calorimétrica para determinação do balanço energético e composição corporal.Resultados Durante o período de crescimento, os filhos de mães obesas mostraram maiores valores de peso corporal e ingestão alimentar que animais controle. Os animais obesos apresentaram maiores valores de ganho de peso corporal e eficiência metabólica que os animais controle quando adultos. A dieta hipercalórica levou ao aumento da energia metabolizável, percentagem de energia absorvida e gasto energético para ambos os grupos. A composição corporal foi somente afetada pela associação da dieta hipercalórica com a obesidade materna que levou ao aumento da gordura corporal.Conclusões : A obesidade materna levou ao sobrepeso tardio na prole, sugerindo uma programação fetal. Pela tendência apresentada, acreditamos que a ingestão prolongada de dietas hipercalóricas em animais adultos possa induzir uma piora no quadro de sobrepeso induzido pela obesidade materna. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7 Abstract in english Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism.Materials and methods : Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 [...] groups of pregnant animals: Control (C) – false lesion (sham) and Obese (OB) – lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N), and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H). At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition.Results : During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat.Conclusions : Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7

  7. The effects of maternal-child health service utilization on subsequent contraceptive use in Morocco.

    Hotchkiss, D R; Magnani, R J; Rous, J J; Azelmat, M; Mroz, T A; Heikel, J

    1999-04-01

    There are a number of reasons for anticipating that contact by women in developing country settings with modern maternal-child health (MCH) services will lead to increased use of family planning services. Indeed, the expectation of such a relationship underlies the integrated service delivery strategy that has been adopted on a more or less global basis. However, the available empirical evidence in support of this proposition is inconclusive. This study re-examines this issue in Morocco. Household survey data and data on the supply environment for health and family planning services gathered in 1992 are analysed in the study. A full-information maximum likelihood estimator is used to control for the possible endogeneity of health care and contraceptive choices. The findings indicate a substantial and apparently causal relationship between the intensity of MCH service use and subsequent contraceptive use. Policy simulations indicate that sizeable increases in contraceptive prevalence might be realized by increasing the coverage and intensity of use of MCH services. PMID:10333649

  8. Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA

    Williams Jim E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.

  9. Effect of Anticipatory Guidance Presentation Methods on the Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women Relative to Maternal, Infant and Toddler's Oral Health Care.

    Nahid Ramazani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal period is the best time for health interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different methods of anticipatory guidance presentation on the change of knowledge and attitude of pregnant women regarding oral healthcare in the mother, infant and toddler.In this quasi-experimental study, 90 pregnant women attended one health center in Zahedan, Iran; they were divided into direct intervention, indirect intervention and control groups. A self-reported questionnaire was completed before intervention. The guidance was presented to the direct intervention group, by PowerPoint and to the indirect group by pamphlet. Immediately after the intervention, the questionnaire was completed by intervention groups and two months later by all participants. Difference in the scores at start and end was calculated. Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn's post hoc and Friedman with K-W post-hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using SPPS version 19 software at a significance level of 0.05.The change in scores of knowledge relevant to maternal, infant and toddler's oral health and attitude toward maternal oral healthcare had significant differences in the three studied groups (P>0.05, The changes of scores in the four mentioned variables in the intervention groups were significantly higher than controls. In comparison between the intervention groups, the change in score of knowledge about maternal oral healthcare was significantly higher in the direct intervention group (P=0.023.Anticipatory guidance presentation led to change in the score of knowledge about maternal, infant and toddler's oral health and attitude towards maternal oral health in comparison to no presentation. The direct presentation had superiority over indirect in increasing knowledge about maternal oral healthcare.

  10. Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDuring recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking water from day 2 to day 21 of lactation. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, the testis weight and volume of offspring were measured and their epididymal semen analyzed. Following tissue processing, 5 ?m sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Testicular parameters in different groups were compared by one-way ANOVA.ResultsTestis weight and volume of offspring decreased significantly in a dose-related manner in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups. Dose-dependent significant reductions were seen in seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height during neonatal, prepubertal and postpubertal periods in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in mean sperm density of offspring at puberty in moderate and high doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Testosterone levels decreased significantly in a dose-related manner at puberty in moderate and high doses groups. ConclusionPresent study showed maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation caused dose-related and long-term alterations of testicular parameters in offspring rats.

  11. Neurofunctional maps of the 'maternal brain' and the effects of oxytocin: a multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Rocchetti, Matteo; Radua, Joaquim; Paloyelis, Yannis; Xenaki, Lida-Alkisti; Frascarelli, Marianna; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Politi, Pierluigi; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have tried to understand the possible neurobiological basis of mothering. The putative involvement of oxytocin, in this regard, has been deeply investigated. Performing a voxel-based meta-analysis, we aimed at testing the hypothesis of overlapping brain activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the mother-infant interaction and the oxytocin modulation of emotional stimuli in humans. We performed two systematic literature searches: fMRI studies investigating the neurofunctional correlates of the 'maternal brain' by employing mother-infant paradigms; and fMRI studies employing oxytocin during emotional tasks. A unimodal voxel-based meta-analysis was performed on each database, whereas a multimodal voxel-based meta-analytical tool was adopted to assess the hypothesis that the neurofunctional effects of oxytocin are detected in brain areas implicated in the 'maternal brain.' We found greater activation in the bilateral insula extending to the inferior frontal gyrus, basal ganglia and thalamus during mother-infant interaction and greater left insular activation associated with oxytocin administration versus placebo. Left insula extending to basal ganglia and frontotemporal gyri as well as bilateral thalamus and amygdala showed consistent activation across the two paradigms. Right insula also showed activation across the two paradigms, and dorsomedial frontal cortex activation in mothers but deactivation with oxytocin. Significant activation in areas involved in empathy, emotion regulation, motivation, social cognition and theory of mind emerged from our multimodal meta-analysis, supporting the need for further studies directly investigating the neurobiology of oxytocin in the mother-infant relationship. PMID:24734987

  12. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eiben, Gabriele; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Henauw, Stefaan De; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  13. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Henauw, Stefaan De; Eiben, Gabriele; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  14. Maternal and neonatal effects of nalbuphine given immediately before induction of general anesthesia for elective cesarean section

    Sabry M Amin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although nalbuphine was studied extensively in labour analgesia and was proved to be acceptable analgesics during delivery, its use as premedication before induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section is not studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nalbuphine given before induction of general anesthesia for cesarean section on quality of general anesthesia, maternal stress response, and neonatal outcome. Methods: Sixty full term pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean section, randomly classified into two equal groups, group N received nalbuphine 0.2 mg/kg diluted in 10 ml of normal saline (n=30, and group C placebo (n=30 received 10 ml of normal saline 1 min before the induction of general anesthesia. Maternal heart rate and blood pressure were measured before, after induction, during surgery, and after recovery. Neonates were assisted by using APGAR0 scores, time to sustained respiration, and umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Result: Maternal heart rate showed significant increase in control group than nalbuphine group after intubation (88.2±4.47 versus 80.1±4.23, P<0.0001 and during surgery till delivery of baby (90.8±2.39 versus 82.6±2.60, P<0.0001 and no significant changes between both groups after delivery. MABP increased in control group than nalbuphine group after intubation (100.55±6.29 versus 88.75±6.09, P<0.0001 and during surgery till delivery of baby (98.50±2.01 versus 90.50±2.01, P<0.0001 and no significant changes between both groups after delivery. APGAR score was significantly low at one minute in nalbuphine group than control group (6.75±2.3, 8.5±0.74, respectively, P=0.0002 (27% of nalbuphine group APGAR score ranged between 4-6, while 7% in control group APGAR score ranged between 4-6 at one minute. All neonates at five minutes showed APGAR score ranged between 9-10. Time to sustained respiration was significantly longer in nalbuphine group than control group (81.8±51.4 versus 34.9±26.2 seconds, P<0.0001. The umbilical cord blood gas was comparable in both groups. None of the neonates need opioid antagonist (naloxone or endotracheal intubation. Conclusion: Administration of nalbuphine before cesarean section under general anesthesia reduces maternal stress response related to intubation and surgery, but decreases the APGAR score at one minute after delivery. So, when nalbuphine was used, all measures for neonatal monitoring and resuscitation must be available including attendance of a pediatrician.

  15. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who de...

  16. Adaptive hormone-mediated maternal effects in free-ranging red squirrels

    Ben Dantzer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available How organisms adapt to changing environments is a question that pervades all biological disciplines. The neuroendocrine system is highly sensitive to changes in the ecological or social environment and often responds by increasing or decreasing circulating levels of androgens or glucocorticoids. In mammals, changes in maternal hormone levels that are induced by the environment can generate variation in pre- or post-natal hormone exposure, which can have profound consequences on offspring phenotype. Red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus in the Canadian Yukon live in a highly variable environment. Fluctuations in population density driven by pulses of their major food source generate density-dependent selection on offspring phenotype. Population density during pregnancy reflects the competitive environment offspring will encounter and is positively associated with the strength of directional selection on offspring postnatal growth rates. We conducted a multiyear study (2007-2011 to test the hypothesis that the hormonal responses of breeding female squirrels to variation in population density are associated with adaptive modifications in offspring growth rates. We examined relationships among population density, maternal androgens and glucocorticoid levels, and offspring postnatal growth rates across a gradient of natural variation of population density (2007-2011 and also by experimentally manipulating actual (numerical and perceived (acoustical population density. We predicted that squirrels experiencing heightened population density would have significantly higher fecal cortisol (FCM: Dantzer et al., 2010 and androgen (FAM: Dantzer et al., 2011 metabolite concentrations than those experiencing lower population density. If these hormonal responses are adaptive, we predicted that heightened FCM and FAM would be positively associated with higher offspring postnatal growth rates. Pregnant and lactating squirrels experiencing heightened population density had significantly higher FCM and FAM than those experiencing lower population density. Both heightened FCM and FAM during pregnancy and lactation were positively associated with significantly higher offspring growth rates. We experimentally tested our hypothesis using two experimental manipulations of population density. First, we significantly increased actual population density on three of our six study areas using long-term food supplementation (2007-2011. Second, in one year (2010, perceived population density was experimentally increased using long-term audio playbacks of the territorial vocalizations of red squirrels. We found that when population density was experimentally elevated using food or playbacks, pregnant and/or lactating squirrels had significantly higher FCM and FAM. Offspring growth rates were significantly higher on the high density food-supplemented study areas compared to the control lower density study areas. Similarly, females experiencing experimentally heightened perceived density produced offspring that also grew significantly faster than those exposed to control playbacks (vocalizations from a non-predatory local avian species. The growth rates of offspring produced by females experiencing experimentally heightened perceived population density were similar to those produced by females on the high density food-supplemented study areas. This suggests that the number of territorial vocalizations heard during reproduction and not variation in food abundance is a key ecological determinant of how females adjust offspring growth rates. These data suggest that the endocrine responses of female red squirrels to variation in population density influences offspring postnatal growth rates in a direction that is adaptive. We are currently examining whether these endocrine responses to population density increase annual and lifetime reproductive success (measured as the number of offspring that recruit into the population.

  17. Effect of maternal and neonatal factors on cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone

    Sheetal G Lakshminarayana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is most common preventable cause of mental retardation in children. Cord blood Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (CBTSH level is an accepted screening tool for CH. Objectives: To study CBTSH profile in neonates born at tertiary care referral center and to analyze the influence of maternal and neonatal factors on their levels. Design: Cross retrospective sectional study. Methods: Study population included 979 neonates (males = 506 to females = 473. The CBTSH levels were estimated using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on Cobas analyzer. Kit based cut-offs of TSH level were used for analysis. All neonates with abnormal CBSTH levels, were started on levothyroxine supplementation 10 μg/Kg/day and TSH levels were reassessed as per departmental protocol. Results: The mean CBTSH was 7.82 μIU/mL (Range 0.112 to 81.4, SD = 5.48. The mean CBTSH level was significantly higher in first order neonates, neonates delivered by assisted vaginal delivery and normal delivery, delivered at term or preterm, neonates with APGAR score 16.10 and 16.1 μIU/mL was significantly higher in neonates delivered by assisted vaginal delivery and normal delivery, term and preterm neonates, APAGR score of 16.10 and <1.0 led to a recall of 5.41% of neonates which is practicable given the scenario in our Country. The mode of delivery and perinatal stress factors have a significant impact on CBTSH levels and any rise to be seen in the light of these factors. The prevalence rate of CH after recall was ~3 in 1000 live births.

  18. The long lasting effects of electrical simulation of the medial preoptic area and medial amygdala on maternal behavior in female rats.

    Morgan, H D; Watchus, J A; Milgram, N W; Fleming, A S

    1999-02-15

    A program of repeated electrical (kindling-like) stimulation of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) or the medial amygdala (MedAmyg) on maternal and other behaviors were investigated. Stimulation was applied daily for 14 days (or until a stage 3 motor seizure was observed) using 2 s trains of biphasic square wave pulses at 60 Hz, 1 ms duration and 300-500 microA. Confirmation of afterdischarge using these parametres was established. In the first experiment, maternally experienced (but not post-partum) MedAmyg stimulated animals became maternal more slowly than did MedAmyg not stimulated animals or than MPOA stimulated animals. In the second experiment, virgin animals were used. MPOA stimulation enhanced the female's preference for pup associated environments in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. MedAmyg stimulation had no effect on CPP performance, but produced a decreased preference for pup odors in a modified hole board test and increased 'anxiety' in the open field. These results confirm that the MPOA and the MedAmyg are involved in facilitating and attenuating maternal responsiveness and related (precursor?) behaviors, respectively. It appears that chronic (kindling-like) stimulation of these neural substrates enhances their functions. PMID:10512573

  19. The effects of pollen and seed migration on nuclear-dicytoplasmic systems. I. Nonrandom associations and equilibrium structure with both maternal and paternal cytoplasmic inheritance.

    Asmussen, M. A.; Orive, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    We determine the nuclear-dicytoplasmic effects of unidirectional gene flow via pollen and seeds upon a mixed-mating plant population, focusing on nuclear-mitochondrial-chloroplast systems where mitochondria are inherited maternally and chloroplasts paternally, as in many conifers. After first delineating the general effects of admixture (via seeds or individuals) on the nonrandom associations in such systems, we derive the full dicytonuclear equilibrium structure, including when disequilibria...

  20. The effect of nesting material on the nest-building and maternal behavior of domestic sows and piglet production.

    Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Simecková, M; Kratinová, P

    2011-02-01

    Nest building is an important part of maternal behavior in domestic pigs. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of nesting material sawdust vs. straw on sow behavior 24 h before and after birth of the first piglet (BFP) and piglet production. Sows, housed in farrowing crates, were randomly divided into 2 treatments: sawdust (n = 12) and straw (n = 13). Sawdust and straw were provided during the pre- and parturient period; after parturition, straw was given to both experimental groups. The prepartum nesting period (the time interval between the first and last nest-building records, including all other activity and resting before BFP), the nesting records (number of nesting records), nesting duration (duration of all nesting records), the start and termination of nesting, and the frequency of prepartum postural changes were collected 24 h before BFP. After BFP, number of nesting records and time to first sucking of the litter were collected. Frequency of postural changes and duration of udder access were collected 24 h after BFP during 3 time periods (during parturition, from the end of parturition to 12 h after BFP, and 12 to 24 h after BFP) and the frequency of nursing during 2 time periods (from the end of parturition to 12 h after BFP, and 12 to 24 h after BFP). Piglet BW gain and mortality were estimated 24 h after BFP. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and the probability of the piglet mortality using PROC GENMOD in SAS. Nesting material did not affect (P > 0.10) most of sow prepartum nesting behavior and had no effect (P > 0.10) on the prepartum frequency of postural changes. Sows from the sawdust treatment had a longer nesting period (P 0.10) of the nesting material on piglet BW gain and mortality was found. The results suggest that sawdust compared with straw as nesting material provided to sows before and through parturition does not negatively affect maternal behavior during the 24 h before and after parturition or piglet production. Therefore, sawdust can be recommended as a suitable nesting material for farrowing sows when straw is not available. PMID:20889685

  1. Maternal Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Effects on Gastroschisis among Offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Lupo, Philip J; Peter H. Langlois; Reefhuis, Jennita; Lawson, Christina C; Symanski, Elaine; Desrosiers, Tania A; Khodr, Zeina G.; Agopian, A.J.; Waters, Martha A.; Duwe, Kara N.; Finnell, Richard H; Mitchell, Laura E.; Moore, Cynthia A; Romitti, Paul A.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs in many occupational settings. There is evidence in animal models that maternal exposure to PAHs during pregnancy is associated with gastroschisis in offspring; however, to our knowledge, no human studies examining this association have been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to conduct a case–control study assessing the association between estimated maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and gastroschisis in offspring. Me...

  2. The Intergenerational Effects on Birth Weight and Its Relations to Maternal Conditions, São Paulo, Brazil

    Silva, Leide Irislayne Macena da Costa e; Filumena Maria da Silva Gomes; Maria Helena Valente; Ana Maria de Ulhôa Escobar; Alexandra Valéria Maria Brentani; Sandra J.F.E. Grisi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Parents' birth weight acts as a predictor for the descendant birth weight, with the correlation more strongly transmitted through maternal line. The present research aims to study the correlation between the child's low or increased birth weight, the mother's birth weight, and maternal conditions. Methods. 773 mother-infant binomials were identified with information on both the baby's and the mother's birth weight recorded. Group studies were constituted, dividing t...

  3. Maternal Body Mass Index, Dietary Intake and Socioeconomic Status: Differential Effects on Breast Milk Zinc, Copper and Iron Content

    Zeinab Nikniaz; Seyed Jamal Gayem-magami; Bahram Pourghassem Gargari; Reza Mahdavi; Leila Nikniaz

    2011-01-01

    Background: As breast milk micronutrients content are essential for health and growth of the infants, this study was conducted to determine the breast milk zinc, copper and iron concen-trations and their possible correlations with maternal nutritional status, dietary intakes as well as socioeconomic status.Methods: Breast milk samples and information on maternal anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake were collected from 90 Iranian lactating women with 3 different socioeco-nomic sta...

  4. Maternal Care Effects on the Development of a Sexually Dimorphic Motor System: The Role of Spinal Oxytocin

    Lenz, Kathryn M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal licking in rats affects the development of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB), a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus that controls penile reflexes involved with copulation. Reduced maternal licking results in decreased motoneuron number, size, and dendritic length in the adult SNB, as well as deficits in adult male copulatory behavior. Our previous findings that licking-like tactile stimulation influences SNB dendritic development and upregulates Fos expression in the lumbo...

  5. EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS ON MATERNAL HEALTH CARE SERVICE USE IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    Yadav, Awdhesh; Kesarwani, Ranjana

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess empirically the influence of individual and community (neighbourhood) factors on the use of maternal health care services in India through three outcomes: utilization of full antenatal care (ANC) services, safe delivery and utilization of postnatal care services. Data were from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The study sample constituted ever-married women aged 15-49 from 29 Indian states. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed for the three outcomes of interest accounting for individual- and community-level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. A substantial amount of variation was observed at the community level. About 45%, 51% and 62% of the total variance in the use of full ANC, safe delivery and postnatal care, respectively, could be attributed to differences across the community. There was significant variation in the use of maternal health care services at the individual level, with socioeconomic status and mother's education being the most prominent factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. At the community level, urban residence and poverty concentration were found to be significantly associated with maternal health care service use. The results suggest that an increased focus on community-level interventions could lead to an increase in the utilization of maternal health care services in India. PMID:25741587

  6. Metabolismo mineral óseo durante la gestación y efectos sobre la masa ósea de la madre / Bone mineral metabolism during gestation and its effects on maternal bone mass

    Luis, Vidal; Maritza, Vidal; Santiago, Cabrera; Eduardo, Ortega; Vicente, Santiváñez; Jorge, Polo; Jorge, Barnaby; Rolando, Vargas; Angélica, del Castillo.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La gestación y lactancia son periodos de alta demanda de calcio, para el crecimiento fetal y para la producción de leche materna. Durante la gestación, la madre transfiere al feto 25 a 30 g de calcio y durante la lactancia se secretan 200 a 240 mg de calcio diario en la leche materna. Durante la ges [...] tación, los mecanismos adaptativos más importantes son el incremento en la absorción de calcio y el incremento del recambio óseo materno; durante la lactancia, hay tendencia a conservar más calcio a nivel renal, pero la desmineralización temporal del esqueleto materno parece ser el mecanismo más importante. Los estudios que emplean absorciometría dual de rayos X (DXA) son escasos, por el riesgo de radiación materna y fetal; pero, con otras técnicas, como el ultrasonido cuantitativo, se ha descrito una pérdida de masa ósea durante la gestación predominantemente dependiente del hueso trabecular. Mediante marcadores bioquímicos del remodelamiento óseo se ha demostrado que los suplementos de calcio reducen la tasa de remodelamiento durante el embarazo y parecen tener efecto benéfico sobre la pérdida ósea materna. Estudios longitudinales que emplean ultrasonido cuantitativo también han encontrado una disminución de la pérdida ósea, entre las mujeres que recibieron aporte o suplemento adecuado de calcio durante la gestación. Abstract in english Pregnancy and lactation are periods of high calcium demand for skeletal growth and maternal milk production. Approximately 25-30 g of calcium are transferred to the fetus during pregnancy, and breast-feeding mothers secrete 200-240 mg/day of calcium in breast milk every day. During pregnancy, major [...] physiologic adaptations include increased both calcium intestinal absorption and rate of maternal bone turnover; during lactation, there is a contribution of renal calcium conservation, but temporary maternal bone demineralization is the main mechanism to meet calcium requirements. Data on bone mineral density assessed by dual energy x-ray absortiometry (DXA) are sparse mainly due to concern about potential risk of radiation exposure to the fetus. Other radiation-free techniques like quantitative ultrasound have been used to assess maternal bone mass changes during pregnancy. Maternal bone loss mainly depending on trabecular areas during pregnancy has been described. Calcium supplements reduce maternal skeletal-bone turnover as evaluated by bone resorption markers during pregnancy and seem to have beneficial effects on maternal bone loss. Longitudinal studies with repeated measurements of quantitative ultrasound during pregnancy have found decrease in bone loss in pregnant women with adequate calcium intake or supplementation.

  7. The effect of maternal body mass index on spontaneous versus induced preterm birth: a prospective study

    Moghadami N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Preterm birth which is defined as delivery before 37 completed weeks was implicated in approximately two thirds of neonatal death. Also preterm labors are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity of infants in recent years and it costs high prices for health system. We evaluate the relationship between prepregnancy maternal body mass Index (BMI and spontaneous and indicated preterm birth."n"n Methods: This study included 250 healthy pregnant women, without any risk factors of preterm birth, were classified into categories that were based on their body mass index. Association between BMI, weight gain and rout of delivery were examined. Rates of indicated and spontaneous preterm birth were compared."n"n Results: Obese women delivered at a more advanced gestational age. (38/34±1/66 weeks vs 37/61±2/44, p=0/006. Obese patients had significantly lower incidence of spontaneous preterm birth at < 37 weeks of gestation (16/8% vs 31/2% p=0/008. Obese women had larger infants (3354/95±596/75 vs 311.24±558/357 p=0/001, and had more frequent cesarean delivery (69/6% vs 52/8%, p=0/006. Weight gain during pregnancy is poorly correlated with prepregnancy BMI (14/41±7/93 kg vs 13/78±4/94kg, p=0/4 and preterm birth."n"n Conclusion: In this survey, there was adverse correlation between body mass index (BMI before pregnancy and preterm labor less than 37 completed weeks and we suggest more study for evaluation between spontaneous and induced preterm labor mechanism and in obese and non obese women. However according to this survey obesity before pregnancy is associated with a lower rate of spontaneous preterm birth.

  8. MI-GWAS: a SAS platform for the analysis of inherited and maternal genetic effects in genome-wide association studies using log-linear models

    Mitchell Laura E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several platforms for the analysis of genome-wide association data are available. However, these platforms focus on the evaluation of the genotype inherited by affected (i.e. case individuals, whereas for some conditions (e.g. birth defects the genotype of the mothers of affected individuals may also contribute to risk. For such conditions, it is critical to evaluate associations with both the maternal and the inherited (i.e. case genotype. When genotype data are available for case-parent triads, a likelihood-based approach using log-linear modeling can be used to assess both the maternal and inherited genotypes. However, available software packages for log-linear analyses are not well suited to the analysis of typical genome-wide association data (e.g. including missing data. Results An integrated platform, Maternal and Inherited Analyses for Genome-wide Association Studies (MI-GWAS for log-linear analyses of maternal and inherited genetic effects in large, genome-wide datasets, is described. MI-GWAS uses SAS and LEM software in combination to appropriately format data, perform the log-linear analyses and summarize the results. This platform was evaluated using existing genome-wide data and was shown to perform accurately and relatively efficiently. Conclusions The MI-GWAS platform provides a valuable tool for the analysis of association of a phenotype or condition with maternal and inherited genotypes using genome-wide data from case-parent triads. The source code for this platform is freely available at http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/sbrr/mi-gwas.htm.

  9. Physiological effect of natural humic acid during pregnancy on fetuses and maternal alterations induced by irradiation in rats

    Humic acid is a mixture of macromolecular heterogeneous substances which have high molecular weight. Humic acid is a soil constituent, playing an important role in forming and transferring the nutrients from the soil to the living organism to perform many physiological processes. Thus, the current study was performed to study the chemical characteristics of extracted humic acid (soil constituent in Egypt) and evaluate its physiological effects on irradiated pregnant rats and some maternal biochemical parameter humic acid extract was obtained from the fine fraction of Egyptian soil (undersize 12 mesh sieve). The chemical characters were evaluated by means of IR, ESR, elemental and chemical analyses. It was found to contain all functional groups characterize natural humic acids but it contains high concentration of free radicals (73 x 1018 spin /g). Humic acid was supplemented daily to rats at two separate doses (150 mg and 300 mg/kg) during the interval 1st to 13 th day of gestation. Irradiation (2.5 Gy) was applied one hour post the last dose of humic acid. Experimental investigations were performed on the day 21 of gestation. The results showed that supplementation of rats with humic acid at a dose of 150 mg/kg increased the number of fetuses and placental weight as well as fetal measurement. These morphological effects were paralleled with some biochemical effects in justifying the radioprotective potency of humic acid. Also, the humic acid given at the same dose improved the radiation induced disturbances in serum progesterone, calcium, phosphorus, calcitonin, total proteins and albumin levels whereas administration of humic acid at the high dose (300 mg/kg) induced harmful effect on most of the studied parameters and did not show any protective role against gamma irradiation. It could be concluded that administration of humic acid at the dose of 150 mg/kg during pregnancy of rats exerted a beneficial radioprotective effects on the tested physiological and biochemical parameters

  10. The synergistic effect of density stress during the maternal period and adulthood on immune traits of root vole (Microtus oeconomus) individuals-a field experiment.

    Du, Shou-Yang; Cao, Yi-Fan; Nie, Xu-Heng; Wu, Yan; Bian, Jiang-Hui

    2016-06-01

    The literature reveals that stress in early life or adulthood can influence immune function. As most studies on this are from the laboratory, there is a need for replicated studies in wild animals. This study aims to examine the effects of density stress during the maternal period and adulthood on immune traits of root vole (Microtus oeconomus) individuals. Four replicated high- and low-density parental populations were established, from which we obtained offspring and assigned each into four enclosures, two for each of the two density treatments used in establishing parental populations. The F1 offspring fecal corticosterone metabolite response to acute immobilization stress, anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunoglobulin G (anti-KLH IgG) level, phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-delayed hypersensitivity and hematology at the end of the first breeding season, and prevalence and intensity of coccidial infection throughout the two breeding seasons, were tested. Density-induced maternally stressed offspring had delayed responses to acute immobilization stress. Density-stressed offspring as adults had reduced anti-KLH IgG levels and PHA responses, and the effects further deteriorated in maternally stressed offspring, leading to higher coccidial infection in the first breeding season than in the second. No correlations were found between immune traits or coccidial infection and survival over winter. These findings indicated that the combined density stresses during the maternal period and adulthood exhibited negative synergistic effects on immune traits. The synergistic effects lead to higher coccidial infection; however, this consequently reduced the risk of subsequent infection. The increased coccidial infection mediated by the synergistic effects may have an adaptive value in the context of the environment. PMID:26373286

  11. The Study of Maternal Effects on Estimation of Heritabilities and Determination of Environmental Factors on Early Growth Traits in Kermani Sheep

    L. D. Van Vleck

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from the birth weight (BW, the average daily gain from birth to weaning (ADG and the weaning weight (WW of 1182, 1099 and 1099 lambs were respectively collected and applied to estimate the maternal effects on heritabilities as well as on the determination of the environmental factors. The data were collected from Shahrbabak Sheep Breeding Research Station within five year, from 1993 to 1998. The effects of the year of birth, the age of the dam and its sex on all the traits were significant. The type of birth had no effect on BW but it was significant for the other two traits. Estimates of (covariance components and genetic parameters were obtained by restricted maximum likelihood, using single and two-trait animal models. Based on the most appropriate fitted model, direct heritability of BW, ADG and WW were estimated at 0.10± 0.06, 0.21 ±0.08 and 0.22± 0.09, respectively. The maternal heritability for the three traits was also estimated at 0.27± 0.04, 0.15 ±0.05 and 0.19 ±0.05, respectively. Direct genetic and phenotypic correlations between BW and ADG; BW and WW; ADG and WW were estimated at 0.85 and 0.41; 0.82 and 0.48 and 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. Ignoring maternal effects in animal model caused overestimation of direct heritability. Thus maternal effects are significant sources of variation for early growth traits and their ignorance in the animal model causes inaccurate genetic evaluation of the lambs.

  12. Effects of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome: a randomized controlled trial on pregnant women in Iran

    Objective: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome. Methods: The case-control study was conducted between January and July, 2011. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Toyserkan Azad University, and data was collected at prenatal clinics and delivery centres located in Hamedan, Iran. It comprised 80 pregnant women between 20-26 weeks of gestation randomly assigned to two equal and matching groups of cases and controls. The intervention group did exercise continuously on a bicycle ergometre for 15 minutes, three times a week; the intensity being 50-60% of maximal heart rate. The control group did not do any exercise training. All information was obtained from the clinics, delivery centres, and from the reports of delivery room midwives. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in gestational weight gain, pregnancy length, mode of delivery, first and second stage of labour, perineal tear, and 1st and 5th min Apgar score. Mean neonatal weight was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Exercising on a bicycle ergometer during pregnancy seems to be safe for the mother and the neonate. (author)

  13. Size-assortative mating and effect of maternal body size on the reproductive output of the nassariid Buccinanops globulosus

    Avaca, María Soledad; Narvarte, Maite; Martín, Pablo

    2012-04-01

    Size- assortative mating is usually present in populations where there is a positive relationship between female size and reproductive output. In this study, we tested for the presence of sexual size dimorphism, size-assortative mating and the effects of female size on reproductive output in a wild population of Buccinanops globulosus, an endemic nassariid of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean with direct development. The results showed that: 1) females were larger than males, indicating sexual size dimorphism; 2) mate sizes were significantly correlated, indicating a component of size-assortative mating; 3) males of medium and large size classes were paired with larger females than small-sized males; 4) larger females were paired with large males; 5) maternal body size was positively related to some proxies of reproductive success (number of nurse eggs per egg capsule, egg capsular area and total length at hatching). Our results suggest that larger females may be favored as mates over smaller ones owing to their higher investment per offspring and consequently a larger initial juvenile size as juvenile.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in human milk: effects of maternal factors and previous lactation

    Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; McKinney, J.D.; Carreras, N.; Hardy, P.; Thullen, J.; Tingelstad, J.; Tully, M.

    1986-03-01

    The authors measured polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in maternal serum, cord blood, placenta, and serial samples of breast milk from 868 women. Almost all samples of breast milk showed detectable levels of both chemicals. Overall, values for DDE in this study are within the range of those found previously, whereas those for PCBs are somewhat higher. Possible causes of variation in levels were investigated. For DDE, older women, Black women, cigarette smokers, and women who consumed sport fish during pregnancy had higher levels; only age and race showed large effects. For PCBs, older women, women who regularly drink alcohol, and primiparae had higher levels. In addition, both chemicals showed modest variation across occupational groupings. Casual exposure to a PCB spill did not result in chemical levels different from background. In general, women have higher levels in their first lactation and in the earlier samples of a given lactation, and levels decline both with time spend breast-feeding and with number of children nursed. These striking declines are presumably a measured of exposure to the child.

  15. THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL EMPLOYMENT ON THE PERSONALITYAND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO AGE AND GENDER

    Mahjabeen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a random sample of 90 boys and girls whose mothers were employed and another 90 boys and girls whose mothers were employed from fourth, fifth and sixth grades. For measuring the personality, junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (1965 was administered. The subjects' examination marks were taken into consideration to measure their academic achievement. The statistical test of Mean, Standard deviation, Student 't' test, ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test were used to compute the data and the results, were discussed in the light of previous research findings. The results of the present study revealed that children of employed mothers have high extroverted personality than children of unemployed mothers. No significant difference existed between 9 year old boys of employed mothers and unemployed mothers with regard to personality and academic achievement. Whereas 9 year old girls of unemployed mothers showed high neurotic behavior than the children of employed mothers, whereas significant difference was observed in the extroversion scores of 10 year old boys of employed and unemployed mothers. Lastly maternal employment had no significant effect on the personality and academic achievement of 10 year old girls.

  16. The effect of maternal stress and health-related quality of life on birth outcomes among Macao Chinese pregnant women.

    Lau, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of preterm birth and low-birth-weight in Macao. It also evaluated the effects of maternal perceived stress and health-related quality of life on these 2 birth outcomes. A quantitative study using a prospective longitudinal design was undertaken in an antenatal clinic in Macao. A community-based sample (N = 581) of pregnant women in their second trimester was recruited; birth outcome data were collected from medical records. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, whereas health-related quality of life was measured using the standard SF-12 Health Survey. The prevalence rates of preterm birth and low-birth-weight were found to be 6.4% and 7.1%, respectively. Two multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that participants with past adverse obstetric complications and higher perceived stress levels were more likely to have premature infants. Also, those participants with higher perceived stress levels and poorer health-related quality of life in the physical health domain were more likely to have low-birth-weight infants. Preliminary information was provided on risk factors associated with adverse birth outcomes; this could help nurses to design appropriate risk-specific interventions for preventing preterm birth and low-birth-weight. PMID:23360937

  17. Effects of kangaroo mother care on maternal mood and interaction patterns between parents and their preterm, low birth weight infants: a systematic review.

    Athanasopoulou, Eirini; Fox, John R E

    2014-01-01

    The birth of a premature infant can have adverse effects on the mood of mothers and on the interaction patterns between parents and their preterm babies. The aim of the present systematic review was to examine whether the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) intervention can attenuate these adverse psychological effects of a premature birth by ameliorating negative maternal mood and/or promoting more positive interactions between preterm infants and their parents. The results showed that although findings of studies were inconclusive, there is some evidence to suggest that KMC can make a positive difference on these areas. Specifically, it was found that KMC can improve negative maternal mood (e.g., anxiety or depression) and promote more positive parent-child interactions. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25798479

  18. Effects of endurance exercise on expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basic protein in developing rats with maternal infection-induced cerebral palsy

    Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Young-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a common white matter lesion affecting the neonatal brain. PVL is closely associated with cerebral palsy (CP) and characterized by increase in the number of astrocytes, which can be detected by positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Change in myelin basic protein (MBP) is an early sign of white matter abnormality. Maternal or placental infection can damage the neonatal brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill w...

  19. The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.

    O'Neill, J F

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the spectrum of adverse ocular effects which result from maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasma infection; further, to record the long-term visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these 2 major causes of fetal infection. STUDY DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A series of 55 patients with congenital infection have been studied prospectively on a long-term basis. The study group included a cohort of 34 cases with congenital rubella syndrome demonstrated by virus isolation, and 21...

  20. Effect of maternal antibiotic intervention in sows on gut development and microbiota in offspring : report of Feed4Foodure, VDI-2: 2013/2014

    Greeff, de, A.; Schokker, D.; Roubos, P.; Ramaekers, P; Peet-Schwering, van der, C.M.C.; P. Bikker; Vastenhouw, S.A.; Bree, van, J Joost; Bossers, A.; Harders, F.L.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A significant contribution to microbial colonization of piglets comes from the sow: via vertical transmission of vaginal flora during birth and transmission of mucosal immune memory and flora by feaces, colostrum and milk. In this study we determine the effect of an maternal nutritional intervention with an antibiotic on early microbial colonization of piglets. We used antibiotic treatment as a harsh intervention to investigate the hypothesis that the microbial composition in sows, may have a...

  1. A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn

    Girón Sandra; Salazar Blanca; Mosquera Mildrey; Ortega José; Echeverri Isabella; Romero Miryam; Ramírez-Vélez Robinson; Saldarriaga Wilmar; Aguilar de Plata Ana; Mateus Julio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient su...

  2. Effects of multiparity and prolonged breast-feeding on maternal bone mineral density: a community-based cross-sectional study

    Lekamwasam Sarath; Lenora Janaka; Karlsson Magnus K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies conducted in Western countries have shown that bone loss associated with pregnancy and breast-feeding is recovered after weaning. However, it is not clear whether recovery takes place after repeated pregnancies followed by prolonged periods of breast-feeding; especially in developing countries where nutritional intake is comparatively low. This study was designed to examine the effects of multiparity and prolonged breast-feeding on maternal bone mineral density (BM...

  3. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447

    Nampijja Margaret

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using χ2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-γ > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-γ responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.

  4. Family Structure Effects on Maternal and Paternal Parenting in Low-Income Families

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey, a birth cohort study, this study analyzes the effect of family structure on parenting for 3,402 mothers and 2,615 fathers. To address the problem of omitted variable bias, fixed effects methods are used to control for the presence of time-invariant unobserved…

  5. Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy

    Tânia Terezinha Scudeller Prevedel

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular e perinatais (peso e prematuridade da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22 e não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19 de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e relativa. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx, volume sistólico (VS e débito cardíaco (DC. Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0% e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0% e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5 e DC de (13,5 para 15,1; no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos.PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity and perinatal (weight and prematurity effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random cohort study, with 41 low-risk pregnant women in their first pregnancy, practicing (study group, n=22 and not (control group, n=19 hydrotherapy. Anthropometric evaluation was used to assess lean mass, and absolute and relative body fat. Ergometric tests were used for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max, stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO. Perinatal results showed premature births and small for gestational age newborns. Initial and final indexes within and between groups were compared. Maternal variables were evaluated using the t test for dependent and independent values; the chi ² test was used to study proportions. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the groups for maternal variables at the start and end of hydrotherapy. Comparison within each group confirmed the beneficial effect of hydrotherapy. In the study group, relative fat index was maintained at 29.0%; the control group showed an increase from 28.8% to 30.7%; the study group maintained VO2max at 35%, and increased SV from 106.6 to 121.5 and CO from 13.5 to 15.1; the control group showed a drop in VO2max and no change in SV and CO. There was no relationship between hydrotherapy and perinatal results. CONCLUSIONS: hydrotherapy adequately assisted metabolic and cardiovascular maternal adaptation to pregnancy and did not cause prematurity or weight loss in newborns.

  6. Limited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ?-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens.

    Koppenol, Astrid; Delezie, Evelyne; Parmentier, Henk K; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (?-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n?=?120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n?=?180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, ?1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. PMID:25576140

  7. Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study

    Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

  8. Maternal smoking during pregnancy - Long-term health effects in the offspring

    Mattsson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Globally, around 10 % of women smoke during pregnancy today. It is known that pregnancy smoking increases the risk of adverse short-term health effects in the offspring, such as preterm birth, low birthweight and spontaneous abortion. Less is known about whether any adverse health effects persist until adulthood. In Sweden, there are nationwide population-based health registers that are becoming intergenerational, which lend themselves well for the study of such associations. This thesis i...

  9. Comparison of the effects of perinatal and neonatal administration of sodium ferulate on repair following excitotoxic neuronal damages induced by maternal oral administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage of pregnancy

    Yongping Zhang; Lijian Yu; Rundi Ma; Xiaoyu Zhang,; Tingxi Yu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Our previous studies have revealed that ferulic acid (FA) and sodium ferulate (SF) show significant protective effect on excitotoxicity, the present study was conducted to compare its potential favorable effects of maternal,newborn,and both maternal and newborn intraperitoneal (ip) injection of SF on repair following excitotoxic neuronal damages induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG). Methods: The maternal mice were assigned randomly into seven groups (n = 10 animals in each group):...

  10. Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.27±0.04 v. 1.55±0.02 kg; Pmortality was found. Lower DHA concentrations were observed in the brain of the lighter piglets compared with their heavier littermates (9.46±0.05 v. 9.63±0.04 g DHA/100 g fatty acids; P=0.008), suggesting that the higher incidence of pre-weaning mortality in low birth weight piglets may be related to their lower brain DHA status. Adding n-3 PUFA to the sow diet could not significantly reduce this difference in DHA status, although numerically the difference in the brain DHA concentration between the piglet weight groups was smaller when fish oil was included in the sow diet. Independent of birth weight, echium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed. PMID:25322791

  11. Effects of maternal exposure to cow´s milk high or low in isoflavones on carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis among rat offspring

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Purup, Stig; Warri, A; Godschalk, R W; Hilakivi-Clarke, L A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal exposure during pregnancy to cow's milk containing endogenous estrogens and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and either high or low levels of isoflavones from dietary legumes (HIM and LIM, respectively) affected carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis in...... differences in maternal serum estradiol (P = 0.19) and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.15) at GD 19 or birth weight among the milk and water groups were seen, but estradiol, and IGF-1 levels and birth weight were numerically higher in the LIM than in the HIM group. Puberty onset occurred earlier in the LIM offspring than...... in controls (P = 0.03). Although the high isoflavone content seemed to prevent the effect on circulating estradiol and IGF-1 levels and advanced puberty onset seen in the LIM group, HIM increased DMBA-DNA adducts in the mammary gland and tended to increase mammary tumorigenesis. In contrast...

  12. Effect of Acupressure on Maternal Anxiety in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Bastani, Farideh

    2016-06-01

    Women with diabetes often experience a higher level of anxiety. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of acupressure on relieving anxiety of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 women with GDM at a university hospital. The participants were allocated to an experimental and a placebo group (30 women per group). The experimental group received a nurse-provided acupressure at the true point, and the placebo group received pressure (touching) at a sham (false) point. Anxiety was measured immediately in the groups prior to and after a 2-day intervention by a questionnaire and the Visual Analogue Scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results indicated that the acupressure group had significantly lower anxiety than the placebo group (p ≤ .0001). In conclusion, the effects of acupressure appeared to be effective in reducing anxiety in diabetic pregnant women. PMID:25848127

  13. Mortality, Temporary Sterilization, and Maternal Effects of Sublethal Heat in Bed Bugs

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Aak, Anders; Edgar, Kristin Skarsfjord

    2015-01-01

    Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40...

  14. Distribution and accumulation of 10 nm silver nanoparticles in maternal tissues and visceral yolk sac of pregnant mice, and a potential effect on embryo growth.

    Austin, Carlye A; Hinkley, Georgia K; Mishra, Anurag R; Zhang, Qin; Umbreit, Thomas H; Betz, Martha W; E Wildt, Bridget; Casey, Brendan J; Francke-Carroll, Sabine; Hussain, Saber M; Roberts, Stephen M; Brown, Ken M; Goering, Peter L

    2016-08-01

    We examined the distribution of silver in pregnant mice and embryos/fetuses following intravenous injections of 10 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) or soluble silver nitrate (AgNO3) at dose levels of 0 (citrate buffer control) or 66 µg Ag/mouse to pregnant mice on gestation days (GDs) 7, 8 and 9. Selected maternal tissues and all embryos/fetuses from control, AgNP- and AgNO3-treated groups on GD10 and control and AgNP-treated groups on GD16 were processed for the measurement of silver concentrations, intracellular AgNP localization, histopathology and gross examination of tissue morphology. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed silver in all examined tissues following either AgNP or AgNO3 treatment, with highest concentrations of silver in maternal liver, spleen and visceral yolk sac (VYS), and lowest concentrations in embryos/fetuses. For VYS, mean silver concentration following AgNO3 treatment (4.87 ng Ag/mg tissue) was approximately two-fold that following AgNP treatment (2.31 ng Ag/mg tissue); for all other tissues examined, mean silver concentrations following either AgNP or AgNO3 treatment were not significantly different from each other (e.g. 2.57 or 2.84 ng Ag/mg tissue in maternal liver and 1.61 or 2.50 ng Ag/mg tissue in maternal spleen following AgNP or AgNO3 treatment, respectively). Hyperspectral imaging revealed AgNP aggregates in maternal liver, kidney, spleen and VYS from AgNP-treated mice, but not AgNO3-treated mice. Additionally, one or more embryos collected on GD10 from eight of ten AgNP-treated mice appeared small for their age (i.e. Theiler stage 13 [GD8.5] or younger). In the control group (N = 11), this effect was seen in embryos from only one mouse. In conclusion, intravenous injection of 10 nm AgNPs to pregnant mice resulted in notable silver accumulation in maternal liver, spleen and VYS, and may have affected embryonic growth. Silver accumulation in embryos/fetuses was negligible. PMID:26593872

  15. Antenatal Maternal Stress and Long-Term Effects on Child Neurodevelopment: How and Why?

    Talge, Nicole M.; Neal, Charles; Glover, Vivette

    2007-01-01

    We review a significant body of evidence from independent prospective studies that if a mother is stressed while pregnant, her child is substantially more likely to have emotional or cognitive problems, including an increased risk of attentional deficit/hyperactivity, anxiety, and language delay. These findings are independent of effects due to…

  16. The Effects of Maternal Social Phobia on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Social Responsiveness

    Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Schofield, Elizabeth; Sack, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We…

  17. Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…

  18. Mother Knows Best: Epigenetic Inheritance, Maternal Effects, and the Evolution of Human Intelligence

    Bjorklund, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary evolution biology has recognized the role of development in evolution. Evolutionarily oriented psychologists have similarly recognized the role that behavioral plasticity, particularly early in development, may have had on the evolution of species, harking back to the ideas of Baldwin (the Baldwin effect). Epigenetic theories of…

  19. Antenatal Maternal Stress and Long-Term Effects on Child Neurodevelopment: How and Why?

    Talge, Nicole M.; Neal, Charles; Glover, Vivette

    2007-01-01

    We review a significant body of evidence from independent prospective studies that if a mother is stressed while pregnant, her child is substantially more likely to have emotional or cognitive problems, including an increased risk of attentional deficit/hyperactivity, anxiety, and language delay. These findings are independent of effects due to…

  20. Antepartum and Postpartum Exposure to Maternal Depression: Different Effects on Different Adolescent Outcomes

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Sharp, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered a major public health problem that conveys risk to mothers and offspring. Yet PPD typically occurs in the context of a lifelong episodic illness, and its putative effects might derive from the child's exposure to other episodes, in pregnancy or later childhood. The aim of the study is to test…

  1. The Effects of Maternal Social Phobia on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Social Responsiveness

    Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Schofield, Elizabeth; Sack, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We…

  2. Maternal anemia in various trimesters and its effect on newborn weight and maturity: An observational study

    K Jagadish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of low birth weight babies was significantly more in mothers who were anemic in their third trimester. Preterm deliveries occurred more frequently in mothers who were anemic in their second and third trimesters. Higher hemoglobin did not show any effect on either birth weight or gestation in our study.

  3. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PMID:22004338

  4. Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Berg, A.H. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S.J.; Hinton, D.E. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M. [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

    1999-02-01

    PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

  5. Longitudinal Effects of Adaptability on Behavior Problems and Maternal Depression in Families of Adolescents with Autism

    Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S

    2011-01-01

    Research on families of individuals with autism has tended to focus on child-driven effects utilizing models of stress and coping. The current study used a family-systems perspective to examine whether family-level adaptability promoted beneficial outcomes for mothers and their adolescents with autism over time. Participants were 149 families of children diagnosed with autism who were between the ages of 10 and 22 years during the three-year period examined. Mothers reported on family adaptab...

  6. The effects of maternal social phobia on mother-infant interactions and infant social responsiveness

    Murray, L.; Cooper, P.; Creswell, C; Schofield, E; Sack, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We addressed these problems in the current study.Methods: We assessed mothers with social phobia (N = 84) and control mothers (N = 89) at 10 weeks in face-...

  7. The effect of a prenatal hypnotherapeutic programme on postnatal maternal psychological well-being / Catharina Guse

    Guse, Catharina

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the effect of a prenatal hypnotherapeutic programme on the maintenance and promotion of postpartum psychological well-being of a group of first-time mother. Relevant literature on pregnancy, early motherhood and psychological well-being were explained in order to abstract important facets and perspectives to use as a background for the development and implementation of an intervention programme for the facilitation of psychol...

  8. Extending health insurance in Ghana: effects of the National Health Insurance Scheme on maternity care

    Brugiavini, Agar; Pace, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in exploring the potential of social health insurance in Africa where a number of countries are currently experimenting with different approaches. Since these schemes have been introduced recently and are continuously evolving, it is important to evaluate their effectiveness in the enhancement of health care utilization and reduction of out-of-pocket expenses for potential policy suggestions. Objective To investigate how the National Health Insurance ...

  9. It's not your mother's marijuana: effects on maternal-fetal health and the developing child.

    Warner, Tamara D; Roussos-Ross, Dikea; Behnke, Marylou

    2014-12-01

    Pro-marijuana advocacy efforts exemplified by the "medical" marijuana movement, coupled with the absence of conspicuous public health messages about the potential dangers of marijuana use during pregnancy, could lead to greater use of today's more potent marijuana, which could have significant short- and long-term consequences. This article reviews the current literature regarding the effects of prenatal marijuana use on the pregnant woman and her offspring. PMID:25459779

  10. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior

    Gotardo, André T.; Pfister, James A.; Paulo C. F. Raspantini; Silvana L. Górniak

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fres...

  11. Effect of undernutrition on the uterine environment during maternal recognition of pregnancy in sheep.

    Sosa, C; Abecia, J A; Carriquiry, M; Vázquez, M I; Fernández-Foren, A; Talmon, M; Forcada, F; Meikle, A

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pregnancy and undernutrition on endometrial gene expression were investigated in ewes fed all or half their maintenance requirements and killed on Day 14 of pregnancy or of the oestrous cycle. The endometrial expression of progesterone, oestrogen, oxytocin and interferon receptors (PR, ERalpha, OXTR and IFNAR, respectively), cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II, and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was studied by immunohistochemistry or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The luminal epithelium of cyclic control ewes was devoid of PR staining and had relatively high levels of ERalpha, OXTR, COX-2 and IFNAR2. The presence of a conceptus decreased the in vitro uterine secretion of prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) and the expression of IFNAR2 in most cell types, and increased the gene expression of IGF-I and IGF-II. Undernutrition tended to increase ERalpha protein and gene, but decreased in vitro uterine secretion of PGE(2) and the gene expression of IFNAR2 in cyclic ewes. There was no effect of undernutrition on pregnancy rates or the number of conceptuses recovered. Consistent with this, undernutrition of pregnant ewes did not have any effect on uterine gene expression. Moreover, in cases where changes were observed in cyclic ewes, these changes were negated when a conceptus was present. PMID:19698291

  12. Maternity Protection at Work.

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  13. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    RachelYehuda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology.

  14. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship. PMID:25913568

  15. Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl2) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

  16. The Effects of Decreasing Maternal Anxiety on Fetal Oxygenation and Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in the Cord Blood

    Masoudi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marziyeh; Vaziri, Farideh; Zare, Najaf; Ramzi, Mani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Vasoconstriction during anxiety reduces fetal oxygenation and leads to hypoxia. Hypoxia in turn results in increase of the number of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the cord blood. The present study aimed to assess the effect of decreasing maternal anxiety on fetal oxygenation and NRBCs count in the cord blood. Methods:. In this study, 150 women were randomly divided into two intervention groups [supportive care and acupressure in BL32 (bladder) acupoint] and a control group (hospital routine care). The infants' cord blood was investigated regarding the number of NRBCs and the intensity of hypoxia after birth. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Findings : The significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the number of NRBCs counted in the peripheral blood smear (P<0.001). Besides, a significant relationship was observed between the length of the first and second stages of labor and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood (P=0.01). Also, a significant association was observed between the type of delivery and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood in both intervention (P<0.001) and control groups (P=0.03). Conclusion: Doula supportive care and acupressure at BL32 point reduced the length of labor stages as well as the anxiety level. Also, nucleated red blood cells were less in the 2 groups of intervention than in control group. Regarding the fact that nucleated red blood cells cannot be the only factor for hypoxia predicting, for affirmation of this theory study with higher sample size and survey of mothers at high risk are needed. PMID:25562022

  17. Effect of number of pig embryos in the uterus on their survival and development and on maternal metabolism.

    Père, M C; Dourmad, J Y; Etienne, M

    1997-05-01

    The effects of pig embryo number on fetal survival and growth and maternal metabolism were evaluated with 114 Large White gilts. Gilts were assigned at 38 kg to three treatments: control (CTR), ligature of the left oviduct (LIG), or right hemi-hysteroovariectomy (HHO). Insemination occurred at 311 +/- 18 d of age. A laparotomy was performed at d 35 of gestation, and gilts were slaughtered at d 112. Ovulation rate per uterine horn was 4.30, 8.70, and 17.12 in the LIG, CTR, and HHO groups, respectively. The hierarchy was the same for litter size at d 35 of gestation, but the relative differences were reduced (3.24, 5.98, and 8.40 fetuses/uterine horn, respectively). Litter size per uterine horn was similar in the CTR and HHO groups at d 112 of pregnancy (2.93, 4.69, and 4.76 fetuses in the LIG, CTR, and HHO groups, respectively). Early (before d 35 of gestation), late, and total fetal mortality increased with embryo potential per uterine horn. There was a compensation between early and late fetal mortality in the CTR and HHO groups. Fetal weight at d 112 was related to litter size in early pregnancy (1.50, 1.38, and 1.27 kg in the LIG, CTR, and HHO groups, respectively). Uterine capacity limits litter size and fetal development, even in sows with a conventional potential of embryos. Availability of energetic and gluconeogenic substrates was higher at 110 than at 60 d of gestation in the three groups. Blood substrate levels suggested that lipid mobilization and glucose uptake were higher in the gilts with a larger litter weight. PMID:9159282

  18. Effects of inadequate maternal dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy on offspring immunity in pigs

    Tuchscherer Margret

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n?=?13, low (LP, 6.5%; n?=?15, or high (HP, 30%; n?=?14 protein content, made isoenergetic by varying carbohydrate levels. Cortisol, total protein and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA concentrations were measured in the blood of sows over the course of pregnancy. Cortisol, total protein, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation, immune cell counts, and cytokines were assessed in the blood of offspring at baseline and under challenging conditions (weaning; lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration. Results In sows, the LP diet increased cortisol (P?P?P?P?+ cell percentage and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased after weaning (P?P?=?0.09 and HP (P?P? Conclusions Our results indicate that both low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant sows can induce short-term as well as long-lasting effects on immune competence in piglets that may have serious consequences for host defence against bacterial pathogens.

  19. Effects of maternally administered sulphur-35 on the pre- and postnatal mortality and development in mice

    An investigation was taken up to screen the effects of 35S on the prenatal development of mouse. Pregnant mice of CBA strain were injected intraperitoneally with a doze of 20 μCi of 35S on 10.5 days of gestation and allowed to go to term. No mortality was observed in treated animals. However, a slight reduction in the number of fertile matings was noted in 35S group. But the reduction was statistically insignificant. A significant decrease in litter size was noted in 35S -treated group. While the litter size was 7.5/female in the control, it was 5.9/female in 35S group. The reduced litter size might be due to 35S-induced prenatal mortality. A further reduction in litter size was noted at weaning. This reduction was due to a significant increase in the neo- and postnatal mortality of F1 progeny in the treated group. There was no effect of 35S on the sex ratio and body weights of F1 progeny. (auth.)

  20. Maternal smoking and the retinoid pathway in the developing lung

    Manoli Sara E; Smith Lacey A; Vyhlidal Carrie A; An Chang; Porrata Yolanda; Cardoso Wellington V; Baron Rebecca M; Haley Kathleen J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal smoking is a risk factor for pediatric lung disease, including asthma. Animal models suggest that maternal smoking causes defective alveolarization in the offspring. Retinoic acid signaling modulates both lung development and postnatal immune function. Thus, abnormalities in this pathway could mediate maternal smoking effects. We tested whether maternal smoking disrupts retinoic acid pathway expression and functioning in a murine model. Methods Female C57Bl/6 mice...

  1. Responses of the Embryonic Epigenome to Maternal Diabetes

    Salbaum, J. michael; KAPPEN, CLAUDIA

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diabetes and obesity are independent risk factors for neural tube defects, although it is unclear whether the effects are mediated by common pathogenic mechanisms. In this manuscript, we report a genome-wide survey of histone acetylation in neurulation stage embryos from mouse pregnancies with different metabolic conditions: maternal diabetes, and maternal consumption of a high fat content diet. We find that maternal diabetes, and independently, exposure to high-fat diet, are associa...

  2. Maternal Lipids Are as Important as Glucose for Fetal Growth

    Kulkarni, Smita R.; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Rao, Shobha R.; Chougule, Suresh D.; Deokar, Tukaram M.; Bhalerao, Ankush J.; Solat, Vishnu A.; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Fall, Caroline H D; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the relationship between maternal circulating fuels and neonatal size and compare the relative effects of glucose and lipids. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (1993–1996) investigated the influence of maternal nutrition on fetal growth. We measured maternal body size and glucose and lipid concentrations during pregnancy and examined their relationship with birth size in full-term babies using correlation and regression techniques. RESULTS The mo...

  3. Maternal Cocaine Use and Mother-Toddler Aggression

    Eiden, Rina D.; SCHUETZE, PAMELA; Colder, Craig; VEIRA, YVETTE

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother-toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2 years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, or poor infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Particip...

  4. Temporal and maternal effects on reproductive ecology of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    We used mixed-effects models to examine relationships of reproductive characteristics of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) to improve population modeling and conservation planning for this species. Neonates from larger litters had lower mass, and mass of neonates also was affected by random variation among mothers. Length of mother did not affect relative mass of litters; however, our data suggest that longer mothers expended less reproductive effort per offspring than shorter mothers. We detected random variation in length of neonates among mothers, but these lengths were not related to length of mother or size of litter. Mean size of litter varied among years, but little evidence existed for a relationship between size of litter or mass of litter and length of mother. Sex ratios of neonates did not differ from 1:1.

  5. The effect of self-hypnosis on duration of labor and maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a brief course in self-hypnosis for childbirth on duration of the labor and other birth outcomes. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 1222 healthy nulliparous women....... METHODS: A hypnosis group receiving three 1-h lessons in self-hypnosis with additional audio-recordings to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-h lessons in various relaxation methods and mindfulness with audio-recordings for additional training, and a usual-care group receiving only the...... expulsive phase of second stage of labor, the duration of the expulsive phase, or other birth outcomes. Fewer emergency and more elective cesarean sections occurred in the hypnosis group. No difference was seen across the groups for lactation success or caring for the child but fewer women in the hypnosis...

  6. Effects of maternal exposure to γ-rays on eye organogenesis in the mouse embryos

    This study involved the irradiation of mouse embryos at different stages of pregnancy, using dose of 4 Gy γ-radiation, at 10, 12, 14 and 16 days of pregnancy. Pregnant mice were killed after 2, 4 and 6 days post irradiation. Embryo's heads were isolated and serial cross sections were made to investigate the effect of irradiation on the different components of the eye at different periods of eye organogenesis. It was proved from this study that irradiation causes microphtalmia and decrease in the growth of lens, retina and corneal stroma, as well severe disruption in its development and disfigurement in its hitogenesis. These defects have shown great differences in their severity according to the age of embryos at exposure and the number of days post irradiation. (author)

  7. [A study of maternal psychological state among women with fetal alcohol effects (FAE) infants].

    Seki, Meikan; Seki, Masamichi; Yoshida, Kohji; Kashimura, Masamichi

    2002-12-01

    Frequent alcohol drinking during pregnancy may result in facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and central nervous system deficits in infants ranging from Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). However, few studies has been done to empirical research the psychosomatic approach among women with FAE. In this study, twelve women with FAE infants were selected and interviewed at two or three days after delivery with CMI, MAS, and ANS-S, in order to elucidate the number of problems with mental health of them. All of women with FAE infants drank alcohol during the pregnancy consumed 2 or 3 drinks per week (ethanol consumption less than 92.0 gms per week). The mean mother's age of FAE infants is 30.2 years (range 27-35) and that of healthy mother is 30.3 years (range 24-35). Eleven of 12 (91.7%) infants were identified having the smooth philtrum, 9 (75.0%) with thin upper lip, 3 (25%) with hypersensitivity, 3 (25%) with sleeping disturbance, 2 (16.7%) with growth retardation. Eighty-three percent of infant with FAE had an adequate body weight and height. In comparison with the women without FAE, women with FAE infants were noted to have a significant difference of the score of CMI (p alcoholics and did not consider themselves to have alcohol problems. Therefore, obstetrician has to cut down women alcohol intake considerably during pregnancy for preventing adverse fetal effects. Alcohol consumption and psychometric works also need to be done for detecting at risk use of alcohol during the pregnancy. PMID:12607947

  8. Prenatal Enrichment And Recovery From Perinatal Cortical Damage: Effects Of Maternal Complex Housing

    Robbin Gibb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group for 12 hours per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their home (standard cages with their pups. Four dams were housed in standard cages (cagemom group throughout pregnancy and with their pups until weaning. At postnatal day 3 (P3 infants of both groups received frontal cortex removals or sham surgery. Behavioural testing began on P60 and included the Morris water task and a skilled reaching task. Brains were processed for Golgi analyses. Complex housing of the mother had a significant effect on the behaviour of their pups. Control animals from the condomom group outperformed those of the cagemom group in the water task. Condomom animals with lesions performed better than their cagemom cohorts in both the water task and in skilled reaching. Condomom animals showed an increase in cortical thickness at anterior planes and thalamic area at both anterior and posterior regions. Golgi analyses revealed an increase in spine density. These results suggest that prenatal enrichment alters brain organization in manner that is prophylactic for perinatal brain injury. This result could have significant implications for the prenatal management of infants expected to be at risk for difficult birth.

  9. Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum

    Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi; Castrén, Eero; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat. The...

  10. Effect of maternal Tp53 gene G412C polymorphism on neural tube defects: A study from North India

    Jyoti Arora

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The study highlights the selective advantage provided by maternal ′CC′ genotype, thereby reducing risk of cephalic NTDs, probably due to the lower apoptotic activity of the protein, however, more specifically in the presence of community-specific microenvironment.

  11. Maternal adjustment or constraint: differential effects of food availability on maternal deposition of macro‐nutrients, steroids and thyroid hormones in rock pigeon eggs

    Hsu, Bin‐Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M.; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In oviparous species like birds, eggs provide the direct environment in which embryos are developing. Mothers may adjust different egg components in different ways in reaction to environmental cues either to adjust offspring development or because of constraints. In this study, we investigated the effects of food quality and quantity before and during egg laying on three different aspects of egg quality: macro‐nutrients (egg and yolk mass), androgens (testosterone and androstenedione...

  12. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For...... European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ∼20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ≥1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between...... generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ∼30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year...

  13. Effect of Irradiation Maternal Diets on the Post-natal Development of Brain Rat Pups

    Full text: Effect of Protein-calorie malnutrition was studied on the pups born to mothers receiving either irradiated normal diet (consisted equal parts of gram and wheat) or irradiation low protein diet (consisted one part of normal diet and three parts of heat). Level of DNA, RNA and protein content were found markedly reduced in the brain of irradiated low protein diet fed pups than in the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found lower while catalase and lipid peroxidation activity were higher in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, compared whit the pups fed irradiated normal diet. On the whole both the irradiated low protein diet as well as irradiated normal diet fed pups showed higher index of biochemical changes than in the unirradiated low protein diet fed pups. Post-natal mortality was 60% in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, whereas the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet did not show any death. The study given evidence that feeding of the irradiated low protein diet interferes more with the development of brain compared with the pups fed on irradiated normal diet

  14. Effects of induced maternal hypothyroidism on the ovarian development of offspring rats

    Radovanović Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of propylthyouracil (PTU induced hypothyroidism of rats during pregnancy and lactation on offspring ovarian development and maturation were studied. Thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations were determined using the radioimmunoassay method in order to verify the hypothyroid status of treated mothers and their two months old pups. The ovaries of the offspring were processed for light microscopy analysis on the day of the first estrus after the 60th day of age. Histological analysis including follicle count was performed on serial sections stained with haematoxyline/eosin and on semithin sections stained with methylene blue. A significant increase of serum TSH and decrease in T3 and T4 levels was observed in treated mothers compared to controls. The levels of measured hormones in the control and PTU-treated two months old rats were not significantly different. Ten percent of 60-dayold treated females did not reach estrus and they were sacrificed in diestrus. The secondary interstitial cells were the dominant structures in the ovaries. The number of healthy growing and early antral follicles was markedly decreased. Ovaries of treated rats contained relatively few antral follicles, significantly more atretic antral follicles and a decreased number of corpora lutea, compared to controls. These results indicate that lack of thyroid hormones during prenatal and early postnatal development impair ovarian development in rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  15. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    de Jongh Beatriz E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

  16. Maternal Body Mass Index, Dietary Intake and Socioeconomic Status: Differential Effects on Breast Milk Zinc, Copper and Iron Content

    Zeinab Nikniaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As breast milk micronutrients content are essential for health and growth of the infants, this study was conducted to determine the breast milk zinc, copper and iron concen-trations and their possible correlations with maternal nutritional status, dietary intakes as well as socioeconomic status.Methods: Breast milk samples and information on maternal anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake were collected from 90 Iranian lactating women with 3 different socioeco-nomic status who exclusively breastfed their infants. Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nutritionist III program, Multiple Re-gression and ANOVA test were used for data analyses.Results: The mean milk zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were 1.93 ± 0.71, 0.58 ± 0.32, and 0.81 ± 0.2 mg/l, respectively. In all three SES groups only zinc mean level was lower than the recommended range. A significant difference was observed in breast milk zinc, copper and iron concentration between high and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.001, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.044 and also moderate and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.03, Cu (P<0.001 and Fe (P<0.049. After adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI, socioeconomic status, mean dietary energy, zinc, copper, and iron intakes, there was a negative and significant association between maternal age and breast milk zinc (?=-0.28, P<0.034, copper (?=-0.18, P<0.048, and iron (?=-0.22, P<0.04 concentrations.Conclusion: In low socioeconomic group with lower mean age, breast milk mineral levels were higher than others and there was no significant correlation between mineral levels and dietary intake. Hence it is supposed that maternal age may be better predictor of breast milk mineral levels.

  17. Búsqueda intencionada y reclasificación de muertes maternas en México: el efecto en la distribución de las causas / Intentional search and reclassification of maternal deaths in Mexico: The effect on the distribution of causes

    Luis Manuel, Torres; Ana Luisa, Rhenals; Aline, Jiménez; Dolores, Ramírez-Villalobos; Rocío, Urióstegui; Miriam, Piña; Humberto, Rocha.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Corregir la mala clasificación y mejorar la calidad de la información sobre la mortalidad materna en México. Material y métodos. A través de los registros clínicos y autopsias verbales, se estudiaron todas las defunciones certificadas como maternas y una selección de defunciones de mujeres [...] en edad fértil, cuyas causas fueron consideradas como sospechosas de encubrir una muerte materna; todas ocurridas durante 2011 en México. Resultados. La búsqueda intencionada y reclasificación de muertes maternas permitió rescatar más de 100 muertes que no habían sido registradas ni codificadas inicialmente como maternas y se ratificaron o rectificaron las causas anotadas en los certificados de defunción. Este procedimiento también permitió reclasificar como muertes maternas 297 defunciones de la base preliminar del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Conclusiones. La Búsqueda Intencionada y Reclasificación de Muertes Maternas es un procedimiento muy útil para mejorar la calidad de la información sobre la mortalidad materna. Abstract in english Objective. To correct the misclassification and improve the quality of information on maternal mortality in Mexico. Materials and methods. Using clinical records and verbal autopsies, we studied all deaths certified as maternal deaths as well as a selection of deaths of women of childbearing age who [...] se causes were considered as suspected of hiding a maternal death, all of which occurred during 2011 within Mexico. Results. The deliberate search of maternal deaths and reclassification allowed the rescue of just over 100 deaths that were not originally registered or coded as maternal and confirmed or corrected the causes of death recorded on death certificates as confirmed maternal deaths. This procedure also allowed the reclassification of 297 maternal deaths of women in the groundwork of the National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Conclusions. International Search and Reclassification of Maternal Deaths is a very useful procedure for improving the classification of cases that were not classified as maternal deaths and the effect was greater with the coding of indirect obstetric deaths.

  18. The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil Eficacia de intervenciones en la comunidad para mejorar la salud maternoinfantil en el nordeste de Brasil

    Alan Emond; Jon Pollock; Nilma da Costa; Técia Maranhão; Albanita Macedo

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilitie...

  19. Immunomodulatory effects of maternal atrazine exposure on male Balb/c mice

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide applied to corn, sugar and other crops as a broad leaf weed inhibitor. Using the Balb/c mouse model, we have determined that prenatal/lactational exposure to atrazine alters adult immune function. Pregnant Balb/c dams were exposed subcutaneously for 21 days via time release pellets to 700 ?g per day of atrazine beginning between days 10 and 12 of pregnancy. Prenatal/Lactational exposure caused no overt physical malformations in the offspring and had no effect on the number of litters carried to term or the litter size. Upon reaching early adulthood (approximately 3 months of age), the state of their immune system was evaluated. There were no changes in body weight or in the organ to body weight ratio of the spleen. Additionally, no changes were observed in the number of CD8+ T cell, CD4+ T cell, or B220+ B cell subpopulations in the spleen. T cell function was assessed by measuring proliferation and cytolytic activity after in vitro allogeneic stimulation. Male mice which had been prenatally/lactationally exposed to atrazine had an increase in both T cell proliferation and cytolytic activity. The humoral immune response was assessed after immunization with heat killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP). There was a significant increase in the number of HKSP-specific IgM secreting B cells in the spleen of prenatal/lactational exposed male mice. Inasmuch as atrazine is a widespread environmental contaminant, this immunopotentiation raises concerns that it may potentiate clinical diseases, such as autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity, and needs to be carefully monitored and studied

  20. Modulating effects of maternal fish consumption on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in early infancy attributed to prenatal exposure to fine particles.

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Pac, Agnieszka; Jacek, Ryszard; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Spengler, John; Rauh, Virginia; Perera, Frederica

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis whether infants with higher prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM(2.5)) are at greater risk of developing respiratory symptoms and whether fish consumption in pregnancy may modulate the effect. The study was carried out in a cohort of 465 newborns in Krakow (Poland) who have been followed over the first 2 years of life and for whom data on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and measurements of personal air monitoring in the second trimester of pregnancy were available. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) of respiratory symptoms due to prenatal PM(2.5) exposure were adjusted for potential confounders (gender of child, breastfeeding, parity, maternal atopy, maternal education as a proxy for the socio-economic status, exposure to postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and moulds in households) in the generalized estimating equations (GEE) statistical models. The adjusted risk of coughing was associated significantly with PM(2.5) level (IRR = 2.51; 95% CI: 1.77-3.58), moulds in the household, parity, maternal atopy and postnatal ETS, but was lower in girls, and in infants whose mothers consumed more fish in pregnancy (IRR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.79-0.91). The risk of wheezing was also correlated significantly with the prenatal exposure to PM(2.5) (IRR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.29-1.43) but also with the presence of moulds in homes, parity, maternal atopy and postnatal ETS. The occurrence of wheezing was associated inversely with the gender of child, gestational age, and fish consumption in pregnancy (IRR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). Similarly, the risk of difficult (puffy) breathing increased with prenatal exposure to PM(2.5) (IRR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.12-1.25) moulds, maternal atopy, and parity. The symptom occurrence was lower in girls and associated inversely with the gestational age, and fish consumption in pregnancy (IRR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.92-0.97). The results of the study support the hypothesis that fish consumption in pregnancy may mitigate the harmful effect of prenatal or perinatal exposure to components of PM(2.5) resulting in an increased burden of respiratory infections among infants. PMID:18230965

  1. Severe maternal morbidity associated with maternal birthplace in three high-immigration settings

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Glazier, Richard H; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann; Rööst, Mattias; Essén, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality and morbidity vary substantially worldwide. It is unknown if these geographic differences translate into disparities in severe maternal morbidity among immigrants from various world regions. We assessed disparities in severe maternal morbidity between immigrant women...... provided aggregate data according to standardized definitions of the outcome, maternal regions of birth and covariates for pooled analyses. We used random effects and stratified logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for maternal age, parity and...... comparability scores. RESULTS: We retrieved 2,322,907 deliveries in all three receiving countries, of which 479,986 (21%) were to immigrant women. Compared with non-immigrants, only Sub-Saharan African women were consistently at higher risk of severe maternal morbidity in all three receiving countries (pooled...

  2. Maternal influences on cord blood lead levels.

    Rothenberg, S J; Karchmer, S; Schnaas, L; Perroni, E; Zea, F; Salinas, V; Fernández Alba, J

    1996-01-01

    We constructed models of umbilical cord blood lead (PbB), with and without the addition of maternal PbB at delivery and earlier in pregnancy, to determine which factors explaining cord PbB depended upon maternal PbB and which did not. We prospectively studied women of low-to-middle socioeconomic status who lived in the Valley of Mexico from 12 weeks of pregnancy to delivery. We measured maternal venous PbB during pregnancy and at delivery, and umbilical cord PbB (1-38 micrograms/dl, 0.05-1.83 mumol/l). We used multiple regression analyses to model cord PbB and a logit analysis to model the maternal-cord PbB relationship. Older mothers using lead-glazed pottery and canned foods delivered babies with increased cord PbB, while those with occasional alcohol use during pregnancy, high milk intake, and more spontaneous abortions delivered babies with lower cord PbB. Maternal PbB at 36 weeks of pregnancy and at delivery independently explained additional variance in cord PbB, but maternal PbB earlier in pregnancy did not. Some of the effects of lead-glazed pottery, maternal abortions, alcohol use, and canned food use on cord PbB were mediated through maternal PbB. The effects of maternal age and milk intake on cord PbB were independent of their influence on maternal PbB near delivery. Cord PbBs were higher than maternal PbBs at delivery in 33% of the cases, and were predominant in mothers over 30 and those drinking milk less than once per day. Measurable influence of maternal PbB on delivery cord PbB is limited to the four to eight weeks prior to delivery. Many factors suspected of influencing bone lead also control cord PbB, some of them independently of their effect on maternal delivery PbB. Minimizing fetal exposure near the end of pregnancy may require long-term control of maternal lead exposure and good management of pregnancy and diet. PMID:8792298

  3. Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects of active and passive maternal tobacco smoke exposure on in utero mutagenesis at the HPRT locus

    Grant Stephen G

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced mutagenesis in utero is likely to have life-long repercussions for the exposed fetus, affecting survival, birth weight and susceptibility to both childhood and adult-onset diseases, such as cancer. In the general population, such exposures are likely to be a consequence of the lifestyle choices of the parents, with exposure to tobacco smoke one of the most pervasive and easily documented. Previous studies attempting to establish a direct link between active smoking and levels of somatic mutation have largely discounted the effects of passive or secondary exposure, and have produced contradictory results. Methods Data from three studies of possible smoking effects on in utero mutagenesis at the HPRT locus were compiled and reanalyzed, alone and in combination. Where possible, passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was considered as a separate category of exposure, rather than being included in the non-smoking controls. Molecular spectra from these studies were reanalyzed after adjustment for reported mutation frequencies from the individual studies and the entire data set. Results A series of related studies on mutation at the X-linked HPRT locus in human newborn cord blood samples has led to the novel conclusion that only passive maternal exposure to tobacco mutagens has a significant effect on the developing baby. We performed a pooled analysis of the complete data from these studies, at the levels of both induced mutation frequency and the resulting mutational spectrum. Conclusion Our analysis reveals a more commonsensical, yet no less cautionary result: both active maternal smoking and secondary maternal exposure produce quantitatively and qualitatively indistinguishable increases in fetal HPRT mutation. Further, it appears that this effect is not perceptibly ameliorated if the mother adjusts her behavior (i.e. stops smoking when pregnancy is confirmed, although this conclusion may also be affected by continued passive exposure.

  4. Prediction of Child Problem Behaviors in Kindergarten: The Moderating Role of Child’s Anger in the Effects of Maternal Ignoring of Misbehavior and Maternal Overprotection on Child Problem Behavior.

    Buurkes, L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The additive and interactive relations of parenting (maternal ignoring of misbehavior and maternal overprotection) and child temperament (anger) to children’s internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were examined in an 11-months longitudinal study of 179 children (3 ─7 years of which 51 percent girls, 45 percent boys, and 4 percent missing data) from Utrecht, Netherlands. At the screening, demographic variables were measured and mothers rated child temperament. At wave 1 ...

  5. Effect of nutrition counseling on maternal nutritional performance, birth outcome and choice of infant feeding in pregnant teenagers

    Natarajan, Padma

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of nutrition education services, measured by duration of participation and frequency of nutrition counseling, on maternal nutritional performance, and pregnancy outcome, in 100 pregnant teenagers enrolled in the WIC program in North Carolina. Data on prenatal weight gain, rate of weekly weight gain, gestational duration and birth weight of infants born to these teenagers was retrieved from medical records. Twenty-four hour recalls,...

  6. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy: Do the Effects on Innate (Toll-Like Receptor) Function Have Implications for Subsequent Allergic Disease?

    Prescott Susan L; Noakes Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Subtle increases in immaturity of immune function in early infancy have been implicated in the rising susceptibility to allergic disease, particularly relative impairment of type 1 interferon (IFN)-γ responses in the neonatal period. Although genetic predisposition is a clear risk factor, the escalating rates of allergic disease in infancy suggest that environmental factors are also implicated. We previously showed that maternal smoking in pregnancy may impair neonatal IFN-γ responses. Our m...

  7. The Effect of Ephedrine on Fetal Outcome in Treatment of Maternal Hypotension Caused by Spinal Anesthesia During Cesarean Section

    Fardin Yousefshahi; Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Mahbod Kaveh; Roghayeh Hamidian; Khosro Barkhordari

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal complications and labor outcome in obese and non-obese women. Materials and methods: It is a retrospective comparative study conducted at the Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Unit 1, Civil Hospital, Karachi from December 2008 to December 2009. A sample size of 220 gravid women is selected by Non Probability Convenience sampling technique. In these 110 obese women as cases was compared with 110 non-obese women as controls, booked at <20 weeks of ges...

  8. Effects of Stressful Life Events, Maternal Depression and 5-HTTLPR Genotype on Emotional Symptoms in Pre-Adolescent Children†

    Araya, Ricardo; Hu, Xianzhang; Heron, Jon; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Evans, Jonathan; Lewis, Glyn; Nutt, David; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    There has been a large but inconsistent literature on interactions between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and adversity on emotional disorders. We investigated these interactions in 4,334 children from a birth longitudinal cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We measured emotional symptoms at 7 years with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Mothers rated stressful life events between ages 5 and 7 years. Maternal depressio...

  9. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

  10. Direct and Indirect Effects of Maternal and Peer Influences on Sexual Intention among Urban African American and Hispanic Females.

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Cederbaum, Julie; Sathoff, Chelsea; Toro, Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Peer and family influences are interconnected in complex ways. These influences shape adolescent decision-making regarding engagement in sexual behaviors. Evidence indicates the more proximal (and direct) a process is to an individual, the more likely it is to affect his/her development and behavior. Therefore, family factors (e.g., parenting practices) and peer influence (e.g., peer norms) tend to be more strongly associated with adolescent behavior than distal factors (e.g., media or the economy). Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored how maternal influence variables interact with perceptions of peer influence to affect daughters' intentions to have sex. A nonprobability sample of 176 mother-daughter dyads was recruited in clinics and service organizations in the northeastern United States. Results from path analysis revealed that maternal influence variables had a significant indirect relationship with daughters' intentions to have sex through daughters' perceptions of peer influence. Maternal processes can act as protective factors for adolescent girls who perceive their peers are engaged in sexual behaviors. Therefore, risk reduction interventions with adolescents should include opportunities for parents to learn about sex-related issues and develop skills that will allow them to buffer negative peer influence. PMID:25422533

  11. Once a mother, always a mother: maternal experience protects females from the negative effects of stress on learning.

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Shors, Tracey J

    2012-02-01

    Women experience profound hormonal fluctuations throughout their reproductive lives. They are especially susceptible to disturbances in mood and cognition during the transition from pregnancy into postpartum and motherhood (Brummelte & Galea, 2010). Their behavioral and hormonal responses to stressful stimuli are also altered during this time. These changes are not limited to humans but occur in many mammalian species. Virgin female rats express a severe learning deficit in associative eyeblink conditioning after a stressful life event (Wood, Beylin, & Shors, 2001; Wood & Shors, 1998), but lactating females or those that are caring for young learn well even after the stressor (Leuner & Shors, 2006). However, we do not know whether maternal experience persistently alters learning after a stressful event. Here we hypothesized that females that had been maternal at some time in their lives would learn well even after exposure to a stressful event. To test this hypothesis, females that had at least one brood of young and expressed a normal estrous cycle were exposed to an acute stressful event that reliably impairs learning in virgin females. Animals were trained 24 hr later with classical eyeblink conditioning. Exposure to the stressor suppressed learning in virgins but not in females that had been mothers at some time in their lives. These data suggest that maternal experience induces a protective mechanism in mothers, which promotes associative learning long after the offspring have left their care. PMID:22181714

  12. Maternal fructose and/or salt intake and reproductive outcome in the rat: effects on growth, fertility, sex ratio, and birth order

    Gray, Clint; Long, Sophie; Green, Charlotte; Gardiner, Sheila M; Craigon, Jim; Gardner, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal diet can significantly skew the secondary sex ratio away from the expected value of 0.5 (proportion males), but the details of how diet may do this are unclear. Here, we altered dietary levels of salt (4% salt in the feed) and/or fructose (10% in the drinking water) of pregnant rats to model potential effects that consumption of a "Western diet" might have on maternofetal growth, development, and sex ratio. We demonstrate that excess fructose consumption before and during pregnancy l...

  13. Maternal fructose and/or salt intake and reproductive outcome in the rat: effects on growth, fertility, sex ratio, and birth order

    Gray, Clint; Long, Sophie; Green, Charlotte; Gardiner, Sheila M; Craigon, Jim; Gardner, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal diet can significantly skew the secondary sex ratio away from the expected value of 0.5 (proportion males), but the details of how diet may do this are unclear. Here, we altered dietary levels of salt (4% salt in the feed) and/or fructose (10% in the drinking water) of pregnant rats to model potential effects that consumption of a “Western diet” might have on maternofetal growth, development, and sex ratio. We demonstrate that excess fructose consumption before and during pregnancy l...

  14. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    Magnus Per

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased risk of maternal worry was found if the mother herself had type 1 diabetes (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.2-4.78. Conclusions This study did not find evidence supporting the notion that genetic risk information about newborns has a negative impact on the mental health of Norwegian mothers.

  15. The Contributions of Maternal Sensitivity and Maternal Depressive Symptoms to Epigenetic Processes and Neuroendocrine Functioning

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Hawes, Katheleen; Guerin, Dylan; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Tronick, Edward; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal responsiveness may buffer the child to the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on DNA methylation of "NR3C1," "11ß-HSD2," and neuroendocrine functioning. DNA was derived from buccal epithelial cells and prestress cortisol was obtained from the saliva of 128 infants. Mothers with depressive…

  16. Maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate in Daphnia magna

    Garbutt, Jennie S; Little, Tom J.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal effects have wide-ranging effects on life-history traits. Here, using the crustacean Daphnia magna, we document a new effect: maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate, with low quantities of food triggering mothers to produce slow-feeding offspring. Such a change in the rate of resource acquisition has broad implications for population growth or dynamics and for interactions with, for instance, predators and parasites. This maternal effect can also explain the previously...

  17. Climate change and the potential effects on maternal and pregnancy outcomes: an assessment of the most vulnerable--the mother, fetus, and newborn child.

    Rylander, Charlotta; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented a large amount of evidence about global warming and the impact of human activities on global climate change. The Lancet Commission have identified a number of ways in which climate change can influence human health: lack of food and safe drinking water, poor sanitation, population migration, changing disease patterns and morbidity, more frequent extreme weather events, and lack of shelter. Pregnant women, the developing fetus, and young children are considered the most vulnerable members of our species and are already marginalized in many countries. Therefore, they may have increased sensitivity to the effects of climate change. Published literature in the fields of climate change, human health, tropical diseases, and direct heat exposure were assessed through the regular search engines. This article demonstrates that climate change will increase the risk of infant and maternal mortality, birth complications, and poorer reproductive health, especially in tropical, developing countries. Thus, climate change will have a substantial impact on the health and survival of the next generation among already challenged populations. There is limited knowledge regarding which regions will be most heavily affected. Research efforts are therefore required to identify the most vulnerable populations, fill knowledge gaps, and coordinate efforts to reduce negative health consequences. The effects of malnutrition, infectious diseases, environmental problems, and direct heat exposure on maternal health outcomes will lead to severe health risks for mothers and children. Increased focus on antenatal care is recommended to prevent worsening maternal health and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Interventions to reduce the negative health impacts caused by climate change are also crucial. Every effort should be made to develop and maintain good antenatal care during extreme life conditions as a result of climate change. PMID:23481091

  18. Climate change and the potential effects on maternal and pregnancy outcomes: an assessment of the most vulnerable – the mother, fetus, and newborn child

    Charlotta Rylander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC presented a large amount of evidence about global warming and the impact of human activities on global climate change. The Lancet Commission have identified a number of ways in which climate change can influence human health: lack of food and safe drinking water, poor sanitation, population migration, changing disease patterns and morbidity, more frequent extreme weather events, and lack of shelter. Pregnant women, the developing fetus, and young children are considered the most vulnerable members of our species and are already marginalized in many countries. Therefore, they may have increased sensitivity to the effects of climate change. Published literature in the fields of climate change, human health, tropical diseases, and direct heat exposure were assessed through the regular search engines. This article demonstrates that climate change will increase the risk of infant and maternal mortality, birth complications, and poorer reproductive health, especially in tropical, developing countries. Thus, climate change will have a substantial impact on the health and survival of the next generation among already challenged populations. There is limited knowledge regarding which regions will be most heavily affected. Research efforts are therefore required to identify the most vulnerable populations, fill knowledge gaps, and coordinate efforts to reduce negative health consequences. The effects of malnutrition, infectious diseases, environmental problems, and direct heat exposure on maternal health outcomes will lead to severe health risks for mothers and children. Increased focus on antenatal care is recommended to prevent worsening maternal health and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Interventions to reduce the negative health impacts caused by climate change are also crucial. Every effort should be made to develop and maintain good antenatal care during extreme life conditions as a result of climate change.

  19. Maternal response to environmental unpredictability.

    Barbosa, Miguel; Lopes, Isabel; Venâncio, Catia; Janeiro, Maria João; Morrisey, Michael Blair; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2015-10-01

    Mothers are expected to use environmental cues to modify maternal investment to optimize their fitness. However, when the environment varies unpredictably, cues may not be an accurate proxy of future conditions. Under such circumstances, selection favors a diversifying maternal investment strategy. While there is evidence that the environment is becoming more uncertain, the extent to which mothers are able to respond to this unpredictability is generally unknown. In this study, we test the hypothesis that Daphnia magna increase the variance in maternal investment in response to unpredictable variation in temperature consistent with global change predictions. We detected significant variability across temperature treatments in brood size, neonate size at birth, and time between broods. The estimated variability within-brood size was higher (albeit not statistically significant) in mothers reared in unpredictable temperature conditions. We also detected a cross-generational effect with the temperature history of mothers modulating the phenotypic response of F1's. Notably, our results diverged from the prediction that increased variability poses a greater risk to organisms than changes in mean temperature. Increased unpredictability in temperature had negligible effects on fitness-correlated traits. Mothers in the unpredictable treatment, survived as long, and produced as many F1's during lifetime as those produced in the most fecund treatment. Further, increased unpredictability in temperature did not affect the probability of survival of F1's. Collectively, we provide evidence that daphnia respond effectively to thermal unpredictability. But rather than increasing the variance in maternal investment, daphnia respond to uncertainty by being a jack of all temperatures, master of none. Importantly, our study highlights the essential need to examine changes in variances rather than merely on means, when investigating maternal responses. PMID:26668723

  20. Modifying effects of maternal Hb concentration on infant birth weight in women receiving prenatal iron-containing supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Wang, Linlin; Mei, Zuguo; Li, Hongtian; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Jianmeng; Serdula, Mary K

    2016-02-01

    Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe-folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006-2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95 % CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95 % CI 21·98, 193·28) g (P<0·05), respectively, compared with the FA group. No differences were found between the IFA and the MMN group, regardless of maternal Hb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:26824731

  1. Effect of nutritional supplementation of breastfeeding HIV positive mothers on maternal and child health: findings from a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Kindra Gurpreet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been well established that breastfeeding is beneficial for child health, however there has been debate regarding the effect of lactation on maternal health in the presence of HIV infection and the need for nutritional supplementation in HIV positive lactating mothers. Aims To assess the effect of nutritional supplementation to HIV infected lactating mothers on nutritional and health status of mothers and their infants. Methods A randomized controlled clinical trial to study the impact of nutritional supplementation on breastfeeding mothers. Measurements included anthropometry; body composition indicators; CD4 count, haemoglobin and albumin; as well as incidence rates of opportunistic infections; depression and quality of life scores. Infant measurements included anthropometry, development and rates of infections. Results The supplement made no significant impact on any maternal or infant outcomes. However in the small group of mothers with low BMI, the intake of supplement was significantly associated with preventing loss of lean body mass (1.32 kg vs. 3.17 kg; p = 0.026. There was no significant impact of supplementation on the infants. Conclusions A 50 g daily nutritional supplement to breastfeeding mothers had no or limited effect on mother and child health outcomes. Clinical trial registration ISRCTN68128332 (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN68128332

  2. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  3. Mobilising financial resources for maternal health.

    Borghi, Jo; Ensor, Tim; Somanathan, Aparnaa; Lissner, Craig; Mills, Anne

    2006-10-21

    Coverage of cost-effective maternal health services remains poor due to insufficient supply and inadequate demand for these services among the poorest groups. Households pay too great a share of the costs of maternal health services, or do not seek care because they cannot afford the costs. Available evidence creates a strong case for removal of user fees and provision of universal coverage for pregnant women, particularly for delivery care. To be successful, governments must also replenish the income lost through the abolition of user fees. Where insurance schemes exist, maternal health care needs to be included in the benefits package, and careful design is needed to ensure uptake by the poorest people. Voucher schemes should be tested in low-income settings, and their costs and relative cost-effectiveness assessed. Further research is needed on methods to target financial assistance for transport and time costs. Current investment in maternal health is insufficient to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG), and much greater resources are needed to scale up coverage of maternal health services and create demand. Existing global estimates are too crude to be of use for domestic planning, since resource requirements will vary; budgets need first to be developed at country-level. Donors need to increase financial contributions for maternal health in low-income countries to help fill the resource gap. Resource tracking at country and donor levels will help hold countries and donors to account for their commitments to achieving the maternal health MDG. PMID:17055948

  4. EL CAFÉ Y SUS EFECTOS EN LA SALUD CARDIOVASCULAR Y EN LA SALUD MATERNA COFFEE, CAFFEINE, AND ITS EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND MATERNAL HEALTH

    Alfonso Valenzuela B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La cafeína es el principal componente activo del café y los efectos del consumo de café se asocian mayoritariamente a la cafeína, una metilxantina que actúa como antagonista de los receptores de adenina en el sistema nervioso. Son numerosos los efectos en la salud atribuidos a la cafeína, siendo algunos benéficos y otros deletéreos: en la salud cardiovascular, diabetes tipo 2, tolerancia a la glucosa y sensibilidad a la insulina, en la cinosis hepática y el carcinoma hepatocelular, entre otros efectos. Este artículo realiza una revisión de dos aspectos de preocupación en la salud pública relacionados con el consumo de café y la cafeína: su efecto en la salud cardiovascular y en la salud maternal (período perinatal. La conclusión general es que el consumo de cafeína, hasta 300 mg/día, no constituye un mayor riesgo de infarto al miocardio, de hipertensión, o de modificación de los niveles plasmáticos de indicadores de riesgo cardiovascular, como la proteína C reactiva y la homocisteína. En relación a la salud maternal, las conclusiones son similares, un consumo moderado de cafeína (300 mg/día o menos no constituye un riesgo de menor concepción, de diabetes gestacional, de menor crecimiento fetal, o de defectos congénitos. La ausencia de riesgo, sin embargo, no constituye un estímulo al consumo de café durante el embarazo. Si el consumo de café por parte de la futura madre es moderado, puede considerarse la continuación del consumo durante el embarazo bajo supervisión médica.Caffeine is the principal active component of coffee and the effects of coffee consumption are mainly associated to this component. Caffeine is a methylxanthine, which acts as antagonist of adenine receptors at the nervous system. A great number of health effects, both beneficial and detrimental, have been associated to caffeine consumption: such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, hepatic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, are included as the main targets. The present work reviews two of the main concerns about coffee and caffeine consumption: cardiovascular disease and maternal health (perinatal period. The general conclusion is that caffeine consumption up to 300 mg/day does not constitute a risk of myocardial infarction, hypertension, or modification of cardiovascular risk markers such as reactive C protein or homocysteine plasmatic levels. Similar conclusions are reached about the maternal health. Moderate caffeine consumption (300 mg/day or less does not constitute a major risk of less conception, increased gestational diabetes, decrease fetal growth, or congenital defects. However, absence frisk may not be interpreted as a signal to stimulate coffee consumption during pregnancy. Future mothers, which are moderated coffee consumers, may be suggested to continue this consumption during pregnancy, but under medical supervision.

  5. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  6. The effect of acetaminophen on the expression of BCRP in trophoblast cells impairs the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis

    Acetaminophen is used as first-choice drug for pain relief during pregnancy. Here we have investigated the effect of acetaminophen at subtoxic doses on the expression of ABC export pumps in trophoblast cells and its functional repercussion on the placental barrier during maternal cholestasis. The incubation of human choriocarcinoma cells (JAr, JEG-3 and BeWo) with acetaminophen for 48 h resulted in no significant changes in the expression and/or activity of MDR1 and MRPs. In contrast, in JEG-3 cells, BCRP mRNA, protein, and transport activity were reduced. In rat placenta, collected at term, acetaminophen administration for the last three days of pregnancy resulted in enhanced mRNA, but not protein, levels of Mrp1 and Bcrp. In fact, a decrease in Bcrp protein was found. Using in situ perfused rat placenta, a reduction in the Bcrp-dependent fetal-to-maternal bile acid transport after treating the dams with acetaminophen was found. Complete biliary obstruction in pregnant rats induced a significant bile acid accumulation in fetal serum and tissues, which was further enhanced when the mothers were treated with acetaminophen. This drug induced increased ROS production in JEG-3 cells and decreased the total glutathione content in rat placenta. Moreover, the NRF2 pathway was activated in JEG-3 cells as shown by an increase in nuclear NRF2 levels and an up-regulation of NRF2 target genes, NQO1 and HMOX-1, which was not observed in rat placenta. In conclusion, acetaminophen induces in placenta oxidative stress and a down-regulation of BCRP/Bcrp, which may impair the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis. - Highlights: • Acetaminophen induces changes in placental BCRP expression in vitro. • This drug reduces the ability of placental cells to export BCRP substrates. • Acetaminophen induces changes in Bcrp expression in rat placenta. • Placental barrier to bile acids is impaired in rats treated with this drug

  7. [Effect of maternally derived antibody levels on antibody responses to canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and infectious canine hepatitis virus after vaccinations in beagle puppies].

    Iida, H; Fukuda, S; Kawashima, N; Yamazaki, T; Aoki, J; Tokita, K; Morioka, K; Takarada, N; Soeda, T

    1990-01-01

    Antibody titers against canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and infectious canine hepatitis virus (ICHV) in serum were measured in 6 beagle dams and their 38 puppies bred in our colony, in order to clarify the effects of maternally derived antibodies to antibody responses against the viruses after vaccinations in puppies. Correlation coefficient on antibody titers between puppies and dams were CPV: r = 0. 7935, CDV: r = 0.8194 and ICHV: r = 0.8105. Mean maternal antibody positive rates in 7-day-old puppies from their dams were CPV: 67%, CDV: 46% and ICHV: 45%. Mean half-lives of the maternal antibodies in puppies were estimated to be CPV: 13.5 days, CDV: 15.1 days and ICHV: 15.4 days. The antibody response against CPV vaccination in puppies was mainly observed in dogs being titers of less 1:5 and positivity was 39% (15/38 puppies) after 1st vaccination at 42 days after birth, and 82% (31/38 puppies) after 2nd vaccination at 70 days. That against CDV vaccination (at 56 days after birth) was seen highly in dogs being titers of less 1:10 and positivity was 53% (20/38). Also that against ICHV vaccination (at 56 days after birth) was seen frequently in dogs being titers of less 20 holds and the rate was 87% (33/38). From these results, it was estimated that the age when high antibody response against each vaccination could be expected in puppies might be CPV: between 40 and 69 days, CDV: between 32 and 92 days and ICHV: between 31 and 52 days, respectively. PMID:2303100

  8. A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn

    Girón Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. Methods and design 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. Control group: usual prenatal care (PC and placebo (maltodextrine. 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg, selenium (70 μg, vitamin A (400 μg, alphatocopherol (30 mg, vitamin C (200 mg, and niacin (100 mg. 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Discussion Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. Trial registration NCT00872365.

  9. Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Secondary Organic Aerosols on Novel Object Recognition Ability and Maternal Behavior in BALB/C Mice

    Tin-Tin Win-Shwe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control, DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER-a, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively.

  10. The effect of acetaminophen on the expression of BCRP in trophoblast cells impairs the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis

    Blazquez, Alba G., E-mail: albamgb@usal.es [Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); CIBERehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Briz, Oscar, E-mail: obriz@usal.es [Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); CIBERehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ester, E-mail: u60343@usal.es [Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Perez, Maria J., E-mail: mjperez@usal.es [Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); University Hospital of Salamanca, IECSCYL-IBSAL, Salamanca (Spain); CIBERehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Ghanem, Carolina I., E-mail: cghanem@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Farmacologicas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marin, Jose J.G., E-mail: jjgmarin@usal.es [Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), IBSAL, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); CIBERehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Acetaminophen is used as first-choice drug for pain relief during pregnancy. Here we have investigated the effect of acetaminophen at subtoxic doses on the expression of ABC export pumps in trophoblast cells and its functional repercussion on the placental barrier during maternal cholestasis. The incubation of human choriocarcinoma cells (JAr, JEG-3 and BeWo) with acetaminophen for 48 h resulted in no significant changes in the expression and/or activity of MDR1 and MRPs. In contrast, in JEG-3 cells, BCRP mRNA, protein, and transport activity were reduced. In rat placenta, collected at term, acetaminophen administration for the last three days of pregnancy resulted in enhanced mRNA, but not protein, levels of Mrp1 and Bcrp. In fact, a decrease in Bcrp protein was found. Using in situ perfused rat placenta, a reduction in the Bcrp-dependent fetal-to-maternal bile acid transport after treating the dams with acetaminophen was found. Complete biliary obstruction in pregnant rats induced a significant bile acid accumulation in fetal serum and tissues, which was further enhanced when the mothers were treated with acetaminophen. This drug induced increased ROS production in JEG-3 cells and decreased the total glutathione content in rat placenta. Moreover, the NRF2 pathway was activated in JEG-3 cells as shown by an increase in nuclear NRF2 levels and an up-regulation of NRF2 target genes, NQO1 and HMOX-1, which was not observed in rat placenta. In conclusion, acetaminophen induces in placenta oxidative stress and a down-regulation of BCRP/Bcrp, which may impair the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis. - Highlights: • Acetaminophen induces changes in placental BCRP expression in vitro. • This drug reduces the ability of placental cells to export BCRP substrates. • Acetaminophen induces changes in Bcrp expression in rat placenta. • Placental barrier to bile acids is impaired in rats treated with this drug.

  11. Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies

    Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in...

  12. Long-term effects of maternal undernutrition on offspring carotid artery remodeling: role of miR-29c.

    Khorram, O; Chuang, T D; Pearce, W J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that excess maternal glucocorticoids in response to maternal undernutrition programs the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components potentially by miR-29c. We measured the expression of mRNA (qRT-PCR) and protein (Western blot) for collagen 3A1, collagen 4A5 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in offspring carotid arteries from three groups of dams: 50% food-restricted in latter half of gestation [maternal undernutrition (MUN)], MUN dams who received metyrapone (MET) (500 mg/ml ) in drinking water from day 10 of gestation to term, and control dams fed an ad libitum diet. The expression of miR-29c was significantly decreased at 3 weeks, 3 months and 9 months in MUN carotid arteries, and these decreases in expression were partially blocked by treatment of dams with MET. The expression pattern of ECM genes that are targets of miR-29c correlated with miR-29c expression. Expression of mRNA was increased for elastin (ELN) and MMP2 mRNA in 3-week MUN carotids; in 9-month carotids there were also significant increases in expression of Col3A1 and Col4A5. These changes in mRNA expression of ECM genes at 3 weeks and 9 months were blocked by MET treatment. Similarly, the expression of ELN and MMP2 proteins at 3 weeks were increased in MUN carotids, and by 9 months there were also increases in expression of Col3A1 and Col4A5, which were blocked by MET in MUN carotids. Overall, the results demonstrate a close correlation between expression of miR-29c and the ECM proteins that are its targets thus supporting our central hypothesis. PMID:26008599

  13. Effects of multiparity and prolonged breast-feeding on maternal bone mineral density: a community-based cross-sectional study

    Lekamwasam Sarath

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies conducted in Western countries have shown that bone loss associated with pregnancy and breast-feeding is recovered after weaning. However, it is not clear whether recovery takes place after repeated pregnancies followed by prolonged periods of breast-feeding; especially in developing countries where nutritional intake is comparatively low. This study was designed to examine the effects of multiparity and prolonged breast-feeding on maternal bone mineral density (BMD in a community-based sample of 210 Sri Lankan women, aged between 46 and 98 years. Methods BMD of the lumbar spine (L2–L4 and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reproductive history was recorded by using a questionnaire. Women were, first, divided into groups according to parity (nulliparous, 1–2, 3–4, and 5 or more children, and BMDs in different groups were compared, initially unadjusted and then adjusted for age. Same subjects were subdivided, again, according to the total duration of breast-feeding (0, 1–48, 49–96, and 97 months or more and similar analysis was carried out. Results Women who had 5 or more children and women who had breast-fed for 97 months or more were older than the other women (p Conclusion From this population-based study conducted in a developing country, we infer that history of multiparity or prolonged breast-feeding has no detrimental effects on maternal BMD in post-menopausal age.

  14. Short-term effects of maternal feed restriction during pregnancy on goat kid morphology, metabolism, and behavior

    Laporte-Broux, Bérengère; Roussel, Sabine; Ponter, Andrew; Perault, Julien; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Duvaux-Ponter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Morphometric, metabolic, and behavioural modifications were studied in goat kids after maternal feed restriction during the last one-third of pregnancy. At birth, only kids from twin and triplet litters were studied [n = 40 kids born to control dams (CONT) and n = 38 born to restricted dams (REST)] and only males thereafter (n = 13 CONT and 15 REST kids) until slaughter at 6 wk of age. Kids born to restricted goats had a smaller abdominal girth at birth P < 0.01) and tended to have a smaller ...

  15. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  16. Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice

    Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

  17. Effect of maternal vitamin and mineral restrictions on the body fat content and adipocytokine levels of WNIN rat offspring

    Nandiwada Vijaya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrauterine growth retardation due to maternal under-nutrition increases susceptibility to obesity and insulin resistance. We reported earlier in the offspring of mineral or vitamin restricted rat dams, a high body fat percentage and decreased insulin secretion to glucose challenge. This study determined whether or not central adiposity and altered adipocytokine profile were associated with high body fat content. Methods Body fat percentage; glucose, insulin and adipocytokine levels in fasting plasma and fresh weights of epididymal fat pads were determined in the six months old male offspring of Wistar NIN rat dams on chronic 50 percent restriction of vitamins or minerals throughout their growth, gestation, lactation and weaned on to restricted diets or restricted mothers/offspring rehabilitated from different time points. Results In line with high body fat percent, chronic restriction of vitamins and minerals increased the epididymal fat pad weight. Maternal vitamin restriction decreased plasma adiponectin and increased leptin levels whereas mineral restriction decreased both. Both the treatments did not affect plasma TNF-? levels or insulin resistance status (HOMA-IR. Rehabilitation from parturition but not weaning, rescued the changes in the offspring. Conclusion High body fat percentage in the offspring of vitamin restricted or mineral restricted rat dams was associated with increased abdominal adiposity (epididymal fat pad weight and differential expression of adipocytokines but not insulin resistance. The changes could be mitigated by rehabilitation from birth but not weaning.

  18. The effects of early education intervention on maternal employment, public assistance, and health insurance: the infant health and development program.

    Brooks-Gunn, J; McCormick, M C; Shapiro, S; Benasich, A; Black, G W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to test whether early education intervention influences maternal employment, education, fertility, and receipt of public assistance and health insurance. METHODS. The Infant Health and Development Program is a randomized trial of the efficacy of early education on the outcomes of 985 low-birthweight, premature children. Families in eight sites received either pediatric follow-up and referral (follow-up only group) or pediatric services plus early intervention services (intervention group) for the first 3 years of the child's life. RESULTS. Mothers in the intervention group were employed more months and returned to the work force earlier than those in the follow-up only group. Fertility and education were not associated with treatment. Mothers who had some college education received more months of public assistance in the intervention group compared with the follow-up only group. Mothers who were employed received more public assistance and public health insurance in the intervention group compared with the follow-up only group, when maternal employment was controlled. CONCLUSIONS. Findings are discussed in terms of the recent emphasis on two-generational programs directed to providing health, welfare, and child care services to young children and their families. PMID:8203688

  19. Maternal near miss: An indicator for maternal health and maternal care

    Pragti Chhabra

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and cr...

  20. Effects of maternal deprivation on the somatotrophic axis and neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus and pituitary in female lambs. The histomorphometric study.

    Marta Wańkowska

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of maternal deprivation on the somatotrophic axis and neuropeptide Y (NPY neuronal system in the hypothalamus of female lambs were evaluated. Twelve-week-old lambs were divided into two groups: the control (lambs stayed with mothers and maternally deprived (MD; lambs separated for 3 days from mothers. The expression of immunoreactive (ir somatostatin in the neurons of the periventricular nucleus (PEV and in nerve terminals of the median eminence (ME, growth hormone (GH in the adenohypophyseal cells and NPY in the neurons of the PEV and arcuate (ARC nuclei of the hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry followed by the image analysis were estimated. Concentrations of GH in the blood plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay. The expression of ir somatostatin in the PEV and ME, ir NPY in the ARC and PEV, ir GH in adenohypophyseal cells, and blood plasma GH concentrations were greater (p<0.05 in MD than in the control lambs. In conclusion, MD affects the somatotrophic axis by enhancement of GH secretion via restraining of somatostatin output. The simultaneous increase of expression of hypothalamic ir NPY suggests NPY involvement in the regulation of psychoemotional stress through the somatotrophic axis in the female lambs.

  1. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    Stephen Alison M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk.

  2. Maternal dietary patterns and gestational diabetes mellitus

    Ellen Alma Tryggvadóttir 1980

    2014-01-01

    Background: A healthy diet during pregnancy is important for mother and child. Studies have implied that pregnant women of normal weight before pregnancy have healthier diets than those overweight or obese before pregnancy. Obesity is one of the risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is associated with negative health effects on both mother and child. Objective: 1) Investigate associations between maternal dietary pattern and GDM. 2) Compare maternal diets for wom...

  3. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght of...... maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  4. Efectos Genéticos Directo y Materno sobre el Crecimiento de Ovinos de la Raza Junín / Direct and maternal genetic effects on the growth of Junín sheep breed

    Diógenes, Valerio; Gustavo, Gutiérrez; Juan, Chávez.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar los efectos genéticos - directo y materno - vinculados a la expresión de características de crecimiento en corderos de la raza Junín, se aplicaron cuatro modelos mixtos en el estudio de sus pesos de nacimiento (PN), destete (PD), primera esquila (PE) y ganancia diaria del [...] nacimiento al destete (GPND), a través de análisis univariado y bivariado. Los modelos usados en análisis univariado incluyeron como efectos fijos el año de nacimiento y sexo, y como covariables el peso de la madre al empadre (para PN y PD), la edad del cordero al destete (para PD y GPND) y la edad a la primera esquila (para PE). El Modelo 1 incluyó los efectos fijos y el efecto genético aditivo directo (a); el Modelo 2, similar al 1, adicionó el efecto genético aditivo materno (m), considerando la Cov am= 0; en el Modelo 3, igual al 2, se asumió la Cov = A? ; y el Modelo 4, igual al 3, se adicionó el efecto del ambiente permanente materno (c). Los modelos para el análisis bivariado fueron extensiones del univariado, empleándose en todos los análisis el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida (REML), instrumentado en el programa ASReml. En el análisis univariado, el Modelo 2, y en el bivariado el Modelo 3, estimaron mejor los parámetros genéticos, incluidas las correlaciones entre los efectos aditivos directos y maternos para las características. Los valores estimados de heredabilidad variaron entre bajos y moderados, indicando la posibilidad de ser aplicados en planes de mejora genética del ovino Junín, los mismos que incrementarían su eficiencia al adicionarse a ellos los valores, entre moderados y altos, de las correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas estimadas. Abstract in english In order to estimate the genetic effects - direct and maternal - linked to the expression of growth traits in lambs of Junín breed, four mixed models were applied in the study of the birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), first shearing weight (PE) and daily body weight gain from birth to weaning ( [...] GPND), through univariate and bivariate analysis. The models used in univariate analysis included as fixed effects year of birth and sex, and as covariates the mother’s weight at mating (for PN and PD), age of lamb at weaning (for PD and GPND), and age at first shearing (for PE). Model 1 included the fixed effects and the direct additive genetic effect (a); Model 2, similar to 1, added additive maternal genetic effect (m), considering Cov am=0; Model 3, similar to 2, assumed Cov=A? ; and Model 4, equal to 3, added the maternal permanent environmental effect (c). All bivariate models were extensions of the univariate ones. In all the analyses, the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method, implemented in the ASReml program was applied. Univariate Model 2 and bivariate Model 3 estimated the best genetic parameters, including correlations between direct and maternal additive effects for the traits. The estimated heritability values ranged from low to moderate, indicating the possibility of its application in genetic improvement plans for Junín sheep, which would increase its efficiency when the estimated, moderate to high genetic and phenotypic correlations are also included.

  5. Maternal Immunization: Opportunities for Scientific Advancement

    Beigi, Richard H.; Fortner, Kimberly B.; Munoz, Flor M.; Roberts, Jeff; Gordon, Jennifer L.; Han, Htay Htay; Glenn, Greg; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Gu, Xing Xing; Read, Jennifer S.; Edwards, Kathryn; Patel, Shital M.; Swamy, Geeta K.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immunization is an effective strategy to prevent and/or minimize the severity of infectious diseases in pregnant women and their infants. Based on the success of vaccination programs to prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus, maternal immunization has been well received in the United States and globally as a promising strategy for the prevention of other vaccine-preventable diseases that threaten pregnant women and infants, such as influenza and pertussis. Given the promise for reducing the burden of infectious conditions of perinatal significance through the development of vaccines against relevant pathogens, the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored a series of meetings to foster progress toward clinical development of vaccines for use in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary group of stakeholders convened at the NIH in December 2013 to identify potential barriers and opportunities for scientific advancement in maternal immunization. PMID:25425719

  6. The Effect of Maternal Child Marriage on Morbidity and Mortality of Children Under 5 in India: Cross Sectional Study of a Nationally Representative Sample

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Winter, Michael; Labonte, Alan; Decker, Michele R.; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay Glen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess associations between maternal child marriage (marriage before age 18) and morbidity and mortality of infants and children under 5 in India. Design: Cross-sectional analyses of nationally representative household sample. Generalised estimating equation models constructed to assess associations. Adjusted models included maternal and child demographics and maternal body mass index as covariates. Setting: India. Population: Women aged 15-49 years (n=124 385); data collected ...

  7. Pilot study of a program delivered within the regular service system in Germany: effect of a short-term attachment-based intervention on maternal sensitivity in mothers at risk for child abuse and neglect.

    Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Bovenschen, Ina; Kuenster, Anne K; Gabler, Sandra; Fallon, Barbara; Fegert, Joerg M; Ziegenhain, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a short-term attachment-based intervention, the Ulm Model, in a German population at risk for child abuse and neglect. The intervention used home visits and video feedback to promote maternal sensitivity, and was implemented by trained staff within the health care and youth welfare systems. Mothers in the control group (n=33) received standard services only, while those in the intervention group (n=63) additionally the Ulm Model intervention. The outcomes measured were maternal sensitivity, as assessed by the CARE-Index at pre-intervention, after the last session, and at about 6 and 12 months of age; and infant socio-emotional development, as assessed by the ET6-6 development test at about 6 and 12 months of age. The moderating effects on treatment outcomes of two variables were examined: risk for child abuse (moderate vs. high) and type of maternal attachment representation (secure vs. insecure). Among participants at moderate risk for child abuse, no differences were found between the intervention group and control group in either maternal sensitivity or infant development. Among those considered high risk, mothers in the intervention group showed a significant increase in maternal sensitivity from pre- to post-intervention; however, no group differences were seen at follow-up. There were some indications that infants of mothers in the intervention group showed better emotional development. The variable of maternal attachment representation was not a significant moderator for the intervention effect, but post hoc analysis indicated that the mean sensitivity of secure mothers was significant higher at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:25066526

  8. ESTIMATES OF PARAMETERS BETWEEN DIRECT AND MATERNAL GENETIC EFFECTS FOR WEANING WEIGHT AND GENETIC EFFECTS FOR CARCASS TRAITS IN CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Estimates of heritabilities and genetic correlations were obtained from weaning weight records of 23,681 crossbred steers and heifers, and carcass data of 4,094 crossbred steers using REML applied to animal models. Direct and maternal heritabilities for weaning weight were 0.14 and 0.19, respective...

  9. Litter and sex effects on maternal behavior and DNA methylation of the Nr3c1 exon 17 promoter gene in hippocampus and cerebellum.

    Kosten, Therese A; Nielsen, David A

    2014-08-01

    Early life events can alter gene expression through DNA methylation. The methylation status of the exon 17 promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1 gene) in hippocampus associates with frequency of pup licking. Much of this work was conducted with male rats. Because dams more frequently lick male pups, this may contribute to sex differences in phenotypes through DNA methylation. Modifying litter gender composition (LGC), in which offspring of single-sex litters are compared to mixed-sex litters, alters maternal behavior. Previously, we demonstrated that LGC and sex affected pup licking times as well as anxiety and hippocampal DNA methylation of the Nr3c1 exon 17 promoter gene in adolescence. Now, we expand upon this work by examining effects in cerebellum and measuring mRNA levels. We also re-assessed DNA methylation in hippocampus using pyrosequencing and re-analyzed pup licking with the more commonly used frequency measure. Litters, culled to 8 pups on postnatal day 1 (PN1), were assigned to one of three conditions: all male (n = 10), all female (n = 12), or half of each sex (n = 20). Licking was rated on PN4, 7, and 10. On PN35, hippocampal and cerebellar samples were obtained. Single-sex males were licked the least and mixed-sex males, the most. Hippocampal Nr3c1 mRNA levels were lowest in mixed females with no LGC or Sex effects in DNA methylation. Cerebellar DNA methylation levels were lowest in mixed males with no effect on mRNA levels. Maternal pup licking associated with DNA methylation of the Nr3c1 exon 17 promoter gene in cerebellum and with hippocampal mRNA. PMID:24721039

  10. Maternal aggression in Wistar rats: effect of 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist and antagonist microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter and medial septum

    Almeida R.M.M. de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the role of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor at two specific brain sites, i.e., the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG and the medial septal (MS area, in maternal aggressive behavior after the microinjection of either a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist or antagonist. Female Wistar rats were microinjected on the 7th postpartum day with the selective agonist alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine maleate (5-HT2A/2C or the antagonist 5-HT2A/2C, ketanserin. The agonist was injected into the DPAG at 0.2 (N = 9, 0.5 (N = 10, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 9, and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 9. The agonist was injected into the medial septal area (MS at 0.2 (N = 9, 0.5 (N = 7, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 6 and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 5. For the control, saline was injected into the DPAG (N = 7 and the MS (N = 12. Both areas are related to aggressive behavior and contain a high density of 5-HT receptors. Non-aggressive behaviors such as horizontal locomotion (walking and social investigation and aggressive behaviors such as lateral threat (aggressive posture, attacks (frontal and lateral, and biting the intruder were analyzed when a male intruder was placed into the female resident's cage. For each brain area studied, the frequency of the behaviors was compared among the various treatments by analysis of variance. The results showed a decrease in maternal aggressive behavior (number of bites directed at the intruder after microinjection of the agonist at 0.2 and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (1.6 ± 0.7 and 0.9 ± 0.3 into the DPAG compared to the saline group (5.5 ± 1.1. There was no dose-response relationship with the agonist. The present findings suggest that the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist has an inhibitory effect on maternal aggressive behavior when microinjected into the DPAG and no effect when microinjected into the MS. Ketanserin (1.0 µg/0.2 µl decreased locomotion when microinjected into the DPAG and MS, but did not affect aggressive behavior. We interpret these findings as evidence for a specific role of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the DPAG in the inhibition of female aggressive behavior, dissociated from those on motor activity.

  11. Efectos mnemónicos maternos prenatales sobre el sexo psíquico humano. Insuficiencia del mecanismo inmunitario: Nueva propuesta desde la tolerancia-rechazo materno-fetal Prenatal maternal mnemonic effects on the human neuro-psychic sex: A new proposition from fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection

    Carlos Y Valenzuela

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In approximately 15% of homosexual men, their phenotype is associated to the fraternal birth order. Older biological brothers induce in their mothers anti-male factors (antibodies that interfere the brain maleness development ofyounger fetuses. This effect is seldom seen in non-right-handed men and is not seen in women. The influence of older siblings is seen in their sex ratio (SR. In contradiction with previous hypothesis, significant heterogeneities of SR have been found among older siblings of males or females, right or non-right-handed and homo or heterosexual individuáis. This can only be understood as if the ñndings found among homosexuals were part of a general mechanism of fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection processes of placental mammals. We found, in relation to ABO and Rh systems and sex, that embryos with genes different from those of their mothers, induced better pregnancies and maternal tolerance than embryos similar to their mothers. Assuming that homo or heterosexuality and right or non-right-handedness behave similar to ABO or Rh alíeles, the author provides a speculative interpretation ofthese results. Homosexual women (¡esbians and especially if they are non-right-handed, are preceded by siblings with a high SR (maternal environment with anti-female or pro-male factors; then lesbianism or non-right-handedness may induce tolerance to be a woman in such anti-female environment. Non-right-handedness could induce tolerance for anti-male factors of mothers, thus preventing the production ofgays in a pro-male maternal environment, but leading to the production of non-right-handed gays in anti-male maternal environments. Several new hypotheses and interpretations merge from this newproposition. Also, complete sexual orientation could be acquired after birth.

  12. Maternal health and human rights

    Ratsma, Ymkje E; Malongo, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    In Malawi the maternal mortality ratio is extremely high. Since almost all maternal deaths are avoidable, maternal mortality is also an issue of human rights. This paper examines the root causes of high maternal mortality in Malawi and applies a human rights-based approach to the reduction of maternal mortality. It recommends roles for the various duty-bearers. It describes indicators to monitor and evaluate the strategy and suggests how transparency and accountability should be ensured. In c...

  13. Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women in an Iodine-Sufficient Area in China.

    Chen, Xi; Jin, Bai; Xia, Jun; Tao, Xincheng; Huang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lu; Yuan, Qingxin

    2016-01-01

    Purposes. To evaluate the effects of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) on maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in pregnant women. Methods. 208 pregnant women at 24-28 weeks were divided into two groups, TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative groups. Thyroid function and TPOAb were determined in all subjects until 12 months postpartum. Levothyroxine was supplemented to maintain euthyroid with periodical checking of thyroid functions. The prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of membrane, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal diseases were observed in two groups. Results. Of all women, 11.54% had a PPT. The prevalence of PPT was significantly higher in TPOAb-positive than TPOAb-negative group (42.31% versus 7.14%, P screening of thyroid function during pregnancy and postpartum was warranted in our region. PMID:26884759

  14. Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System.

    Yamaguchi, Manabu; Ikeda, Kentaro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Higashiyama, Masakazu; Watanabe, Akira

    2013-07-01

    The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan. PMID:25049870

  15. Effect of maternal dietary cow’s milk on the immune response to beta-lactoglobulin in the offspring: A four generation study in mice

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Barkholt, Vibeke; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of immune responses to food proteins in animal models requires that the animals are not already sensitized or orally tolerized against the proteins in question. Since maternal transfer of specific immune responses has been observed, breeding of animals on an antigen-free diet for several...... generations may be necessary to obtain immunologically naive animals. METHODS: To determine the most appropriate breeding conditions of mice to be used in immunological studies on food proteins, we examined immune responses towards beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) in mice bred on a milk-containing diet (F0) and then...... attain animals appropriate for immunological studies of food proteins. Although the small quantity of BLG in the milk-free diet did not induce detectable oral tolerance in the present study, it is strongly recommended that the potential effect of contaminating dietary antigen is considered in future...

  16. Maternal Obesity: Lifelong Metabolic Outcomes for Offspring from Poor Developmental Trajectories During the Perinatal Period.

    Zambrano, Elena; Ibáñez, Carlos; Martínez-Samayoa, Paola M; Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in developed and developing countries around the world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely impacts both maternal health and offspring phenotype, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life including obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects including programming of hypothalamic appetite-regulating centers, increasing maternal, fetal and offspring glucocorticoid production, changes in maternal metabolism and increasing maternal oxidative stress. Effective interventions during human pregnancy are needed to prevent both maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction due to maternal obesity. This review addresses the relationship between maternal obesity and its negative impact on offspring development and presents some maternal intervention studies that propose strategies to prevent adverse offspring metabolic outcomes. PMID:26827819

  17. The effect of maternal and child early life factors on grade repetition among HIV exposed and unexposed children in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Mitchell, J M; Rochat, T J; Houle, B; Stein, A; Newell, M L; Bland, R M

    2016-04-01

    Receiving an education is essential for children living in poverty to fulfil their potential. Success in the early years of schooling is important as children who repeat grade one are particularly at risk for future dropout. We examined early life factors associated with grade repetition through logistic regression and explored reasons for repeating a grade through parent report. In 2012-2014 we re-enrolled children aged 7-11 years in rural KwaZulu-Natal who had been part of an early life intervention. Of the 894 children included, 43.1% had repeated a grade, of which 62.9% were boys. Higher maternal education (aOR 0.44; 95% CI 0.2-0.9) and being further along in the birth order (aOR 0.46; 95% CI 0.3-0.9) reduced the odds of grade repetition. In addition, maternal HIV status had the strongest effect on grade repetition for girls (aOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.3-3.8), whereas for boys, it was a fridge in the household (aOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.4-1.0). Issues with school readiness was the most common reason for repeating a grade according to parental report (126/385, 32.7%), while school disruptions was an important reason among HIV-exposed boys. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathways through which HIV affects girls' educational outcomes and potentially impacts on disrupted schooling for boys. Our results also highlight the importance of preparation for schooling in the early years of life; future research could focus on gaining a better understanding of mechanisms by which to improve early school success, including increased quality of reception year and investigating the protective effect of older siblings. PMID:26449271

  18. Comparison of the Effects of Maternal Supportive Care and Acupressure (at BL32 Acupoint) on Labor Length and Infant's Apgar Score

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Masoudi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Kasraeian, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Prolonged labor leads to increase of cesarean deliveries, reduction of fetal heart rate, and maternal as well as infantile complications. Therefore, many women tend to use pharmacological or non-pharmacological methods for reduction of labor length. The present study aimed to compare the effects of maternal supportive care and acupressure (at BL32 acupoint) on labor length and infant's Apgar score. Methods: In this clinical trial, 150 women with low-risk pregnancy were randomly divided into supportive care, acupressure, and control groups each containing 50 subjects. The data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic and pregnancy characteristics. Then, the data were analyzed using Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA. Results: The mean length of the first and second stages of labor was respectively 157.0±29.5 and 58.9±25.8 minutes in the supportive care group, 161.7±37.3 and 56.1±31.4 minutes in the acupressure group, ad 281.0±79.8 and 128.4±44.9 minutes in the control group. The difference between the length of labor stages was significant in the three study groups (Pacupressure groups compared to the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (Pacupressure could reduce the length of labor stages and increase the infants’ Apgar scores. Therefore, these methods, as effective non-pharmacological strategies, can be introduced to the medical staff to improve the delivery outcomes. PMID:26493430

  19. The effects of coenzyme Q10 treatment on maternally inherited diabetes mellitus and deafness, and mitochondrial DNA 3243 (A to G) mutation.

    Suzuki, S; Hinokio, Y; Ohtomo, M; Hirai, M; Hirai, A; Chiba, M; Kasuga, S; Satoh, Y; Akai, H; Toyota, T

    1998-05-01

    The characteristic clinical features of diabetes mellitus with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 3243(A-G) mutation are progressive insulin secretory defect, neurosensory deafness and maternal inheritance, referred to as maternally inherited diabetes mellitus and deafness (MIDD). A treatment for MIDD to improve insulin secretory defects and reduce deafness has not been established. The effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) treatment on insulin secretory response, hearing capacity and clinical symptoms of MIDD were investigated. 28 MIDD patients (CoQ10-DM), 7 mutant subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 15 mutant subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were treated daily with oral administration of 150 mg of CoQ10 for 3 years. Insulin secretory response, blood lactate after exercise, hearing capacity and other laboratory examinations were investigated every year. In the same way we evaluated 16 MIDD patients (control-DM), 5 mutant IGT and 5 mutant NGT subjects in yearly examinations. The insulin secretory response assessed by glucagon-induced C-peptide secretion and 24 h urinary C-peptide excretion after 3 years in the CoQ10-DM group was significantly higher than that in the control-DM group. CoQ10 therapy prevented progressive hearing loss and improved blood lactate after exercise in the MIDD patients. CoQ10 treatment did not affect the diabetic complications or other clinical symptoms of MIDD patients. CoQ10 treatment did not affect the insulin secretory capacity of the mutant IGT and NGT subjects. There were no side effects during therapy. This is the first report demonstrating the therapeutic usefulness of CoQ10 on MIDD. PMID:9628277

  20. Maternal mortality in Uganda

    Nantume, S.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) defines maternal health as the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. According to estimates from UNICEF, Uganda’s maternal mortality ratio, the annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births stands at 435. Women die as a result of complications during and following pregnancy and childbirth and the major complications include severe bleeding, infections, unsafe abortion and obstructed ...

  1. The Effects of Maternal Natural (RRR Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate) or Synthetic (All-Rac Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on Suckling Calf Performance, Colostrum IgG, and Immune Function

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternally supplemented natural- or synthetic-source vitamin E on suckling calf performance and immune response. In a two-year study, 152 two- and three-year old spring-calving Angus-cross beef cows were blocked by age, BW, and BCS into on...

  2. Maternal inhalation of surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan) in C57BL/6 mice: effects in prenatally exposed offspring on hepatic DNA damage and gene expression

    Andersen, Ole; Jackson, Petra; Halappanavar, Sabina; Sørig Hougaard, Karin; Williams, Andrew; Madsen, Anne Mette; Stuart Lamson, Jacob; Yauk, Caroline; Wallin, Erik Håkan Richard; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    We investigated effects of maternal pulmonary exposure to titanium dioxide (UV-Titan) on prenatally exposed offspring. Time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac) were inhalation exposed (1 h/day to 42 mg UV-Titan/m3 aerosolised powder or filtered air) during gestation days (GDs) 8–18. We evaluated DNA stran...

  3. Olfactory regulation of maternal behavior in mammals.

    Lévy, F; Keller, M; Poindron, P

    2004-09-01

    In mammals, olfactory cues are extensively used in many aspects of maternal care to ensure the coordination of mother-infant interactions and consequently the normal development of the offspring. Outside the period of parturition and lactation, when the young are not a behavioral priority, olfactory cues play an inhibitory role on maternal responsiveness since in most mammalian species studied so far, nonpregnant females find the odor of young aversive. On the contrary at the time of parturition, a shift in the hedonic value of infantile odors occurs so that the young now become a very potent stimulus and this sensorial processing constitutes an important part of the maternal motivational system. Moreover, infants' odors provide a basis for individual recognition by their mothers and some species (ungulates) have developed highly specialized mechanisms for processing of the infant signals. Perception of the smell of the young also regulates various aspects of maternal behavior. Dodecyl propionate, a compound released by of pup's preputial glands, has been shown to influence anogenital licking behavior, a fundamental pattern of maternal behavior in rodents. While there is no functional specificity of either the main or the accessory olfactory systems in the development of maternal behavior amongst species, it appears that only the main olfactory system is implicated when individual odor discrimination of the young is required. Neural structures, such as the main olfactory bulb, undergo profound changes when exposed to offspring odors at parturition. These changes in synaptic circuitry contribute both to maternal responsiveness to these odors, to their memorization, and to effects of long-term maternal experience. PMID:15325229

  4. Effect of vitamin D replacement on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a randomised controlled trial in pregnant women with hypovitaminosis D. A protocol

    Chakhtoura, M; Nassar, A; Arabi, A; Cooper, C; Harvey, N; Mahfoud, Z; Nabulsi, M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The vitamin D recommended doses during pregnancy differ between societies. The WHO guidelines do not recommend routine prenatal supplementation, but they underscore the fact that women with the lowest levels may benefit most. The effects of routine supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal clinical outcomes have not been investigated in the Middle East, where hypovitaminosis D is prevalent. Our hypothesis is that in Middle Eastern pregnant women, a vitamin D dose of 3000 IU/day is required to reach a desirable maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and to positively impact infant bone mineral content (BMC). Methods and analysis This is a multicentre blinded randomised controlled trial. Pregnant women presenting to the Obstetrics and Gynaecology clinics will be approached. Eligible women will be randomised to daily equivalent doses of cholecalciferol, 600 IU or 3000 IU, from 15 to 18 weeks gestation until delivery. Maternal 25(OH)D and chemistries will be assessed at study entry, during the third trimester and at delivery. Neonatal anthropometric variables and 25(OH)D level will be measured at birth, and bone and fat mass assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan at 1 month. A sample size of 280 pregnant women is needed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in the proportion of women reaching a 25(OH)D level ≥50 nmol/L at delivery, and a difference in infant BMC of 6 (10)g, for a 90% power and a 2.5% level of significance. The proportions of women achieving a target 25(OH)D level will be compared between the two arms, using χ2. An independent t test will be used to compare mean infant BMC between the two arms. The primary analysis is an intention-to-treat analysis of unadjusted results. Ethics and dissemination The protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board at the American University of Beirut-Lebanon (IM.GEHF.22). The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals and presented at scientific conferences. Trial registration number NCT02434380. PMID:26956166

  5. Does maternal exposure to an environmental stressor affect offspring response to predators?

    Todd, Brian D.; Bergeron, Christine M.; Hepner, Mark J.; Burke, John N.; William A. Hopkins

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the ways in which maternal effects can influence offspring size, physiological performance, and survival. Additionally, environmental contaminants increasingly act as stressors in maternal environments, possibly leading to maternal effects on subsequent offspring. Thus, it is important to determine whether contaminants and other stressors can contribute to maternal effects, particularly under varied ecological conditions that encompass the range under which off...

  6. Potential effects of maternal contribution on egg and larva population dynamics of striped bass: Integrated individual-based model and directed field sampling

    Cowan, J.H., Jr. (Maryland Univ., Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.); Rose, K.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    We have used a bioenergetically-driven, individual-based model (IBM) of striped bass as a framework for synthesizing available information on population biology and quantifying, in a relative sense, factors that potentially affect year class success. The IBM has been configured to simulate environmental conditions experienced by several striped bass populations; i.e., in the Potomac River, MD; in Hudson River, NY; in the Santee-Cooper River System, SC, and; in the San Joaquin-Sacramento River System CA. These sites represent extremes in the geographic distribution and thus, environmental variability of striped bass spawning. At each location, data describing the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the spawning population and nursery area are being collected and synthesized by means of a prioritized, directed field sampling program that is organized by the individual-based recruitment model. Here, we employ the striped bass IBM configured for the Potomac River, MD from spawning into the larval period to evaluate the potential for maternal contribution to affect larva survival and growth. Model simulations in which the size distribution and spawning day of females are altered indicate that larva survival is enhanced (3.3-fold increase) when a high fraction of females in the spawning population are large. Larva stage duration also is less ({bar X} = 18.4 d and 22.2 d) when large and small females, respectively, are mothers in simulations. Although inconclusive, these preliminary results for Potomac River striped bass suggest that the effects of female size, timing of spawning nad maternal contribution on recruitment dynamics potentially are important and illustrate our approach to the study of recruitment in striped bass. We hope to use the model, field collections and management alternatives that vary from site to site, in an iterative manner for some time to come. 54 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Long-term effects of maternal exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate on sperm and testicular parameters in Wistar rats offspring

    Ahmad Ali Moazedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in both developing and adult animals. Objective: This study was designed to assess long-term effects of maternal exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP on reproductive ability of both neonatal and adult male offspring.Materials and Methods: 60 female rats randomly divided in four equal groups; vehicle control and three treatment groups that received 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP via gavage during gestation and lactation. At different ages after birth, the volumes of testes were measured by Cavellieri method, testes weights recorded and epididymal sperm samples were assessed for number and gross morphology of spermatozoa. Following tissue processing, seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height evaluated with morphometric techniques.Results: Mean testis weight decreased significantly (p<0.05 in 500 mg/kg/day dose group from 28 to 150 days after birth. Significant decreases were seen in total volumes of testis in 100 (p<0.05 and 500 (p<0.01 mg/kg/day doses groups until 150 days after birth. Seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height decreased significantly in 100 (p<0.05 and 500 (p<0.01 mg/kg/day doses groups during postnatal development. Also, mean sperm density in 100 mg/kg/day (p<0.05 and 500 mg/kg/day (p<0.01 doses groups and percent of morphologically normal sperm in highest dose group (p<0.05 decreased significantly until 150 days after birth. Conclusion: Present study showed that maternal exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate during gestation and lactation caused to permanent and dose-related reductions of sperm and testicular parameters in rats offspring

  8. Fetal exposure to a maternal low-protein diet during mid-gestation results in muscle-specific effects on fibre type composition in young rats

    Mallinson, Joanne E.; Sculley, Dean V.; Craigon, Jim; Plant, Richard; Langley-Evans, Simon C.; Brameld, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of reduced dietary protein during specific periods of fetal life upon muscle fibre development in young rats. Pregnant rats were fed a control or low-protein (LP) diet at early (days 0-7 gestation, LPEarly), mid (days 8-14, LPMid), late (days 15-22, LPLate) or throughout gestation (days 0-22, LPAll). The muscle fibre number and composition in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the offspring were studied at 4 weeks of age. In the soleus muscle, both the total number and density of fast fibres were reduced in LPMid females (P=0·004 for both, Diet × Sex × Fibre type interactions), while both the total number and density of glycolytic (non-oxidative) fibres were reduced in LPEarly, LPMid and LPLate (but not LPAll) offspring compared with controls (P<0·001 for both, Diet × Fibre type interaction). In the gastrocnemius muscle, only the density of oxidative fibres was reduced in LPMid compared with control offspring (P=0·019, Diet × Fibre type interaction), with the density of slow fibres being increased in LPAll males compared with control (P=0·024, Diet × Sex × Fibre type interaction). There were little or no effects of maternal diet on fibre type diameters in the two muscles. In conclusion, a maternal low-protein diet mainly during mid-pregnancy reduced muscle fibre number and density in 4-week-old rats, but there were muscle-specific differences in the fibre types affected. PMID:17391556

  9. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who delivered at Emam Hospital, Sari Iran during 2008–2009 werestudied A control group with two hundred fifty nine women of normal body mass index matched for ageand parity were selected and incidence of preeclampsia were compared between groups. χ2 and Oddsratioand 95% confidence were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.Results: There was a significant relation between obesity and preeclampsia (20.8 vs. 5.8%, P<0.0001compared to non-obese women.Conclusion: Obesity in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes.

  10. Does prenatal care benefit maternal health? A study of post-partum maternal care use.

    Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on prenatal care focus on its effects on infant health, while studying less about the effects on maternal health. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan in a recursive bivariate probit model, this study examines the impact of adequate prenatal care on the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization during the first 6 months after birth. The results show that adequate prenatal care significantly reduces the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization among women who have had vaginal delivery by 43.8%. This finding suggests that the benefits of prenatal care may have been underestimated among women with vaginal delivery. Timely and adequate prenatal care not only creates a positive impact on infant health, but also yields significant benefits for post-partum maternal health. However, we do not find similar benefits of prenatal care for women undergoing a cesarean section. PMID:26189913

  11. Maternal Employment and Children's Academic Achievement: Parenting Styles as Mediating Variable.

    Beyer, Sylvia

    1995-01-01

    Provides a review and integration of findings on the effects of parenting styles and maternal employment on children's academic achievement. Presents a model in which it is argued that maternal employment status has little, if any, direct effect on children's academic achievement. Suggests maternal employment affects parenting styles, which in…

  12. Effects of moderate global maternal nutrient reduction on fetal baboon renal mitochondrial gene expression at 0.9 gestation.

    Pereira, Susana P; Oliveira, Paulo J; Tavares, Ludgero C; Moreno, António J; Cox, Laura A; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Nijland, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    Early life malnutrition results in structural alterations in the kidney, predisposing offspring to later life renal dysfunction. Kidneys of adults who were growth restricted at birth have substantial variations in nephron endowment. Animal models have indicated renal structural and functional consequences in offspring exposed to suboptimal intrauterine nutrition. Mitochondrial bioenergetics play a key role in renal energy metabolism, growth, and function. We hypothesized that moderate maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) would adversely impact fetal renal mitochondrial expression in a well-established nonhuman primate model that produces intrauterine growth reduction at term. Female baboons were fed normal chow diet or 70% of control diet (MNR). Fetal kidneys were harvested at cesarean section at 0.9 gestation (165 days gestation). Human Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism and Human Mitochondria Pathway PCR Arrays were used to analyze mitochondrially relevant mRNA expression. In situ protein content was detected by immunohistochemistry. Despite the smaller overall size, the fetal kidney weight-to-body weight ratio was not affected. We demonstrated fetal sex-specific differential mRNA expression encoding mitochondrial metabolite transport and dynamics proteins. MNR-related differential gene expression was more evident in female fetuses, with 16 transcripts significantly altered, including 14 downregulated and 2 upregulated transcripts. MNR impacted 10 transcripts in male fetuses, with 7 downregulated and 3 upregulated transcripts. The alteration in mRNA levels was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc. In conclusion, transcripts encoding fetal renal mitochondrial energy metabolism proteins are nutrition sensitive in a sex-dependent manner. We speculate that these differences lead to decreased mitochondrial fitness that contributes to renal dysfunction in later life. PMID:25761880

  13. The effect of maternal breast variations on neonatal weight gain in the first seven days of life

    Esmaeili Abbas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to examine whether specific maternal breast variations (such as flat nipple, inverted nipple, large breast or/and large nipple are barriers for weight gain in breastfed infants during the first seven days of life. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 100 healthy term neonates were followed from birth to day seven in two groups; Group A: fifty neonates born to mothers with specified breast variations and Group B: fifty neonates born to mothers without such breast variations ("normal breasts". All neonates were the first child of their families and there was no sex ratio difference between the two groups. Neonates' weight at birth and day seven were measured and the mean weight differences in the two groups were compared using paired t-test. Results Neonates born to mothers without the specified breast variations had a mean weight gain of (+ 53 ± 154.4 g at day seven., Not only there was no increase in the mean weight of neonates in the other group, but they had a mean decrease of weight of (- 162 ± 125.5 g by the seventh day of their life compared to birth weight. Thus, neonates born to mothers without breast variations had significantly greater weight gain than neonates born to the mothers with the specified variations (p Conclusion Breast variation among first-time mothers acts as an important barrier to weight gain among breastfed neonates in the early days of life. Health professionals need skills in the management of breastfeeding among mothers with the specified breast variations, so that mothers are given appropriate advice on how to breastfeed and overcome these problems.

  14. The Role of Nicotine in the Effects of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy on Lung Development and Childhood Respiratory Disease. Implications for Dangers of E-Cigarettes.

    Spindel, Eliot R; McEvoy, Cindy T

    2016-03-01

    Use of e-cigarettes, especially among the young, is increasing at near-exponential rates. This is coupled with a perception that e-cigarettes are safe and with unlimited advertising geared toward vulnerable populations, the groups most likely to smoke or vape during pregnancy. There is now wide appreciation of the dangers of maternal smoking during pregnancy and the lifelong consequences this has on offspring lung function, including the increased risk of childhood wheezing and subsequent asthma. Recent evidence strongly supports that much of the effect of smoking during pregnancy on offspring lung function is mediated by nicotine, making it highly likely that e-cigarette use during pregnancy will have the same harmful effects on offspring lung function and health as do conventional cigarettes. In fact, the evidence for nicotine being the mediator of harm of conventional cigarettes may be most compelling for its effects on lung development. This raises concerns about both the combined use of e-cigarettes plus conventional cigarettes by smokers during pregnancy as well as the use of e-cigarettes by e-cigarette-only users who think them safe or by those sufficiently addicted to nicotine to not be able to quit e-cigarette usage during pregnancy. Thus, it is important for health professionals to be aware of the risks of e-cigarette usage during pregnancy, particularly as it pertains to offspring respiratory health. PMID:26756937

  15. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    Johannsen, Nis

    constructs a conceptual frame within which three experimental designs are constructed. The consequences and the politics of the proposed changes are engaged with in laboratory manner through collaborative development of the designs and through exposing them to members of field of maternity care...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity...... care, at least not in the intended manner. It was, however, an achievement to relate the different interests for a period. In this dissertation I will elucidate the proposed changes in the initiatives as well as expound on the manner in which they were proposed. It is argued that the different...

  16. An effectiveness study of an integrated, community-based package for maternal, newborn, child and HIV care in South Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Tomlinson Mark

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress towards MDG4 in South Africa will depend largely on scaling up effective prevention against mother to child transmission (PMTCT of HIV and also addressing neonatal mortality. This imperative drives increasing focus on the neonatal period and particularly on the development and testing of appropriate models of sustainable, community-based care in South Africa in order to reach the poor. A number of key implementation gaps affecting progress have been identified. Implementation gaps for HIV prevention in neonates; implementation gaps for neonatal care especially home postnatal care; and implementation gaps for maternal mental health support. We have developed and are evaluating and costing an integrated and scaleable home visit package delivered by community health workers targeting pregnant and postnatal women and their newborns to provide essential maternal/newborn care as well as interventions for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT of HIV. Methods The trial is a cluster randomized controlled trial that is being implemented in Umlazi which is a peri-urban settlement with a total population of 1 million close to Durban in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. The trial consists of 30 randomized clusters (15 in each arm. A baseline survey established the homogeneity of clusters and neither stratification nor matching was performed. Sample size was based on increasing HIV-free survival from 74% to 84%, and calculated to be 120 pregnant women per cluster. Primary outcomes are higher levels of HIV free survival and levels of exclusive and appropriate infant feeding at 12 weeks postnatally. The intervention is home based with community health workers delivering two antenatal visits, a postnatal visit within 48 hours of birth, and a further four visits during the first two months of the infants life. We are undertaking programmatic and cost effectiveness analysis to cost the intervention. Discussion The question is not merely to develop an efficacious package but also to identify and test delivery strategies that enable scaling up, which requires effectiveness studies in a health systems context, adapting and testing Asian community-based studies in various African contexts. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN41046462

  17. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this ... used? Maternal serum screening is used in the second trimester of pregnancy to help evaluate the risk that ...

  18. Maternal Health: Time to Deliver

    Lattof, Samantha R.; Wegner, Mary Nell; Langer, Ana; 39

    2011-01-01

    The PLoS Medicine Editors and partners from the Maternal Health Task Force at the Harvard School of Public Health announce their partnership and a call for papers on “quality of maternal health care.”

  19. Maternal Sensitivity and Communication Styles: Mothers with Depression

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Loveland Cook, Cynthia A.; Flick, Louise H.

    2008-01-01

    Women living in poverty are at increased risk for depression, especially during their childbearing years. Whereas poverty has known adverse effects on children's cognitive, social, and communication development, maternal depression may place these children at additional risk of developmental delays. The maternal sensitivity of mothers with and…

  20. Maternal Work Status and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Pilot.

    Pitzer, Martha S.

    Investigated were effects of maternal work status and parity on specific outcomes in maternal psychology and physiology and infant physiology. In addition, the study design and the usefulness of instruments were evaluated, and the feasibility of subject recruitment and retention was assessed. Subjects were 20 women between 18 and 35 years of age…

  1. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  2. HIV and maternal mortality☆

    Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000–56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%–20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatmen...

  3. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  4. A cluster randomised controlled trial of the community effectiveness of two interventions in rural Malawi to improve health care and to reduce maternal, newborn and infant mortality

    Vergnano Stefania; Malamba Florida; Chapota Hilda; Rosato Mikey; Mganga Andrew; Phiri Tambosi; Kazembe Peter; Mwansambo Charles; Lewycka Sonia; Newell Marie-Louise; Osrin David; Costello Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The UN Millennium Development Goals call for substantial reductions in maternal and child mortality, to be achieved through reductions in morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery, postpartum and early childhood. The MaiMwana Project aims to test community-based interventions that tackle maternal and child health problems through increasing awareness and local action. Methods/Design This study uses a two-by-two factorial cluster-randomised controlled trial design ...

  5. Study protocol: Differential effects of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes - individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis and health economic evaluation

    Ruifrok, Anneloes E; Rogozinska, Ewelina; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Rayanagoudar, Girish; Kerry, Sally; de Groot, Christianne J M; Yeo, SeonAe; Molyneaux, Emma; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Poston, Lucilla; Roberts, Tracy; Riley, Richard D; Coomarasamy, Arri; Khan, Khalid; Mol, Ben Willem; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    based on body mass index, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parity, and underlying medical conditions is not clear. Our individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised trials will assess the differential effect of diet- and physical activity-based interventions on maternal weight gain and...... data. We will reanalyse each study separately and confirm the findings with the original authors. Then, for each intervention type and outcome, we will perform as appropriate either a one-step or a two-step IPD meta-analysis to obtain summary estimates of effects and 95% confidence intervals, for all...... women combined and for each subgroup of interest. The primary outcomes are gestational weight gain and composite adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The difference in effects between subgroups will be estimated and between-study heterogeneity suitably quantified and explored. The potential for...

  6. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother newborns

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Autrup, Herman; Brouwer, Abraham; Besselink, Harrie; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei...

  7. Determinants and Consequences of Maternal Employment: An Annotated Bibliography, 1968-1980.

    Hurst, Marsha; Zambrana, Ruth E.

    This bibliography contains annotations to over 200 books, reports, papers, and articles on maternal employment. It focuses on critical issues related to maternal employment and the effects of maternal employment on women, their children, and their families. An introduction describes the bibliography and identification of the literature reviewed…

  8. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  9. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  10. Maternal Mortality in Henan Province, China: Changes between 1996 and 2009

    You, Fengzhi; Huo, Kaiming; Wang, Ruili; XU, DONGMEI; Deng, Jie; Wei, Ying; Shi, Fenglian; Liu, Hongyang; Cheng, Guomei; Zhang, Zhan; Yang, Ping; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiaoyang; Jacobsson, Bo; Zhu, Changlian

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal deaths occur mostly in developing countries and the majority of them are preventable. This study analyzes changes in maternal mortality and related causes in Henan Province, China, between 1996 and 2009, in an attempt to provide a reliable basis for introducing effective interventions to reduce the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), part of the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Methods and Findings This population-based maternal mortality survey in Henan Province was carried...

  11. Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática

    M. Lepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by hand, a total of nine studies were analyzed. Results: Three out of four papers observed a higher risk for delay lactogenesis among obese mothers, odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.10. The study assessing the initiation of lactation showed that non-obese mothers initiated lactation sooner, OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25-0.62. The overall risk for cessation of breastfeeding showed that obese mothers had higher risks of early cessation, HR: 1.50 (CI 95% 1.11-2.04. In one study it was observed that obese mothers were not more likely to never breastfeed, OR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.97-1.50. Conclusions: This review shows that in prospective studies, obese mothers are more likely to have delayed lactogenesis and reduced lactation. Therefore, weight control and breastfeeding promotion should be reinforced before and during pregnancy. In overweight and obese mothers, breastfeeding should be closely monitored after birth.Objetivo: La falta de lactancia o su corta duración ha sido asociada con la obesidad materna. El propósito de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios prospectivos que estudiaron el efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed, se incluyeron estudios prospectivos del efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la iniciación, la intención y la duración de la lactancia: se encontraron 653 artículos, y siete fueron estudios prospectivos. Después de agregar otros estudios seleccionados a mano, se analizaron nueve estudios. Resultados: Tres de cuatro estudios observaron un mayor riesgo de retraso de la lactogénesis en madres obesas, OR: 1,02 a 1,10. El estudio que analizó la iniciación de la lactancia describió que las madres no obesas iniciaron la lactancia más temprano, OR: 0,39 (95% CI: 0,25-0,62. El riesgo de terminación temprana de la lactancia fue mayor en madres obesas, HR: 1,50 (CI 95% 1,11-2,04. En un estudio se observó que las madres obesas no tenían más probabilidades de no lactar, OR = 1,56 (95% CI: 0,97-1,50. Conclusiones: Esta revisión realizada en estudios prospectivos indica que, es más probable que las madres obesas tengan lactogénesis atrasada o un periodo corto de lactancia. Por lo tanto, el control de peso y la promoción de la lactancia deben reforzarse antes y durante el embarazo. En madres con sobrepeso y obesidad, la lactancia debe de ser promovida y supervisada después de nacimiento.

  12. Effects of combined maternal administration with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB on prenatal programming of skeletal properties in the offspring

    Tatara Marcin R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional manipulations during fetal growth may induce long-term metabolic effects in postnatal life. The aim of the study was to test whether combined treatment of pregnant sows with alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate induces additive long-term effects on skeletal system properties in the offspring. Methods The study was performed on 290 pigs obtained from 24 sows divided into 4 equal groups and subjected to experimental treatment during two weeks before delivery. The first group consisted of control sows, while the second group received alpha-ketoglutarate. The third group was treated with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and the fourth group underwent combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate. Piglets obtained from sows were reared until slaughter age to perform morphometric, densitometric and mechanical analyses of femur. Serum evaluations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were performed in newborns and 90-day old piglets; additionally, plasma amino acid concentration was measured in newborns. Results Maternal treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate significantly reduced fattening time and increased birth body weight, daily body weight gain, bone weight, volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical parameters and mechanical endurance of femur. These effects were associated with increased serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Furthermore, alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate administered solely or in combination significantly increased plasma level of 19 amino acids. Conclusions Hormonal and amino acid evaluations in pigs indicate additive effects of AKG and HMB on systemic growth and development; however, determination of bone properties has not shown such phenomenon.

  13. FEASIBILITY OF COLLECTING UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD IN JORDAN AND THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL AND NEONATAL FACTORS ON HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL CONTENT

    Ayad Ahmed Hussein

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cord blood transplant is an accepted treatment for many malignant and non-malignant diseases. We sought to determine the feasibility of collecting cord blood in Jordan and the effect of maternal and fetal factors on the quality of the cord blood units.Methods: A total of 124 cord blood units were collected and 75 (60% cord blood units were included in this analysis. Cord blood volume, total nucleated cell (TNC count, cell viability and CD34+ content were measured, and clonogenic assay was performed.Results: The mean volume of the collected units was 68.9 ml (range 40-115 with mean nucleated cell count of 6.5 x 108 (range 1-23.0. Our results showed a positive correlation between the volume of cord blood and TNC count (p=0.008, cell viability (p=0.001, CD34+ content (p=0.034 and the length of the umbilical cord (p=0.011. In addition, our results showed an inverse relation between the Colony Forming Unit-Granulocyte Macrophage (CFU-GM concentration and the gestation duration (p=0.038.Conclusion: We conclude that it is feasible to collect cord blood units in Jordan with excellent TNC and CD34+ cell content. The volume of cord blood collected was associated with higher TNC count and CD34+ count. Efforts toward establishing public cord blood banks in our area are warranted.

  14. The in utero programming effect of increased maternal androgens and a direct fetal intervention on liver and metabolic function in adult sheep.

    Hogg, Kirsten; Wood, Charlotte; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in response to external stimuli are fast emerging as common underlying causes for the pre-disposition to adult disease. Prenatal androgenization is one such model that results in reproductive and metabolic features that are present in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We examined the effect of prenatal androgens on liver function and metabolism of adult sheep. As non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increased in PCOS we hypothesized that this, and other important liver pathways including metabolic function, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and steroid receptivity, would be affected. Pregnant ewes received vehicle control (C; n = 5) or testosterone propionate (TP; n = 9) twice weekly (100 mg; i.m) from d62-102 (gestation 147 days). In a novel treatment paradigm, a second cohort received a direct C (n = 4) or TP (20 mg; n = 7) fetal injection at d62 and d82. In adults, maternal TP exposure resulted in increased insulin secretion to glucose load (Pfetal intervention (C and TP) led to early fatty liver changes in all animals without differential changes in insulin secretion. Furthermore, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was up-regulated in the fetal controls (Pfetal TP (Pfetal TP exposure. Adult liver metabolism and signaling can be altered by early exposure to sex steroids implicating epigenetic regulation of metabolic disturbances that are common in PCOS. PMID:21935484

  15. Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women in an Iodine-Sufficient Area in China

    Chen, Xi; Jin, Bai; Xia, Jun; Tao, Xincheng; Huang, Xiaoping; Sun, Lu; Yuan, Qingxin

    2016-01-01

    Purposes. To evaluate the effects of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) on maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes in pregnant women. Methods. 208 pregnant women at 24–28 weeks were divided into two groups, TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative groups. Thyroid function and TPOAb were determined in all subjects until 12 months postpartum. Levothyroxine was supplemented to maintain euthyroid with periodical checking of thyroid functions. The prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of membrane, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, preterm birth, low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal diseases were observed in two groups. Results. Of all women, 11.54% had a PPT. The prevalence of PPT was significantly higher in TPOAb-positive than TPOAb-negative group (42.31% versus 7.14%, P < 0.001), with 45.46% and 53.85% of PPT happening at 6 weeks postpartum in TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative groups. The incidence of polyhydramnios was significantly higher in TPOAb-positive than TPOAb-negative group (15.38% versus 2.74%, P = 0.02). Conclusion. Pregnant women with TPOAb-positive had increased risk of PPT, predominantly happening at 6 weeks postpartum. TPOAb was associated with increased incidence of polyhydramnios and the underlying mechanisms required further investigation. Earlier screening of thyroid function during pregnancy and postpartum was warranted in our region.

  16. Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.

    Johnston, Elizabeth M.

    1989-01-01

    This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and…

  17. Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.

    Johnston, Elizabeth M.

    1989-01-01

    This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and…

  18. Maternal drugs and neonatal renal failure

    Sahay, M.; Ismal, K.; Vali, P. S.; Saivani, D.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal use of drugs during pregnancy may cause irreversible renal failure in the newborn. This report highlights the adverse effect of telmisartan during the last trimester of pregnancy. The neonate presented with oliguric renal failure and the renal histology showed proximal tubular dysgenesis.

  19. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.; Skovgaard, I.M.; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Olsen, S.F.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on formula-fed infants indicate a beneficial effect of dietary DHA on visual acuity. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between breast-milk DHA levels and visual acuity in breast-fed infants. The objective in this study was to evaluate the biochemical and functional effects...

  20. Maternal antibodies reduce costs of an immune response during development.

    Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2008-03-01

    Young vertebrates are dependent primarily on innate immunity and maternally derived antibodies for immune defense. This reliance on innate immunity and the associated inflammatory response often leads to reduced growth rates after antigenic challenge. However, if offspring have maternal antibodies that recognize an antigen, these antibodies should block stimulation of the inflammatory response and reduce growth suppression. To determine whether maternal and/or offspring antigen exposure affect antibody transmission and offspring growth, female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and their newly hatched chicks were immunized. Mothers were immunized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), killed avian reovirus vaccine (AR), or were given a control, phosphate-buffered saline, injection. Within each family, one-third of offspring were immunized with LPS, one-third were immunized with AR, and one-third were given the control treatment. Maternal immunization significantly affected the specific types of antibodies that were transmitted. In general, immunization depressed offspring growth. However, offspring immunized with the same antigen as their mother exhibited elevated growth in comparison to siblings immunized with a different antigen. This suggests that the growth suppressive effects of antigen exposure during development can be partially ameliorated by the presence of maternal antibodies, but in the absence of specific maternal antibodies, offspring are dependent on more costly innate immune defenses. Together, the results suggest that the local disease environment of mothers prior to reproduction significantly affects maternal antibody transmission and these maternal antibodies may allow offspring to partially maintain growth during infection in addition to providing passive humoral immune defense. PMID:18281327