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Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

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Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.

Witek-Janusek, L.

1986-08-01

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The effects of strenuous maternal exercise during gestation on maternal body components in rats.  

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The effects of strenuous maternal exercise throughout gestation on the maternal rat were examined. The results indicated that maternal exercise of this nature (30 metres/minute, 10 degree incline, 120 minutes/day, 5 days/week) caused a significant decrease in the amount of weight gained by the running maternal rats when compared to controls. By analysing the maternal rat and various bodily components after parturition, it was suggested that subcutaneous tissue growth (fat deposits and mammary...

Mottola, M. F.; Bagnall, K. M.; Belcastro, A. N.; Foster, J.; Secord, D.

1986-01-01

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Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring  

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While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the lifespan and healthspan of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on CR regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increa...

Gribble, Kristin E.; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B.

2014-01-01

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Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal.  

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OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR) on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity servic...

Dumont Alexandre; Gaye Alioune; de Bernis Luc; Chaillet Nils; Landry Anne; Delage Joanne; Bouvier-Colle Marie-Hélène

2006-01-01

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Maternal effects on the genetic evaluation of Tabapuã beef cattle  

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The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of maternal effects on the genetic evaluation of sire production in Tabapuã beef cattle. Single and multiple trait analyses were done with adjusted animal weights at 120, 240 and 420 days of age. Antagonism was observed between additive direct and maternal genetic effects, with the maternal effect being higher until weaning. The inclusion of maternal effects in the models removed part of the additive variance only in single trait analy...

José Elivalto Guimarães Campêlo; Paulo Sávio Lopes; Robledo de Almeida Torres; Luiz Otávio Campos da Silva; Ricardo Frederico Euclydes; Cláudio Vieira de Araújo; Carmen Silva Pereira

2004-01-01

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Limited scope for maternal effects in aphid defence against parasitoids  

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1. A mother’s environment frequently affects her offspring’s phenotype. Such maternal effects may be adaptive, in particular with respect to pathogens or parasites, for example if maternal exposure increases offspring resistance. 2. In aphids, maternal effects are likely to occur as a result of their telescoping generations. This study investigated whether maternal effects influence the susceptibility of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to its parasi...

Vorburger, C.; Gegenschatz, S. E.; Ranieri, G.; Rodriguez, P.

2008-01-01

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Effects of Maternal Age on Pregnancy and Fetal Prognosis  

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Maternal age has important effects on maternal and fetal/neonatal health. Maternal age groups in which these effects are especially important are adolescent and advanced age groups. While adolescent pregnancies include below 20 ages, advanced age pregnancies include 35 and over. In this review, effects of maternal age on pregnancy and fetal health in adolescent and advenced age gropus are discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000): 90-98

Hakan Kiran; Gurkan Kiran; Melih Atahan Guven

2003-01-01

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Maternal effects on the genetic evaluation of Tabapuã beef cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of maternal effects on the genetic evaluation of sire production in Tabapuã beef cattle. Single and multiple trait analyses were done with adjusted animal weights at 120, 240 and 420 days of age. Antagonism was observed between additive direct [...] and maternal genetic effects, with the maternal effect being higher until weaning. The inclusion of maternal effects in the models removed part of the additive variance only in single trait analyses and resulted in smaller means and standard deviations for the sire breeding values. The use of maternal effect associated with single or multiple traits may affect sire ranking. The contradictory results of the single and multiple trait analyses for additive direct and maternal effects indicate that caution is needed when considering recommendations about the importance of maternal effects in Tabapuã beef cattle.

José Elivalto Guimarães, Campêlo; Paulo Sávio, Lopes; Robledo de Almeida, Torres; Luiz Otávio Campos da, Silva; Ricardo Frederico, Euclydes; Cláudio Vieira de, Araújo; Carmen Silva, Pereira.

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Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being  

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This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall heal...

Chatterji, Pinka; Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-gunn, Jeanne

2012-01-01

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The Maternal Migration Effect : Exploring Maternal Healthcare in Diaspora Using Qualitative Proxies for Medical Anthropology  

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This project explores the 'maternal migration effect'. Following migration to a high-income country with a low maternal mortality rate, we assume that some immigrant women’s reliance upon maternal practices that respond to a low-income, high-mortality context can adversely affect care-seeking and utilization of treatment facilities. At highest risk in the United Kingdom and Sweden are those from Africa's Horn, particularly Somali women who have experienced diasporic migration. By applying c...

Binder, Pauline

2012-01-01

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The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring  

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Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

JocelienDAOlivier

2013-05-01

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Genetic parameters of direct and maternal effects for calving ease  

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Genetic parameters of direct and maternal effects for calving ease in Dutch dairy cattle were estimated using 677,975 calving ease records from second calving. Particular emphasis was given to the presence and impact of environmental dam-offspring covariances on the estimated direct-maternal genetic correlation. Moreover, a measure of heritability for traits affected by maternal effects was developed. In contrast to previous parameters, this parameter reflects the amount of genetic variance t...

Eaglen, S. A. E.; Bijma, P.

2009-01-01

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Effects of Cocaine on Maternal Behavior and Neurochemistry  

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Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves drug seeking and abuse despite the negative social and health consequences. While the potential effects of cocaine on child development have been extensively studied over the last 30 years, few researchers have focused on the effects of cocaine on maternal behavior, which includes offspring care and maternal aggression towards an unfamiliar individual. In humans, maternal cocaine use can lead to child neglect, abuse, and disrupt the...

Nephew, Benjamin C.; Febo, Marcelo

2012-01-01

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Maternal effects in birds: effects of nutritional conditions on maternal reproductive effort and offspring performance  

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The environment experienced by an organism at different life stages can have substantial effects on its phenotype. The environmental conditions the mother encounters can substantially influence her investment in the present reproductive attempt, and the phenotype of her offspring through the so-called maternal effects. Moreover, prenatal and early postnatal conditions experienced by offspring can interact and modulate their life histories. The aim of this thesis is to give new insight into en...

Giordano, Marta

2014-01-01

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The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring  

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It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the quest...

JocelienDAOlivier; JodiLPawluski

2013-01-01

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Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity services. METHODS: We included all women who were admitted to the maternity unit for childbirth, or within 24 hours of delivery. We recorded maternal mortality during a 1-year baseline period from January to December 1997, and during a 3-year period from January 1998 to December 2000 after MDR had been implemented. Effects of MDR on organization of care were qualitatively evaluated. FINDINGS: The MDR strategy led to changes in organizational structure that improved life-saving interventions with a relatively large financial contribution from the community. Overall mortality significantly decreased from 0.83 (95% CI (confidence interval = 0.60 -1.06 in baseline period to 0.41 (95% CI = 0.25 -0.56 per 100 women 3 years later. CONCLUSION: MDR had a marked effect on resources, management and maternal outcomes in this facility. However, given the design of our study and the local specific context, further research is needed to confirm the feasibility of MDR in other settings and to confirm the benefits of this approach for maternal health in developing countries.

Dumont Alexandre

2006-01-01

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Maternal effects in cooperative breeders: from hymenopterans to humans  

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The environment that an offspring experiences during its development can have lifelong consequences for its morphology, anatomy, physiology and behaviour that are strong enough to span generations. One aspect of an offspring's environment that can have particularly pronounced and long-lasting effects is that provided by its parent(s) (maternal effects). Some disciplines in biology have been quicker to appreciate maternal effects than others, and some organisms provide better model systems for...

Russell, Andrew F.; Lummaa, Virpi

2009-01-01

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Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats  

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Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM), which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats div...

Khaksar, Z.; Jelodar, G.; Hematian, H.

2010-01-01

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Effect of maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles  

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Full Text Available The importance of nanotechnology is widely recognized in both biomedical and industrial applications, so the search for new nano materials with improved physical and chemical characteristics is rapidly growing, causing a consequent increase in the risk of exposure by the population.Engineered nanoparticles, defined as particles having a different shape, but at least one dimension less than 100 nm, are constituents of many everyday products, including for example, sunscreens, cosmetics and some food packaging. This implies that an increasing number of people can come into contact with these nanoparticles in occupational settings, and the environment. It then becomes mandatory to assess what potential effects nanoparticles may have on biological systems. Although many nanoparticles may not be a problem for the general population, may instead be a problem for subgroups of susceptible individuals. In this context, we aimed to study the effect that maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs may have on the health of pregnant individuals, with particular attention to the possible harmful effects on the development of the placenta and fetus. To this end we have produced silica nanoparticles of three different sizes: small, medium and large. Each nanoparticle was in turn modified in two different ways, through the introduction of NH2 or COOH functional groups, in order to make their surface positively or negatively charged.SiO2 NPs were intravenously administered to pregnant mice, through the injection into the venous retro-bulbar eye plexus. Administration was performed at two different gestational stages. A group of females received the material 5.5 days after conception, when the placenta is still poorly formed, while a second group was exposed at 12.5 day of pregnancy, a time at which the placenta has completed development. The difference in the administration timing allowed us to evaluate the possible differences in susceptibility of the fetus depending at different stages of placental development. Our results have shown that the smallest SiO2 NP have a high biocompatibility and do not interfere with the development of the embryo, or with placental development. In contrast, the NPs of medium and large size have demonstrated interference with the development of the fetus, leading to the onset of mild structural alterations and the appearance of a large number of identical twins, an extremely rare phenomenon in rodents, generally secondary to a mild teratogenic stimulus. Such effect became apparent only after administration of high doses of nano particles, showing also a relationship with the surface charge.In conclusion, these results suggest caution in the exposure to SiO2 NP of medium and large size during pregnancy.

Pietroiusti A

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Maternal methyl supplemented diets and effects on offspring health  

Science.gov (United States)

Women seeking to become pregnant and pregnant women are currently advised to consume high amounts of folic acid and other methyl donors to prevent neural tube defects in their offspring. These diets can alter methylation patterns of several biomolecules, including nucleic acids, and histone proteins. Limited animal model data suggests that developmental exposure to these maternal methyl supplemented (MS) diets leads to beneficial epimutations. However, other rodent and humans studies have yielded opposing findings with such diets leading to promiscuous epimutations that are likely associated with negative health outcomes. Conflict exists to whether these maternal diets are preventative or exacerbate the risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in children. This review will discuss the findings to date on the potential beneficial and aversive effects of maternal MS diets. We will also consider how other factors might influence the effects of MS diets. Current data suggest that there is cause for concern as maternal MS diets may lead to epimutations that underpin various diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. Further studies are needed to explore the comprehensive effects maternal MS diets have on the offspring epigenome and subsequent overall health. PMID:25206362

O'Neill, Rachel J.; Vrana, Paul B.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

2014-01-01

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Maternal Environment Effects on Phenolic Defenses in Abutilon theophrasti Seeds  

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Full Text Available A class of phenolic compounds, ortho-dihydroxyphenols (hereafter “o-DHP”, has been implicated with seed survival. Based on expectations of the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, we predicted that seed o-DHP concentration exhibits a curvilinear response to increasing resource availability in the maternal environment, with maximum o-DHP occurring at moderate resource levels. To test this hypothesis, Abutilon theophrasti seeds were produced under field conditions at two locations. Each location included twelve maternal environments established through factorial combinations of soil compost (+/-, species assemblage (A. theophrasti with and without maize, and soil nitrogen fertilizer (0, 0.5× or 1× local recommendations for maize. Resource availability with respect to A. theophrasti growth was summarized by above-ground biomass at seed harvest (maternal biomass. Results indicated that seed o-DHP concentrations increased then decreased in response to increasing maternal biomass. This relationship was modeled with a unimodal function specific to location (Location 1, y = 1.18 + 0.03xe-0.02x, pseudo-R2 = 0.59, p = 0.003; Location 2, y = 1.40 + 0.006xe-0.005x; pseudo-R2 = 0.34, p = 0.05. Seed protein concentrations remained constant across maternal biomass levels. Because inherent vulnerability to predation and decay is considered a consequence of chemical protection relative to nutritional offering, our results suggest that A. theophrasti seed susceptibility to lethal attack is influenced by resource levels in the maternal environment. More broadly, our results suggest that the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis can be extended to maternal effects on seed phenolics.

Brian J. Schutte

2013-05-01

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To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome  

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AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

2012-06-01

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The Effect of Maternal Employment on the Adolescent Daughter.  

Science.gov (United States)

While most studies indicate a positive influence of the working mother on adolescent daughters, relatively little research on the effects of maternal employment has been done in South Africa. This study was conducted to determine whether there are differences between South African adolescent daughters of working mothers and non-working mothers in…

Louw, Anet E.

25

Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats  

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Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ??????? Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

Z Khaksar

2010-04-01

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Maternal depression effects on infants and early interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our recent research suggests that: (1) maternal depression negatively affects infants as early as the neonatal period, implicating prenatal effects of maternal depression; (2) as early as birth the infants show a profile of "dysregulation" in their behavior, physiology, and biochemistry which probably derives from prenatal exposure to a biochemical imbalance in their mothers; (3) these effects are compounded by the disorganizing influence of the mother's interaction behavior; (4) depressed mothers have two predominant interaction styles, withdrawn or intrusive, which seem to have differential, negative effects on their infants related to inadequate stimulation and arousal modulation; (5) nondepressed caregivers such as fathers may buffer these effects because they provide more optimal stimulation and arousal modulation; and (6) interventions that are mood altering for the mothers (e.g., music and massage therapy) and arousal reducing for the infants (e.g., the same therapies) make the mothers and infants more responsive to interaction coaching and improve their interactions. PMID:9578995

Field, T

1998-01-01

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Effects of maternal obesity on antenatal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: Obesity is critically important to maternal and fetal health during the perinatal period. We have detected an increasing prevalence of maternal obesity in recent years and investigated its complications during pregnancy. Methods: A total of 931 pregnant females were investigated between March 2012 and March 2013. The patients were divided into four groups: body mass index (BMI)?dystocia, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, abnormal heart rate pattern and postpartum infection rates were found in the obese group during the perinatal period. Adverse maternal effects in obese cases were significantly more frequent than those in normal-weight cases. Preterm birth, perinatal mortality, low APGAR scores, newborn intensive care unit requirement, hypoglycemia and macrosomia rates were significantly higher in obese cases than those in non-obese cases. However, low birth weight infant rate was higher in the low BMI cases than that in the other BMI categories (p?maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25327177

Avc?, Muhittin Eftal; Sanl?kan, Fatih; Celik, Mehmet; Avc?, An?l; Kocaer, Mustafa; Göçmen, Ahmet

2014-11-11

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Environmental Maternal Effects Mediate the Resistance of Maritime Pine to Biotic Stress  

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The resistance to abiotic stress is increasingly recognised as being impacted by maternal effects, given that environmental conditions experienced by parent (mother) trees affect stress tolerance in offspring. We hypothesised that abiotic environmental maternal effects may also mediate the resistance of trees to biotic stress. The influence of maternal environment and maternal genotype and the interaction of these two factors on early resistance of Pinus pinaster half-sibs to the Fusarium cir...

Vivas, Mari?a; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Sampedro Pe?rez, Luis; Solla, Alejandro

2013-01-01

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Effect of Health Insurance on the Use and Provision of Maternal Health Services and Maternal and Neonatal Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review  

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Financial barriers can affect timely access to maternal health services. Health insurance can influence the use and quality of these services and potentially improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence on health insurance and its effects on the use and provision of maternal health services and on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in middle- and low-income countries. Studies were identified through a literature search in key databases and...

Comfort, Alison B.; Peterson, Lauren A.; Hatt, Laurel E.

2013-01-01

30

Paternal social enrichment effects on maternal behavior and offspring growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paternal environmental experiences are significant predictors of developmental outcomes in offspring and can occur even in the absence of paternal care. Although there has been a recent focus on the role of environmentally induced changes in the male germline in producing these effects, the potential mediating role of mothers has not been investigated. A role for mothers in the transmission of paternal effects has been well acknowledged in behavioral ecology, which predicts that females will dynamically adjust their reproductive investment in response to the qualities of their mate. In the present study, we show that a lifetime of socially enriched compared with impoverished housing conditions shifts anxiety-like behavior and gene expression of male mice. Females that mate with enriched-reared males exhibit increased levels of pup nursing and licking toward their offspring, which are associated with changes in gene expression within the maternal hypothalamus. Significantly, these changes in maternal behavior are correlated with the general levels of anxiety exhibited by their male mates. Further, we show that paternal environmental enrichment results in increased growth of their offspring. These results suggest that maternal-paternal interactions at mating may guide offspring development, with significant implications for the transgenerational transmission of paternal environmental experiences. PMID:23045657

Mashoodh, Rahia; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P; Champagne, Frances A

2012-10-16

31

The effect of maternal smoking on the relationship between maternal and fetal zinc status and infant birth weight.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously reported a trapping of zinc in the placenta directly related to circulating cadmium that comes from cigarette smoke. The purpose of this study was to examine in detail the effect of smoking on (a) the relationship between maternal and fetal zinc status and (b) the relationship between zinc status and birth weight. One hundred and eighteen smokers and 172 nonsmokers without any medical complications during pregnancy were studied. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to assess zinc status in maternal and cord vein plasma and red blood cells. Plasma alkaline phosphatase was also determined as an index of zinc status. Thiocyanate was used as an index of smoking status. The data were analyzed using univariate correlations and repeated measures analysis of variance. Infants of smokers had a statistically significant decrease in plasma zinc (5%), alkaline phosphatase (13%), and in cord vein RBC zinc (12%). Furthermore, the results showed an altered relationship between maternal and fetal indices of zinc status and zinc status and birth weight due to maternal smoking. The infant of the nonsmoking mother appears to be able to maintain adequate zinc status due to depletion of maternal zinc. However, it appears that the infant of the smoking mother may be marginally zinc deficient. These findings support studies of zinc supplementation in the pregnancy complicated by smoking. PMID:3209781

Kuhnert, B R; Kuhnert, P M; Lazebnik, N; Erhard, P

1988-08-01

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The Effects of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Infant Anthropometric Measurements  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The association between maternal smoking and poor pregnancy outcome, which is well established in medi­cal literature, has also been corroborated by the results of this study conducted in a Turkish hospital. Our objective was to investi­gate the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on infant head circumference, height, weight, and body mass in­dex (BMI."nMethods: In this retrospective study, the data was collected from the Medical Live Birth Registry in a maternity hospital with the largest capacity of births in a city of northwest Turkey during 2002."nResults: We found that 16.4% (1040/6332 of mothers investigated had smoked during their pregnancy, with a mean of 5 ciga­rettes per day. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of male infants whose mothers smoked were found to be less than those of infants whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, for each one. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of female infants whose mothers smoked were less than those whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, P< 0.01, P< 0.05 and P> 0.05, respectively. According to analysis of variance, infant head circumferences, heights and weights in all infants decreased as the rate of the mother's smoking increased (P> 0.05, P< 0.001 and P> 0.05, respec­tively."nConclusions: The results support that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a linear reduction of height meas­urement, and the infants appeared to be more susceptible to the growth retarding effects of cigarette smoking on height. Thus, if cessation-of-smoking programs are initiated before conception, many of the harmful effects of smoking on fe­tal growth might be prevented.

F Sahin Mutlu

2008-12-01

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Revisiting heritability accounting for shared environmental effects and maternal inheritance.  

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Heritability measures the proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to genetic factors. In addition to a shared nuclear genetic component, a number of additional variance components, such as spousal correlation, sibship, household and maternal effects, may have strong contributions to inter-individual phenotype variation. In humans, the confounding effects of these components on heritability have not been studied thoroughly. We sought to obtain unbiased heritability estimates for complex traits in the presence of multiple variance components and also to estimate the contributions of these variance components to complex traits. We compared regression and variance component methods to estimate heritability in simulations when additional variance components existed. We then revisited heritability for several traits in Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants. Using simulations, we found that failure to account for or misclassification of necessary variance components yielded biased heritability estimates. The direction and magnitude of the bias varied depending on a variance structure and an estimation method. Using the best fitted models to account for necessary variance components, we found that heritability estimates for most FHS traits were overestimated, ranging from 4 to 47 %, when we compared models that considered necessary variance components to models that only considered familial relationships. Spousal correlation explained 14-36 % of phenotypic variation in several anthropometric and lifestyle traits. Maternal and sibling effects also contributed to phenotypic variation, ranging from 3 to 5 % and 4 to 7 %, respectively, in several anthropometric and metabolic traits. Our findings may explain, in part, the missing heritability for some traits. PMID:25381465

Liu, Chunyu; Dupuis, Josée; Larson, Martin G; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ordovas, Jose M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F; Levy, Daniel

2015-02-01

34

Maternal stress modulates the effects of developmental lead exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead exposure is higher among children with low socioeconomic status (SES) compared with other children in the United States. Low SES itself is a known risk factor for various diseases and dysfunctions, effects that have been ascribed to chronic stress and associated elevation of glucocorticoids. Chronically elevated glucocorticoids and Pb provoke similar behavioral changes, and both can act on mesocorticolimbic systems of the brain. In this study we examined the hypothesis that these co-occurring risk factors, Pb and environmental stress, would interact and modulate each others' effects. Using a rodent model, we focused on the specific contributions of maternal stress (restraint) and maternal Pb exposure (150 ppm in drinking water) on corticosterone levels of offspring, as well as on neurotransmitter changes and a behavioral baseline (fixed-interval schedule-controlled performance) with known sensitivities to Pb. We observed interactions of Pb and stress that differed in relation to outcome measure and sex. In addition, potentiated effects (effects of Pb plus stress but showing no changes produced by either alone) were observed more frequently in females. Importantly, Pb alone (in males) and Pb plus stress (in females) permanently elevated corticosterone levels in offspring; even short-term Pb exposure to dams could cause this effect. Such increases could suggest a potential new mechanism by which Pb exposure could directly or indirectly enhance susceptibility to diseases and dysfunctions and induce cognitive deficits. Moreover, the interactive effects of Pb and stress, and particularly the potentiated effects of Pb plus stress, raise questions about whether current risk assessment strategies sufficiently consider the potential for modulation of toxicity that can accrue from intercurrent risk factors. PMID:15121516

Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Virgolini, Miriam B; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Weston, Doug D; Bauter, Mark R

2004-01-01

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Effects of Repeated Maternal Separation On Oxidative Stress In Adolescent Male and Female Rat Brains  

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Full Text Available In a previous study we demonstrated that repeated maternal separation impaired spatial memory performance in both male and female adolescent rats. The mechanisms of these cognitive alterations are unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated maternal separation on oxidative stress in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum regions of the brain of the adolescent male and female rats. The results showed that repeated maternal separation increased antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in adolescent male rat brains; however, maternal separation did not effects antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in adolescent female rat brains. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused damage in repeated maternal separated adolescent male rat brains, also a strong role of gender in the response of adolescent subjects to maternal separation.

Giray YALAZ

2008-09-01

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Effects of Repeated Maternal Separation On Oxidative Stress In Adolescent Male and Female Rat Brains  

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In a previous study we demonstrated that repeated maternal separation impaired spatial memory performance in both male and female adolescent rats. The mechanisms of these cognitive alterations are unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated maternal separation on oxidative stress in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum regions of the brain of the adolescent male and female rats. The results showed that repeated maternal separation increased antioxidant enzyme...

Yalaz, Giray; Kayatekin, Berkant Muammer; Acikgoz, Osman; Gonenc, Sevil; Sisman, Ali Riza; Uysal, Nazan

2008-01-01

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Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO African region.  

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WHO African region has got the highest maternal mortality rate compared to the other five regions. Maternal mortality is hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on the gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of the current study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to maternal mortality in the WHO African Region. The burden of maternal mortality on GDP was estimated using a double-log econometric model. The analysis is based on cross-sectional data for 45 of the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region. Data were obtained from UNDP and the World Bank publications. All the explanatory variables included in the double-log model were found to have statistically significant effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at 5 % level in a t-distribution test. The coefficients for land (D), capital (K), educational enrollment (EN) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while labor (L), imports (M) and maternal mortality rate (MMR) were found to impact negatively on GDP. Maternal mortality of a single person was found to reduce per capita GDP by US $ 0.36 per year. The study has demonstrated that maternal mortality has a statistically significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through land reform programs, capital investments, export promotion and increase in educational enrollment, they should always remember that investment in maternal mortality-reducing interventions promises significant economic returns. PMID:17348747

Kirigia, Joses M; Oluwole, Doyin; Mwabu, Germano M; Gatwiri, Doris; Kainyu, Lenity H

2006-01-01

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Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom  

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Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg. The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10. The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

A. A. S. Barão

2008-01-01

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Genetic parameters of direct and maternal effects for calving ease in Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle.  

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Genetic parameters of direct and maternal effects for calving ease in Dutch dairy cattle were estimated using 677,975 calving ease records from second calving. Particular emphasis was given to the presence and impact of environmental dam-offspring covariances on the estimated direct-maternal genetic correlation. Moreover, a measure of heritability for traits affected by maternal effects was developed. In contrast to previous parameters, this parameter reflects the amount of genetic variance that can be used to generate a response to selection in maternally affected traits. Estimated genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects on calving ease have often been moderately negative, particularly in beef cattle. Environmental dam-offspring covariances have been put forward as an explanation for such estimates. We investigated the impact of environmental dam-offspring covariances by fitting correlated residuals between dam and offspring records in the statistical model, and by comparing results of a sire-maternal grandsire model with those of an animal model. Results show that calving ease in Dutch dairy cattle has a direct heritability of approximately 0.08, a maternal heritability of approximately 0.04, a direct-maternal genetic correlation of approximately -0.20, and a total heritable variance equal to approximately 11% of phenotypic variance. Results of animal models and sire-maternal grandsire models were very similar. The direct-maternal environmental covariance was near zero, and consequently had very little impact on the estimated genetic parameters. Transformation of observations to a liability scale did not affect the estimated genetic parameters and yielded a nearly identical ranking of sires. PMID:19389982

Eaglen, S A E; Bijma, P

2009-05-01

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The influence of maternal effects on indirect benefits associated with polyandry  

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Despite numerous and diverse theoretical models for the indirect benefits of polyandry, empirical support is mixed. One reason for the difficulty in detecting indirect benefits of polyandry may be that these are subtle and are mediated by environmental effects, such as maternal effects. Maternal effects may be especially important if females allocate resources to their offspring depending on the characteristics of their mating partners. We test this hypothesis in the burying beetle Nicrophoru...

House, Clarissa M.; Bleakley, Bronwyn H.; Walling, Craig A.; Price, Thomas A. R.; Stamper, Clare E.; Moore, Allen J.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Maternal Effects Underlie Ageing Costs of Growth in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata).  

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Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother's fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss) were in...

Tissier, Mathilde L.; Williams, Tony D.; Criscuolo, Franc?ois

2014-01-01

42

Maternally administered interventions for preterm infants in the NICU: Effects on maternal psychological distress and mother-infant relationship.  

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Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993g for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-min videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal distress variable. Kangaroo care mothers showed a more rapid decline in worry than the other mothers. The only interactive dimensions that differed between the groups were child social behaviors and developmental maturity, which were both higher for kangaroo care infants. Change over time in several individual infant behaviors was affected by the interventions. When mothers reported on the interventions they performed, regardless of group assignment, massage (any form including ATVV) was associated with a more rapid decline in depressive symptoms and higher HOME scores. Performing either intervention was associated with lower parenting stress. These findings suggest that as short-term interventions, KC and ATVV have important effects on mothers and their preterm infants, especially in the first half of the first year. PMID:25247740

Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C; Levy, Janet A; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J

2014-11-01

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"THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL AGE, GESTATIONAL AGE AND PARITY ON THE SIZE OF THE NEWBORN "  

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Full Text Available A descriptive prospective study was undertaken to determine birth weight, length and head circumference of live births and to examine the effect of maternal age, parity and gestational age on birth sizes of the live births. A total of 459 term singleton maternal– neonate pairs were studied. The neonates had anthropometric measurements determined with in 24hours of life using standard methods. There were 247 (53.8% males and 212 (46.2% females. The mean birth weight was 3123.75 ? 492.04, ranging between 1700-4550 gr. The incidence of low birth weight of the newborns was significantly higher for females (P < 0.05, younger maternal age (P = 0.007, primiparas (P = 0.001 and pre-term babies (P < 0.001. On the multivariate analysis, gestational age and sex of the newborn respectively had significant effects on birth weight, length and head circumference of the neonates controlling for the other variables. On the other hand parity and maternal age had significant effects only on the birth weight of the neonates. This study has provided information of the effects of some of maternal characteristics on the size, particularly length and head circumferences be given importance for monitoring and evaluating maternal and child health programs.

M. R. Mohammady P. Heshmaty

2006-11-01

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Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight  

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Abstract Background Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, pre- and post-term delivery, induction of labor, macrosomia, increased rate of caesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) on pregnancy outcomes. Methods 1000 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. In order to explore the relationship between ma...

Yazdani Shahla; Yosofniyapasha Yousofreza; Nasab Bahman; Mojaveri Mohsen; Bouzari Zinatossadat

2012-01-01

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No Detectable Maternal Effects of Elevated CO2 on Arabidopsis thaliana Over 15 Generations  

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Maternal environment has been demonstrated to produce considerable impact on offspring growth. However, few studies have been carried out to investigate multi-generational maternal effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth and development. Here we present the first report on the responses of plant reproductive, photosynthetic, and cellular characteristics to elevated CO2 over 15 generations using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. We found that within an individual generation, elevated CO2...

Teng, Nianjun; Jin, Biao; Wang, Qinli; Hao, Huaiqing; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Kuang, Tingyun; Lin, Jinxing

2009-01-01

46

Exploration of cytoplasmic inheritance as a contributor to maternal effects in Welsh Mountain sheep  

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Full Text Available Abstract Cytoplasmic effects were investigated using a dataset comprising three breeding groups of Welsh Mountain sheep. The influences of cytoplasmic effects were investigated by comparing animal models with and without a random term representing cytoplasmic effects. The models were applied to the eight-week weight, scan weight (mean 152 days and ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth. The animal model included the random effects of animals and the maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and maternal common environmental effects. In total there were 24 569, 10 509, 8389, 8369 records for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth respectively. Four subsets were further analysed containing maternal lines with at least five, ten, fifteen and twenty animals/line. There was no evidence of cytoplasmic effects on eight-week weight and muscle depth. Cytoplasmic effects contributed 1–2% of phenotypic variance for scan-weight and fat depth, but the effect was generally non-significant (P > 0.05. As the number of animals per maternal line increased, the magnitude of cytoplasmic effects also increased for these traits. Direct heritability estimates for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth using the full dataset were 0.18, 0.25, 0.24, and 0.21 respectively.

Dewi Ioan

2008-05-01

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Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 14C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed

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Global progress and potentially effective policy responses to reduce maternal mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing maternal mortality within significant margins is a global imperative that reflects attainment of development goals. Progress in reducing maternal mortality, in particular among countries with notably high maternal mortality ratios (MMRs), has been substantially slower than the Millennium Development Goal target of an annual rate of 5.5% decline. The latest UN maternal mortality estimates show a reduction in MMR in a number of countries between 1990 and 2008. Understanding the factors associated with progress in countries that have reduced maternal mortality provides other countries and development partners with opportunities to consider and implement policies and interventions that could help accelerate progress. This paper reviews 6 countries that have demonstrated marked progress. The policies that have been effective include innovative financing measures; investment in human resources both in terms of strengthening pre-service education and emphasizing in-service training for healthcare providers; strengthening obstetric care by enhancing infrastructure and upgrading equipment, as well as improving quality of services; and investing in the broader determinants of maternal mortality, particularly family planning and women's education and socioeconomic empowerment. This range of actions, which includes a combination of facility and community-based approaches, provides a list of potentially effective strategies that could be considered when developing programs in other countries with slower progress. Strong political will and multistakeholder involvement and interventions are key in the development and implementation of these policies and actions. PMID:22883916

Mbizvo, Michael T; Say, Lale

2012-10-01

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The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of newborns.  

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OBJECTIVES To evaluate the relation between maternal prenatal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal anthropometric measurements. METHODS All pregnant women who gave birth at the Obstetrics Department of Dr. LK Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006, and their newborns were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The newborns' weight, height, head, and chest ci...

Al-mendalawi, Mahmood D.; Berrin Telatar; Kartal, Tfi K.

2009-01-01

50

Hidden responses to environmental variation: maternal effects reveal species niche dimensions.  

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Species responses to fluctuating environments structure population and community dynamics in variable ecosystems. Although offspring number is commonly used to measure these responses, maternal effects on offspring quality may be an important but largely unrecognised determinant of long-term population growth. We selected 29 species across a Mediterranean annual plant phylogeny, and grew populations of each species in wet and dry conditions to determine responses in seed number and maternal effects (seed size, seed dormancy, and seedling growth). Maternal effects were evident in over 40% of species, but only 24% responded through seed number. Despite a strong trade-off between seed size and seed number among species, there was no consistent trade-off within species; we observed correlations that ranged from positive to negative. Overall, species in this plant guild show a complex range of responses to environmental variation that may be underestimated when only seed number responses are considered. PMID:24602193

Germain, Rachel M; Gilbert, Benjamin

2014-06-01

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Widespread differential maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone phenotype at mid-gestation.  

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Parent-of-origin-dependent (epi)genetic factors are important determinants of prenatal development that program adult phenotype. However, data on magnitude and specificity of maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone are lacking. We used an outbred bovine model to dissect and quantify effects of parental genomes, fetal sex, and nongenetic maternal effects on the fetal skeleton and analyzed phenotypic and molecular relationships between fetal muscle and bone. Analysis of 51 bone morphometric and weight parameters from 72 fetuses recovered at day 153 gestation (54% term) identified six principal components (PC1-6) that explained 80% of the variation in skeletal parameters. Parental genomes accounted for most of the variation in bone wet weight (PC1, 72.1%), limb ossification (PC2, 99.8%), flat bone size (PC4, 99.7%), and axial skeletal growth (PC5, 96.9%). Limb length showed lesser effects of parental genomes (PC3, 40.8%) and a significant nongenetic maternal effect (gestational weight gain, 29%). Fetal sex affected bone wet weight (PC1, p?maternal genome effects on bone wet weight (74.1%, p?maternal genome effects on growth plate height (98.6%, p?effects on fetal bone were mirrored by maternal genome effects on fetal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (96.9%, p?effects on alkaline phosphatase (90.0%, p?maternally controlled bone wet weight and paternally controlled limb ossification, respectively. Bone wet weight and flat bone size correlated positively with muscle weight (r?=?0.84 and 0.77, p?maternally expressed H19 regulates growth factors by miRNA interference, this suggests muscle-bone interaction via epigenetic factors. PMID:24753181

Xiang, Ruidong; Lee, Alice M C; Eindorf, Tanja; Javadmanesh, Ali; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Gugger, Madeleine; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Pitchford, Wayne S; Leviton, Alison J; Thomsen, Dana A; Beckman, Ian; Anderson, Gail I; Burns, Brian M; Rutley, David L; Xian, Cory J; Hiendleder, Stefan

2014-11-01

52

Effects of infant risk status and maternal psychological distress on maternal-infant interactions during the first year of life.  

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The associations of infant medical risk, prematurity, and maternal psychological distress with the quality of maternal-infant interactions during the first year of life were evaluated in a prospective, longitudinal follow-up from birth. A total of 103 high-risk very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 68 low-risk VLBW infants without bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and 117 healthy term infants were seen at 1, 8, and 12 months of age. Videotaped feedings at each age were rated using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale, and mothers completed the Brief Symptom Inventory as a measure of psychological distress. VLBW infant status was related to both maternal and infant behaviors as well as to maternal distress, and these relationships varied with infant age. Overall, VLBW infants displayed fewer responsive, clear interactions, with differences from term infants increasing over time. Maternal distress was related to less cognitive growth fostering for all mothers. Because maternal distress is more prevalent in mothers of VLBW infants postpartum, intervention efforts should focus on assessment of maternal distress and the challenges posed by the interactive behaviors of VLBW infants. PMID:12915795

Singer, Lynn T; Fulton, Sarah; Davillier, Marilyn; Koshy, Danielle; Salvator, Ann; Baley, Jill E

2003-08-01

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The Effects of Marriage and Maternal Education in Reducing Child Poverty. A Report of the Heritage Center for Data Analysis.  

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This paper examines whether marriage is effective in reducing child poverty and notes the comparative effects of marriage and maternal education on combatting child poverty. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicate that marriage plays a powerful role in lifting children out of poverty. While both marriage and maternal education…

Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.

54

Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing world: a simple, cost-effective example  

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Full Text Available Andrew Browning,1,2 Birhanu Menber21Maternity Africa, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Vision Maternity Care, Barhirdar, Ethiopia Objectives: To determine the impact of volunteer obstetricians and midwife teams on obstetric services in a rural hospital in Ethiopia.Methods: The intervention was undertaken in Mota district hospital, a rural hospital in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, which is the only hospital for 1.2 million people. Before the placement of volunteer teams it had a rudimentary basic obstetric service, no blood transfusion service, and no operative delivery. The study prospectively analyzed delivery data before, during, and after the placement of volunteer obstetrician and midwife teams. The volunteers established emergency obstetric care, and trained and supervised local staff over a 3-year period. Measurable outcomes consisted of the number of women delivering, the number of referrals of pregnant women, the number of maternal deaths, and the number of referrals of obstetric fistula patients.Results: With the establishment of the service the number of women attending hospital for delivery increased by 40%. In the hospital maternal mortality decreased from 7.1% to <0.5%, and morbidity, as measured by number of obstetric fistulae, decreased from 1.5% deliveries to 0.5% over the 3-year intervention period. The improvements were sustained after handing the project back to the government.Conclusion: The placement of volunteer teams was an effective method of decreasing maternal mortality and morbidity. Keywords: emergency obstetric care, volunteers, obstetric fistula, emergency obstetric care

Browning A

2015-02-01

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"THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL AGE, GESTATIONAL AGE AND PARITY ON THE SIZE OF THE NEWBORN "  

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A descriptive prospective study was undertaken to determine birth weight, length and head circumference of live births and to examine the effect of maternal age, parity and gestational age on birth sizes of the live births. A total of 459 term singleton maternal– neonate pairs were studied. The neonates had anthropometric measurements determined with in 24hours of life using standard methods. There were 247 (53.8%) males and 212 (46.2%) females. The mean birth weight was 3123.75 ...

Heshmaty, M. R. Mohammady P.; Aslani, M.; Marsoosy, V.; Shajari, H.

2006-01-01

56

Effect of Source and Level of Maternal Vitamin D on Carryover to Newly Hatched Chicks  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the carryover effect of maternal vitamin D level and source on performance and bone development of the progeny. Breeder hens were fed a vitamin D deficient diet for two months to deplete stores. After this period, experimental diets in a factorial arrangement were fed to the hens with five levels of cholecalciferol (0, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 IU/kg and two levels of 25OHD3 (HyD (0 and 68 ?g/kg for a total of 10 treatments. At the end of two months on the experimental diets two sets of eggs were hatched. The progeny obtained were placed in battery brooders to 21 days by maternal diet and received a common diet. The first hatch received a diet with no vitamin D supplement whereas the second hatch received a diet with the same nutrient composition but containing 5500 IU/kg of cholecalciferol. The first set of birds responded to the maternal diet supplementation of vitamin D mostly during the first week post hatch with no clear pattern in later stages. The progeny receiving 5500 IU/kg of vitamin D in the diet responded to the maternal vitamin D supplementation even at 21 days and in a clearer trend. Feed conversion and body weight improved as the cholecalciferol level increased and with the inclusion of HyD in the maternal diet. The response when HyD was added was more noticeable at low levels of cholecalciferol supplementation with no difference at higher levels in the hen’s diet. Bone development of the progeny was improved with the addition of HyD in the maternal diet; this response was not influenced by increasing levels of cholecalciferol in the breeder diet. This study confirms the importance of the maternal vitamin D carryover for an adequate development of the progeny. Certainly, the vitamin D carryover effect did not overcome the effect of supplementing vitamin D directly in the progeny’s diet but it was capable of improving the performance of the progeny even three weeks post-hatch when a high level of cholecalciferol (5500 IU/kg was present in the diet of the progeny. A carryover effect of HyD when added to the maternal diet was observed in this study, thus the feasibility of using the metabolite to supply vitamin D to the developing embryo was confirmed.

F. Yan

2010-01-01

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Effects of early life social stress on endocrinology, maternal behavior, and lactation in rats.  

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Exposure to early life stress is a predictor of mental health disorders, and two common forms of early life stress are social conflict and impaired maternal care, which are predominant features of postpartum mood disorders. Exposure of lactating female rats to a novel male intruder involves robust social conflict and induces deficits in maternal care towards the F1 offspring. This exposure is an early life social stressor for female F1 pups that induces inefficient lactation associated with central changes in oxytocin (OXT), prolactin (PRL), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene expression in adult F1 females. The mothers of the rats in the current study were either allowed to raise their pups without exposure to a social stressor (control), or presented with a novel male intruder for 1h each day on lactation days 2-16 (chronic social stress). The effects of this early life chronic social stress (CSS) exposure on subsequent peripheral endocrinology, maternal behavior, and physiology were assessed. Exposure of female pups to early life CSS resulted in persistent alterations in maternal endocrinology at the end of lactation (attenuated prolactin and elevated corticosterone), depressed maternal care and aggression, increased restlessness and anxiety-related behavior, impaired lactation, and decreased saccharin preference. The endocrine and behavioral data indicate that early life CSS has long-term effects which are similar to changes seen in clinical populations of depressed mothers and provide support for the use of the chronic social stress paradigm as an ethologically relevant rodent model for maternal disorders such as postpartum depression and anxiety. PMID:24005186

Carini, Lindsay M; Nephew, Benjamin C

2013-09-01

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Preventive effects of folic acid supplementation on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.  

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Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24842467

Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

2014-01-01

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Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cord-blood mercury concentration is usually considered the best biomarker in regard to developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity. However, the mercury concentration may be affected by the binding of methylmercury to hemoglobin and perhaps also selenium. As cord-blood mercury analyses appear to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N=514) and the Mothers and Children?s Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses were used to ascertain interrelationships between the exposure biomarkers and the possible impact of hemoglobin as well as selenium. Both methods showed a significant dependence of the cord-blood concentration on hemoglobin, also after adjustment for other exposure biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in maternal and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended.

Kim, Byung-Mi; Choi, Anna L

2014-01-01

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The impact of maternal health improvement on perinatal survival: cost-effective alternatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year, an estimated half million women die from complications related to child birth either during pregnancy, delivery or within 42 days afterwards. When pregnant women have complications, their infants are at greater risk of becoming ill, permanently disabled or dying. For every maternal death, there are at least 20 infant deaths: stillbirths, neonatal or postneonatal deaths. Altogether, an estimated 7 million infants each year die perinatally (stillborn or deaths within the first week of life). Low cost, feasible, and effective intervention strategies include: a) improved family planning and abortion services; b) obstetric care at delivery; and, c) prenatal services. Two hypothetical populations of one million (a low mortality and a high mortality country) are used to illustrate maternal and perinatal program strategies and priorities. In countries with high fertility, major reductions in maternal and infant deaths result both from reductions in the number of pregnancies through family planning and from improved obstetric care. Where fertility is already low, reductions result almost entirely from improved obstetric and prenatal care. The investments required are relatively low, while the potential gains are great. The cost to avert each death in a high mortality population is estimated between $800 and $1,500 or as low as $0.50 per capita per year. The priorities for programs targeting maternal and perinatal health depend on demographic, ecologic and economic factors, and should include the promotion of good health, not merely the avoidance of death. More operational research is required on various aspects of maternal and perinatal health; in particular, on the cost-effectiveness of different service components. PMID:10137136

Walsh, J A; Measham, A R; Feifer, C N; Gertler, P J

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Resolving the effects of maternal and offspring genotype on dyadic outcomes in genome wide complex trait analysis ("M-GCTA").  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) is extended to include environmental effects of the maternal genotype on offspring phenotype ("maternal effects", M-GCTA). The model includes parameters for the direct effects of the offspring genotype, maternal effects and the covariance between direct and maternal effects. Analysis of simulated data, conducted in OpenMx, confirmed that model parameters could be recovered by full information maximum likelihood (FIML) and evaluated the biases that arise in conventional GCTA when indirect genetic effects are ignored. Estimates derived from FIML in OpenMx showed very close agreement to those obtained by restricted maximum likelihood using the published algorithm for GCTA. The method was also applied to illustrative perinatal phenotypes from ~4,000 mother-offspring pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The relative merits of extended GCTA in contrast to quantitative genetic approaches based on analyzing the phenotypic covariance structure of kinships are considered. PMID:25060210

Eaves, Lindon J; Pourcain, Beate St; Smith, George Davey; York, Timothy P; Evans, David M

2014-09-01

62

Effects of maternal age on oocyte developmental competence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The widespread use of a variety of assisted reproductive technologies has removed many of the constraints that previously restricted mammalian reproduction to the period between onset of puberty and reproductive senescence. In vitro embryo production systems now allow oocytes from very young animals to undergo fertilization and form embryos capable of development to normal offspring, albeit at somewhat reduced efficiencies compared to oocytes from adult females. They also can overcome infertility associated with advanced age of animals and women. This review examines oocyte developmental competence as the limiting factor in applications of assisted reproductive technologies for both juvenile and aged females. Age of oocyte donor is a significant factor influencing developmental competence of the oocyte. Age-related abnormalities of oocytes include a) meiotic incompetence or inability to complete meiotic maturation resulting in oocytes incapable of fertilization; b) errors in meiosis that can be compatible with fertilization but lead to genetic abnormalities that compromise embryo viability; and c) cytoplasmic deficiencies that are expressed at several stages of development before or after fertilization. In general, oocytes from juvenile donors and the embryos derived therefrom appear less robust and may be less tolerant to suboptimal handling and in vitro culture conditions than are adult oocytes. Research to identify specific cytoplasmic deficiencies of juvenile oocytes may enable modifications of culture conditions to correct such deficiencies and thus enhance developmental competence. Use of oocytes from aged donors for assisted reproduction can have a variety of applications such as extending the reproductive life of individual old females whose offspring still have high commercial value, and conservation of genetic resources such as rare breeds of livestock and endangered species. In general, female fertility decreases with advancing age. Studies of women in oocyte donation programs have established reduced oocyte competence as the major cause of declining fertility with age, although inadequate endometrial function can also be a contributing factor. Most research has emphasized the importance of chromosomal abnormalities because of the well established increase in aneuploidy with increasing maternal age but little is known about the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Research aimed at identifying the specific developmental deficiencies of oocytes from juvenile donors and abnormalities of oocytes from aged females will assist in overcoming present bottlenecks that limit the efficiency of assisted reproduction technologies. Such research will also be crucial to the development of new oocyte-based technologies for overcoming infertility and possibly subverting chromosomal abnormalities in women approaching menopause. PMID:11327686

Armstrong, D T

2001-04-01

63

Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).  

Science.gov (United States)

Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved. PMID:23652562

Zas, R; Cendán, C; Sampedro, L

2013-09-01

64

Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced bioavailability of trace elements in aged CCW. Most importantly, maternal exposure to contaminants coupled with larval exposure to fresh CCW interacted to reduce survival to metamorphosis by 85% compared to reference conditions. Our study yields further evidence that disposal of CCW in aquatic basins potentially creates ecological traps for some amphibian populations. - Highlights: ? The interaction of maternal exposure and larval exposure to CCW reduced survival. ? Previous maternal exposure to CCW had a latent effect on survival to metamorphosis. ? Larval southern toads exposed to CCW experienced prolonged larval periods. ? Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced growth rates. ? Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced mass at metamorphosis. - Maternal and environmephosis. - Maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes interact to decrease survival in larval amphibians.

65

The effects of maternal irradiation during adulthood on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term genetic effects of maternal irradiation remain poorly understood. To establish the effects of radiation exposure on mutation induction in the germline of directly exposed females and the possibility of transgenerational effects in their non-exposed offspring, adult female BALB/c and CBA/Ca mice were given 1 Gy of acute X-rays and mated with control males. The frequency of mutation at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci in the germline of directly exposed females did not differ from that of controls. Using a single-molecule PCR approach, ESTR mutation frequency was also established for both germline and somatic tissues in the first-generation offspring of irradiated parents. While the frequency of ESTR mutation in the offspring of irradiated males was significantly elevated, maternal irradiation did not affect stability in their F1 offspring. Considering these data and the results of our previous study, we propose that, in sharp contrast to paternal exposure to ionising radiation, the transgenerational effects of maternal high-dose acute irradiation are likely to be negligible.

66

The effects of maternal irradiation during adulthood on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term genetic effects of maternal irradiation remain poorly understood. To establish the effects of radiation exposure on mutation induction in the germline of directly exposed females and the possibility of transgenerational effects in their non-exposed offspring, adult female BALB/c and CBA/Ca mice were given 1 Gy of acute X-rays and mated with control males. The frequency of mutation at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci in the germline of directly exposed females did not differ from that of controls. Using a single-molecule PCR approach, ESTR mutation frequency was also established for both germline and somatic tissues in the first-generation offspring of irradiated parents. While the frequency of ESTR mutation in the offspring of irradiated males was significantly elevated, maternal irradiation did not affect stability in their F{sub 1} offspring. Considering these data and the results of our previous study, we propose that, in sharp contrast to paternal exposure to ionising radiation, the transgenerational effects of maternal high-dose acute irradiation are likely to be negligible.

Abouzeid Ali, Hamdy E. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Radiobiological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Barber, Ruth C. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2012-04-01

67

The Effect of Intermittent Antenatal Iron Supplementation on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Rural Viet Nam: A Cluster Randomised Trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Beverley-Anne Biggs and colleagues conduct a community-based cluster randomized trial in rural Viet Nam to compare the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation taken daily or twice weekly on maternal and infant outcomes.

Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T.; Simpson, Julie A.; Casey, Gerard J.; Khuong, Nguyen C.; Thoang, Dang D.; Thuy, Tran T.; Pasricha, Sant-rayn; Tran, Thach D.; Tuan, Tran; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-ann

2013-01-01

68

Effect of Skin to Skin Contact on Maternal State Anxiety in a Cesarean Section Ward  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: This study aimed at investigating the effect of skin to skin contact (SSC) on maternal state anxiety (MSA) in cesarean section unit in Akbarabadi Hospital in Tehran. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 60 Iranian mothers with at least one record of cesarean section delivery were assigned to two intervention (SSC) and control groups. In the morning shift and two hours after the operation, as a routine postoperative care, pain-killers were given to all mothers. Then the mot...

Hamid Haghani; Naeime Sayed Fatemi; Fatemeh Keshavarz; Maryam Keshavarz

2011-01-01

69

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child outcomes: Real or spurious effect?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is a major public health concern with clearly established consequences to both mother and newborn (e.g., low birth weight, altered cardiorespiratory responses). MSDP has also been associated with higher rates of a variety of poor cognitive and behavioral outcomes in children, including ADHD, conduct disorder, impaired learning and memory, and cognitive dysfunction. However, the evidence suggesting causal effects of MSDP for these outcomes is muddied in...

Knopik, Valerie S.

2009-01-01

70

GENES AS INSTRUMENTS FOR STUDYING RISK BEHAVIOR EFFECTS: AN APPLICATION TO MATERNAL SMOKING AND OROFACIAL CLEFTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study uses instrumental variable (IV) models with genetic instruments to assess the effects of maternal smoking on the child’s risk of orofacial clefts (OFC), a common birth defect. The study uses genotypic variants in neurotransmitter and detoxification genes relateded to smoking as instruments for cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. Conditional maximum likelihood and two-stage IV probit models are used to estimate the IV model. The data are from a population-level sample o...

Wehby, George; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Moreno, Lina; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T.

2011-01-01

71

CNS EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL Pb EXPOSURE ARE ENHANCED BY COMBINED MATERNAL AND OFFSPRING STRESS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lead (Pb) exposure and elevated stress are co-occurring risk factors. Both impact brain mesolimbic dopamine/glutamate systems involved in cognitive functions. We previously found that maternal stress can potentiate Pb-related adverse effects in offspring at blood Pb levels averaging approximately 40 ug/dl. The current study of combined Pb exposure and stress sought to extend those results to lower levels of Pb exposure, and to examine relationships among consequences in offspring for Fixed In...

Virgolini, M. B.; Rossi-george, A.; Lisek, R.; Weston, D. D.; Thiruchelvam, M.; Cory-slechta, D. A.

2008-01-01

72

Maternal effects mechanism of population cycling: a formidable competitor to the traditional predator–prey view  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the language of mathematics, one needs minimally two interacting variables (two dimensions) to describe repeatable periodic behaviour, and in the language of density dependence, one needs delayed, not immediate, density dependence to produce cyclicity. Neither language specifies the causal mechanism. There are two major potential mechanisms: exogenous mechanisms involving species interactions as in predator–prey or host–parasite, and endogenous mechanisms such as maternal effects where...

Inchausti, Pablo; Ginzburg, Lev R.

2009-01-01

73

Human rights and maternal health: exploring the effectiveness of the Alyne decision.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the effectiveness of the decision of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in the case of Alyne da Silva Pimentel Teixeira (deceased) v. Brazil, concerning a poor, Afro-Brazilian woman. This is the first decision of an international human rights treaty body to hold a state accountable for its failure to prevent an avoidable death in childbirth. Assessing the future effectiveness of this decision might be undertaken concretely by determining the degree of Brazil's actual compliance with the Committee's recommendations, and how this decision influences pending domestic litigation arising from the maternal death. Alternative approaches include: determining whether, over time, the decision leads to the elimination of discrimination against women of poor, minority racial status in the health sector, and if it narrows the wide gap between rates of maternal mortality of poor, Afro-Brazilian women and the country's general female population. Determining the effectiveness of this decision will guide whether to pursue a more general strategy of judicializing maternal mortality. PMID:23581660

Cook, Rebecca J

2013-01-01

74

Estimates of direct, maternal and grandmaternal genetic effects for growth traits in Gobra cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram obtidas as estimativas dos pesos ao nascimento (N = 3909), ao desmame (N = 3425), com 1 ano de idade (N = 2764) e final (N = 2144) a partir dos registros de gado Gobra coletados no Centro de Pesquisas em Zootecnia de Dahra, Senegal. Três modelos animais foram adaptados para obter estimativas p [...] or REML usando uma abordagem de informação média (AI). O modelo 1 considerou os efeitos ambientais aleatórios direto, genético maternal e maternal permanente. No modelo 2, um efeito geral relativo às avós foi adicionado aos efeitos aleatórios considerados no modelo 1, e no modelo 3 o efeito geral relativo às avós foi dividido em efeitos ambientais genético e permanente. Todos os modelos admitiram covariâncias entre os efeitos genéticos. A inclusão dos efeitos relativos às avós nos modelos 2 e 3 não alterou as estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos comparados com o modelo 1. As variâncias atribuíveis aos efeitos relativos às avós tornaram-se negativas e foram posicionadas próximas a zero, exceto para o peso com 1 ano, para o qual a herdabilidade relativa à avo foi 0,03 ± 0,03. As estimativas para as herdabilidades direta e maternal foram, respectivamente, 0,08 ± 0,03 e 0,03 ± 0,02 para peso ao nascimento, 0,20 ± 0,05 e 0,21 ± 0,05 para peso ao desmame, 0,26 ± 0,07 e 0,16 ± 0,07 para peso com 1 ano e 0,14 ± 0,06 e 0,16 ± 0,06 para o peso final. As estimativas da correlação genética entre os efeitos direto e maternal para os pesos ao nascimento, ao desmame, com 1 ano e final foram -0,17 ± 0,40, -0,58 ± 0,32, -0,52 ± 0,34 e -0,34 ± 0,37, respectivamente. Para o peso com 1 ano com herdabilidade relativa à avó estimada como sendo apenas 0,03, o modelo 3 deu estimativas da correlação genética entre os efeitos direto e relativo à avó e entre os efeitos maternal e relativo à avó de 0,28 ± 0,48 e -0,33 ± 0,67, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade direta e maternal não se alteraram quando os efeitos relativos à avó não foram incluídos no modelo. Abstract in english Estimates of genetic parameters for birth (N = 3909), weaning (N = 3425), yearling (N = 2764) and final (N = 2144) weights were obtained from the records of Gobra cattle collected at the Centre de Recherches Zootechniques de Dahra, Senegal. Three animal models were fitted to obtain estimates by REML [...] using an average information (AI) approach. Model 1 considered random direct, maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. In model 2, a general grandmaternal effect was added to the random effects considered in model 1, and in model 3, the general grandmaternal effect was divided into grandmaternal genetic and grandmaternal permanent environmental effects. All models allowed covariances among genetic effects. The inclusion of grandmaternal effects in models 2 and 3 did not change the estimates of the genetic parameters compared to model 1. Variances attributable to grandmaternal effects became negative and were set close to zero, except for yearling weight for which grandmaternal heritability was 0.03 ± 0.03. The estimates for direct and maternal heritabilities were, respectively, 0.08 ± 0.03 and 0.03 ± 0.02 for birth, 0.20 ± 0.05 and 0.21 ± 0.05 for weaning, 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.16 ± 0.07 for yearling and 0.14 ± 0.06 and 0.16 ± 0.06 for final weights. The estimates of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for birth, weaning, yearling and final weights were -0.17 ± 0.40, -0.58 ± 0.32, -0.52 ± 0.34 and -0.34 ± 0.37, respectively. For yearling weight with grandmaternal heritability estimated to be only 0.03, model 3 gave estimates of the genetic correlation between direct and grandmaternal effects and between maternal and grandmaternal effects of 0.28 ± 0.48 and -0.33 ± 0.67, respectively. Estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities were unchanged when grandmaternal effects were not included in the model.

M., Diop; J., Dodenhoff; L.D., Van Vleck.

1999-09-01

75

Estimates of direct, maternal and grandmaternal genetic effects for growth traits in Gobra cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimates of genetic parameters for birth (N = 3909, weaning (N = 3425, yearling (N = 2764 and final (N = 2144 weights were obtained from the records of Gobra cattle collected at the Centre de Recherches Zootechniques de Dahra, Senegal. Three animal models were fitted to obtain estimates by REML using an average information (AI approach. Model 1 considered random direct, maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. In model 2, a general grandmaternal effect was added to the random effects considered in model 1, and in model 3, the general grandmaternal effect was divided into grandmaternal genetic and grandmaternal permanent environmental effects. All models allowed covariances among genetic effects. The inclusion of grandmaternal effects in models 2 and 3 did not change the estimates of the genetic parameters compared to model 1. Variances attributable to grandmaternal effects became negative and were set close to zero, except for yearling weight for which grandmaternal heritability was 0.03 ± 0.03. The estimates for direct and maternal heritabilities were, respectively, 0.08 ± 0.03 and 0.03 ± 0.02 for birth, 0.20 ± 0.05 and 0.21 ± 0.05 for weaning, 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.16 ± 0.07 for yearling and 0.14 ± 0.06 and 0.16 ± 0.06 for final weights. The estimates of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for birth, weaning, yearling and final weights were -0.17 ± 0.40, -0.58 ± 0.32, -0.52 ± 0.34 and -0.34 ± 0.37, respectively. For yearling weight with grandmaternal heritability estimated to be only 0.03, model 3 gave estimates of the genetic correlation between direct and grandmaternal effects and between maternal and grandmaternal effects of 0.28 ± 0.48 and -0.33 ± 0.67, respectively. Estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities were unchanged when grandmaternal effects were not included in the model.Foram obtidas as estimativas dos pesos ao nascimento (N = 3909, ao desmame (N = 3425, com 1 ano de idade (N = 2764 e final (N = 2144 a partir dos registros de gado Gobra coletados no Centro de Pesquisas em Zootecnia de Dahra, Senegal. Três modelos animais foram adaptados para obter estimativas por REML usando uma abordagem de informação média (AI. O modelo 1 considerou os efeitos ambientais aleatórios direto, genético maternal e maternal permanente. No modelo 2, um efeito geral relativo às avós foi adicionado aos efeitos aleatórios considerados no modelo 1, e no modelo 3 o efeito geral relativo às avós foi dividido em efeitos ambientais genético e permanente. Todos os modelos admitiram covariâncias entre os efeitos genéticos. A inclusão dos efeitos relativos às avós nos modelos 2 e 3 não alterou as estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos comparados com o modelo 1. As variâncias atribuíveis aos efeitos relativos às avós tornaram-se negativas e foram posicionadas próximas a zero, exceto para o peso com 1 ano, para o qual a herdabilidade relativa à avo foi 0,03 ± 0,03. As estimativas para as herdabilidades direta e maternal foram, respectivamente, 0,08 ± 0,03 e 0,03 ± 0,02 para peso ao nascimento, 0,20 ± 0,05 e 0,21 ± 0,05 para peso ao desmame, 0,26 ± 0,07 e 0,16 ± 0,07 para peso com 1 ano e 0,14 ± 0,06 e 0,16 ± 0,06 para o peso final. As estimativas da correlação genética entre os efeitos direto e maternal para os pesos ao nascimento, ao desmame, com 1 ano e final foram -0,17 ± 0,40, -0,58 ± 0,32, -0,52 ± 0,34 e -0,34 ± 0,37, respectivamente. Para o peso com 1 ano com herdabilidade relativa à avó estimada como sendo apenas 0,03, o modelo 3 deu estimativas da correlação genética entre os efeitos direto e relativo à avó e entre os efeitos maternal e relativo à avó de 0,28 ± 0,48 e -0,33 ± 0,67, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade direta e maternal não se alteraram quando os efeitos relativos à avó não foram incluídos no modelo.

M. Diop

1999-09-01

76

The effects of maternal anxiety prior to amniocentesis on uterine and fetal umbilical blood flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the mothers’ anxiety levels and determine its effect on fetomaternal circulation in pregnant women undergoing genetic amniocentesis.Material and Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted regarding the assessment of maternal anxiety levels by means of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in 60 pregnant women having genetic amniocentesis and 60 control cases having their early second trimester ultrasonographic screening, 30 minutes before and immediately after the procedure. Additionally, maternal-fetal hemodynamic changes and Doppler ultrasonographic measurements of fetoplacental circulation were recorded in both groups. Results: The maternal anxiety state scores were found to be significantly higher in the amniocentesis group (p<0.001. Maternal heart rate was significantly higher in the amniocentesis group (p<0.05, while the fetal heart rate was significantly lower (p<0.05 compared to the control group. Uterine artery Doppler measurements were comparable in the two groups but umbilical artery resistance index (p<0.05 and S/D ratio (p<0.05 were significantly higher in the amniocentesis group. Regression analysis revealed that the time which elapsed from offering amniocentesis until it was performed is the main predictor of fetal umbilical artery S/D ratio measured prior to amniocentesis in the amniocentesis group (?=0.66, p<0.001 and maternal anxiety state scores (?=0.04, p=0.003 are the main predictors of fetal umbilical artery S/D ratio measured prior to amniocentesis or ultrasonography in the two groups. The education of the patient in years decreased (?=-0.13, p=0.04, while the amniocentesis procedure (?=1.44, p=0.02 and the time which elapsed in days from offering amniocentesis or ultrasonography up to its performance (?=0.41, p=0.04 increased the S/D ratio measured after the procedures.Conclusion: Our study provides the evidence that maternal anxiety and its duration has effects on the fetal blood flow. Early booking and patient support may help to overcome undesired consequences of an invasive prenatal procedure.

Eray Çal??kan

2009-09-01

77

Ethnic density effects on maternal and infant health in the Millennium Cohort Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have suggested that members of ethnic minority groups might be healthier when they live in areas with a high concentration of people from their own ethnic group - in spite of higher levels of material deprivation typically found within such areas. We investigated the effects of area-level same-ethnic density on maternal and infant health, independent of area deprivation and individual socioeconomic status, in five ethnic minority groups. The study was a cross-sectional analysis within the UK Millennium Cohort Study and included mothers in five ethnic minority groups (Black African n=367, Bangladeshi n=369, Black Caribbean n=252, Indian n=462 and Pakistani n=868) and their 9-month-old infants. Outcome measures included: low birth weight, preterm delivery, maternal depression, self-rated health and limiting long-standing illness. Compared to those who live in areas with less than 5% of people from the same-ethnic minority population, Indian and Pakistani mothers were significantly less likely to report ever being depressed in areas with high same-ethnic density. There was a protective effect of ethnic density for limiting long-term illness among Bangladeshi mothers at 5-30% density and Pakistani mothers at all higher densities. Ethnic density was unrelated to infant outcomes and maternal self-rated health, and unrelated to any outcomes in Black African and Black Caribbean mothers and infants, possibly because no families in these groups lived at higher levels of same-ethnic density. Results were similar whether we examined smaller or larger residential areas. We conclude that, among ethnic minority mothers and infants in England, the relationship of ethnic density to health varies by ethnicity and outcome. For some measures of maternal health, in some ethnic groups, the psychosocial advantages of shared culture, social networks and social capital may override the adverse effects of material deprivation. PMID:19765872

Pickett, Kate E; Shaw, Richard J; Atkin, Karl; Kiernan, Kathleen E; Wilkinson, Richard G

2009-11-01

78

Effect of maternal birthplace on gestational diabetes prevalence in Colorado Hispanics.  

Science.gov (United States)

(1) Describe gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence time trends in USborn (USWH) and Mexico-born (MWH), white Hispanic Colorado women and (2) Determine effect of maternal birthplace on GDM prevalence. Retrospective population-based study of 1995-2004 Colorado birth certificate data for live, singleton births to white, Hispanic mothers estimated prevalence, trends, and association of GDM and maternal birthplace. Univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. GDM prevalence in 154,957 births increased in both USWH (1.77-2.53%, P white, Hispanic Colorado women. Mexico-born immigrant women may have increased risk for GDM compared with their USborn counterparts. Lower education attainment may be determinant of disease risk. PMID:20640918

Braun, Patricia A; Huebschmann, Amy G; Kim, Christina A; Lezotte, Dennis C; Shupe, Alyson; Dabelea, Dana

2011-06-01

79

Placental serotonin: implications for the developmental effects of SSRIs and maternal depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addition to its role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders, increasing evidence points to serotonin (5-HT as a crucial molecule for the modulation of neurodevelopmental processes. Recent evidence indicates that the placenta is involved in the synthesis of 5-HT from maternally derived tryptophan (TRP. This gives rise to the possibility that genetic and environmental perturbations directly affecting placental TRP metabolism may lead to abnormal brain circuit wiring in the developing embryo, and therefore contribute to the developmental origin of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we discuss how perturbations of the placental TRP metabolic pathway may lead to abnormal brain development and function throughout life. Of particular interest is prenatal exposure to maternal depression and antidepressants, both known to alter fetal development. We review existing evidence on how antidepressants can alter placental physiology in its key function of maintaining fetal homeostasis and have long-term effects on fetal forebrain development.

JuanCVelasquez

2013-04-01

80

Effect of maternal education on the rate of childhood handicap.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Female education plays a major role in child health. The results of this study suggest investment in female education, which would have substantial positive effects in reducing incidence of childhood handicap in Jeddah.

S. Shawky

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Antipsychotic drugs in pregnancy: a review of their maternal and fetal effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the risks of antipsychotic medication use in pregnancy is becoming an important clinical concern given the evidence of their increasing rate of prescription in the general population for a range of disorders. Despite antipsychotics being amongst the earliest of psychotropic medications to be introduced, the evidence for their effects secondary to pregnancy exposure is extremely limited. While this review does not identify clear evidence for a risk of malformation, there is evidence for risks associated with pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Studies identified found risks that included prematurity, low and high birth weight, and gestational diabetes. There have also been studies that suggest neonatal withdrawal and abnormal muscles movements. The longer term neurodevelopmental outcomes for children exposed in utero remain unclear with only four studies identified: two of first generation antipsychotics and two of second generation antipsychotics. When considering the risk of these medications in pregnancy, the risk of untreated maternal illness (particularly schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) on both maternal and child outcomes is relevant. Future research needs to focus on prospective, longitudinal studies with adequate measures of key confounding variables including maternal mental illness, other exposures (such as smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use) and adequate length of follow up where accurate child developmental measures are obtained. PMID:25083265

Galbally, Megan; Snellen, Martien; Power, Josephine

2014-04-01

82

Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing world: a simple, cost-effective example  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To determine the impact of volunteer obstetricians and midwife teams on obstetric services in a rural hospital in Ethiopia. Methods The intervention was undertaken in Mota district hospital, a rural hospital in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, which is the only hospital for 1.2 million people. Before the placement of volunteer teams it had a rudimentary basic obstetric service, no blood transfusion service, and no operative delivery. The study prospectively analyzed delivery data before, during, and after the placement of volunteer obstetrician and midwife teams. The volunteers established emergency obstetric care, and trained and supervised local staff over a 3-year period. Measurable outcomes consisted of the number of women delivering, the number of referrals of pregnant women, the number of maternal deaths, and the number of referrals of obstetric fistula patients. Results With the establishment of the service the number of women attending hospital for delivery increased by 40%. In the hospital maternal mortality decreased from 7.1% to <0.5%, and morbidity, as measured by number of obstetric fistulae, decreased from 1.5% deliveries to 0.5% over the 3-year intervention period. The improvements were sustained after handing the project back to the government. Conclusion The placement of volunteer teams was an effective method of decreasing maternal mortality and morbidity.

Browning, Andrew; Menber, Birhanu

2015-01-01

83

Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, pre- and post-term delivery, induction of labor, macrosomia, increased rate of caesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal Body Mass Index (BMI on pregnancy outcomes. Methods 1000 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. In order to explore the relationship between maternal first trimester Body Mass Index and pregnancy outcomes, participants were categorized into five groups based on their first trimester Body Mass Index. The data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square tests in SPSS 18. Differences were considered significant if p Results Women with an above-normal Body Mass Index had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia, induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor, and macrosomia than women with a normal Body Mass Index (controls. There was no significant difference in the incidence of post-term delivery between the control group and other groups. Conclusion Increased BMI increases the incidence of induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor and macrosomia. The BMI of women in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.

Yazdani Shahla

2012-01-01

84

Effectiveness of maternal referral system in a rural setting: a case study from Rufiji district, Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional referral system is important in backing-up antenatal, labour and delivery, and postnatal services in the primary level of care facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the maternal referral system through determining proportion of women reaching the hospitals after referral advice, appropriateness of the referral indications, reasons for non-compliance and to find out if compliance to referrals makes a difference in the perinatal outcome. Methods A follow-up study was conducted in Rufiji rural district in Tanzania. A total of 1538 women referred from 18 primary level of care facilities during a 13 months period were registered and then identified at hospitals. Those not reaching the hospitals were traced and interviewed. Results Out of 1538 women referred 70% were referred for demographic risks, 12% for obstetric historical risks, 12% for prenatal complications and 5.5% for natal and immediate postnatal complications. Five or more pregnancies as well as age Conclusion Majority of the maternal referrals were due to demographic risks, where few women complied. To improve compliance to maternal referrals there is need to review the referral indications and strengthen counseling on birth preparedness and complication readiness.

Lindmark Gunilla

2010-12-01

85

Effect of psychosocial stress on maternal complications during pregnancy: A cohort study  

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Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effect of psychosocial stress on maternal complications during pregnancyMethods: A population based prospective cohort study was carried out in Sri Lanka from May 2001 to April 2002. Pregnant women were recruited on or before 16 weeks of gestation and followed up until delivery. The sample size was 774. The relevant exposure data were collected on average during the 12th and 28th week of gestation. Psychosocial stress was assessed using the Modified Life Events Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire 30 (GHQ 30. Maternal complications were defined as the presence of pregnancy induced hypertension or gestational diabetes or ante partum hemorrhage. Multiple logistic regression was applied and the results were expressed as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI.Results: On multiple logistic regression analysis, experience of ³2 life events during the second trimester [OR 3.0, 95%CI: 1.19, 7.64], GHQ score >5 during the second trimester [OR 3.24, 95%CI: 1.32, 7.93], body mass index >26.0 kg/m2 [OR 1.25, 95%CI: 1.31, 9.27], pre pregnancy weight >51 kg [OR 1.23, 95%CI: 1.25, 9.33] and educational level up to grade 5 [OR 1.93, 95%CI: 2.0, 23.41] were risk factors for maternal complications during pregnancy.Conclusions: Psychosocial stress during the second trimester, BMI >26 kg/m2, pre pregnancy weight >51kg and low educational level were risk factors for maternal complications during pregnancy.

Rohini de A Seneviratne

2010-12-01

86

Effects of Maternal Nicotine Exposure on Expression of Laminin Alpha 5 in Lung Tissue of Newborn  

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Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been clearly demonstrated to be associated with increased health problems in infants and children. Nicotine is the chemical substance with high level of toxicity. It crosses through the placenta and accumulates in the developing organs of fetus. Previous investigation indicated that maternal nicotine exposures induce decreased fibronectin expression in lung parenchyma. In this study, the effect of maternal nicotine exposure on laminin expression of the newborn mice lungs has been evaluated. Female pregnant Balb/C mice were divided randomly in to four groups as fallow: Experimental group1 (Exp D1; was received 3 mg kg-1 nicotine intra peritoneal injection (IP from gestational day 7 (GD7 to the last day of pregnancy, Experimental group 2 (Exp D14; was received 3 mg kg-1 nicotine from GD7 to postnatal day 14, Groups 3 and 4; as sham control groups (Sha-Con were received the same volume (3 mg kg-1 of normal saline parallel to experimental groups. At the end of exposure times, all of newborns were anesthetized; their lungs were removed and prepared for immunohistochemical method and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The finding indicated that laminin alpha 5 (Lama5 mRNA expressions in the lung of newborn in the nicotine treated Exp D1 decreased by 0.63 fold but increased in Exp D14 by 1.57 fold comparing to Sh-Con groups. Lama5 immunoreactivity was not similar in different parts of the lungs including alveoli and bronchiole, having a significant increase in the experimental groups in contrast to the Sh-Con groups. However, increase in immunoreactivity observed more in Exp D14. Immunoreactivity intensity in small vessels of all experimental groups was not significantly different. These data also indicate that maternal nicotine exposure may induce abnormal laminin expression which may cause defects in lung function during life time.

Mojtaba Sankian

2012-01-01

87

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival  

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Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 Ma...

Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

2014-01-01

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Maternal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Term Birth Weight: A Multi-Country Evaluation of Effect and Heterogeneity  

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Background: A growing body of evidence has associated maternal exposure to air pollution with adverse effects on fetal growth; however, the existing literature is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight and low birth weight (LBW) across 14 centers from 9 countries, and to explore the influence of site characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in this associ...

Dadvand, Payam; Parker, Jennifer; Bell, Michelle L.; Bonzini, Matteo; Brauer, Michael; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana V.; Gouveia, Nelson; Ha, Eun-hee; Leem, Jong Han; Den Hooven, Edith H.; Jalaludin, Bin; Jesdale, Bill M.; Lepeule, Johanna

2013-01-01

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The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil  

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Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilitie...

Emond Alan; Pollock Jon; Costa Nilma da; Maranhão Técia; Macedo Albanita

2002-01-01

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Effects of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Maternal Antibodies on Experimental Infection of Piglets with PCV2  

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To determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) maternal antibodies on and response to experimental PCV2 infection, 24 piglets were divided into four groups on the basis of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers of PCV2 maternal antibodies: group A (n = 6; sample/positive [S/P] ratio, 0.2 to 0.5). Piglets in groups A, B, and C were inoculated with PCV2 at day 0 and challenged with PCV2...

Mckeown, N. E.; Opriessnig, T.; Thomas, P.; Guenette, D. K.; Elvinger, F.; Fenaux, M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

2005-01-01

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The effect of maternal healthcare on the probability of child survival in Azerbaijan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assesses the effects of maternal healthcare on child survival by using nonrandomized data from a cross-sectional survey in Azerbaijan. Using 2SLS and simultaneous equation bivariate probit models, we estimate the effects of delivering in healthcare facility on probability of child survival taking into account self-selection into the treatment. For women who delivered at healthcare facilities, the probability of child survival increases by approximately 18%. Furthermore, if every woman had the opportunity to deliver in healthcare facility, then the probability of child survival in Azerbaijan as a whole would have increased by approximately 16%. PMID:25110673

Habibov, Nazim; Fan, Lida

2014-01-01

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The Effect of Maternal Healthcare on the Probability of Child Survival in Azerbaijan  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assesses the effects of maternal healthcare on child survival by using nonrandomized data from a cross-sectional survey in Azerbaijan. Using 2SLS and simultaneous equation bivariate probit models, we estimate the effects of delivering in healthcare facility on probability of child survival taking into account self-selection into the treatment. For women who delivered at healthcare facilities, the probability of child survival increases by approximately 18%. Furthermore, if every woman had the opportunity to deliver in healthcare facility, then the probability of child survival in Azerbaijan as a whole would have increased by approximately 16%. PMID:25110673

Fan, Lida

2014-01-01

93

Effect of maternal phenobarbital consumption on muscle development in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of prenatal exposure to phenobarbital on muscle development was determined in 4 muscles (biceps brachii, triceps brachii, soleus and cranial tibial) of 34 mice (16 males, 18 females) at 12 weeks of age. The control group received unadulterated food ad libitum throughout the period of study. The phenobarbital-exposed group received 3 g of phenobarbital per kilogram of food from gestation day 7 to 18 as the only source of food. Outside this period they received unadulterated food and water ad libitum. Each mouse was killed at 12 weeks of age. The muscle mass of control mice was significantly larger than that of the phenobarbital-exposed group in both sexes. The smaller muscle mass of the phenobarbital-exposed group as observed from the analysis of the soleus muscle was due to a smaller number of muscle fibres being present than in the control group, since the muscle fibre sizes were similar in both groups. This indicated that prenatal administration of phenobarbital inhibits normal hyperplasia of muscle fibres. PMID:8273443

Ihemelandu, E C

1993-01-01

94

Effect of cocaine on periadolescent rats with or without early maternal separation  

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Full Text Available Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and weight loss were investigated in periadolescent Wistar rats kept with their mothers or subjected to repeated maternal separation. Litters allocated to the separation procedure were placed in a temperature-controlled (33ºC chamber for 3 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P20. Non-handled rats were left undisturbed until weaning. Treatments were started on P30-31 and the test was performed on P36-37. Animals received injections of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, sc twice daily for 5 days. On day 6 all animals received saline. On day 7 animals were challenged with 10 mg/kg cocaine and their locomotion was evaluated in activity cages. A third group received saline throughout the 7-day period. Body weights were recorded on P30-31 and P36-37. Two-way ANOVA on body weights showed a main effect of treatment group (F(1,35 = 10.446, P = 0.003; N = 10-12. Non-handled rats treated with cocaine for 5 days gained significantly less weight, while no significant effect was observed in maternally separated rats. Two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of drug treatment on locomotor activity (F(2,32 = 15.209, P<0.001; N = 6-8, but not on rearing condition (F(1,32<0.001, P = 0.998. Animals pretreated with cocaine showed a clear behavioral sensitization relative to the saline group. No difference in the magnitude of sensitization was found between separated and non-handled animals. Only the effect of cocaine on weight gain was significantly affected by repeated episodes of early maternal separation during the pre-weaning period.

Planeta C.S.

2002-01-01

95

Maternal effects, flight versus fecundity trade-offs, and offspring immune defence in the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal condition can generate resource-related maternal effects through differential egg provisioning, and can greatly affect offspring performance. In the present study, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L. was used to investigate whether (after controlling for egg size maternal age, and increased flight during the oviposition period, resulted in changes in egg provisioning and whether this contributed to variation in offspring performance, i early in development (egg stage and early post-hatching development, and ii later in larval development after being exposed to the model viral pathogen system; the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV. Results Age-related changes in maternal egg provisioning were observed to influence egg stage development only. Flight-induced changes in maternal egg provisioning had direct consequences for offspring growth and survival across each life stage from egg to adulthood; offspring from forced flight mothers had lower larval masses and longer development times. Offspring with lower larval masses also had reduced survival after exposure to the viral pathogen. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that a change in maternal provisioning as a result of increased flight during the oviposition period has the potential to exert non-genetic cross-generational fitness effects in P. aegeria. This could have important consequences for population dynamics, particularly in fragmented anthropogenic landscapes.

Hails Rosemary S

2010-11-01

96

Effects of maternal stress on egg characteristics in a cooperatively breeding fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated stress experienced by a mother can compromise both her own reproductive success and that of her offspring. In this study, we investigated whether chronically stressed mothers experienced such effects in cooperatively breeding species, in which helpers at the nest potentially compound the negative effects of maternal stress. Using Neolamprologus pulcher, a group-living cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, we observed the effects of experimentally increased stress on female reproductive success (measured as inter-spawn interval, and number of eggs) as well as egg characteristics including egg size and cortisol concentrations. Stress levels were manipulated by repeated exposure to the acute stresses of chasing and netting. Stressed females had longer inter-spawn intervals and laid fewer, smaller eggs. Although no significant differences in egg cortisol concentrations were detected between control and stressed females, egg cortisol concentration fell between spawns in control but not in stressed fish. No effect of helper number was detected for any parameter examined, except there appeared to be less change in egg cortisol content in groups with helpers present. Our results suggest that stress imposes fitness costs on breeding females, and social regulation of a dominance hierarchy does not appear to exacerbate or alleviate the negative effects of maternal stress. PMID:20728559

Mileva, Viktoria R; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Balshine, Sigal

2011-01-01

97

A life-history evaluation of the impact of maternal effects on recruitment and fisheries reference points  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fishing causes dramatic changes in the age and size structure of fish stocks. In particular, the targeting of the largest and oldest individuals in a stock changes the age and size distribution of that stock. A large female produces a higher quantity of eggs than a young female because of its larger size, but recent laboratory evidence further indicates that large females also produce eggs of higher quality, a phenomenon known as maternal effects. However, most traditional management models assume that all female fish contribute equally per unit biomass to future recruitment. Here we investigate whether this assumption is valid by calculating the impact of maternal effects both before and after accounting for density-dependent effects. We find that the contribution of large individuals to reproduction is much more pronounced for unfished than for fished stocks. Fisheries reference points are largely unaffected by maternal effects. Our results indicate that the incorporation of maternal effects into impact assessments of fisheries is not expected to change advice substantially. Important exceptions are stocks whose demography is very vulnerable to fishing (and which therefore have low fishing reference points) for which maternal effects are relevant and necessary to consider.

Calduch-Verdiell, Núria; MacKenzie, Brian R.

2014-01-01

98

Dissection of the maternal effects on puberty onset by embryo transplantation in mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Puberty onset in mammals is affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Among which, the maternal effect could have played a considerable role. In our previous study, we found that the F1 offspring from reciprocal crosses between C3H/HeJ (C3H) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice differed significantly in the timing of puberty in both sexes, though they had identical genomic background. In order to dissect the causative factors to such phenomenon of maternal effect, embryos from reciprocal crosses of C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J mice were collected and transplanted to the uterus of either strain of mothers, and the puberty onset of pups were compared between different recipient mothers and egg origins. The results showed that the male pups from C3H recipient mothers attained puberty onset earlier than those from B6 recipients significantly, while the female pups did not show such difference. On the other hand, the egg origin made no difference in the puberty onset of either sex, yet it influenced the birth weight of female pups significantly (ppuberty onset of pups dramatically. A mitochondria substitution strain between B6 and C3H (BmC), which had the genome background of B6 and a mitochondrial hyplotype of C3H, had the same phenotype of puberty onset as B6. The integrated results indicated that the uterine environment was the major causative factors to the maternal effect on the differential puberty onset in reciprocal crosses of F1 hybrids between B6 and C3H mice. PMID:22107824

Zhou, Y; Guan, Q; Li, K; Tao, L; Hu, J; Xiao, J

2012-07-01

99

Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during early and midgestation on beef cows. I. Maternal performance and organ weights at different stages of gestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives were to evaluate the effects of nutrient restriction during early to midgestation followed by realimentation on maternal performance and organ mass in pregnant beef cows. On d 30 of pregnancy, multiparous, nonlactating cows (initial BW = 620.5 ± 11.3 kg and BCS = 5.1 ± 0.1) were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: control (CON; 100% NRC; n = 18) and restricted (RES; 60% NRC; n = 30). On d 85, cows were slaughtered (CON, n = 6; R, n = 6), remained on control (CC; n = 12) and restricted (RR; n = 12), or were realimented to control (RC; n = 11). On d 140, cows were slaughtered (CC, n = 6; RR, n = 6; RC, n = 5), remained on control (CCC, n = 6; RCC, n = 5), or were realimented to control (RRC, n = 6). On d 254, all remaining cows were slaughtered. Cows were weighed before slaughter and all maternal organs were dissected and weighed. The diet consisted of grass hay to meet 100 or 60% NEm recommendations for fetal growth and to meet or exceed recommendations for other nutrients. At d 85 slaughters, BW and empty BW (EBW) were not affected (P ? 0.84) by maternal nutrition. However back fat was decreased (P = 0.05) in RES vs. CON cows. Large intestine and abomasum mass were increased (P ? 0.05) in RES cows vs. CON. At d 140, BW was decreased (P = 0.05) and EBW tended to be decreased (P = 0.10) in RRC cows vs. CCC and RCC being intermediate. Liver mass was decreased (P = 0.02) in RR vs. CC with RC being intermediate. Ruminal mass was decreased (P = 0.003) in RR vs. CC and RC cows. At d 254, BW and EBW were similar (P ? 0.78) across treatments. We observed partial changes in maternal weight and organ masses due to different lengths of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation. It appears that the dam undergoes some adaptations during an early to midgestation nutrient restriction and becomes more efficient in the utilization of nutrients after being realimented and as gestation advances. PMID:24664560

Camacho, L E; Lemley, C O; Van Emon, M L; Caton, J S; Swanson, K C; Vonnahme, K A

2014-02-01

100

Morphological and biological effects of maternal exposure to tobacco smoke on the feto-placental unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Active and passive maternal smoking has a damaging effect in every trimester of human pregnancy. Cigarette smoke contains scores of toxins which exert a direct effect on the placental and fetal cell proliferation and differentiation and can explain the increased risk of miscarriage, fetal growth restriction (FGR) stillbirth, preterm birth and placental abruption reported by epidemiological studies. In the placenta, smoking is associated from early in pregnancy, with a thickening of the trophoblastic basement membrane, an increase in collagen content of the villous mesenchyme and a decrease in vascularisation. These anatomical changes are associated with changes in placental enzymatic and synthetic functions. In particular, nicotine depresses active amino-acid (AA) uptake by human placental villi and trophoblast invasion and cadmium decreases the expression and activity of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 which is causally linked to FGR. Maternal smoking also dysregulates trophoblast expression of molecules that govern cellular responses to oxygen tension. In the fetus, smoking is associated with a reduction of weight, fat mass and most anthropometric parameters and as in the placenta with alterations in protein metabolism and enzyme activity. These alterations are the results of a direct toxic effect on the fetal cells or an indirect effect through damage to, and/or functional disturbances of the placenta. In particular, smoking interferes strongly with the fetal brain and pancreas biological parameters and induces chromosomal instability, which is associated with an increase in the risk of cancer, especially childhood malignancies. PMID:17900829

Jauniaux, Eric; Burton, Graham J

2007-11-01

 
 
 
 
101

The effect of a maternal low protein diet on renal development and function in the offspring  

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A poor maternal diet leads to offspring with a greater risk of developing chronic diseases later in life. This thesis considered whether a low protein diet during pregnancy in sheep affected the development of the fetal kidney, and how this impacted upon adult renal function when challenged by obesity. Pregnant ewes were fed either a control diet or a diet that was isocaloric but contained only 50% of the protein, in either early or late gestation. The effects of the diet were assessed on the...

Dunford, Louise Jane

2013-01-01

102

CNS EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL Pb EXPOSURE ARE ENHANCED BY COMBINED MATERNAL AND OFFSPRING STRESS  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead (Pb) exposure and elevated stress are co-occurring risk factors. Both impact brain mesolimbic dopamine/glutamate systems involved in cognitive functions. We previously found that maternal stress can potentiate Pb-related adverse effects in offspring at blood Pb levels averaging approximately 40 ug/dl. The current study of combined Pb exposure and stress sought to extend those results to lower levels of Pb exposure, and to examine relationships among consequences in offspring for Fixed Interval (FI) schedule-controlled behavior, neurochemistry and corticosterone levels. Dams were exposed to maternal Pb beginning 2 mos prior to breeding (0, 50 or 150 ppm in drinking water), maternal restraint stress on gestational days 16 and 17 (MS), or the combination. In addition, a subset of offspring from each resultant treatment group was also exposed intermittently to variable stressors as adults (MS+OS). Marked “Pb-stress”-related increases in response rates on a Fixed Interval schedule, a behavioral performance with demonstrated sensitivity to Pb, occurred preferentially in female offspring even at mean blood Pb levels of 11 ug/dl when 50 ppm Pb was combined with maternal and offspring stress. Greater sensitivity of females to frontal cortex catecholamine changes may contribute to the elevated FI response rates as mesocorticolimbic systems are critical to the mediation of this behavior. Basal and final corticosterone levels of offspring used to evaluate FI performance differed significantly from those of non-behaviorally tested (NFI) littermates, demonstrating that purported mechanisms of Pb, stress or Pb/stress effects determined in non-behaviorally trained animals cannot necessarily be generalized to animals with behavioral histories. Finally, the persistent and permanent consequences of Pb, stress and Pb+stress in offspring of both genders suggest that Pb screening programs should include pregnant women at risk for elevated Pb exposure, and that stress should be considered as an additional risk factor. Pb+stress effects observed in the absence of either risk factor alone (i.e., potentiated effects) raise questions about the capacity of current hazard identification approaches to adequately identify human health risks posed by neurotoxicants. PMID:18440644

Virgolini, M. B.; Rossi-George, A.; Lisek, R.; Weston, D.D.; Thiruchelvam, M.; Cory-Slechta, D.A.

2008-01-01

103

Effect of Source and Level of Maternal Vitamin D on Carryover to Newly Hatched Chicks  

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A study was conducted to evaluate the carryover effect of maternal vitamin D level and source on performance and bone development of the progeny. Breeder hens were fed a vitamin D deficient diet for two months to deplete stores. After this period, experimental diets in a factorial arrangement were fed to the hens with five levels of cholecalciferol (0, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 IU/kg) and two levels of 25OHD3 (HyD) (0 and 68 ?g/kg) for a total of 10 treatments. At the end of two months on the ...

Yan, F.; Wang, Z.; Cerate, S.; Cesar Coto; Waldroup, P. W.

2010-01-01

104

X chromosome effect on maternal recombination and meiotic drive in the mouse.  

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We observed that maternal meiotic drive favoring the inheritance of DDK alleles at the Om locus on mouse chromosome 11 was correlated with the X chromosome inactivation phenotype of (C57BL/6-Pgk1(a) x DDK)F(1) mothers. The basis for this unexpected observation appears to lie in the well-documented effect of recombination on meiotic drive that results from nonrandom segregation of chromosomes. Our analysis of genome-wide levels of meiotic recombination in females that vary in their X-inactivat...

La Casa-espero?n, Elena; Loredo-osti, J. Concepcio?n; Pardo-manuel Villena, Fernando; Briscoe, Tammi L.; Malette, Jan Michel; Vaughan, Joe E.; Morgan, Kenneth; Sapienza, Carmen

2002-01-01

105

Effects of maternal cadmium exposure on female reproductive functions, gamete quality, and offspring development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

Science.gov (United States)

Impacts of maternal Cd(2+) exposure on female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were observed in females as well as their offspring. In females, Cd disturbed fecundity and other reproductive functions. In their offspring, it retarded gamete development and growth and influenced gene expression. There was a positive relationship between Cd(2+) contents in ovaries of females and treatment doses of 0-8.9 ?M of Cd(2+). The mating rate decreased by 60 % when females were exposed to 8.9-35.6 ?M of Cd(2+) for 72 h compared with the control group. It was observed that growth is delayed by one somite stage in maternal-Cd(2+) embryos compared with control embryos, which grew at the sixth-somite stage. The ceratohyal angles of larvae of Cd-exposed adults (maternal Cd(2+)) at 72 h postfertilization (hpf) appeared to have a positive response after doses of maternal Cd. In addition, approximately 30 % of 96-hpf larvae that were treated with a dose of 35.6 ?M of maternal Cd(2+) appeared to have pericardial edema. At the 5-hpf stage of maternal Cd(2+) exposure, embryos showed 33 and 37 target genes, respectively, that were significantly downregulated and upregulated as shown by cDNA microarray analysis. A major effect of maternal Cd(2+) exposure on zebrafish embryo genes is that 18.9% of transcription functions were upregulated. In addition, 33.3% of transcripts relative to the function of protein biosynthesis were downregulated. These results showed that maternal Cd(2+) exposure influenced the reproduction ability of females and also caused their embryos to develop with abnormal gene expression. PMID:23644582

Wu, Su Mei; Tsai, Pei Ju; Chou, Ming Yi; Wang, Wen-Der

2013-10-01

106

Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat. The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys. For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease in serum BDNF induced by MeHg exposure. Cord blood BDNF has been reported to increase in association with perinatal brain injuries and has been proposed as a possible predictive marker of neurodevelopmental outcomes. The negative effect that MeHg seems to exert on cord blood BDNF concentration could endanger compensatory responses to an adverse impact and therefore deserves attention.

Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi

2010-01-01

107

Effects of maternal ethanol ingestion on uptake of glucose alanine analogs in fetal rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of maternally-derived glucose and alanine has been studied in selected tissues of fetuses from ethanol-fed (EF) rats (30% of caloric intake throughout gestation). Controls received diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation, 2 ?Ci 3H 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and 1 ?Ci 14C ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were administered i.v. to each rat. One hour later, maternal blood, placenta, and fetal blood, liver, lung and brain were sampled for 3H and 14C activities. When compared to either control group, the mean 14C AIB activities of tissues from EF animals were reduced from 19 to 46%, with the greatest effect seen in the brain (3.7 +/- 0.1, 7.2 +/- 0.3 and 6.9 +/- 1.3 dpm/mg in EF, PF and AF fetuses respectively). In addition, the ratios of tissue:plasma 14C were reduced (p 3H 2-DG content of placenta (p < 0.05) and of brain (38.6 + 1.2, 48.1 +/- 1.2 and 47.2 +/- 1.2 in EF, PF and AF, p < 0.001). Brain weight showed significant positive correlations with AIB content (r = 0.466, p < 0.001) and with 2-DG content (r = 0.267, p < 0.01). Impaired uptake of maternally-derived nutrients may play a significant role in the effects of ethanol in utero

108

First-trimester screening for preeclampsia: impact of maternal parity on modeling and screening effectiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: The impact of maternal parity on screening efficiency for preeclampsia (PE) has been poorly studied. Our objective was to investigate the effect of maternal parity on models for screening for PE in the first-trimester and their effectiveness. Study design: A secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of women present between 11 and 14 weeks gestation. Maternal risk factors, uterine artery Doppler, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and serum markers including PAPP-A, ADAM12, PP13 in the first-trimester were used to create multi-parameter screening models for PE. The best models for screening in nulliparous versus parous women were developed using backward stepwise logistic regression approach. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and the sensitivity for fixed false positive rates of 10% and 20%, respectively, were compared using non-parametric statistics. Results: Among 1177 women with complete outcome data (503 (42.7%) nulliparous and 674 (57.3%) multiparous), PE occurred in 102 (8.7%). There were significant differences in predicting variables in the final optimal models when stratified by parity; and screening performance also varied by parity. The AUC for the model for nulliparous women was 0.88(95% CI 0.80-0.95); and for multiparous was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.91). For fixed false positive rate of 10%, the sensitivity for predicting PE was 70% and 68% for nulliparous and multiparous, respectively. The screening performance for the models were however not statistically or clinically significantly different. Conclusion: We found significant differences in prediction model parameters between nulliparous and multiparous women, but these did not significantly impact screening performance for PE in the first-trimester. PMID:25330843

Moon, Myoungjin; Odibo, Anthony

2014-11-11

109

Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin effects on risk of orofacial clefting using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a p-value <10?5 for maternal genotypic effects, we also applied a haplotype-based method, TRIMM, to extract potential information from clusters of correlated SNPs. None of the SNPs wer...

Shi, Min; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Marazita, Mary L.; Munger, Ronald G.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B.; Wu, Tao; Murray, Tanda; Redett, Richard J.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Lie, Rolv T.; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Wu-chou, Yah Huei; Chen, Philip K.; Wang, Hong

2012-01-01

110

Non-Random Mating, Parent-of-Origin, and Maternal-Fetal Incompatibility Effects in Schizophrenia  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the association of common genetic variation in the extended MHC region with schizophrenia is the most significant yet discovered, the MHC region is one of the more complex regions of the human genome, with unusually high gene density and long-range linkage disequilibrium. The statistical test on which the MHC association is based is a relatively simple, additive model which uses logistic regression of SNP genotypes to predict case-control status. However, it is plausible that more complex models underlie this association. Using a well-characterized sample of trios, we evaluated more complex models by looking for evidence for: (a) non-random mating for HLA alleles, schizophrenia risk profiles, and ancestry; (b) parent-of-origin effects for HLA alleles; and (c) maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility in the HLA. We found no evidence for non-random mating in the parents of individuals with schizophrenia in terms of MHC genotypes or schizophrenia risk profile scores. However, there was evidence of non-random mating that appeared mostly to be driven by ancestry. We did not detect over-transmission of HLA alleles to affected offspring via the general TDT test (without regard to parent of origin) or preferential transmission via paternal or maternal inheritance. We evaluated the hypothesis that maternal-fetal HLA incompatibility may increase risk for schizophrenia using eight classical HLA loci. The most significant alleles were in HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 but none was significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. We did not find evidence to support more complex models of gene action, but statistical power may have been limiting. PMID:23177929

Kim, Yunjung; Ripke, Stephan; Kirov, George; Sklar, Pamela; Purcell, Shaun; Owen, Michael; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Sullivan, Patrick F.

2014-01-01

111

Improving Maternal and Newborn Health: Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Program in Rural Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) form an important element of many health systems, and in Kenya these volunteers are the foundation for promoting behavior change through health education, earlier case identification, and timely referral to trained health care providers. This study examines the effectiveness of a community health worker project conducted in rural Kenya that sought to promote improved knowledge of maternal newborn health and to increase deliveries under skilled attendance. Methods The study utilized a quasi-experimental nonequivalent design that examined relevant demographic items and knowledge about maternal and newborn health combined with a comprehensive retrospective birth history of women’s children using oral interviews of women who were exposed to health messages delivered by CHWs and those who were not exposed. The project trained CHWs in three geographically distinct areas. Results Mean knowledge scores were higher in those women who reported being exposed to the health messages from CHWs, Eburru 32.3 versus 29.2, Kinale 21.8 vs 20.7, Nyakio 26.6 vs 23.8. The number of women delivering under skilled attendance was higher for those mothers who reported exposure to one or more health messages, compared to those who did not. The percentage of facility deliveries for women exposed to health messages by CHWs versus non-exposed was: Eburru 46% versus 19%; Kinale 94% versus 73%: and Nyakio 80% versus 78%. Conclusion The delivery of health messages by CHWs increased knowledge of maternal and newborn care among women in the local community and encouraged deliveries under skilled attendance. PMID:25090111

Adam, Mary B.; Dillmann, Maria; Chen, Mei-kuang; Mbugua, Simon; Ndung’u, Joram; Mumbi, Priscilla; Waweru, Eunice; Meissner, Peter

2014-01-01

112

Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris).  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced bioavailability of trace elements in aged CCW. Most importantly, maternal exposure to contaminants coupled with larval exposure to fresh CCW interacted to reduce survival to metamorphosis by 85% compared to reference conditions. Our study yields further evidence that disposal of CCW in aquatic basins potentially creates ecological traps for some amphibian populations. PMID:22366480

Metts, Brian S; Buhlmann, Kurt A; Scott, David E; Tuberville, Tracey D; Hopkins, William A

2012-05-01

113

Does Maternal BMI Influence Treatment Effect in Women with Mild Gestational Diabetes?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine whether maternal body mass index (BMI) influences the beneficial effects of diabetes treatment in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Study Design Secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized treatment trial of women with GDM. Outcomes of interest were elevated umbilical cord c-peptide levels (>90th percentile 1.77 ng/mL), LGA birth weight (>90th percentile), and neonatal fat mass (g). Women were grouped into five BMI categories adapted from the WHO International Classification of normal, overweight, and obese adults. Outcomes were analyzed according to treatment group assignment. Results A total of 958 women were enrolled (485 treated and 473 controls). Maternal BMI at enrollment was not related to umbilical cord c-peptide levels. However, treatment of women in the overweight, Class I, and Class II obese categories was associated with a reduction in both LGA birth weight and neonatal fat mass. Neither measure of excess fetal growth was reduced with treatment in normal weight (BMI treatment on fetal growth in women with mild GDM who were overweight or Class I and II obese. These effects were not apparent for normal weight and very obese women. PMID:24839145

Casey, Brian M.; Mele, Lisa; Landon, Mark B.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Ramin, Susan M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Thorp, John M.; Catalano, Patrick; Harper, Margaret; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M.

2015-01-01

114

Maternal effects mechanism of population cycling: a formidable competitor to the traditional predator-prey view.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the language of mathematics, one needs minimally two interacting variables (two dimensions) to describe repeatable periodic behaviour, and in the language of density dependence, one needs delayed, not immediate, density dependence to produce cyclicity. Neither language specifies the causal mechanism. There are two major potential mechanisms: exogenous mechanisms involving species interactions as in predator-prey or host-parasite, and endogenous mechanisms such as maternal effects where population growth results from the cross-generational transmission of individual quality. The species interactions view stemming from a major observation of Elton and a simultaneous independent theory by Lotka and Volterra is currently dominant. Most ecologists, when faced with cyclic phenomena, automatically look for an interacting species one step below or above in a food chain in order to find an explanation. Maternal effects hypothesis, verbally suggested in the 1950s, had only found its theoretical implementation in the 1990 s. In a relatively short time, the degree of acceptance of this view grew to the level of a 'minority opinion' as evidenced by the widely used textbook of Begon et al. This short review attempts to describe the arguments for and against this internal two-dimensional approach. PMID:19324616

Inchausti, Pablo; Ginzburg, Lev R

2009-04-27

115

Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

2008-07-01

116

[Maternity blues].  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternity blues is a transient change of mood that occurs mainly between the 1st and 10th day of puerpartum and is characterized by bursts of tears, mild depressive mood, anxiety and liability of mood. The frequency of maternity blues varies in different studies form 4% to 80%. A number of biological and psychosocial parameters have been studied in order to determine their correlation with maternity blues. The most well studied biological parameters are progesterone and cortizol although their relation with maternity blues has not yet been clearly defined. Stress and the emotional state of the woman during pregnancy as well as history of mood disorders or maternity blues in a previous birth are the psychosocial parameters that are more likely to correlate with the occurrence of maternity blues. Most of the authors suggest that information on maternity blues and reassurance of the woman are the best way to deal with maternity blues both on preventive and therapeutical basis. PMID:22466520

Gonidakis, F

2007-04-01

117

Effects of Child Psychopathology on Maternal Depression: The Mediating Role of Child-Related Acute and Chronic Stressors  

Science.gov (United States)

In light of recent research highlighting the potential effects of children's behavior on mothers' mental health, the current study examined 679 mothers and their adolescent children from a community-based sample to determine the effects of youth psychopathology on maternal depression and levels of child-related stress in mothers' lives. It was…

Raposa, Elizabeth B.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

2011-01-01

118

Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects on risk of orofacial clefting (OC) using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a P-value

Shi, Min; Murray, Jeff

2012-01-01

119

Roles of maternal effects and nuclear genetic composition change across the life cycle of crop-wild hybrids.  

Science.gov (United States)

• Premise of the study: The fitness of an offspring may depend on its nuclear genetic composition (via both parental genotypes) as well as on genetic maternal effects (via only the maternal parent). Understanding the relative importance of these two genetic factors is particularly important for research on crop-wild hybridization, since traits with important genetic maternal effects (e.g., seed size) often differ among crops and their relatives. We hypothesized that the effects of these genetic factors on fitness components would change across the life cycle of hybrids.• Methods: We followed seed, plant size, and reproductive traits in field experiments with wild and four crop-wild hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), which differed in nuclear genetic composition and maternal parent (wild or F1 hybrid).• Key results: We identified strong genetic maternal effects for early life cycle characteristics, with seeds produced on an F1 mother having premature germination, negligible seed dormancy, and greater seedling size. Increased percentages of crop alleles also increased premature germination and reduced dormancy in seeds produced on a wild mother. For mature plants, nuclear genetic composition dominated: greater percentages of crop alleles reduced height, branching, and fecundity.• Conclusions: Particular backcrosses between hybrids and wilds may differentially facilitate movement of crop alleles into wild populations due to their specific features. For example, backcross seeds produced on wild mothers can persist in the seed bank, illustrating the importance of genetic maternal effects, whereas backcross individuals with either wild or F1 mothers have high fecundity, resulting from their wild-like nuclear genetic composition. PMID:25016007

Alexander, Helen M; Emry, D Jason; Pace, Brian A; Kost, Matthew A; Sparks, Kathryn A; Mercer, Kristin L

2014-07-11

120

Effectiveness of prenatal screening for Down syndrome on the basis of maternal age in Cape Town  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The prenatal screening programme for Down syndrome (DS) in the South African public health sector remains primarily based on advanced maternal age (AMA). We assessed the changes over time and effectiveness of this screening programme within a Cape Town health district. METHODS: Retrospect [...] ive analysis of the Groote Schuur Hospital Cytogenetic Laboratory and Pregnancy Counselling Clinic databases and audit of maternal delivery records at a primary health care facility. RESULTS The number of amniocenteses performed for AMA in consecutive 5-year periods reduced progressively from 786 in 1981 - 1985 to 360 in 2001 - 2005. Comparing prenatal with neonatal diagnoses of DS, the absolute number and the proportion diagnosed prenatally have remained relatively constant over time. The Pregnancy Counselling Database showed that, of 507 women receiving genetic counselling for AMA in 2008 - 2009, 158 (31.1%) accepted amniocentesis - uptake has reduced considerably since the early 1990s. The audit of women delivering at a primary care facility found that only 10 (16.4%) of 61 AMA women reached genetic counselling in tertiary care: reasons included late initiation of antenatal care and low referral rates from primary care. CONCLUSION: Prenatal screening and diagnosis for DS based on AMA is working ineffectively in the Cape Town health district assessed, and this appears to be representative of a broader trend in South Africa. Inclusion of fetal ultrasound in the process of prenatal screening for DS should be explored as a way forward.

M F, Urban; C, Stewart; T, Ruppelt; L, Geerts.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of maternal exposure to the galactagogue Sulpiride on reproductive parameters in female rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antipsychotic Sulpiride has been documented as an effective galactagogue that acts blocking dopamine receptors, increasing prolactin concentrations. However, this drug passes through the milk exposing neonates during postnatal development, which may result in functional and morphological alterations in adult life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal exposure to Sulpiride during lactation could impair reproductive development of female offspring. The dams were treated daily by gavage with Sulpiride doses of 2.5mg/Kg (SUL 2.5mg group) and 25mg/Kg (SUL 25mg group), or distilled water (Control group) throughout the lactation period. During early life, body weight, anogenital distance, and vaginal opening were analyzed on the female offspring. In adulthood, estrous cycle, sexual behavior, estrogen levels as well as the weight of the reproductive organs were evaluated. There were no differences regarding body weight, anogenital distance, puberty onset, frequency and duration of the estrous cycle and estradiol levels on female offspring. Nonetheless, there were changes in sexual behavior. There was an increase in the number of observations in reflex magnitude 0 (absence of lordosis) and reflex magnitude 2 as well as a reduction of reflex magnitude 3 in the rats of SUL 25mg group in relation to the Control group, suggesting a decrease in sexual receptivity of these animals. These results demonstrate that maternal exposure to Sulpiride can alter reproductive function in female offspring rats. PMID:25554483

de Azevedo Camin, Nathália; Vieira, Milene Leivas; Montagnini, Bruno Garcia; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

2015-03-01

122

The genetic control of maternal effects on mutations recovered from X-rayed mature drosophila sperm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drosophila melanogaster males carrying a ring-X-chromosome were X-rayed and crossed to virgin females of 7 stocks, which had their second and third chromosomes systematically substituted. In the same experiment dominant lethals, sex-chromosome losses, and reciprocal translocations were recorded. Maternal effects on mutation fixation were observable as differences in the mutation frequencies observed with the different types of females. With the set of substitution stocks studied it was found that the maternal genotype strongly influences the frequencies of chromosome losses. The influence on classical chromosome-breakage phenomena, such as dominant lethals and translocations, however, are weak. The differences in the chromosome-loss frequencies may result either from different time intervals between insemination and the beginning of chromosome replication, and/or the efficiency of a repair system. One or more strong genetic factors reponsible for such modifications could be located on the third chromosome. On the second chromosome, at best only weak factors are present. (Auth.)

123

The effect of narrative writing on maternal stress in neonatal intensive care settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of narrative writing on maternal stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) during infants' hospitalization. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 2 groups of mothers with preterm infants in the NICUs of two teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Pre- and post-tests were administered to a sample size of 70 during 6 months. The Parental Stressor Scale (PSS) was used. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical methods. Results: The mean stress level in the control group was 73.9?±?16.7 at the beginning of the study, and 82.5?±?19.5 at the end of the study (on the 10th day). Paired t-test results in the control group showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the 3rd and the 10th day of the hospitalization (p?maternal stress in the NICUs. However, more research is needed to justify its implementation. PMID:25046578

Kadivar, Maliheh; Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Akbari, Negarin; Haghani, Hamid

2014-07-21

124

Effect of melatonin or maternal nutrient restriction on vascularity and cell proliferation in the ovine placenta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously we reported increased umbilical artery blood flow in ewes supplemented with melatonin from mid- to late-pregnancy, while maternal nutrient restriction decreased uterine artery blood flow. To further unravel these responses, this study was designed to assess placental cell proliferation and vascularity following supplementation with melatonin or maternal nutrient restriction. For the first experiment, 31 primiparous ewes were supplemented with 5mg of melatonin per day (MEL) or no melatonin (CON) and allocated to receive 100% (adequate fed; ADQ) or 60% (restricted; RES) of their nutrient requirements from day 50 to 130 of gestation. To examine melatonin receptor dependent effects, a second experiment was designed utilizing 14 primiparous ewes infused with vehicle, melatonin, or luzindole (melatonin receptor 1 and 2 antagonist) from day 62 to 90 of gestation. For experiment 1, caruncle concentrations of RNA were increased in MEL-RES compared to CON-RES. Caruncle capillary area density and average capillary cross-sectional area were decreased in MEL-RES compared to CON-RES. Cotyledon vascularity was not different across dietary treatments. For experiment 2, placental cellular proliferation and vascularity were not affected by infusion treatment. In summary, melatonin interacted with nutrient restriction to alter caruncle vascularity and RNA concentrations during late pregnancy. Although melatonin receptor antagonism alters feto-placental blood flow, these receptor dependent responses were not observed in placental vascularity. Moreover, placental vascularity measures do not fully explain the alterations in uteroplacental blood flow. PMID:25578503

Eifert, Adam W; Wilson, Matthew E; Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Camacho, Leticia E; Borowicz, Pawel P; Redmer, Dale A; Romero, Sinibaldo; Dorsam, Sheri; Haring, Jodie; Lemley, Caleb O

2015-02-01

125

Effects of maternal clothianidin exposure on behavioral development in F? generation mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female mice were exposed maternally to clothianidin through diet at levels of 0% (control), 0.002%, 0.006%, and 0.018% during gestation and lactation periods. Selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured in F? generation. There was no adverse effect of clothianidin on litter size, litter weight, or sex ratio at birth. The average body weight of male and female offspring was increased significantly in a dose-related manner during the lactation period. With respect to behavioral developmental parameters, surface righting at postnatal day 7 of female offspring was accelerated significantly in a dose-related manner (p clothianidin in the present study produced several adverse effects in the neurobehavioral parameters in mice. PMID:22025502

Tanaka, Toyohito

2012-09-01

126

Effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on renal Ca metabolism in neonatal mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on serum Ca and Ca metabolism in their neonatal mice. From 6.5 to 16.5 days post coitus and from 3 to 10 days after parturition, maternal mice were administered at 200 µg/kg body weight/day of coumestrol. Coumestrol administration did not affect weight gains, serum Ca and the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein in the kidney of neonatal mice, but weight gains of maternal mice were decreased by coumestrol administration. Coumestrol administration increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of epithelial Ca channels 1 (ECaC1) and VDR in the kidney of neonatal mice, and also increased the mRNA expressions of ECaC2 in the kidney and small intestine of male neonatal mice. The mRNA expressions of ECaC1, ECaC2, calbindin-D(9k) (CaBP-9k) and estrogen receptor (ER)? in the kidney and VDR in the small intestine of male neonatal mice were higher than those of female mice. Thus, coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation may affect renal Ca metabolism in neonatal mice, especially male neonatal mice via maternal milk. PMID:22694330

Ueda, Michihisa; Horiguchi, Yoshihiro; Sugimoto, Miki; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Kume, Shinichi

2012-06-01

127

Strain-dependent effects of prenatal maternal immune activation on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is converging evidence that prenatal maternal infection can increase the risk of occurrence of neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, autism, anxiety and depression in later life. Experimental studies have shown conflicting effects of prenatal maternal immune activation on anxiety-like behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development in offspring. We investigated the effects of maternal immune activation during pregnancy on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in pregnant mice and their offspring to determine whether these effects are dependent on strain. NMRI and C57BL/6 pregnant mice were treated with either saline or lipopolysaccharide on gestational day 17 and then interleukin (IL)-6 and corticosterone (COR) levels; anxiety or depression in the pregnant mice and their offspring were evaluated. The results indicate that maternal inflammation increased the levels of COR and anxiety-like behavior in NMRI pregnant mice, but not in C57BL/6 dams. Our data also demonstrate that maternal inflammation elevated the levels of anxiety-and depression-like behaviors in NMRI offspring on the elevated plus-maze, elevated zero-maze, tail suspension test and forced swimming test respectively, but not in the open field and light-dark box. In addition, we did not find any significant change in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of adult C57BL/6 offspring. Our findings suggest that prenatal maternal immune activation can alter the HPA axis activity, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in a strain- and task-dependent manner in offspring and further comprehensive studies are needed to prove the causal relationship between the findings found here and to validate their relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. PMID:24326014

Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

2014-03-01

128

Imprinting effects of maternal water deprivation during late gestation on fetal and offspring RAS in the rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the imprinting effect of maternal water deprivation during late gestation on fetal and offspring renin-angiotensin system ( RAS) in the rats. Methods: After three days of maternal water deprivation during late gestation, fetal heart, kidney, placenta and body dry, wet weight as well as body and tail length were examined. Both fetal and offspring plasma angiotensin (Ang) II concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Angiotensinogen (ATG) mRNA in the fetal and offspring liver and cardiovascular responses to intravenous injection of Ang II were also determined by real-time PCR. Results: Maternal water deprivation during late gestation significantly decreased heart, kidney, and body dry and wet weight ,the length of the fetal body and tail (P 0. 05), and increased fetal plasma Ang II concentration (P imprintingeffect of diseases in fetal origins. (authors)

129

The different effects of maternal separation on spatial learning and reversal learning in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early postnatal maternal separation (MS) can play an important role in the development of psychopathologies during ontogeny. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4h per day from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 21) on locomotor activity and anxiety behavior in open field, spatial learning and reversal learning in Morris water maze of male and female juvenile (PND 21), adolescent (PND 35) and early adult (PND 56) Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased locomotor activity of rats across all ages and reduced anxiety behavior of adolescent rats in open field test. MS also increased swim distance in spatial learning and decreased escape latency in reversal learning in adolescent and early adult rats. Additionally, for socially reared rats, there was increased spontaneous locomotion with age, decreased reversal learning ability with age. The present study provides novel insights into the consequences of MS and demonstrates unique age-dependent changes at the behavioral levels. PMID:25479401

Wang, Qiong; Li, Man; Du, Wei; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

2015-03-01

130

Maternal effects and generation mean analysis of seed-oil content in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature of gene action and of maternal influence governing cottonseed oil attributes were determined with four lines, two each with high and low seed-oil percentage. For this purpose, P1, P2, F0, F1, F2 and alternative sets of BC1 and BC2 generations were analysed in six cross-combinations and their reciprocals. Marginal extents of heterosis for seed-oil percentage were noticeable in F1, with inbreeding depression in F2. Data from reciprocal backcrosses provided evidence in favour of maternal rather than cytoplasmic effects of seed-oil development. Relatively higher extents of heterosis, sizeable inbreeding depression and reciprocally unequal F2 averages were characteristic of the seed index trait, which often showed a reversal of effects from F1 to F2. Reverse reciprocal backcrosses exhibited some differences, including greater resemblance between the types, (A/B)A and (B/A)A, in addition to variable dose effects in seed index. Thus, the differences between F1 seed index values were not due to cytoplasmic influence. Positive heterotic effects for seed-oil index, especially among the backcrosses, ranged between 16.08% and 47.29% over midparent averages. Genetic component estimates from analysis of similar sets of crosses differing only in reciprocal backcrosses, and also from sets of reciprocal crosses between any two parental combinations, were inconsistent. Scaling tests detected presence of epistasis within and between a majority of cross-combinations. Despite reciprocal differences, additive gene effects for seed-oil percentage were significant in 7 out of 24 crosses, representing high x low, low x high and low x low seed-oil parents. Those were, however, accompanied by significant dominance effects of higher order. In crosses involving low seed-oil percentage parents SA1060 and SA229, all six components were detected significant, with opposite effects of dominance and dominance x dominance epistatic components. Significant additive components were also detected for seed index and seed-oil index in 7 and 5 out of 24 crosses, respectively. In the inheritance of seed index and seed-oil index, dominance effects were more important. Epistatic components of additive x additive, and to a lesser extent, those of dominant x dominant were found significant. PMID:24232726

Dani, R G; Kohel, R J

1989-04-01

131

Dietary effects on life history traits in a terrestrial isopod: the importance of evaluating maternal effects and trade-offs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of life history aim to explain patterns in the evolution of reproductive investment, growth, and survival. Trade-offs between traits are a fundamental component of life history theory. In herbivorous arthropods life history traits are often responsive to variation in numerous environmental factors, especially diet quality. Using three artificial diets under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined changes in life history traits (i.e. growth rate, offspring number, offspring size, incubation period), trade-offs between traits, and maternal effect on the growth rate of offspring, in the common woodlouse (terrestrial isopod), Porcellio laevis. The high protein diet had significant impacts on offspring production, triggering a smaller-sized offspring, and demonstrating a trade-off between these last two traits. The high carbohydrate diet seldom exerted a significant effect on incubation period. The quality of dietary items evidently has important consequences on the life history of the mother and, thus, on offspring growth; the directions of these effects, however, were opposite. Mothers fed diets with high protein concentrations presented significant maternal effects, measured as offspring growth rate during later ontogeny. Our results support the notion that protein, rather than carbohydrate, concentrations in the diet limit herbivorous arthropods, and have significant consequences on life history traits, as was seen for P. laevis. Clearly, the change in phenotypic correlations between incubation period and offspring number from negative to positive is an empirical demonstration of the context dependence of life history trait trade-offs. PMID:14685846

Lardies, Marco A; Carter, Mauricio J; Bozinovic, Francisco

2004-02-01

132

STUDY OF EFFECT OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE RELATED RISKS FOR DOWN SYNDROME & OTHER TRISOMIES.  

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ABSTRACTBack ground: Down syndrome is the most frequent live born aneuploidy & recognizable form of mental retardation among all the ethnic groups of human population across the globe. The most common risk factor for DS is advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to find out risks of advanced maternal age for chromosomal abnormalities.  Materials & methods: The chromosomal abnormalities were ...

toral goswami; Vaishali Patel; Amita Mevada; Neha Harjivanbhai Pandya; kinnar somabhai desai; Mitesh Suthar

2013-01-01

133

Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez / Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular) e perinatais (peso e prematuridade) da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22) e [...] não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19) de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e relativa. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx), volume sistólico (VS) e débito cardíaco (DC). Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0%) e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0%) e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5) e DC de (13,5 para 15,1); no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity) and perinatal (weight and prematurity) effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random cohort study, with 41 low-risk pregnant women in their first pregnancy, practicing (study group, n=22) and not (co [...] ntrol group, n=19) hydrotherapy. Anthropometric evaluation was used to assess lean mass, and absolute and relative body fat. Ergometric tests were used for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). Perinatal results showed premature births and small for gestational age newborns. Initial and final indexes within and between groups were compared. Maternal variables were evaluated using the t test for dependent and independent values; the chi ² test was used to study proportions. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the groups for maternal variables at the start and end of hydrotherapy. Comparison within each group confirmed the beneficial effect of hydrotherapy. In the study group, relative fat index was maintained at 29.0%; the control group showed an increase from 28.8% to 30.7%; the study group maintained VO2max at 35%, and increased SV from 106.6 to 121.5 and CO from 13.5 to 15.1; the control group showed a drop in VO2max and no change in SV and CO. There was no relationship between hydrotherapy and perinatal results. CONCLUSIONS: hydrotherapy adequately assisted metabolic and cardiovascular maternal adaptation to pregnancy and did not cause prematurity or weight loss in newborns.

Tânia Terezinha Scudeller, Prevedel; Iracema de Mattos Paranhos, Calderon; Marta Helena, De Conti; Elenice Bertanha, Consonni; Marilza Vieira Cunha, Rudge.

2003-02-01

134

Maternal coffee intake and associated risk factors: effects on fetal growth and activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical studies have shown that fetal growth and activity can be affected by several risk factors, such as maternal anxiety, depression and tobacco or alcohol consumption. Caffeine intake has received less attention in the literature, as well as the analysis of the mutual interplay of the range of such risk factors. This study aimed to examine effects of mother's coffee intake and associated risk factors during early pregnancy on fetal growth and activity. The sample involved 47 fetuses (51.1% male and 48.9% female) with gestational ages between 20-22 weeks whose mothers were recruited in a Portuguese antenatal obstetric unit. Repeated measures of mother's anxiety (STAI-S) and depression (EPDS) and information about socio-demographics and substances consumption were collected during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Fetal activity and biometry were measured during the 2(nd) trimester ultrasound. Results showed that 1) 23.4% of the pregnant women (N = 11) had regular coffee intake; 2) no significant differences were found neither on fetal growth nor on fetal movements considering mother's coffee intake; 3) when mother's socio-demographics and substances consumption were considered, tobacco consumption and anxiety at the 2(nd) trimester appeared as significant predictors of fetal growth and mother's coffee intake and anxiety symptoms at the 2(nd) trimester emerged as significant predictors of fetal movements. An adverse impact of maternal coffee intake during pregnancy was found on fetal activity but not on fetal growth. A deeper understanding of the multiple pathways by which these risk factors affect fetal growth and activity is needed. PMID:22011595

Conde, Ana; Teves, Cláudia; Figueiredo, Bárbara

2011-01-01

135

Effect of endogenous vasoconstrictors on maternal intramyometrial and fetal stem villous arteries in pre-eclampsia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The contractile responses to various endogenous vasoactive agents were investigated in isolated human uteroplacental arteries from normotensive (NT) patients and patients with pre-eclampsia (PE) undergoing caesarian section. Tissue samples were obtained from the uterine incision and from macroscopically normal cotyledons. Vascular ring preparations of intramyometrial and stem villous arteries (length 1.0-1.3 mm, outer diameter 400-600 microns) were dissected and mounted in organ baths and isometric tension was recorded. Concentration-response relationships for vasopressin (VP), oxytocin (OX), angiotensin II (Ang II), noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were assessed. For each compound, the mean maximum contractile effect (Emax) and the drug concentration producing half-maximal response (EC50) were determined. In intramyometrial arteries from NT and PE patients, VP, Ang II, NA, 5-HT and PGF2 alpha induced contraction while OX and PGE2 produced weak or no responses. Preparations from PE patients showed higher Emax values, while no differences in EC50 were found between the two groups. In fetal stem villous arteries, Ang II, 5-HT, PGF2 alpha and PGE2 induced contractions, while VP, NA and OX produced weak responses. No differences in Emax or EC50 values were found between the fetal vessels of PE and NT patients. No qualitative differences were demonstrated in response to the agents tested between the vessels (fetal and maternal) from NT women at term and PE patients. However, the results may reflect quantitative differences, suggesting increased contractility of maternal uteroplacental arteries from women with PE.

Allen, J; Forman, Axel

1989-01-01

136

Effect of Bauhinia forficata extract in diabetic pregnant rats: maternal repercussions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bauhinia forficata, commonly known as "paw-of-cow", is widely used in Brazil folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. The purposes of present study were to determine the repercussions of diabetes on the defense system against oxidative stress in pregnant female rats and to characterize the influence of the treatment with Bauhinia forficata extract on the antioxidant system, glycemic control, hepatic glycogen, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins and lipids. Virgin female Wistar rats were injected with 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) before mating. Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant rats in 3 doses: 500 mg/kg from 0 to 4th day of pregnancy, 600 mg/kg from 5th to 14th day and 1000 mg/kg from 15th to 20th day. All the females were killed on the day 21 of pregnancy. A maternal blood sample was collected by venous puncture and the maternal liver was removed for biochemical measurement. The diabetic pregnant rats presented hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia, decreased determinations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment with B. forficata extract did not interfere in the albumin, total protein and lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol and SOD determinations. Increased hepatic glycogen, decreased uric acid concentration and increased GSH activity was observed. This last fact suggests that the plant may have some action on antioxidant defense system. However, the demonstration of the active component present in B. forficata responsible for its antioxidant effect and the increase in hepatic glycogen deserve further investigation. PMID:15070172

Damasceno, D C; Volpato, G T; Calderon, I de Mattos Paranhos; Aguilar, R; Rudge, M V Cunha

2004-02-01

137

Deleterious effects of maternal ingestion of cocoa upon fetal ductus arteriosus in late pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa powder has twice more antioxidants than red wine and three times more than green tea. Ten percent of its weight is made up of flavonoids. Cocoa has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating cyclooxigenase-2 receptors expression in the endothelium and enhancing nitric oxide bioavailability. There are evidences that while polyphenols ingestion have cardioprotective effects in the adult, it may have deleterious effect on the fetus if ingested by the mother on the third trimester of pregnancy, causing intrauterine fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction. Polyphenols present in many foods and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities have been shown to be as or more powerful than those of indomethacin. These effects are dependent on the inhibition of modulation of the arachidonic acid and the synthesis of prostaglandins, especially E-2, which is responsible for fetal DA patency. So, we hypothesized that this same mechanism is responsible for the harmful effect of polyphenol-rich foods, such as cocoa, upon the fetal DA after maternal intake of such substances in the third trimester of pregnancy, thereby rising the perspective of a note of caution for pregnant women diet. PMID:25566077

Zielinsky, Paulo; Martignoni, Felipe V.; Vian, Izabele

2014-01-01

138

The Effect of Maternal Teaching Talk on Children's Emergent Literacy as a Function of Type of Activity and Maternal Education Level  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the extent to which maternal education affects mothers' teaching talk level as a function of activity (book reading vs. looking at a family photo album), and the contribution of maternal teaching talk level during these activities to 88 five- to six-year old children's emergent literacy. Videotaped mother-child interactions…

Korat, Ofra

2009-01-01

139

Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This review evaluates the evidence of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, in comparison with standard iron-folate supplements, on specific maternal and pregnancy outcomes of relevance to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Data sources/review methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Search engines used were PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the WHO regional databases and hand search of bibliographies. A standardized data abstraction and Child Health Epidemiology Reference (CHERG adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE technique were used for data abstraction and overall quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary estimates of utility to the LiST model for the specified outcome of incidence of SGA births. We also evaluated the potential impact of multiple micronutrients on neonatal mortality according to the proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities (using a threshold of 60% to indicate functionality of health systems for skilled births. Results We included 17 studies for detailed data abstraction. There was no significant benefit of multiple micronutrients as compared to iron folate on maternal anemia in third trimester [Relative risk (RR = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87 – 1.22 (random model]. Our analysis, however, showed a significant reduction in SGA by 9% [RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 – 0.96 (fixed model]. In the fixed model, the SGA outcome remained significant only in women with mean body mass index (BMI ? 22 kg/m2. There was an increased risk of neonatal mortality in studies with majority of births at home [RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.92]; such an effect was not evident where ? 60% of births occurred in facility settings [RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81-1.09]. Overall there was no increase in the risk of neonatal mortality [RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92 – 1.19 (fixed model]. Conclusion This review provides evidence of a significant benefit of MMN supplementation during pregnancy on reducing SGA births as compared to iron-folate, with no significant increase in the risk of neonatal mortality in populations where skilled birth care is available and majority of births take place in facilities. Given comparability of impacts on maternal anemia, the decision to replace iron-folate with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy may be taken in the context of available services in health systems and birth outcomes monitored.

Yakoob Mohammad

2011-04-01

140

Effects of maternity care coordination on pregnancy outcomes: propensity-weighted analyses.  

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Care coordination services that link pregnant women to health-promoting resources, avoid duplication of effort, and improve communication between families and providers have been endorsed as a strategy for reducing disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes, however empirical evidence regarding the effects of these services is contradictory and incomplete. This study investigates the effects of maternity care coordination (MCC) on pregnancy outcomes in North Carolina. Birth certificate and Medicaid claims data were analyzed for 7,124 women delivering live infants in North Carolina from October 2008 through September 2010, of whom 2,255 received MCC services. Propensity-weighted analyses were conducted to reduce the influence of selection bias in evaluating program participation. Sensitivity analyses compared these results to conventional ordinary least squares analyses. The unadjusted preterm birth rate was lower among women who received MCC services (7.0 % compared to 8.3 % among controls). Propensity-weighted analyses demonstrated that women receiving services had a 1.8 % point reduction in preterm birth risk; p < 0.05). MCC services were also associated with lower pregnancy weight gain (p = 0.10). No effects of MCC were seen for birthweight. These findings suggest that coordination of care in pregnancy can significantly reduce the risk of preterm delivery among Medicaid-enrolled women. Further research evaluating specific components of care coordination services and their effects on preterm birth risk among racial/ethnic and geographic subgroups of Medicaid enrolled mothers could inform efforts to reduce disparities in pregnancy outcome. PMID:24770956

Hillemeier, Marianne M; Domino, Marisa E; Wells, Rebecca; Goyal, Ravi K; Kum, Hye-Chung; Cilenti, Dorothy; Timothy Whitmire, J; Basu, Anirban

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Low birthweight among US Hispanic/Latino subgroups: the effect of maternal foreign-born status and education.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated whether maternal foreign-born status confers a protective effect against low birthweight (LBW) across US Hispanic/Latino subgroups (i.e., Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and Central/South Americans) in the USA, and whether the association between maternal education and LBW varies by Hispanic/Latino subgroup and by foreign-born status. We conducted logistic regression analyses of the 2002 US Natality Detail Data (n=634,797). Overall, foreign-born Latino women are less likely to have LBW infants than US-born Latino women. The protective effect of foreign-born status is stronger among Latino women with less than high school education. The maternal education gradient is significantly flatter among foreign-born Latino women than among their US-born counterparts (pCubans and Central/South Americans). Among Mexicans and Central South Americans, the protective effect of foreign-born status is stronger among women with low education (i.e., 0-11 and 12 years) than among women with more education (i.e., 13-15 and 16+ years). The educational gradient in LBW is less pronounced among foreign-born Mexicans and Central/South Americans than among their US-born counterparts. As such, maternal foreign-born status and education are associated with LBW, though the direction and strength of these associations vary across Latino subgroups. A "health paradox" is apparent for foreign-born Mexican and Central/South American women among whom there is a weak maternal educational gradient in LBW. Future research may test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these variations in LBW among Latino subgroups, i.e., different gradients in sending countries, health selection of immigrants, cultural factors, and social support. PMID:17764796

Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Soobader, Mah-J; Berkman, Lisa F

2007-12-01

142

Cholecystokinin modulation of maternal behavior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Maternal behavior is regulated by several neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. This mini-review focuses on the role of cholecystokinin (CCK), a neuropeptide and gut hormone best known as a satiety signal, in mediating maternal behavior. In addition to the role of CCK in the infant in moth [...] er-infant interactions, maternal CCK appears to also be important. We discuss maternal behavior research, mainly in rats, that has examined the effect of administering CCK to dams, CCK-opioid interactions, and maternal behavior in rats that lack CCK1 receptors. We discuss the possibility that CCK might play a role in neurological adjustments during pregnancy that ultimately influence behavioral adaptations by the offspring during lactation. Finally, we hypothesize that maternal CCK is also involved in maternal memory and reward.

Luciano Freitas, Felicio; Aline de Mello, Cruz; Mariana, Schroeder; Aron, Weller.

2013-12-01

143

GENES AS INSTRUMENTS FOR STUDYING RISK BEHAVIOR EFFECTS: AN APPLICATION TO MATERNAL SMOKING AND OROFACIAL CLEFTS.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses instrumental variable (IV) models with genetic instruments to assess the effects of maternal smoking on the child's risk of orofacial clefts (OFC), a common birth defect. The study uses genotypic variants in neurotransmitter and detoxification genes relateded to smoking as instruments for cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. Conditional maximum likelihood and two-stage IV probit models are used to estimate the IV model. The data are from a population-level sample of affected and unaffected children in Norway. The selected genetic instruments generally fit the IV assumptions but may be considered "weak" in predicting cigarette smoking. We find that smoking before and during pregnancy increases OFC risk substantially under the IV model (by about 4-5 times at the sample average smoking rate). This effect is greater than that found with classical analytic models. This may be because the usual models are not able to consider self-selection into smoking based on unobserved confounders, or it may to some degree reflect limitations of the instruments. Inference based on weak-instrument robust confidence bounds is consistent with standard inference. Genetic instruments may provide a valuable approach to estimate the "causal" effects of risk behaviors with genetic-predisposing factors (such as smoking) on health and socioeconomic outcomes. PMID:22102793

Wehby, George; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C; Moreno, Lina; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T

2011-07-01

144

Neuroanatomical substrates of the disruptive effect of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior as revealed by c-Fos immunoreactivity  

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Olanzapine is one of the most widely prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Besides its well-known side effect on weight gain, it may also impair human parental behavior. In this study, we took a preclinical approach to examine the behavioral effects of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior and investigated the associated neural basis using the c-Fos immunohistochemistry. On postpartum Days 6–8, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of st...

Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

2012-01-01

145

Differential effects of maternal nutrient restriction through pregnancy on kidney development and later blood pressure control in the resulting offspring  

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The mechanisms whereby maternal nutritional manipulation through pregnancy result in altered blood pressure in the offspring may include changes in fetal and newborn and adult renal prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, metabolism, and receptor expression. Since the postnatal effects of nutrient restriction on the renal PG synthesis and receptor system during nephrogenesis in conjunction with nephron numbers and blood pressure have not been evaluated in the rat, the present study examined the effect ...

Brennan, K. A.; Kaufman, S.; Reynolds, S. W.; Mccook, B. T.; Kan, G.; Christiaens, I.; Symonds, M. E.; Olson, D. M.

2008-01-01

146

IUGR decreases PPAR? and SETD8 Expression in neonatal rat lung and these effects are ameliorated by maternal DHA supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with altered lung development in human and rat. The transcription factor PPAR?, is thought to contribute to lung development. PPAR? is activated by docosahexanoic acid (DHA). One contribution of PPAR? to lung development may be its direct regulation of chromatin modifying enzymes, such as Setd8. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would result in a gender-specific reduction in PPAR?, Setd8 and associated H4K20Me levels in the neonatal rat lung. Because DHA activates PPAR?, we also hypothesized that maternal DHA supplementation would normalize PPAR?, Setd8, and H4K20Me levels in the IUGR rat lung. We found that IUGR decreased PPAR? levels, with an associated decrease in Setd8 levels in both male and female rat lungs. Levels of the Setd8-dependent histone modification, H4K20Me, were reduced on the PPAR? gene in both males and females while whole lung H4K20Me was only reduced in male lung. Maternal DHA supplementation ameliorated these effects in offspring. We conclude that IUGR decreases lung PPAR?, Setd8 and PPAR? H4K20Me independent of gender, while decreasing whole lung H4K20Me in males only. These outcomes are offset by maternal DHA. We speculate that maintenance of the epigenetic milieu may be one role of PPAR? in the lung and suggests a novel benefit of maternal DHA supplementation in IUGR. PMID:20869820

Joss-Moore, Lisa A; Wang, Yan; Baack, Michelle L; Yao, Jianrong; Norris, Andrew W; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W; McKnight, Robert A; Albertine, Kurt H; Lane, Robert H

2010-12-01

147

MATERNAL AGE EFFECT: THE ENIGMA OF DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER TRISOMIC CONDITIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Aneuploidy is the most frequently observed chromosome abnormality in human liveborn, abortuses, and oocytes. he only etiological factor that has been established is advanced maternal age for the occurrence of trisomies, particularly trisomy 21 which causes Down syndrome. he mater...

148

Congenital cataract screening in maternity wards is effective : evaluation of the Pediatric Cataract Register of Sweden  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: To study which eye-screening protocol prevails in Swedish maternity/neonatal wards, evaluate efficacy in a prospective study, and compare results with earlier Swedish retrospective results. METHODS: Surveys were sent in 2006 to maternity/neonatal and women's health departments regarding screening policy. Response frequency was 96% (122/127). Data were derived from The Pediatric Cataract Register, PECARE Sweden. All Swedish children diagnosed with congenital cataract and operated on before 1 year of age between January 2007 and December 2009 were included. Statistical comparison with earlier retrospective results was performed. RESULTS: Eye screening is routine protocol at a rate of 90% of Swedish maternity wards. Sixty-one children were included in the study. An increase was shown in case referrals from maternity wards compared to ten years ago (64% versus 50%). Detection was performed within 6 weeks of age in 75% of the cases. A significant difference between the probabilities of early referral (0.38; p

Magnusson, Gunilla; Bizjajeva, Svetlana

2013-01-01

149

BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING  

Science.gov (United States)

Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

150

Stage dependence of phenotypical and phenological maternal effects: insight into squamate reptile reproductive strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced thermal conditions have been credited as a driving force for the evolution of viviparity, particularly in squamate reptiles, among which it has independently evolved more than 100 times. However, maternal thermoregulation is also a critical component of reproduction in oviparous squamates, for which considerable embryonic development occurs prior to oviposition. When carrying eggs, oviparous mothers modify thermoregulation in a manner similar to that of pregnant females. To further understand the role of temperature in influencing reproductive strategies, it is critical that we elucidate the degree to which thermal sensitivity varies across developmental stages. We studied stage-dependent embryonic sensitivity in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper (Vipera aspis). We manipulated female body temperature at different stages of pregnancy-early development, early embryonic growth, and late embryonic growth-by imposing two contrasting daily thermal cycles that mimicked reproductive (warm) and nonreproductive (cool) female temperature profiles. Thermal sensitivity of offspring phenotype was stage dependent, with offspring quality more negatively affected when exposure to cool temperatures occurred early in development. In contrast, developmental rate was slowed by the cooler cycle, independent of the timing of the exposure. Given the more persistent effect on phenology, phenological effects likely provide a greater driving force for complete embryonic retention (i.e., viviparity). PMID:23852356

Lorioux, Sophie; Vaugoyeau, Marie; Denardo, Dale F; Clobert, Jean; Guillon, Michaël; Lourdais, Olivier

2013-08-01

151

Cocaine Addiction in Mothers: Potential Effects on Maternal Care and Infant Development  

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Maternal cocaine addiction is a significant public health issue particularly affecting children, with high rates of reported abuse, neglect and foster care placement. This review examines both preclinical and clinical evidence for how cocaine abuse may impact maternal care and infant development, exploring brain, behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms. There is evidence that cocaine may affect infant development both directly, via in utero exposure, and indirectly via alterations in materna...

Strathearn, Lane; Mayes, Linda C.

2010-01-01

152

Genes, manganese, and zinc in formation of otoconia: labeling, recovery, and maternal effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Published studies indicate that genes and dietary manganese deficiency cause vestibular defects and ataxic behaviors. Manganese deficiency during development causes otoconial defects in mice, rats, guinea pigs, and chicks. Mutant genes cause otoconial defects in mice, mink, and poultry. Manganese supplementation prevents the otoconial defects in some mutant mice and mink. Manganese is essential, before crystallization of the otoconia, for synthesis of mucopolysaccharides and otoconial matrix. Such defects can be induced, after otoconia are crystallized during fetal development, by dietary zinc deficiency and sulfonamide treatment (inhibits carbonic anhydrase, a zinc-requiring enzyme). Manganese and/or zinc supplementation ameliorates otoconial defects in pallid and lethal-milk (zinc-deficient) mice. Studies herein show that: Developing otoconia can be quantitatively labeled with 45 Ca. This may provide a means for studying calcium metabolism in otoconia over a prolonged period of time and for determining the possible effects of diet, drugs, and other factors on otoconia. Otoconial defects, induced after otoconia form in the fetus, were observed in newborn mice, but disappeared by two days after birth. Conditions of the inner ear may contribute to the calcification of otoconia. Manganese and zinc supplementation of pallid mice via acidified drinking water is more effective than dietary supplementation in preventing otoconial defects. The effectiveness of zinc but not of manganese is related to maternal genotype (+/pa vs. pa/pa). The effect of supplementation of the dams with zinc but not with manganese increases over successive litters. These studies indicate the potential for interaction of genes and trace minerals on otoconial formation and maintenance. PMID:3810031

Erway, L C; Purichia, N A; Netzler, E R; D'Amore, M A; Esses, D; Levine, M

1986-01-01

153

An explicit test for the contribution of environmental maternal effects to rapid clinal differentiation in an invasive plant  

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Population differentiation of alien invasive plants within their non-native range has received increasingly more attention. Common gardens are typically used to assess the levels of genotypic differentiation among populations. However, in such experiments, environmental maternal effects can influence phenotypic variation among individuals if seed sources are collected from field populations under variable environmental regimes. In the present study, we investigated the causes of an altitudina...

Monty, Arnaud; Lebeau, Julie; Meerts, Pierre; Mahy, Gre?gory

2009-01-01

154

Understanding the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact in maternal and child mortality reduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most unexpected outcomes arising from the efforts towards maternal and child mortality reduction is that all too often the objective success has been coupled with increased inequity in the population. The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equity and suggest strategies that will promote an impact on mortality that reduce population child health inequities.

Mickey Chopra

2012-06-01

155

Understanding the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact in maternal and child mortality reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most unexpected outcomes arising from the efforts towards maternal and child mortality reduction is that all too often the objective success has been coupled with increased inequity in the population. The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equity and suggest strategies that will promote an impact on mortality that reduce population child health inequities.

Mickey Chopra; Harry Campbell; Igor Rudan

2012-01-01

156

The Effect Of Health Education With Modelling Approach On Mother’s Attitude, Maternal Confidence, and Infant (3 Months) Development.  

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The first years of age of a child is a critical time that will affect the child growth development process. Any untreated disorders may impair the process that subsequently influences quality of life of the child in the future. Therefore, it is imperative for a mother to optimize the growth development process. This study aims to identify the effectiveness of health education with modelling approach on mother’s attitude, maternal confidence, and infant (3 months) development. A Qua...

Saleh, Ariyanti

2008-01-01

157

The effects of maternal depression and use of antidepressants during pregnancy on risk of a child small for gestational age  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

RATIONALE: Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with an increased rate of children small for gestational age (SGA), but it is unclear whether this is due to an effect of the underlying depressive disorder. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of antidepressants on SGA in a nationwide sample and to separate the effect of exposure to antidepressants in utero from the effect of maternal depression. METHODS: A register study was conducted on all pregnant women in Denmark from 1996 to 2006 linking nationwide individualized data from the Medical Birth Register, the Psychiatric Central Register, and a prescription database. The rate of SGA (birth weight below the 10 percentile at given gestational week) was investigated for children exposed in utero to antidepressants or to a maternal psychiatric diagnosis of depression compared to children not prenatally exposed to antidepressants or maternal diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 673,853 pregnancies were included in the study of which 35.737 women had a diagnosis of depression and/or used antidepressants before end of pregnancy. Antidepressant use during pregnancy was weakly associated with SGA (hazard ratios (HR)?=?1.19; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.28), whereas a psychiatric diagnosis before or during pregnancy was not (HR?=?1.02; 95 % CI, 0.92-1.13). The association for use during pregnancy was found for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and newer antidepressants, but not for older antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The use of antidepressants during pregnancy slightly increases the rate of SGA. The association seems unrelated to the underlying maternal depressive disorder.

Jensen, Hans MØrch; GrØn, Randi

2013-01-01

158

hecate, a zebrafish maternal effect gene, affects dorsal organizer induction and intracellular calcium transient frequency.  

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A zebrafish maternal effect mutation, in the gene hecate, results in embryos that have defects in the formation of dorsoanterior structures and altered calcium release. hecate mutant embryos lack nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and have reduced expression of genes specific to the dorsal organizer. We found that hecate mutant embryos exhibit a nearly 10-fold increase in the frequency of intracellular Ca2+ transients normally present in the enveloping layer during the blastula stages. Inhibition of Ca2+ release leads to ectopic expression of dorsal genes in mutant embryos suggesting that Ca2+ transients are important in mediating dorsal gene expression. Inhibition of Ca2+ release also results in the expression of dorsal-specific genes in the enveloping layer in a beta-catenin-independent manner, which suggests an additional function for the Ca2+ transients in this cellular layer. The mutant phenotype can be reversed by the expression of factors that activate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, suggesting that the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, at least as activated by an exogenous Wnt ligand, is intact in hec mutant embryos. Our results are consistent with a role for the hecate gene in the regulation of Ca2+ release during the cleavage stages, which in turn influences dorsal gene expression in both marginal cells along the dorsoventral axis and in the enveloping layer. PMID:16154557

Lyman Gingerich, Jamie; Westfall, Trudi A; Slusarski, Diane C; Pelegri, Francisco

2005-10-15

159

Effect of Skin to Skin Contact on Maternal State Anxiety in a Cesarean Section Ward  

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Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at investigating the effect of skin to skin contact (SSC on maternal state anxiety (MSA in cesarean section unit in Akbarabadi Hospital in Tehran. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 60 Iranian mothers with at least one record of cesarean section delivery were assigned to two intervention (SSC and control groups. In the morning shift and two hours after the operation, as a routine postoperative care, pain-killers were given to all mothers. Then the mothers’ pain scores were measured using visual analog scale (VAS. If VAS was?3, MSA was measured by using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Scale (Spiel Berger. Thirty minutes of SSC intervention was done for mothers in the intervention group. Six hours later, in case VAS was ? 3, MSA was re-measured by using the Spiel Berger Scale for all mothers. Results: Six hours after implementing the intervention, there were no meaningful statistical differences between the MSA mean scores of the two groups, but severity of MSA in intervention group was less than that of the control group (P=0.037. Six hours after the intervention, there was a significant decrease in the MSA mean score in SSC group (P=0.002. Conclusion: As regards the important role of constant anxiety in developing postpartum depression, and as the results of this study indicate, SSC is recommended in postpartum and especially cesarean section wards.

Hamid Haghani

2011-01-01

160

Effect of exercise on the maternal outcome in pregnancy of spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of exercise (swimming) on pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Thirty three pregnant female SHR were distributed into three groups (n=11 animals/group): SHR Control=non-exercised (sedentary); SHR Ex0 = exercised from day zero to day 20 of [...] pregnancy; and SHR Ex7 = exercised from day 7 to 20 of pregnancy. Body weight and systolic blood pressure were indirectly measured during pregnancy. On gestational day 21, the rats were anaesthetized and uterine content was withdrawn for analysis of maternal reproductive outcome parameters and fetal development. RESULTS: The reduced blood pressure percentage was higher in SHR Ex0 and SHR Ex7 compared to SHR Control group. Weight gain was present in all pregnancy periods, but it was lower in SHR Ex7 than in SHR Control dams. The exercise increased the pre-implantation loss rate. The post-implantation loss rate was lower in SHR Ex0 group. SHR Ex7 group showed a significantly higher percentage of fetuses classified as small for gestational age as compared to others groups. CONCLUSION: The exercise contributed to lowering gestational blood pressure in SHR rats, but had a negative impact on the developing embryo.

Renato, Rocha; José Carlos, Peraçoli; Gustavo Tadeu, Volpato; Débora Cristina, Damasceno; Kleber Eduardo de, Campos.

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring  

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Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ?1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ?2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ?2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

162

Effects of Pollen Load Size and Maternal Plant on Pollen Performance and Seedling Vigor in Clarkia unguiculata (ONAGRACEAE  

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Full Text Available Pollen load size may vary both temporally and spatially in natural flower pollinations. This variation could lead to differences in the intensity of competition between pollen grains for access to ovules for fertilization. Increased competition for ovules could lead to increases in progeny vigor, if the fastest growing pollen tubes sire the most vigorous offspring. The maternal tissue supporting the germination and growth of pollen may also influence the competition between grains through the promotion of certain grain genotypes over others. This study examines the effects of pollen load size and maternal plant on pollen tube attrition, seed set and seedling vigor in chamber grown plants of the wildflower Clarkia unguiculata (Lindl.. Pollen load size significantly affected the number of pollen tubes in the style and number of seeds set. Pollen load size had no significant effect on attrition levels, seed weight, or any measures of seedling vigor (germination, cotyledon size, first foliar leaf size, seedling dry weight. In contrast, significant maternal effects were observed in all parameters measured with the exception of attrition levels and dry weight of seedlings.

M. Barbara Nemeth

2006-01-01

163

Maternal effects mediated by egg quality in the Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis in relation to laying order and embryo sex  

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Abstract Background Maternal effects mediated by egg size and quality may profoundly affect offspring development and performance, and mothers may adjust egg traits according to environmental or social influences. In avian species, context-dependency of maternal effects may result in variation in egg composition, as well as in differential patterns of covariation among selected egg components, according to, for example, position in the laying sequence or offspring sex. We inv...

Caprioli Manuela; Ambrosini Roberto; Karadas Filiz; Navara Kristen J; Romano Maria; Rubolini Diego; Saino Nicola

2011-01-01

164

Developmental Fluoxetine Exposure Normalizes the Long-Term Effects of Maternal Stress on Post-Operative Pain in Sprague-Dawley Rat Offspring  

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Early life events can significantly alter the development of the nociceptive circuit. In fact, clinical work has shown that maternal adversity, in the form of depression, and concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment influence nociception in infants. The combined effects of maternal adversity and SSRI exposure on offspring nociception may be due to their effects on the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. Therefore, the present study investigated l...

Knaepen, Liesbeth; Rayen, Ine; Charlier, Thierry D.; Fillet, Marianne; Houbart, Virginie; Kleef, Maarten; Steinbusch, Harry W.; Patijn, Jacob; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Elbert A.; Pawluski, Jodi L.

2013-01-01

165

Effects of magnesium on isolated human fetal and maternal uteroplacental vessels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of Mg2+ were studied in human umbilical arteries, stem villous arteries and maternal intramyometrial arteries. The vessels were dissected and mounted in organ baths, and isometric tension was recorded. In all fetal preparations investigated, Mg2+ (0.5-6.0 mM) in a concentration-related way decreased pD2 values for prostaglandin F2 alpha responses. The maximum response to prostaglandin F2 alpha was depressed in umbilical arteries, but remained unaffected in stem villous artery preparations. In stem villous arteries pretreated in Ca2(+)-free medium, increasing concentrations of Mg2+ markedly depressed the response to Ca2+ after stimulation with K+ or prostaglandin F2 alpha, suggesting that Mg2+ inhibited transmembrane calcium influx and interfered with intracellular calcium effects. In both stem villous and intramyometrial arteries, increasing concentrations of Mg2+ increased EC50 values for responses to K+, whereas Emax values were unaffected. Mg2+ produced relaxation of agonist-induced contractions by up to 60% in stem villous arteries and up to 40% in intramyometrial artery preparations. The relaxant effect of Mg2+ did not seem to be mediated through the endothelium or through changes in the synthesis of prostanoids, since endothelial disruption and treatment with indomethacin left the responses to Mg2+ unaffected. Relaxation of vessels important for resistance regulation in the human uteroplacental vascular bed may be of benefit when uteroplacental blood flow is impaired, and the present results support the established use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of pre-eclampsia.

Skajaa, K; Forman, Axel

1990-01-01

166

Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.  

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Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, ?-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and ?-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders. PMID:24916330

Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

2015-02-01

167

Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage  

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Full Text Available The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum, low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density but they had different food availability. In the two latter conditions, daphnids had the same per capita, low, food availability but they lived at different algae and daphnid densities. Moreover, the response of crowded females to recovery at high food availability and low population density was evaluated. Low food availability reduced growth and fecundity of both clones and increased male production only in the Clone L. Crowding per se did not affect growth but reduced fecundity. In both clones, low food availability due to low algae density enhanced investment in offspring size and resistance to starvation. In response to food shortage either due to low algae density and to crowding, Clone P increased the investment in offspring size and starvation tolerance but reduced fecundity to a lesser extent than Clone L and did not produce males. Clone L, in response to food shortage due to crowding at high algae density, increased development time, produced more males, as at low algae density, but halved fecundity producing offspring that were not starvationtolerant. These results might reflect differences in anticipatory maternal effects between clones and suggest that neonate quality varies according to either, the environment the mother experienced and the competitive environment the neonates will cope due to their mother life strategy.

Valeria ROSSI

2011-08-01

168

Pathogenic effects of maternal antinuclear antibodies during pregnancy in women with lupus  

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Full Text Available Lupus is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects young women of childbearing age. Fertility rates in lupus patients depend on various factors, including disease activity, nephritis, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies; however, after lupus patients become pregnant, different factors may affect the course of pregnancy, such as the production of autoantibodies, pre-existing renal disease, and eclampsia, among others. The placenta is a temporary hemochorial organ that prevents immunological conflict due to exposure to alloantigens at the maternal-fetal interface; placental regulatory T cells play a major role in maternal-fetal tolerance. Typically, significant amounts of maternal IgG class antibodies cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation. This transition depends on the distribution of Fc receptors along the syncytiotrophoblast. The production of antinuclear antibodies (ANA is a hallmark of lupus, and these autoantibodies can form immune complexes that are typically trapped in the placenta during gestation. However, the entry of ANA into the fetal circulation depends on the IgG-ANA concentration and the FcR placental density. Maternal antinuclear antibodies with anti-Ro or anti-La specificity might be pathogenic to the fetus if transfused by the placental pathway and could induce neonatal pathologies, such as neonatal lupus and congenital heart block. Here, we review the experimental and clinical data supporting a pathogenic role for maternal autoantibodies transmitted to the fetus

Rafael Herrera-Esparza

2014-06-01

169

STUDY OF EFFECT OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE RELATED RISKS FOR DOWN SYNDROME & OTHER TRISOMIES.  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACTBack ground: Down syndrome is the most frequent live born aneuploidy & recognizable form of mental retardation among all the ethnic groups of human population across the globe. The most common risk factor for DS is advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to find out risks of advanced maternal age for chromosomal abnormalities.  Materials & methods: The chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed by cytogenetic study of 30 clinically diagnosed cases of DS attending paediatric outpatient department(OPD & admitted in paediatric ward, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, as well as cases from B.M. Institute of Mental Health, Aashram Road, Ahmedabad. Their detailed history was taken.Results: The study revealed that with advanced maternal age the risk of child birth having DS was increased. After age of 35 years the risk of child birth with DS was increased by 43.4% in our study.Conclusion: As a woman gets older, her risk to have a pregnancy with a chromosome abnormality increases. The most commonly used definition for advanced maternal age is 35 years or more at time of child birth. With advanced maternal age hormonal level, numbers of healthy oocyte for fertilization, telomere length decreases with reduced meiotic recombination. All these factors increases the risk of pregnancy with DS.

toral goswami

2013-03-01

170

Effects of vitamins B12, folic asid, A, D, E and C on maternal and fetal health  

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Full Text Available Adequate and balanced nutrition together with appropriate weight gain during pregnancy is important for being protected from short and long term complications. During pregnancy energy and nutrition requirements increase. Sufficient intake of nutrients has important effects on both the mother’s and the developing fetus’s health. Deficient or excessive intakes of important vitamins can increase the risk of maternal and fetal health problems. Folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D, or antioxidant vitamins (vitamin E and C deficiencies can cause fetal growth and developmental disorders in addition to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Moreover, insufficient intake of these vitamins during maternal period increases the risk of permanent health problems for the baby. Additionally, it is stated that vitamin deficiencies during the maternal period can have negative effects even on cognitional development of the children. Nowadays, only folic acid supplementation is applied to prevent the risk of neural tube defect, and recently studies are being conducted on vitamin supplementations in the maternal stage. It is stated that the effects of folic acid together with vitamin B12 on lowering the homocysteine levels can protect against the risks of insufficient fetal growth and low birth weight. Additionally, it is reported that vitamin D can be protective against bone development problems, diabetes, preeclampsia, inflammation, and infection. Studies carried on vitamins E and C (antioxidant vitamins were focused on their effects on preventing the risk of preeclampsia. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the exact effects and mechanisms of vitamins during the maternal period. Future research in this area may lead to successful vitamin supplementation practices during pregnancies in the future. Nowadays, following a sufficient and balance diet starting at pre-gestational period leads to early determination of vitamin deficiencies and can decrease the risk of problems that may arise during pregnancy. This review was aimed to evaluate the physiological functions and effects of vitamins B12, folic acid, A, D, E, and C on the mother’s and the fetus’s health.

Seray Kabaran

2013-06-01

171

The effects of the wood preservative copper dimethyldithiocarbamate in the hippocampus of maternal and newborn Long-Evans rats.  

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The potential toxic effects on human health and deleterious effects to the environment by copper dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC), an alternative wood preservative to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) have not been investigated. This study describes the neurotoxicity and accumulation of copper in the hippocampus of maternal and newborn Long-Evans rats following a subacute exposure to CDDC. Pregnant rats (220-270g) were treated daily with 0mg/kg, 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg, or 75mg/kg CDDC by oral gavage starting from day 6 of gestation and continuing to parturition. Following parturition, maternal and newborn rats were euthanized and brain tissues were removed, processed, and stored for analysis. Electron microscopy revealed demyelination and by-products of peroxidative damage in treated maternal hippocampi. Treated newborn hippocampi exhibited numerous degenerating mitochondria, membrane bound inclusion bodies, and vacuoles containing degraded structures. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) demonstrated a significant increase in copper concentration in the tissues of treated animals as compared to controls. Western blot analysis revealed an induction of stress proteins HO-1 and Hsp70 and the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) adducts. CDDC was shown to be toxic to the brains, at all doses used and this toxicity is attributable to copper-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:17945439

Scharf, Brian; Trombetta, Louis David

2007-11-01

172

Ovarian and uterine characteristics and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring: effects of maternal diet and selenium supplementation in sheep.  

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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal diet with adequate (A) or high (H) selenium (Se) supplementation on ovarian and uterine characteristics, and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring. Sheep were fed a maintenance (M) diet with ASe or HSe levels from breeding to parturition. From Day 50 to parturition, a portion of the ewes from ASe and HSe groups was fed restricted (R, 60% of M) or excess (E, 140% of M) diet. Immediately after birth, lambs were separated from their dams and given artificial colostrum for 20 hours, followed by milk replacer. From Day 57.3 ± 0.6, ewe lambs were fed a pelleted grower diet until Day 116.3 ± 0.6 when they were transitioned to a finisher diet. From Day 99 to 180, serum samples were collected weekly from jugular vein for progesterone analysis to determine onset of puberty. Reproductive tissues were collected on Day 180.1 ± 0.4 of age. Maternal diet or Se supplementation did not affect uterine or ovarian weight and onset of puberty. However, area under the curve for progesterone was greater (P = 0.05) in ASe compared with HSe groups, and was greater in ASeM than HSeM group. In CLs, labeling index (LI; a proportion of proliferating cells) was less (P uterine characteristics or onset of puberty. These results indicate that maternal plane of nutrition and/or Se supplementation may have specific effects on reproductive function in offspring. PMID:24534339

Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Neville, Tammi L; Borowczyk, Ewa; Sharma, Akanksha; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S; Redmer, Dale A; Vonnahme, Kimberly A

2014-04-15

173

Effects of maternal vitamin supplements on malaria in children born to HIV-infected women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitamin deficiencies are frequent in children suffering from malaria. The effects of maternal multivitamin supplementation on the risk of malaria in children are unknown. We examined the impact of providing multivitamins or vitamin A/beta-carotene supplements during pregnancy and lactation to HIV-infected women on their children's risk of malaria up to 2 years of age, in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Tanzanian women (N = 829) received one of four daily oral regimens during pregnancy and after delivery: 1) vitamins B, C, and E (multivitamins); 2) vitamin A and beta-carotene (VA/BC); 3) multivitamins including VA/BC; or 4) placebo. After 6 months of age, all children received 6-monthly oral vitamin A supplements irrespective of treatment arm. The incidence of childhood malaria was assessed through three-monthly blood smears and at monthly and interim clinic visits from birth to 24 months of age. Compared with placebo, multivitamins excluding VA/BC reduced the incidence of clinical malaria by 71% (95% CI = 11-91%; P = 0.02), whereas VA/BC alone resulted in a nonsignificant 63% reduction (95% CI = -4% to 87%; P = 0.06). Multivitamins including VA/BC significantly reduced the incidence of high parasitemia by 43% (95% CI = 2-67%; P = 0.04). The effects did not vary according to the children's HIV status. Supplementation of pregnant and lactating HIV-infected women with vitamins B, C, and E might be a useful, inexpensive intervention to decrease the burden of malaria in children born to HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17556612

Villamor, Eduardo; Msamanga, Gernard; Saathoff, Elmar; Fataki, Maulidi; Manji, Karim; Fawzi, Wafaie W

2007-06-01

174

Hemoglobinas humanas: hipótese malária ou efeito materno? Human hemoglobins: malaria hypothesis or maternal effect?  

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Full Text Available As hemoglobinopatias têm provido uma das poucas demonstrações convincentes da seleção, influenciando a freqüência de único gene na população humana. A alta taxa de desordens, tais como a anemia falciforme e a beta-talassemia, ocorridas em áreas subtropicais ou tropicais dentro do cinturão da malária, levou Haldane a propor que a malária pode ser o agente seletivo responsável que balanceia a perda dos genes para a talassemia e a anemia falciforme, por morte prematura dos homozigotos a partir do aumento do valor adaptativo de heterozigotos no ambiente com malária. Mas uma nova proposta surgiu para explicar a manutenção deste polimorfismo, baseada na fertilidade diferencial ou efeito parental. Alguns autores observaram uma distorção favorecendo a transmissão de alelos mutantes em áreas não endêmicas de malária. Com base nestas observações, esses autores propuseram um efeito materno para explicar tais distorções. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão destes mecanismos envolvidos na manutenção do polimorfismo de hemoglobinopatias, desde seu modelo clássico até hipóteses alternativas que surgiram recentemente na literatura.Hemoglobinopathies are providing one of the few convincing demonstrations of selection, influencing the frequency of a single gene in the human population. The high rate of disorders, such as the sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia that occur in the subtropical or tropical regions within the strip affected by malaria, led Haldane to propose that malaria may be the selective agent responsible for balancing the loss of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia genes due to the early death of homozygous patients. But a new proposal appeared to explain the maintenance of these polymorphisms, based on the differential fertility or parental effect. Some authors observed a distortion favoring the transmission of mutant alleles in non-endemic malaria areas. Based on these observations, the authors proposed a maternal effect to explain these distortions. This study aims at presenting a review of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of polymorphisms of hemoglobinopathies, both from the classic model and the recently published alternative hypotheses.

Felipe R. Torres

2005-03-01

175

Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively, preparing at least their major offspring for the sexual competition they will face in the future. This new type of maternal effect in dung beetles represents a novel transgenerational response of alternative reproductive tactics to population density.

Buzatto Bruno A

2012-07-01

176

Effect of 5-HT1B receptor agonists injected into the prefrontal cortex on maternal aggression in rats  

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Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT1B receptors play an essential role in the inhibition of aggressive behavior in rodents. CP-94,253, a 5-HT1B receptor agonist, can reduce aggression in male mice when administered directly into the ventro-orbitofrontal (VO prefrontal cortex (PFC. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of two selective 5-HT1B receptor agonists (CP-94,253 and CP-93,129, microinjected into the VO PFC, on maternal aggressive behavior after social instigation in rats. CP-94,253 (0.56 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8 or CP-93,129 (1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 9 was microinjected into the VO PFC of Wistar rats on the 9th day postpartum and 15 min thereafter the aggressive behavior by the resident female against a male intruder was recorded for 10 min. The frequency and duration of aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc tests. CP-93,129 significantly decreased maternal aggression. The frequency of lateral attacks, bites and pinnings was reduced compared to control, while the non-aggressive behaviors and maternal care were largely unaffected by this treatment. CP-94,253 had no significant effects on aggressive or non-aggressive behaviors when microinjected into the same area of female rats. CP-93,129, a specific 5-HT1B receptor agonist, administered into the VO PFC reduced maternal aggressive behavior, while the CP-94,253 agonist did not significantly affect this behavior after social instigation in female rats. We conclude that only the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP-93,129 administered into the VO PFC decreased aggression in female rats postpartum after social instigation.

C.P. Veiga

2007-06-01

177

Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ?g OVA with 200 ?g aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue

178

Effects of maternal separation on behavior and brain damage in adult rats exposed to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal studies suggest that maternal separation, a widely used paradigm to study the effects of early life adversity, exerts a profound and life-long impact on both brain and behavior. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adverse early life experiences interact with neonatal hypoxia-ischemia, affecting the outcome of this neurological insult at both functional and structural levels during adulthood. Rat pups were separated from their mothers during postnatal days 1-6, for either a short (15min) or prolonged (180min) period, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 7, a subgroup from each of the three postnatal manipulations was exposed to a hypoxic-ischemic episode. Behavioral examination took place approximately at three months of age and included tests of learning and memory (Morris water maze, novel object and novel place recognition), as well as motor coordination (rota-rod). We found that both prolonged maternal separation and neonatal hypoxia-ischemia impaired the animals' spatial learning and reference memory. Deficits in spatial but not visual recognition memory were detected only in hypoxic-ischemic rats. Interestingly, prolonged maternal separation prior to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia augmented the reference memory impairments. Histological analysis of infarct size, hippocampal area and thickness of corpus callosum did not reveal any exacerbation of damage in hypoxic-ischemic rats that were maternally separated for a prolonged period. These are the first data suggesting that an adverse postnatal environmental manipulation of just 6 days causes long-term effects on spatial learning and memory and may render the organism more vulnerable to a subsequent insult. PMID:25433094

Tata, Despina A; Markostamou, Ioanna; Ioannidis, Anestis; Gkioka, Mara; Simeonidou, Constantina; Anogianakis, Georgios; Spandou, Evangelia

2015-03-01

179

Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ?g OVA with 200 ?g aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue.

Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young [Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 483 Expo-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Sang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun-young [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa-Young [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Youl, E-mail: youl10@hanmail.net [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-01

180

Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters at different gestational ages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study establishes levels of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glycogen phosphorlyase (GP), and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues at Days 9, 12, and 15 in the 16-day gestation period of the hamster, and following a single dose of either 8 or 15 mg/kg mercuric acetate on the eighth gestational day. Mercury significantly elevated maternal kidney G6PD activity and decreased GP activity. The increase in kidney G6PD strongly correlated with observed urine and kidney abnormalities.

Karp, W.B.; Gale, T.F.; Subramanyam, S.B.; DuRant, R.H.

1985-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effects of maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing on chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasitism and performance of lambs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-eight 4- to 5-yr-old Blackface x Bluefaced Leicester (Mule) ewes and their 24-d-old twin lambs were used to assess the effects of maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing on chicory (Cichorium intybus) on performance and parasitism. The experiment consisted of 2 grazing periods: safe pasture period and experimental pasture period. During an adaptation period of 66 d, ewes were infected through oral dosing with Teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae (3 d per wk) and were supplemented with protein (HP) or not (LP) for the last 45 d of this period. At the end of this period, ewes and their lambs were turned out onto a parasitologically safe pasture; all ewes continued to be dosed with parasite (once a week), and HP ewes received protein supplementation for the first 35 d. Ewes and lambs grazed the safe pasture for an additional 43 d after termination of protein supplementation and of oral dosing with parasites. Ewes and their lambs were then moved onto newly established experimental pastures sown with chicory or grass/clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). During the safe pasture period, HP ewes had decreased fecal egg counts (FEC) compared with LP ewes, whereas HP lambs had temporarily less (P 0.10) between maternal nutrition and grazed forage type on performance or parasitological measurements. Our results suggest that increased maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing of chicory independently improve lamb performance and reduce lamb parasitism. PMID:20023143

Kidane, A; Houdijk, J G M; Athanasiadou, S; Tolkamp, B J; Kyriazakis, I

2010-04-01

182

Effect of maternal smoking and coffee consumption on the risk of having a recognized Down syndrome pregnancy.  

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To evaluate the possible effects of maternal smoking and caffeine or coffee consumption on the occurrence of a recognized pregnancy with Down syndrome, the authors analyzed data from a case-control study of 997 liveborn infants or fetuses with Down syndrome ascertained in California from 1991 to 1993 and 1,007 liveborn controls without a birth defect. Interviews with mothers covered demographic information, pregnancy, and medical history, with detailed questions on the use of tobacco, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages. All analyses were age-adjusted. High alcohol consumption (> or =4 drinks/week) in the first month of pregnancy was associated with reduced risk for a recognized Down syndrome conceptus (odds ratio (OR) = 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34, 0.85). Maternal smoking during the periconceptional period was not associated with risk of recognized Down syndrome (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.37), but maternal consumption of four or more cups of coffee per day was inversely associated (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.96). In multivariate analysis, a significant interaction between coffee drinking and smoking was observed. The inverse association remained only for nonsmoking mothers who drank four or more cups of coffee per day (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82). These results suggest that among nonsmoking mothers, high coffee consumption is more likely to reduce the viability of a Down syndrome conceptus than that of a normal conceptus. PMID:11130625

Torfs, C P; Christianson, R E

2000-12-15

183

Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development  

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Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

GS Schmidt

2003-05-01

184

Effects of running wheel training on adult obese rats programmed by maternal prolactin inhibition.  

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The inhibition of maternal prolactin production in late lactation leads to metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism in adult offspring. Physical training is a therapeutic strategy that could prevent or reverse this condition. We evaluated the effects of a short-duration low-intensity running wheel training program on the metabolic and hormonal alterations in rats. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (Bro, 1?mg twice a day) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation, and the training of offspring began at 35 days of age. Offspring were divided into sedentary and trained controls (C-Sed and C-Ex) and sedentary and trained Bro-treated rats (Bro-Sed and Bro-Ex). Chronic exercise delayed the onset of weight gain in Bro-Ex offspring, and the food intake did not change during the experimental period. At 180 days, visceral fat mass was higher (+46%) in the Bro-Sed offspring than in C-Sed and Bro-Ex rats. As expected, running capacity was higher in trained animals. Most parameters observed in the Bro-Sed offspring were consistent with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome and were reversed in the Bro-Ex group. Chronic exercise did not influence the muscle glycogen in the C-Ex group; however, liver glycogen was higher (+30%) in C-Ex group and was unchanged in both Bro offspring groups. Bro-Ex animals had higher plasma lactate dehydrogenase levels, indicating skeletal muscle damage and intolerance of the training program. Low-intensity chronic training is able to normalize many clinical aspects in Bro animals; however, these animals might have had a lower threshold for exercise adaptation than the control rats. PMID:23863192

Boaventura, G; Casimiro-Lopes, G; Pazos-Moura, C C; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

2013-10-01

185

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.  

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The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

2014-10-28

186

Effects of maternal nicotine exposure on thyroid hormone metabolism and function in adult rat progeny.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postnatal nicotine exposure leads to obesity and hypothyroidism in adulthood. We studied the effects of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation on thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism and function in adult offspring. Lactating rats received implants of osmotic minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC, 6?mg/kg per day s.c.) or saline (control) from postnatal days 2 to 16. Offspring were killed at 180 days. We measured types 1 and 2 deiodinase activity and mRNA, mitochondrial ?-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) activity, TH receptor (TR), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), hypothalamic TRH, pituitary TSH, and in vitro TRH-stimulated TSH secretion. Expression of deiodinase mRNAs followed the same profile as that of the enzymatic activity. NIC exposure caused lower 5'-D1 and mGPD activities; lower TR?1 content in liver as well as lower 5'-D1 activity in muscle; and higher 5'-D2 activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), heart, and testis, which are in accordance with hypothyroidism. Although deiodinase activities were not changed in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and thyroid of NIC offspring, UCP1 expression was lower in BAT. Levels of both TRH and TSH were lower in offspring exposed to NIC, which presented higher basal in vitro TSH secretion, which was not increased in response to TRH. Thus, the hypothyroidism in NIC offspring at adulthood was caused, in part, by in vivo TRH-TSH suppression and lower sensitivity to TRH. Despite the hypothyroid status of peripheral tissues, these animals seem to develop an adaptive mechanism to preserve thyroxine to triiodothyronine conversion in central tissues. PMID:25653393

Lisboa, P C; de Oliveira, E; Manhães, A C; Santos-Silva, A P; Pinheiro, C R; Younes-Rapozo, V; Faustino, L C; Ortiga-Carvalho, T M; Moura, E G

2015-03-01

187

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome.

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei

2014-01-01

188

Postnatal stability, tissue, and time specific effects of AHRR methylation change in response to maternal smoking in pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intrauterine environment has the potential to "program" the developing fetus in a way that can be potentially deleterious to later health. While in utero environmental/stochastic factors are known to influence DNA methylation profile at birth, it has been difficult to assign specific examples of epigenetic variation to specific environmental exposures. Recently, several studies have linked exposure to smoking with DNA methylation change in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene in blood. This includes hypomethylation of AHRR in neonatal blood in response to maternal smoking in pregnancy. The role of AHRR as a negative regulator of pathways involved in pleiotropic responses to environmental contaminants raises the possibility that smoking-induced hypomethylation is an adaptive response to an adverse in utero environmental exposure. However, the tissue specificity of the response to maternal smoking, and the stability of the methylation changes early in life remain to be determined. In this study we analyzed AHRR methylation in three cell types-cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs), buccal epithelium, and placenta tissue-from newborn twins of mothers who smoked throughout pregnancy and matched controls. Further, we explored the postnatal stability of this change at 18 months. Our results confirm the previous association between maternal smoking and AHRR methylation in neonatal blood. In addition, this study expands the region of AHRR methylation altered in response to maternal smoking during pregnancy and reveals the tissue-specific nature of epigenetic responses to environmental exposures in utero. Further, the evidence for postnatal stability of smoking-induced epigenetic change supports a role for epigenetics as a mediator of long-term effects of specific in utero exposures in humans. Longitudinal analysis of further specific exposures in larger cohorts is required to examine the extent of this phenomenon in humans. PMID:24270552

Novakovic, Boris; Ryan, Joanne; Pereira, Natalie; Boughton, Berin; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard

2014-03-01

189

The Effect of Fathers’ Training Regarding Attachment Skills on Maternal-Fetal Attachments among Primigravida Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

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Background: Fathers’ cooperation has been less taken into account in the process of pregnancy. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of training the fathers regarding attachment skills on maternal-fetal attachment in primigravida women in 2013. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 150 qualified pregnant women’s husbands. The intervention group took part in four 90-minute sessions of maternal-fetal attachment training held once a week. On the other hand, the control group received the routine pregnancy care. Both groups completed Spielberger’s anxiety scale and Cranley’s questionnaire before and after the intervention. Then, the data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. Besides, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The intervention group’s mean score of attachment was 55.98±6.99 and 61.90±5.41 before and after the intervention, respectively. The results of paired t-test revealed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group regarding their mean scores of attachment before and one month after the intervention (P<0.001). Additionally, the results of independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the five dimensions of the questionnaire, namely interaction with the baby (P<0.001), acceptance of maternal role (P<0.001), differentiation between oneself and the baby (P<0.001), attribution of some features to the baby (P=0.01), and self-devotion (P=0.01). Conclusion: Training the fathers regarding the attachment behaviors and skills led to an increase in the maternal-fetal attachment scores. Thus, paternal training should be considered in pregnancy care programs. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012091910886N1 PMID:25349869

Akbarzade, Marzieh; Setodeh, Sara; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Zare, Najaf

2014-01-01

190

Effects of Altered Maternal Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Placental Global DNA Methylation Patterns in Wistar Rats  

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Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting...

Kulkarni, Asmita; Dangat, Kamini; Kale, Anvita; Sable, Pratiksha; Chavan-gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

2011-01-01

191

MATERNAL INGESTION OF LOCOWEED. I. EFFECTS ON EWE-LAMB BONDING AND BEHAVIOUR  

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This study investigated whether exposure of ewes to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea Nutt. In T. & G.; Leguminosae) during gestation would affect ewe behavior during parturition, ewe-lamb bonding and related behaviors post partum, and maternal responsiveness of ewes to alien and own lambs. Twenty-nine n...

192

Effects of maternal dietary olive oil on pathways involved in diabetic embryopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal diabetes induces a pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory intrauterine environment related to the induction of congenital anomalies. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that regulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. We investigated whether maternal diets supplemented with olive oil, enriched in oleic acid, a PPAR agonist, can regulate the expression of PPAR system genes, levels of lipoperoxidation and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats. The embryos and decidua from diabetic rats showed reduced expression of PPARs and increased concentration of lipoperoxidation, MMPs and TIMPs, whereas the maternal treatments enriched in olive oil increased PPAR? in embryos and PPAR? and PPAR?-coactivator-1? expression in decidua, and increased TIMPs concentrations and decreased lipoperoxidation and MMPs activity in both tissues. Thus, maternal diets enriched in olive oil can regulate embryonic and decidual PPAR system genes expression and reduce the pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory environment during rat early organogenesis. PMID:25246140

Higa, Romina; Roberti, Sabrina Lorena; Musikant, Daniel; Mazzucco, María Belén; White, Verónica; Jawerbaum, Alicia

2014-09-22

193

The Effects of Morning Naps, Car Trips, and Maternal Separation on Adrenocortical Activity in Human Infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three studies examined adrenocortical activity in infants. Morning naps were associated with decreases in salivary cortisol. Riding for 40 minutes in a car lowered salivary cortisol concentrations. Thirty minutes of maternal separation in the laboratory resulted in higher salivary cortisol concentrations than did 30 minutes of play with the mother…

Larson, Mary C.; And Others

1991-01-01

194

Effect of maternal obesity on fetal bone development in the rat  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies show that quality of nutrition during intrauterine and postnatal early life impact the risk of low bone mass and fracture later in life. Maternal consumption of high-fat diets has been demonstrated to affect health outcomes, such as: brain development; obesity; insulin resist...

195

An evaluation of the effects of added vitamin D3 in maternal diets on sow and pig performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 84 sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of supplementing maternal diet with vitamin D3 on sow and pig performance, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), milk vitamin D3, neonatal bone mineralization, and neonatal tissue vitamin D3. After breeding, sows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary vitamin D3 treatments (1,500, 3,000, or 6,000 IU/kg of complete diets). Sows were bled on d 0 and 100 of gestation and at farrowing and weaning (d 21). Pig BW was recorded at birth and weaning, and serum was collected from 2 pigs/litter at birth, on d 10 and at weaning. A total of 54 pigs (18/treatment) were euthanized at birth and necropsied to sample bones and tissues. Sow and suckling pig performance and neonatal bone ash and bone density did not differ among maternal vitamin D3 treatments; however, sow 25(OH)D3 and milk vitamin D3 increased (linear, P weaning, a subsample of 180 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050) were used in a 3 × 2 split plot design for 35 d to determine the effects of maternal vitamin D3 and 2 levels of dietary vitamin D3 (1,800 or 18,000 IU/kg) from d 0 to 10 postweaning on nursery growth and serum 25(OH)D3. Overall (d 0 to 35), nursery ADG and G:F were not affected by either concentration of vitamin D3, but ADFI tended (quadratic, P pigs from sows fed 3,000 IU had lower ADFI compared with pigs from sows fed 1,500 or 6,000 IU/kg. Nursery pig serum 25(OH)D3 increased with increasing maternal vitamin D3 (weaning) on d 0 (linear, P diet interactions (P pigs from sows fed 1,500 IU had greater increases in serum 25(OH)D3 when fed 18,000 IU compared with pigs from sows fed 3,000 IU. In conclusion, sow and pig serum 25(OH)D3, milk vitamin D3, and neonatal tissue vitamin D3 can be increased by increasing maternal vitamin D3, and nursery pig 25(OH)D3 can be increased by increasing dietary vitamin D3; however, sow and pig performance and neonatal bone mineralization was not influenced by increasing vitamin D3 dietary levels. PMID:24352968

Flohr, J R; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Bergstrom, J R

2014-02-01

196

Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?  

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Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces “detrimental” effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first postnatal days and exposure to a “substitute” mother. The maternal care of biological and “substitute” mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM, acoustic startle response (ASR and forced swim test (FST. In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects. Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behaviour by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT. ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the “substitute” mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of “detrimental” and “beneficial” effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behaviour. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may “buffer” the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner.

Roser Nadal

2014-02-01

197

Hemoglobinas humanas: hipótese malária ou efeito materno? / Human hemoglobins: malaria hypothesis or maternal effect?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As hemoglobinopatias têm provido uma das poucas demonstrações convincentes da seleção, influenciando a freqüência de único gene na população humana. A alta taxa de desordens, tais como a anemia falciforme e a beta-talassemia, ocorridas em áreas subtropicais ou tropicais dentro do cinturão da malária [...] , levou Haldane a propor que a malária pode ser o agente seletivo responsável que balanceia a perda dos genes para a talassemia e a anemia falciforme, por morte prematura dos homozigotos a partir do aumento do valor adaptativo de heterozigotos no ambiente com malária. Mas uma nova proposta surgiu para explicar a manutenção deste polimorfismo, baseada na fertilidade diferencial ou efeito parental. Alguns autores observaram uma distorção favorecendo a transmissão de alelos mutantes em áreas não endêmicas de malária. Com base nestas observações, esses autores propuseram um efeito materno para explicar tais distorções. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão destes mecanismos envolvidos na manutenção do polimorfismo de hemoglobinopatias, desde seu modelo clássico até hipóteses alternativas que surgiram recentemente na literatura. Abstract in english Hemoglobinopathies are providing one of the few convincing demonstrations of selection, influencing the frequency of a single gene in the human population. The high rate of disorders, such as the sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia that occur in the subtropical or tropical regions within the str [...] ip affected by malaria, led Haldane to propose that malaria may be the selective agent responsible for balancing the loss of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia genes due to the early death of homozygous patients. But a new proposal appeared to explain the maintenance of these polymorphisms, based on the differential fertility or parental effect. Some authors observed a distortion favoring the transmission of mutant alleles in non-endemic malaria areas. Based on these observations, the authors proposed a maternal effect to explain these distortions. This study aims at presenting a review of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of polymorphisms of hemoglobinopathies, both from the classic model and the recently published alternative hypotheses.

Felipe R., Torres; Claudia R., Bonini-Domingos.

2005-03-01

198

The effect of maternal nicotine on basement membrane collagen IV of brain microvessels changes in neonatal Balb/C mice  

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Background: Nicotine can pass through placental blood barrier and accumulate in the developing organs of fetus. Also, entering the breast milk, nicotine can have an effect on the neonates. Investigations have showed that collagen IV is one of the most important micro vessels basement membrane components. Objective: In this study, the effect of maternal nicotine exposure in pre and postnatal periods on collagen IV in microvessels of neonatal Balb/C mice brain cortex was studied by immunohistochemistry technique. Materials and Methods: 24 pregnant Balb/C mice were divided in to 4 groups (6 mice in each group): two experimental and 2 control groups. The mothers in the 1st experimental group were injected 3 mg/kg nicotine intrapritoneally from the 5th day of pregnancy to parturition daily and in 2nd experimental group the same procedure was repeated to the 10th day after parturition (lactation). The control groups received the same volume of normal saline during the same time. 10 days after delivery, the brain tissues of newborns were isolated. Then, prepared blocks from fixed brain were cut serially for immunohistochemical assay. Results: The findings of the present study indicated that collagen IV reaction in microvessels basement membrane in the first experimental group increased significantly compared to the first control group (p=0.002). In addition, collagen IV reaction in microvessels basement membrane in the 2nd experimental group increased significantly compared to the 2nd control group (p=0.002). However, no significant difference was observed between the two experimental groups. Conclusion: These results suggested that maternal nicotine exposure during prenatal period may increase basement membrane collagen IV expression. Also, nicotine increases in maternal breast milk has no effect on basement membrane collagen IV expression. PMID:24976823

Tahajjodi, Somayyeh Sadat; Amerion, Maryam; Mahdavi Shahri, Nasser; Jalali, Mehdi; Nikravesh, Mohammad Reza

2014-01-01

199

The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.  

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Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information and data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The cohort was established in 1994 and baseline information from the enrolled 100,418 pregnancies was gathered from 1996 to 2002. At their first antenatal visit pregnant women were invited to participate in the cohort by their general practitioner. To contribute the women had to be pregnant, have intentions of carrying the pregnancy to term, reside in Denmark and speak Danish sufficiently well to participate in telephone interviews. When enrolled the women were asked to participate in two telephone interviews during pregnancy at approximately 12-14 and 30-32 weeks of gestation and two after birth when the child was six and 18 months old and a follow-up questionnaire at age seven years.  Exposure to work-related stress was assessed based on information from the first interview on two questions regarding job control and job demands. These questions were interpreted as dimensions of demands and control, and hereafter used as a proxy for the dimensions of the job strain model by Karasek.  Based on their answers, the women were divided into the four job strain categories: high strain, active, passive and low strain. Gestational age at birth, birthweight and congenital malformations were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The outcome variable on asthma and atopic dermatitis were based on maternal self-reports from the fourth (child 18 months) and fifth (child seven years old) interviews/questionnaires. All studies in the thesis were based on protocols describing methods, analyses etc. prior to handling. No associations were found between exposure to high strain (high demands, low control) during pregnancy and preterm birth, small for gestational age, congenital malformations and asthma in the children when compared to women exposed to low strain (low demands, high control). A protective effect on large for gestational age was observed when exposed to high strain, suggesting an impact on the birthweight although it was not seen among the small for gestational age children. An association between hi

Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

2015-02-01

200

Effect of maternal diabetes on female offspring / Efeito do diabetes materno na prole feminina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo Avaliar o efeito do diabetes materno sobre a pressão arterial e a função renal da prole feminina, bem como verificar se as alterações observadas se exacerbam durante a prenhez. Métodos O diabetes mellitus foi induzido em ratas com a adminis [...] tração de estreptozocina em dose única, uma semana antes do cruzamento. Durante a prenhez, foram feitas medidas da pressão arterial por pletismografia. No 20o dia da prenhez, os animais foram colocados durante 24 horas em gaiolas metabólicas para obtenção de amostras de urina. Após a retirada dos animais das gaiolas, foram obtidas amostras de sangue. Um mês após a prenhez, foram obtidas novas amostras de sangue e urina para as determinações. A função renal foi avaliada por meio de proteinúria, ureia plasmática, creatinina plasmática, carga excretada de creatinina, fluxo urinário e clearance de creatinina. Resultados As fêmeas da prole de mães diabéticas apresentaram elevação da pressão arterial e redução do ritmo de filtração glomerular em relação ao grupo controle. Conclusão A hiperglicemia durante a gestação foi capaz de causar elevação da pressão arterial e disfunção renal na prole de sexo feminino. Abstract in english Objective To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on the blood pressure and kidney function of female offspring, as well as if such changes exacerbate during pregnancy. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in female rats with the administ [...] ration of streptozotocin in a single dose, one week before mating. During pregnancy, blood pressure was measured through plethysmography. On the 20th day of pregnancy, the animals were placed for 24 hours in metabolic cages to obtain urine samples. After the animals were removed from the cages, blood samples were withdrawn. One month after pregnancy, new blood and urine sample were collected. Kidney function was evaluated through proteinuria, plasma urea, plasma creatinine, creatinine excretion rate, urinary flow, and creatinine clearance. Results The female offspring from diabetic mothers showed an increase in blood pressure, and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate in relation to the control group. Conclusion Hyperglycemia during pregnancy was capable of causing an increase in blood pressure and kidney dysfunction in the female offspring.

Juliana de Oliveira, Martins; Maurício Isaac, Panício; Marcos Paulo Suehiro, Dantas; Guiomar Nascimento, Gomes.

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

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Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sampl...

Akrami, M. Nojomi Z.

2006-01-01

202

Nobody Home: The Effect of Maternal Labor Force Participation on Long-Term Child Outcomes  

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We investigate how mother?s employment during childhood affects long term child outcomes. We utilize rich longitudinal data from Norway covering the entire Norwegian population between the years 1970 to 2007. The data allows us to match all family members and to measure maternal labor force participation throughout the child?s entire childhood. Our empirical approach exploits the variation in exposure to a working mother that exists across older and younger siblings in different family type...

Haaland, Venke Furre; Rege, Mari; Votruba, Mark

2013-01-01

203

The Effects of Rumination on the Timing of Maternal and Child Negative Affect  

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The current study examined whether rumination serves as a moderator of the temporal association between maternal and child negative affect. Participants included 88 mothers with a history of major depressive episodes and their 123 children. During an initial assessment, mothers and their children completed measures assessing negative affect and children completed a measure assessing the tendency to ruminate in response to such symptoms. Every six weeks for the subsequent year, mothers and the...

Flancbaum, Meir; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Abela, John R. Z.; Young, Jamie F.; Stolow, Darren; Hankin, Benjamin L.

2011-01-01

204

Familial Autoimmunity: Maternal Parent-of-Origin Effect in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis  

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Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an autoimmune (AI) disease characterized by chronic arthritis in children. Children with JIA have increased prevalence of other AI diseases. Furthermore, relatives of children with JIA have been shown to have an increased prevalence of AI diseases. Our objective was to determine if there were differences in the prevalence of AI diseases among maternal and paternal relatives of children with JIA. Information about AI diseases among all living first and se...

Zeft, Andrew; Shear, Edith S.; Thompson, Susan D.; Glass, David N.; Prahalad, Sampath

2007-01-01

205

Effects of chronic social stress on maternal behavior, anhedonia, milk intake, pup growth, and gene expression  

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Background : Exposure to chronic social stress is a strong predictor of postpartum depression and anxiety. Recent studies have described a chronic social stress (CSS) rodent model for postpartum depression where the repeated exposure of lactating dams to novel male intruders attenuates both the display of maternal care and growth during lactation and increases self-grooming, a measure of anxiety. Investigation of the adult female offspring of these affected dams reveals an attenuated nursing ...

Christorpher Murgatroyd; Lindsay Carini; Benjamin Nephew

2012-01-01

206

Effect of Increasing Maternal Body Mass Index on Oxidative and Nitrative Stress in the Human Placenta  

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Maternal obesity is an increasing problem in obstetrics associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and delivery complications. As an inflammatory state, where elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are found, obesity can lead to the increased incidence of oxidative and nitrative stress. These stresses may result in protein oxidation and protein nitration respectively, which are post translational covalent modifications that can modify the structure and subsequently alter the function o...

Roberts, Victoria H. J.; Smith, Jessica; Mclea, Stacey A.; Heizer, Angela B.; Richardson, Jade L.; Myatt, Leslie

2008-01-01

207

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

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Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

2006-06-01

208

Maternal and individual effects in selection of bed sites and their consequences for fawn survival at different spatial scales.  

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We examined the relationship between survival of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) fawns at Trois Fontaines, Champagne-Ardennes, France, and factors related to bed-site selection (predator avoidance and thermoregulation) and maternal food resources (forage availability in the maternal home range). Previous studies have demonstrated that at small scales, the young of large herbivores select bed sites independently from their mothers, although this selection takes place within the limits of their mother's home range. Fawn survival was influenced largely by the availability of good bed sites within the maternal home range, not by the fawn's selection of bed sites; however, selection for thermal cover when selecting bed sites positively influenced survival of young fawns. Typical features of a good home range included close proximity to habitat edges, which is related to forage accessibility for roe deer. The availability of bed sites changed as fawns aged, probably due to an increased mobility of the fawn or a different use of the home range by the mother; sites offering high concealment and thermal protection became less available in favor of areas with higher forage accessibility. Despite the minor influence of bed-site selection on survival, roe deer fawns strongly selected their bed sites according to several environmental factors linked to predator avoidance and thermoregulation. Fawns selected for sites providing concealment, light penetration, and avoided signs of wild boar (Sus scrofa) activity. Avoidance of sites with high light penetration by young fawns positively affected their survival, confirming a negative effect on thermoregulation due to reduced thermal cover. Selection for light penetration by older fawns was less clear. We discuss these results in the context of cross-generational effects in habitat selection across multiple scales, and the potential influence of the 'ghost of predation past'. PMID:19089457

Van Moorter, Bram; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; McLoughlin, Philip D; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Boyce, Mark S

2009-03-01

209

The politics of maternity.  

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Changes in the culture of health care require that, to be effective, midwifery practice should become more woman-centred. This may be facilitated by adopting a stronger community orientation. In this way the hegemony of maternity care may be addressed. This paper seeks to draw readers' attention to political developments and to inspire midwives to greater awareness and, possibly, activity. PMID:24600828

Mander, Rosemary; Edwards, Nadine; McHugh, Nessa; Murphy-Lawless, Jo; Patterson, Jenny

2014-02-01

210

Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor agonist MK212 and 2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 on maternal behavior in postpartum female rats.  

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Maternal behavior in rats is a highly motivated and well-organized social behavior. Given the known roles of serotonin (5-HT) in emotion, motivation, social behavior, and major depression - and its known interaction with dopamine - it is likely that serotonin also plays a crucial role in this behavior. So far, there are surprisingly few studies focusing on 5-HT in maternal behavior, except for maternal aggression. In the present study, we examined the effects of 5-HT2C receptor agonism and 5-HT2A receptor antagonism on maternal behavior in postpartum female rats. We hypothesized that activation of 5-HT2C receptors and blockade of 5-HT2A receptors would produce a functionally equivalent disruption of maternal behavior because these two receptor subtypes often exert opposite effects on various brain functions and psychological processes relevant to rat maternal behavior. On postpartum Days 5, 7, and 9, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of 0.9% NaCl solution, the 5-HT2C agonist MK212 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg, ip), or the 5-HT2A antagonist MDL100907 (0.05, 0.5 or 2.0 mg/kg, ip). Maternal behavior was tested 30 min before and 30 min, 120 min, 240 min after injection. Acute injection of MK212 significantly disrupted pup retrieval, pup licking, pup nursing, and nest building in a dose-dependent fashion. At the tested doses, MDL100907 had little effect on various components of rat maternal behavior. Across the 3 days of testing, no apparent sensitization or tolerance associated with repeated administration of MK212 and MDL100907 was found. We concluded that rat maternal performance is critically dependent on 5-HT2C receptors, while the role of 5-HT2A receptors is still inconclusive. Possible behavioral mechanisms of actions of 5-HT2C receptor in maternal behavior are discussed. PMID:24321440

Chen, Weihai; Zhang, Qi; Su, Wenxin; Zhang, Haorong; Yang, Yu; Qiao, Jing; Sui, Nan; Li, Ming

2014-02-01

211

Estimation of Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Direct and Maternal Effects on Birth Weight in Brown Swiss Cattle  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight in Brown Swiss cattle reared at Malya and Konuklar State Farms, Türkiye. The least square means of birth weight were 39.91±0.005 and 42.26±0.09kg for the calves raised at Malya and Konuklar State Farms, respectively. The effects of calving year, parity and calf sex on birth weight were significant (P<0.05. The effect of calving season on birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01 for Malya State Farm, while it was non-significant for Konuklar State Farm. Direct heritability (h2d, maternal heritability (h2m, total heritability (h2T and the fraction of variance due to maternal permanent environmental effects (c2 were 0.09, 0.04, 0.11 and 0.04, respectively for birth weights of the calves raised at Malya State Farms. The corresponding values of birth weight for calves raised at Konuklar State Farm were 0.39, 0.015, 0.29 and 0.018, respectively.

Ali Kaygisiz*, Galip Bakir1, Isa Yilmaz2 and Yusuf Vanli3

2011-01-01

212

Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021, a Chinese herbal formula, and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS: JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials. All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005. In a neonatal maternal separation (NMS model, male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14, or no specific handling (NH. Starting from postnatal day 60, rats were administered JCM-16021 (2, 4, 8 g/kg per day orally twice a day for 28 d. Pain threshold pressure and electromyographic activities of external oblique muscles in response to colorectal distention recorded with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International, were tested as pain indices. Changes in serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA concentrations in the colon of rats were analyzed; the enterochromaffin cell numbers and serotonin transporter in the colon of rats were also evaluated with an immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: NMS treatment significantly reduced pain threshold pressure (37.4 ± 1.4 mmHg, as compared to that of NH rats (57.7 ± 1.9 mmHg, P < 0.05. After JCM-16021 treatment, the pain threshold pressure significantly increased when compared to that before treatment (34.2 ± 0.9 mmHg vs 52.8 ± 2.3 mmHg in the high dose group, 40.2 ± 1.6 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.3 mmHg in the middle dose group, and 39.3 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.6 mmHg in the low dose group, P < 0.05. Also JCM-16021 significantly and dose-dependently decreased electromyographic activity to the graded colorectal distension (CRD, (the mean ?AUC values were: 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.06 ± 0.18, 1.22 ± 0.24 in the high dose group; 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.68 ± 0.17, 1.27 ± 0.26, 1.8 ± 0.3 in the middle dose group; and 0.29 ± 0.06, 0.8 ± 0.16, 1.53 ± 0.24, 2.1 ± 0.21 in the low dose group for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg, as compared to the NMS vehicle group. The mean ?AUC values were: 0.57 ± 0.12, 1.33 ± 0.18, 2.57 ± 0.37, 3.08 ± 0.37 for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg (P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly reduced the 5-HT concentrations (from high, middle and low dosage groups: 60.25 ± 5.98 ng/100 mg, 60.32 ± 4.22 ng/100 mg, 73.31 ± 7.65 ng/100 mg, as compared to the NMS vehicle groups (93.11 ± 9.85 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; and increased the 5-HIAA concentrations (after treatment, from high, middle and low dosage groups: 54.24 ± 3.27 ng/100 mg, 50.34 ± 1.26 ng/100 mg, 51.37 ± 2.13 ng/100 mg when compared to that in the NMS vehicle group (51.75 ± 1.98 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05; but did not change the enterochromaffin cell numbers in the colon of rats. In addition, NMS rats had higher SERT expression (n = 10 than NH rats (n = 8, P < 0.05. JCM-16021 treatment significantly decreased SERT expression when compared to the NMS group (P < 0.01-0.001.CONCLUSION: JCM-16021 can attenuate visceral hypersensitivity, and this analgesic effect may be mediated through the serotonin signaling pathway in the colon of rats.

Zhao-Xiang Bian, Man Zhang, Quan-Bin Han, Hong-Xi Xu, Joseph JY Sung

2010-02-01

213

Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies  

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Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364

Emre Yanikkerem

2012-06-01

214

The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ? six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

Abdulahi Abdulreshid

2010-04-01

215

Variance components due to direct genetic, maternal genetic and permanent environmental effect for growth and feed-efficiency traits in young male Japanese Black cattle.  

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Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using data recorded on 740 young male Japanese Black cattle during the period from 1971 to 2003. Traits studied were feed intake (FI), feed-conversion ratio (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG), metabolic body weight (MWT) at the mid-point of the test period and body weight (BWT) at the finish of the test (345 days). Data were analysed using three alternative animal models (direct, direct + maternal environmental, and direct + maternal genetic effects). Comparison of the log likelihood values has shown that the direct genetic effect was significant (p heritability estimates were 0.20 +/- 0.12 for FI, 0.14 +/- 0.10 for FCR, 0.33 +/- 0.14 for RFI, 0.19 +/- 0.12 for ADG, 0.30 +/- 0.14 for MWT and 0.30 +/- 0.13 for BWT. The maternal effects (maternal genetic and maternal environmental) were not important in feed-efficiency traits. The genetic correlation between RFI and ADG was stronger than the corresponding correlation between FCR and ADG. These results provide evidence that RFI should be included for genetic improvement in feed efficiency in Japanese Black breeding programmes. PMID:17550350

Hoque, M A; Arthur, P F; Hiramoto, K; Gilmour, A R; Oikawa, T

2007-06-01

216

GABA Enhancement of Maternal Defense in Mice: Possible Neural Correlates  

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Previous studies have shown that low doses of GABAA receptor agonists facilitate maternal defense of offspring (maternal aggression), without significantly affecting other maternal behaviors. In addition, it has been demonstrated that endogenous changes in GABAergic neurotransmission occur in association with lactation. This study investigated the effects of GABAA receptor agonist, chlordiazepoxide (CDP), a benzodiazepine (BDZ), on maternal behaviors including aggression, and identified brain...

Lee, Grace; Gammie, Stephen C.

2007-01-01

217

Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol  

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Full Text Available Background: A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM, launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective: To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design: A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012 and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the broader themes across the interviews and FGDs. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research.

Madhu Gupta

2015-02-01

218

Effect of postnatal maternal protein intake on prenatal programming of hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation during the time of nursing can program hypertension when the offspring are studied as adults. Rats were fed either a 6% or 20% protein diet during the second half of pregnancy and continued on the same diet while rats were nursing their pups. The neonates of all of the rats were cross-fostered to a different mother and studied as adults. Adult rats that had a normal prenatal environment but were reared by mothers fed a low-protein diet until weaning (20%-6%) were hypertensive, had a higher renal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) protein abundance yet a comparable number of glomeruli, and had higher plasma renin and angiotensin II levels compared to control (20%-20%). Rats whose mothers were fed a 6% protein diet and cross-fostered to a different rat fed a 6% protein diet until weaning (6%-6%) were hypertensive, had elevated plasma renin and angiotensin II levels, and had a reduction in nephron number but had NKCC2 and NCC levels comparable to 20% to 20% offspring. The 6% to 20% had blood pressure and glomerular numbers comparable to 20% to 20% rats. The hypertension resulting from prenatal dietary protein deprivation can be normalized by improving the postnatal environment. Combined prenatal and postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation and maternal dietary protein deprivation while nursing alone (20%-6%) results in hypertension, but the mechanism for the hypertension in these groups is different. PMID:24740990

Siddique, Khurrum; Guzman, German Lozano; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

2014-12-01

219

Maternal phenylketonuria  

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Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

Kristina Štuikien?

2013-04-01

220

Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a mother suffers from depression, how does it impact her child in adolescence? A new study published in the journal Pediatrics investigates the effect of maternal depression on ...

 
 
 
 
221

Effects of hypertension on maternal adaptations to pregnancy: experimental study on spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Os modelos animais de hipertensão arterial têm sido usados para a compreensão das condições patológicas humanas encontradas nas mulheres grávidas hipertensas. OBJETIVO: Estudar os possíveis efeitos da prenhez sobre a hipertensão arterial, e desta sobre a prenhez, em ratas espontaneamente h [...] ipertensas (SHR) e seu controle normotenso Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) TIPO DE ESTUDO: Estudo comparativo com animais de laboratório. LOCAL: Laboratório de pesquisa experimental da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Brasil. AMOSTRA: Foram utilizadas ratas virgens, das linhagens WKY e SHR, com idade entre 10 e 12 semanas. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: 15 SHR-prenhe (SHR-P), 10 SHR não-prenhe (SHR-NP), 15 WKY prenhe (WKY-P) e 10 WKY não-prenhe (WKY-NP). VARIÁVEIS ESTUDADAS: A pressão arterial foi avaliada pelo método do esfigmomanômetro de cauda em ratas adaptadas ou não previamente ao aquecimento necessário para a medida da pressão arterial da cauda. A expansão da volemia foi avaliada indiretamente pelo ganho de peso e por parâmetros sistêmicos como hematócrito, hemoglobina, proteínas totais, albumina e balanço de sódio. O resultado perinatal foi avaliado pelo número de nódulos de reabsorção, tamanho da ninhada, taxa de fetos com baixo peso e número de natimortos. RESULTADOS: A queda da pressão arterial no final da prenhez, das ratas SHR e WKY, ocorreu somente nas ratas adaptadas ao aquecimento para a medida da pressão arterial na cauda. Durante a prenhez o ganho de peso materno foi significativamente maior nas ratas WKY. Os parâmetros sistêmicos foram significativamente menores nas ratas WKY prenhez em relação ao seu controle não-prenhe, não sendo observada diferença significativa entre as ratas SRH prenhes e não-prenhes. Nas ratas WKY prenhez a retenção de sódio foi maior desde o décimo terceiro dia de prenhez, e nas ratas SHR apenas a partir do décimo nono dia. Os aspectos reprodutivos como número e peso dos fetos, mortalidade fetal e número de nódulos de reabsorção foram significativamente afetados na linhagem SHR. CONCLUSÃO: A linhagem SHR pode ser considerada como modelo de hipertensão arterial crônica hipovolêmico, sendo a restrição do crescimento fetal observada, conseqüente a esse estado de hipovolemia materna. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Animal models for essential hypertension have been used for understanding the human pathological conditions observed in pregnant hypertensive women. OBJECTIVE: To study the possible effects of pregnancy on hypertension and of hypertension on pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR [...] ), and in their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) counterparts. TYPE OF STUDY: Comparative study using laboratory animals. SETTING: Animal Research Laboratory of Clinical Medicine at the Medical School of Botucatu, São Paulo State University, Brazil. SAMPLE: Ten to twelve-week-old virgin female normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The animals were separated into four groups: 15 pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-P), 10 non-pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-NP), 15 pregnant normotensive rats (WKY-P), and 10 non-pregnant normotensive rats (WKY-NP). MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The blood pressure was evaluated by the tail cuff method, in rats either with or without prior training for the handling necessary for tail cuff measurements. The maternal volemia expansion was indirectly evaluated by weight gain, and by systemic parameters as hematocrit, hemoglobin, total protein, albumin and sodium retention. The perinatal outcome of pregnancy was evaluated by analysis of resorptions, litter size, rate of low weight and number of stillbirths. RESULTS: The late fall in blood pressure in the pregnant SHR strain and in the normotensive WKY strain can only be detected in rats previously trained to accept the handling necessary for the tail cuff measurement. During pregn

José Carlos, Peraçoli; Marilza Vieira Cunha, Rudge; Maria Salete, Sartori; Roberto Jorge da Silva, Franco.

2001-03-01

222

Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy: Do the Effects on Innate (Toll-Like Receptor Function Have Implications for Subsequent Allergic Disease?  

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Full Text Available Subtle increases in immaturity of immune function in early infancy have been implicated in the rising susceptibility to allergic disease, particularly relative impairment of type 1 interferon (IFN-? responses in the neonatal period. Although genetic predisposition is a clear risk factor, the escalating rates of allergic disease in infancy suggest that environmental factors are also implicated. We previously showed that maternal smoking in pregnancy may impair neonatal IFN-? responses. Our more recent studies now indicate that this common avoidable toxic exposure is also associated with attenuation of innate immune function, with attenuated Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated microbial responses (including TLR-2, -3, -4, and -9 responses. Most notably, the effects were more marked if the mothers were also allergic. In this review, we discuss the significance of these observations in the context of the emerging hypothesis that variations in TLR function in early life may be implicated in allergic propensity. There is now growing evidence that many of the key pathways involved in subsequent T-cell programming and regulation (namely, antigen-presenting cells and regulatory T cells rely heavily on microbe-driven TLR activation for maturation and function. Factors that influence the function and activity of these innate pathways in early life may contribute to the increasing predisposition for allergic disease. Although "cleaner" environments have been implicated, here we explore the possibility that other common environmental exposures (such as maternal smoking could also play a role.

Prescott Susan L

2007-03-01

223

The Assessment Effect of Kangaroo Care on Maternal Stress of Premature infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Units  

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Full Text Available   Background & Aim: Mothers often feel anxious about giving care to their premature babies. This maternal stress is associated with negative attitudes and behaviors towards babies. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Kangaroo mother care on stress among mothers with premature babies .   Methods & Materials: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 46 pairs of mothers and their premature babies hospitalized in the ICUs of Shahid Sadooghi and Tamin Ejtemaee hospitals. The participants were selected using convenience sampling method and were assigned into two intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, the Kangaroo mother care was provided to the babies after breastfeeding for about 30 minutes once a day for four weeks. Maternal stress was measured using the Parental Stress Scale before and immediately after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test, t-test, and Mann-Whitney test .   Results: The mean of stress score in mothers of the intervention and control groups were 102.0 ± 17.02 and 174.52 ± 18.25, respectively (P<0.001. The stress score was significantly different before and after the intervention among mothers of the intervention group (P<0.001 .   Conclusion: The Kangaroo mother care decreased stress score among mothers who had premature babies. The Kangaroo mother care is strongly recommended to be used by mothers with premature babies .   

Zahra Kashaninia

2014-11-01

224

Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district  

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Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

Gogoi Gourangie

2007-01-01

225

The effect of maternal and paternal immune challenge on offspring immunity and reproduction in a cricket.  

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Trans-generational immune priming is the transmission of enhanced immunity to offspring following a parental immune challenge. Although within-generation increased investment into immunity demonstrates clear costs on reproductive investment in a number of taxa, the potential for immune priming to impact on offspring reproductive investment has not been thoroughly investigated. We explored the reproductive costs of immune priming in a field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. To assess the relative importance of maternal and paternal immune status, mothers and fathers were immune-challenged with live bacteria or a control solution and assigned to one of four treatments in which one parent, neither or both parents were immune-challenged. Families of offspring were reared to adulthood under a food-restricted diet, and approximately 10 offspring in each family were assayed for two measures of immunocompetence. We additionally quantified offspring reproductive investment using sperm viability for males and ovary mass for females. We demonstrate that parental immune challenge has significant consequences for the immunocompetence and, in turn, reproductive investment of their male offspring. A complex interaction between maternal and paternal immune status increased the antibacterial immune response of male offspring. This increased immune response was associated with a reduction in son's sperm viability, implicating a trans-generational resource trade-off between investment into immunocompetence and reproduction. Our data also show that these costs are sexually dimorphic, as daughters did not demonstrate a similar increase in immunity, despite showing a reduction in ovary mass. PMID:24750259

McNamara, K B; van Lieshout, E; Simmons, L W

2014-06-01

226

Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.  

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Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

ElizabethMcConeByrnes

2011-06-01

227

Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response  

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Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR???30 per 100,000 by 2030.

Hounton Sennen

2013-01-01

228

Mutation with a maternal effect in Lymnaea stagnalis L. , affecting development of bilateral symmetry and dorsoventrality and preventing gastrulation  

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A maternal effect mutation is reported in Lymnaea. The effect upon offspring of homozygous mutant snails is supression of gastrulation, resulting in permanent blastulae. Mendelian segregation is monofactorial recessive; penetrance is complete. The mutants were obtained by X-ray irradiation. Morphological analysis of the mutant ''head'' region shows 9 types of cell pattern, in which development of bilateral symmetry and dorsoventrality is disturbed. Elementary cell patterns, characteristic of normal dorsal, lateral and ventral head quadrants are arranged in abnormal, but non-random, combinations. Some elements of the coordination mechanism that is supposed to organize normal head dorsoventrality by vegetative-animal cell interactions are preserved in mutant development, other elements are lost.

Arnolds, W.J.A. (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Zoologisch Lab.)

1982-03-01

229

A mutation with a maternal effect in Lymnaea stagnalis L., affecting development of bilateral symmetry and dorsoventrality and preventing gastrulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A maternal effect mutation is reported in Lymnaea. The effect upon offspring of homozygous mutant snails is supression of gastrulation, resulting in permanent blastulae. Mendelian segregation is monofactorial recessive; penetrance is complete. The mutants were obtained by X-ray irradiation. Morphological analysis of the mutant ''head'' region shows 9 types of cell pattern, in which development of bilateral symmetry and dorsoventrality is disturbed. Elementary cell patterns, characteristic of normal dorsal, lateral and ventral head quadrants are arranged in abnormal, but non-random, combinations. Some elements of the coordination mechanism that is supposed to organize normal head dorsoventrality by vegetative-animal cell interactions are preserved in mutant development, other elements are lost. (Auth.)

230

Functional mapping of the neural circuitry of rat maternal motivation: effects of site-specific transient neural inactivation  

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The present review focuses on recent studies from our laboratory examining the neural circuitry subserving rat maternal motivation across postpartum. We employed a site-specific neural inactivation method by infusion of bupivacaine to map the maternal motivation circuitry using two complementary behavioral approaches: unconditioned maternal responsiveness and choice of pup- over cocaine-conditioned incentives in a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference task. Our findings r...

Pereira, Mariana; Morrell, Joan I.

2011-01-01

231

The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil  

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Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilities at the polyclinic for low-risk deliveries, the introduction of a family planning clinic and a breast-feeding clinic, support from pediatricians for under-5 (well-baby clinics, children's outpatient services and children's emergency care, and the introduction of health agents recruited from the local community. Representative surveys of the population were taken at the project's inception (July 1995 and then 30 months later (December 1997, using a general health questionnaire adapted to the local conditions. Mortality data were collected from local registration systems as well as from an autopsy survey of perinatal and infant deaths. Results. During 1995 there were 4 maternal deaths from 1 195 pregnancies (maternal mortality of 335/100 000; three of the deaths were related to hypertension and one to uterine perforation after an illegal abortion. During 1998 (post-intervention, there were no maternal deaths in pregnancy or childbirth. In 1993 no deliveries took place at the polyclinic, but in 1998 there were 946 deliveries at the clinic without any serious complications. The method of delivery, the incidence of prematurity, and the incidence of low birthweight did not change significantly over the study period. In the post-intervention survey, 75% of women reported receiving contraceptive advice from a doctor in the preceding year, compared to 50% in the first sample. A mortality survey carried out in 1993-1995 estimated the infant mortality rate to be 60/1 000 live births. By 1998, using data collected locally by active surveillance, the infant mortality rate was 37/1 000 live births. The causes of infant death in both those periods were dominated by respiratory infections and diarrheal disease. Over 95% of both samples initiated breast-feeding, but a higher proportion of the post-intervention sample reported breast-feeding for longer than 6 months (41% vs. 32%, P = 0.0005. No differences were apparent in the use of under-5 clinics, but immunization rates improved. Post-intervention, significant improvements were documented in the mothers' understanding of basic hygiene, their knowledge of causes of common diseases, and their management of acute respiratory infections and diarrhea in children. This was particularly true for the households visited by a community health agent. Conclusions. Inequalities in health care in poor urban populations can be reduced by integrated community-based interventions, including the use of health agents recruited from the local community.

Emond Alan

2002-01-01

232

The effect of Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment program on maternal stress, anxiety, and participation in NICU wards in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The purpose of this study was to perform the Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE) program for Iranian mothers and evaluate its effectiveness on stress, anxiety, and participation of mothers who have premature infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 90 mothers of premature infants hospitalized in the educational neonatal NICUs of state hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. For measuring the variables, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care, and The Index of Parental Participation/Hospitalized Infant were used. Intervention group received two phases of COPE program. This program consisted of information and behavioral activities about the characteristics of premature infants. Sessions’ interval was from 2 to 4 days. Stress and anxiety were measured three times (before each phase and 2-4 days after the second phase). Mothers’ participation was evaluated 2-4 days after the second phase. The t-test, ?2, Mann-Whitney U test, and repeated measurement test were used for data analysis. Results: Mothers in the intervention group reported significantly less anxiety and less stress in the NICU after performing each phase of the COPE program (P < 0.001), whereas at this time, the level of stress in the comparison group increased. Also, COPE mothers participated in their infants’ care rather than the mothers in the comparison group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: COPE program was effective for Iranian mothers. This study shows that irrespective of any culture, giving early and comprehensible educational-behavioral information may have positive effect on maternal psychological condition and maternal–infant interaction. PMID:24554967

Mianaei, Soheila Jafari; Karahroudy, Fatemeh Alaee; Rassouli, Maryam; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri

2014-01-01

233

The effect of recorded maternal voice on perioperative anxiety and emergence in children.  

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This study was performed to test if hearing a recorded maternal voice reduces anxiety, emergence agitation and anaesthetic requirements in children. With written informed consent, children scheduled for cardiac catheterisation under intravenous ketamine anaesthesia and their mothers (n = 46) were randomly assigned to either the mother-voice (MV) or control group. While the MV group (n = 23) listened via headphones to a recording of their mothers' voices during the perioperative period, the control group (n = 23) wore headphones with no auditory stimulation. Ketamine requirements and haemodynamics were recorded. Anxiety of the patients and the parents were measured before and after the procedure with the modified Yale preoperative anxiety scale and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Emergence agitation was graded. The demographic and haemodynamic data were comparable, except for a longer procedure time in the MV group. Mothers' State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was not different preoperatively between the groups. Mothers' state and trait anxiety was lower after the procedure in the MV group compared with the preoperative values. In the control group only maternal state anxiety was diminished after the procedure. There was no significant group difference with respect to ketamine requirement (5.1 +/- 1.9 mg vs 4.9 +/- 1.6 mg, P = 0.645). The anxiety score of children was lower in the MV group before the procedure (modified Yale preoperative anxiety scale score 35 +/- 12 vs 28 +/- 9, P = 0.038), but there was no significant difference postoperatively. Emergence agitation was attenuated in the MV group (P = 0.005). PMID:21226439

Kim, S J; Oh, Y J; Kim, K J; Kwak, Y L; Na, S

2010-11-01

234

Effects of selenium supply and dietary restriction on maternal and fetal body weight, visceral organ mass, cellularity estimates, and jejeunal vascularity in pregnant ewe lambs.  

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To examine effects of nutrient restriction and dietary Se on maternal and fetal visceral tissues, 36 pregnant Targhee-cross ewe lambs were allotted randomly to one of four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Factors were nutrition [control nutrition (CON, 100% of requirements) vs. restricted nu...

235

The Effect of Maternal Relaxation Training on Reactivity of Non-Stress Test, Basal Fetal Heart Rate, and Number of Fetal Heart Accelerations: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

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Background: Relaxation-training, as an anxiety-reducer intervention, plays an important role in fetal health. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of maternal relaxation on stress test (NST), basal fetal heart rate, and number of fetal heart accelerations.

Akbarzade, Marzieh; Rafiee, Bahare; Asadi, Nasrin; Zare, Najaf

2015-01-01

236

EFFECTS ON THE FETAL RAT INTESTINE OF MATERNAL MALNUTRITION AND EXPOSURE TO NITROFEN (2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL-P-NITROPHENYL ETHER)  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of maternal protein-energy malnutrition and exposure to nitrofen on selected aspects of intestinal morphology and function were studied in the fetal rat. Pregnant rats were fed, throughout gestation, diets containing 24% or 6% casein as the sole source of protein. Red...

237

No evidence for pathogenic variants or maternal effect of ZFP57 as the cause of Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome  

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Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome, which, in 50-60% of sporadic cases, is caused by hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1 differentially methylated region (DMR) at chromosome 11p15.5. The underlying defect of this hypomethylation is largely unknown. Recently, recessive mutations of the ZFP57 gene were reported in patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 1, showing hypomethylation at multiple imprinted loci, including KCNQ1OT1 DMR in some. The aim of our study was to determine whether ZFP57 alterations were a genetic cause of the hypomethylation at KCNQ1OT1 DMR in patients with BWS. We sequenced ZFP57 in 27 BWS probands and in 23 available mothers to test for a maternal effect. We identified three novel, presumably benign sequence variants in ZFP57; thus, we found no evidence for ZFP57 alterations as a major cause in sporadic BWS cases.

Boonen, Susanne E; Hahnemann, Johanne M D

2012-01-01

238

Effects of maternal n-3 fatty acid supplementation on placental cytokines, pro-resolving lipid mediators and their precursors.  

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The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) during pregnancy modifies placental PUFA composition, the accumulation of specialised pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs, specifically resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD) and upstream precursors) and inflammatory gene expression. Placentas were collected from women (n=51) enrolled in a randomised, placebo controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation from 20-week gestation. Lipids were extracted for fatty acid analysis and SPMs were quantitated by mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Using multiple regression analysis, data were correlated for placental n-3 PUFA and SPM levels with PUFA levels in maternal and cord blood erythrocytes. Supplementation with n-3 PUFAs increased placental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels (P<0.05), and increased the levels of the SPM precursors 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) by two- to threefold (P<0.0005). RvD1, 17R-RvD1, RvD2 and PD1 were detectable in all placentas, but concentrations were not significantly increased by n-3 PUFA supplementation. Placental DHA levels were positively associated with maternal and cord DHA levels (P<0.005), and with placental 17-HDHA concentrations (P<0.0001). Placental mRNA expression of PTGS2, IL1?, IL6 and IL10 was unaffected by n-3 PUFA supplementation, but TNF? expression was increased by 14-fold (P<0.05). We conclude that n-3 PUFA supplementation in pregnancy i) enhances placental accumulation of DHA and SPM precursors, ii) does not alter placental EPA levels, and iii) has no stimulatory effects on inflammatory gene expression. Further studies are required to ascertain the biological significance of SPMs in the placenta and the potential immunomodulatory effects of elevating placental SPM levels. PMID:25504868

Keelan, Jeffrey A; Mas, Emilie; D'Vaz, Nina; Dunstan, Janet A; Li, Shaofu; Barden, Anne E; Mark, Peter J; Waddell, Brendan J; Prescott, Susan L; Mori, Trevor A

2015-02-01

239

Effects of Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes during Pregnancy: A Single-Center Cohort Study of a Chinese Population  

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Objective Adverse maternal outcomes and perinatal complications are closely associated with overt maternal hypothyroidism, but whether these complications occur in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) during pregnancy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCH on maternal and perinatal outcomes during pregnancy. Methods A prospective study of data from 8012 pregnant women (371 women with SCH, 7641 euthyroid women) was performed. Maternal serum samples were collected in different trimesters to examine thyroid hormone concentrations. SCH was defined as a thyroid stimulating hormone concentration exceeding the trimester-specific reference value with a normal free thyroxine concentration. The occurrence of maternal outcomes, including gestational hypertension (GH), gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta previa, placental abruption, prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM), and premature delivery; and perinatal outcomes, including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), fetal distress, low birth weight (LBW; live birth weight ?2500 g), stillbirth, and malformation, was recorded. Logistic regression with adjustment for confounding demographic and medical factors was used to determine the risks of adverse outcomes in patients with SCH. Results Compared with euthyroid status, SCH was associated with higher rates of GH (1.819% vs. 3.504%, P?=?0.020; ?2?=?7.345; odds ratio (OR), 2.243; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.251–4.024), PROM (4.973% vs. 8.625%, P?=?0.002; ?2?=?72.102; adjusted OR, 6.014; 95% CI, 3.975–9.099), IUGR (1.008% vs. 2.965%, thyroid function testing is necessary to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:25353960

Dai, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Si, Guang-Xin; Yang, Hong; Ye, En-Ling; Chen, Qing-Shou; Yu, Le-Chu; Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xue-Mian

2014-01-01

240

Effect of Anticipatory Guidance Presentation Methods on the Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women Relative to Maternal, Infant and Toddler’s Oral Health Care  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The prenatal period is the best time for health interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different methods of anticipatory guidance presentation on the change of knowledge and attitude of pregnant women regarding oral healthcare in the mother, infant and toddler. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 90 pregnant women attended one health center in Zahedan, Iran; they were divided into direct intervention, indirect intervention and control groups. A self-reported questionnaire was completed before intervention. The guidance was presented to the direct intervention group, by PowerPoint and to the indirect group by pamphlet. Immediately after the intervention, the questionnaire was completed by intervention groups and two months later by all participants. Difference in the scores at start and end was calculated. Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn’s post hoc and Friedman with K-W post-hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using SPPS version 19 software at a significance level of 0.05. Results: The change in scores of knowledge relevant to maternal, infant and toddler’s oral health and attitude toward maternal oral healthcare had significant differences in the three studied groups (P>0.05), The changes of scores in the four mentioned variables in the intervention groups were significantly higher than controls. In comparison between the intervention groups, the change in score of knowledge about maternal oral healthcare was significantly higher in the direct intervention group (P=0.023). Conclusion: Anticipatory guidance presentation led to change in the score of knowledge about maternal, infant and toddler’s oral health and attitude towards maternal oral health in comparison to no presentation. The direct presentation had superiority over indirect in increasing knowledge about maternal oral healthcare. PMID:24910673

Ramazani, Nahid; Zareban, Iraj; Ahmadi, Rahil; ZadSirjan, Saeede; Daryaeian, Mohammad

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Maternal obesity and late effects on offspring metabolism / Obesidade materna e efeitos tardios sobre o metabolismo da prole  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos tardios da obesidade materna induzida por lesão do núcleo ventromedial do hipotálamo sobre o metabolismo da prole. Trinta dias após a lesão bilateral do hipotálamo ventromedial, ratos fêmeas foram colocadas para acasalar e divididas em dois grupos de animais gestantes: Co [...] ntrole (C) – falsa lesão e Obeso (OB) – lesionados. Três meses após o nascimento, de acordo com os grupos das mães, os filhotes foram divididos em animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta normocalórica (C-N and OB-N) e animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta hipercalórica (C-H and OB-H). Aos 120 dias de idade, os animais foram eutanasiados e as carcaças, fezes e ração foram submetidas à análise calorimétrica para determinação do balanço energético e composição corporal.Resultados Durante o período de crescimento, os filhos de mães obesas mostraram maiores valores de peso corporal e ingestão alimentar que animais controle. Os animais obesos apresentaram maiores valores de ganho de peso corporal e eficiência metabólica que os animais controle quando adultos. A dieta hipercalórica levou ao aumento da energia metabolizável, percentagem de energia absorvida e gasto energético para ambos os grupos. A composição corporal foi somente afetada pela associação da dieta hipercalórica com a obesidade materna que levou ao aumento da gordura corporal.Conclusões : A obesidade materna levou ao sobrepeso tardio na prole, sugerindo uma programação fetal. Pela tendência apresentada, acreditamos que a ingestão prolongada de dietas hipercalóricas em animais adultos possa induzir uma piora no quadro de sobrepeso induzido pela obesidade materna. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7 Abstract in english Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism.Materials and methods : Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 [...] groups of pregnant animals: Control (C) – false lesion (sham) and Obese (OB) – lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N), and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H). At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition.Results : During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat.Conclusions : Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7

Daniele Sá, Vido; Mariana Bocca, Nejm; Neila Ribeiro, Silva; Sylvia Maria Affonso, Silva; Sérgio Luiz, Cravo; Jacqueline, Luz.

2014-04-01

242

The effect of maternal low-protein diet on the heart of adult offspring: role of mitochondria and oxidative stress.  

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Protein restriction during perinatal and early postnatal development is associated with a greater incidence of disease in the adult, such arterial hypertension. The aim in the present study was to investigate the effect of maternal low-protein diet on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, antioxidant levels (enzymatic and nonenzymatic), and oxidative stress levels on the heart of the adult offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats received either 17% casein (normal protein, NP) or 8% casein (low protein, LP) throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning male progeny of these NP or LP fed rats, females were maintained on commercial chow (Labina-Purina). At 100 days post-birth, the male rats were sacrificed and heart tissue was harvested and stored at -80 °C. Our results show that restricting protein consumption in pregnant females induced decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (51% reduction in ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption and 49.5% reduction in respiratory control ratio) in their progeny when compared with NP group. In addition, maternal low-protein diet induced a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidant capacity (37.8% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity; 42% decrease in catalase activity; 44.8% decrease in glutathione-S-transferase activity; 47.9% decrease in glutathione reductase; 25.7% decrease in glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase) and glutathione level (34.8% decrease) when compared with control. From these findings, we hypothesize that an increased production of ROS and decrease in antioxidant activity levels induced by protein restriction during development could potentiate the progression of metabolic and cardiac diseases in adulthood. PMID:24905448

Nascimento, Luciana; Freitas, Cristiane M; Silva-Filho, Reginaldo; Leite, Ana Catarina R; Silva, Alessandra B; da Silva, Aline Isabel; Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Pedroza, Anderson Apolonio; Maia, Maria Bernadete Souza; Fernandes, Mariana P; Lagranha, Claudia

2014-08-01

243

Neurofunctional maps of the 'maternal brain' and the effects of oxytocin: a multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis.  

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Several studies have tried to understand the possible neurobiological basis of mothering. The putative involvement of oxytocin, in this regard, has been deeply investigated. Performing a voxel-based meta-analysis, we aimed at testing the hypothesis of overlapping brain activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the mother-infant interaction and the oxytocin modulation of emotional stimuli in humans. We performed two systematic literature searches: fMRI studies investigating the neurofunctional correlates of the 'maternal brain' by employing mother-infant paradigms; and fMRI studies employing oxytocin during emotional tasks. A unimodal voxel-based meta-analysis was performed on each database, whereas a multimodal voxel-based meta-analytical tool was adopted to assess the hypothesis that the neurofunctional effects of oxytocin are detected in brain areas implicated in the 'maternal brain.' We found greater activation in the bilateral insula extending to the inferior frontal gyrus, basal ganglia and thalamus during mother-infant interaction and greater left insular activation associated with oxytocin administration versus placebo. Left insula extending to basal ganglia and frontotemporal gyri as well as bilateral thalamus and amygdala showed consistent activation across the two paradigms. Right insula also showed activation across the two paradigms, and dorsomedial frontal cortex activation in mothers but deactivation with oxytocin. Significant activation in areas involved in empathy, emotion regulation, motivation, social cognition and theory of mind emerged from our multimodal meta-analysis, supporting the need for further studies directly investigating the neurobiology of oxytocin in the mother-infant relationship. PMID:24734987

Rocchetti, Matteo; Radua, Joaquim; Paloyelis, Yannis; Xenaki, Lida-Alkisti; Frascarelli, Marianna; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Politi, Pierluigi; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

2014-10-01

244

Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) : [plus] Corrigendum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains. Maternal plasma and egg cortisol levels were correlated, but no difference between the HR and LR strains was detected in either parameter. LR females produced larger eggs, and larvae with larger yolk sacs compared to HR females, however no differences in larval body size (excluding the yolk) was detected between strains. Considering that the HR and LR strains have a number of correlated behavioral and physiological traits that resemble the reactive and proactive stress coping styles, respectively, the results suggest that proactive mothers invest more energy into their offspring, producing larvae with larger energy reserves. It is possible that larger energy reserves in proactive larvae support the energy requirement for establishing and defending territory in salmonid fish. Furthermore, in the present study we found a positive relationship between mother plasma cortisol and egg cortisol; however neither mother plasma cortisol nor egg cortisol differed between strains. These results indicate that cortisol endowment from the mother to the offspring plays a minor role in the transfer of the behavioral and physiological traits which separates these strains.

Andersson, M. Åberg; Silva, P. I. M.

2011-01-01

245

The effect of maternal body condition on in vivo production of zygotes and behavior of delivered offspring in mice.  

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This study investigated the effects of maternal body condition on oocyte quality and zygote production. Additionally, we examined the possible consequences on somatic parameters and behavior of naturally delivered offspring. We used an experimental model based on overfeeding of outbred mice during intrauterine and early postnatal development to produce the following four types of females: physiological (7%-8%), slightly increased (8%-11%), highly increased (>11%), and low (<7%) body fat content (Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging). The fertilized females with slightly increased body fat showed increased numbers of spontaneously ovulated oocytes and an increased fertilization index compared with control animals. On the contrary, mice with slightly and highly increased body fat showed increased numbers of isolated immature oocytes and degenerates. Furthermore, animals with increased body fat had significantly decreased deposits of neutral lipids in the cytoplasm of mature oocytes (Nile red staining) and showed lower reduction in DNA cytosine methylation signal in parental pronuclei (5-methylcytosine immunohistochemistry). The highly increased amount of body fat in mothers was accompanied with lower weights in newborn pups and 5-week-old offspring. We also observed several deviations from normal behavior (open-field test and forced swimming test). The females with low body fat displayed a lower fertilization index, a lower percentage of zygotes at pronuclear stage 4 with demethylated DNA cytosine in parental pronuclei, and lower newborn weights. Although delivered offspring were able to gain normal weight by the fifth week of life, there were several deviations from normal behavior observed. Our results show that periconceptional status of maternal body condition adversely affects the quality of oocytes and might be correlated with significant changes during postnatal offspring development. The data documenting later onset of DNA demethylation in zygotes and decreased amounts of neutral lipids in oocytes suggest that the observed alterations in offspring might originate in modifications established at the earliest stages of conceptus development. PMID:25433834

Fabian, Dušan; Kubandová, Janka; Cikoš, Stefan; Burkuš, Ján; Fabianová, Kamila; Ra?eková, Enikö; Czikková, So?a; Koppel, Juraj

2014-11-01

246

Low?dose maternal alcohol consumption: effects in the hearts of offspring in early life and adulthood  

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Abstract High alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to deleterious effects on fetal cardiac structure and it also affects cardiomyocyte growth and maturation. This study aimed to determine whether low levels of maternal alcohol consumption are also detrimental to cardiomyocyte and cardiac growth in the early life of offspring and whether cardiac structure and function in adulthood is affected. Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rat dams were fed a control or 6% (volume/volume) liquid?based ethanol supplemented (isocaloric) diet throughout gestation. At embryonic day 20, the expression of genes involved in cardiac development was analyzed using Real?time PCR. At postnatal day 30, cardiomyocyte number, size, and nuclearity in the left ventricle (LV) were determined stereologically. In 8?month?old offspring, LV fibrosis and cardiac function (by echocardiography) were examined. Maternal ethanol consumption did not alter gene expression of the cardiac growth factors in the fetus or cardiomyocyte number in weanling offspring. However, at 8 months, there were significant increases in LV anterior and posterior wall thickness during diastole in ethanol?exposed offspring (P = 0.037 and P = 0.024, respectively), indicative of left ventricular hypertrophy; this was accompanied by a significant increase in fibrosis. Additionally, maximal aortic flow velocity was significantly decreased in ethanol?exposed offspring (P = 0.035). In conclusion, although there were no detectable early?life differences in cardiac and cardiomyocyte growth in animals exposed to a chronic low dose of ethanol during gestation, there were clearly deleterious outcomes by adulthood. This suggests that even relatively low doses of alcohol consumed during pregnancy can be detrimental to long?term cardiac health in the offspring. PMID:25077510

Nguyen, Vivian B.; Probyn, Megan E.; Campbell, Fiona; Yin, Kom V.; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Zimanyi, Monika A.; Bertram, John F.; Black, Mary Jane; Moritz, Karen M.

2014-01-01

247

Low-dose maternal alcohol consumption: effects in the hearts of offspring in early life and adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

High alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to deleterious effects on fetal cardiac structure and it also affects cardiomyocyte growth and maturation. This study aimed to determine whether low levels of maternal alcohol consumption are also detrimental to cardiomyocyte and cardiac growth in the early life of offspring and whether cardiac structure and function in adulthood is affected. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat dams were fed a control or 6% (volume/volume) liquid-based ethanol supplemented (isocaloric) diet throughout gestation. At embryonic day 20, the expression of genes involved in cardiac development was analyzed using Real-time PCR. At postnatal day 30, cardiomyocyte number, size, and nuclearity in the left ventricle (LV) were determined stereologically. In 8-month-old offspring, LV fibrosis and cardiac function (by echocardiography) were examined. Maternal ethanol consumption did not alter gene expression of the cardiac growth factors in the fetus or cardiomyocyte number in weanling offspring. However, at 8 months, there were significant increases in LV anterior and posterior wall thickness during diastole in ethanol-exposed offspring (P = 0.037 and P = 0.024, respectively), indicative of left ventricular hypertrophy; this was accompanied by a significant increase in fibrosis. Additionally, maximal aortic flow velocity was significantly decreased in ethanol-exposed offspring (P = 0.035). In conclusion, although there were no detectable early-life differences in cardiac and cardiomyocyte growth in animals exposed to a chronic low dose of ethanol during gestation, there were clearly deleterious outcomes by adulthood. This suggests that even relatively low doses of alcohol consumed during pregnancy can be detrimental to long-term cardiac health in the offspring. PMID:25077510

Nguyen, Vivian B; Probyn, Megan E; Campbell, Fiona; Yin, Kom V; Samuel, Chrishan S; Zimanyi, Monika A; Bertram, John F; Black, Mary Jane; Moritz, Karen M

2014-07-01

248

Maternal nutritional programming of fetal adipose tissue development: differential effects on messenger ribonucleic acid abundance for uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated and prolactin receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal nutrient restriction at specific stages of gestation has differential effects on fetal development such that the offspring are programmed to be at increased risk of a range of adult diseases, including obesity. We investigated the effect of maternal nutritional manipulation through gestation on fetal adipose tissue deposition in conjunction with mRNA abundance for uncoupling protein (UCP)1 and 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)alpha and gamma, together with long and short forms of the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Singleton-bearing ewes were either nutrient restricted (3.2-3.8 MJ day(-1) metabolizable energy) or fed to appetite (8.7-9.9 MJ day(-1)) over the period of maximal placental growth, i.e. between 28 and 80 d gestation. After 80 d gestation, ewes were either fed to calculated requirements, (6.7-7.5 MJ day(-1)), or to appetite (8.0-10.9 MJ day(-1)). At term, offspring of nutrient-restricted ewes possessed more adipose tissue, an adaptation that was greatest in those born to mothers that fed to requirements in late gestation. This was accompanied by an increased mRNA abundance for UCP2 and PPARalpha, an adaptation not seen in mothers re-fed to appetite. Maternal nutrition had no effect on mRNA abundance for UCP1, PPARgamma, or PRLR. Irrespective of maternal nutrition, mRNA abundance for UCP1 was positively correlated with PPARgamma and the long and short forms of PRLR, indicating that these factors may act together to ensure that UCP1 abundance is maximized in the newborn. In conclusion, we have shown, for the first time, differential effects of maternal nutrition on key regulatory components of fetal fat metabolism. PMID:15961559

Bispham, J; Gardner, D S; Gnanalingham, M G; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E; Budge, H

2005-09-01

249

A Maternal High Fat Diet Has Long-Lasting Effects on Skeletal Muscle Lipid and PLIN Protein Content in Rat Offspring at Young Adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

A maternal high fat diet (HFD) can have adverse effects on skeletal muscle development. Skeletal muscle PLIN proteins (PLIN2, 3 and 5) are thought to play critical roles in lipid metabolism, however effects of HFD on PLIN and lipases (HSL, ATGL, CGI-58) in mothers as well as their offspring have yet to be investigated. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether maternal HFD would influence skeletal muscle lipase and PLIN protein content in offspring at weaning (19d) and young adulthood (3mo). Female rats (28d old, n = 9/group) were fed control (CON, AIN93G, 7 % soybean oil) or HFD (AIN93G, 20 % lard) for 10 weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. All offspring were weaned to CON [n = 18/group, 1 female and 1 male pup per litter were studied at weaning (19d) and 3mo of age]. There was no effect of sex for the main outcomes measured in plantaris, therefore male and female data was combined. Maternal HFD resulted in higher triacylglycerol content in pups at 3mo (p < 0.05), as well as in the dams (p = 0.015). Maternal HFD resulted in higher PLIN5 content in pups at weaning and 3mo (p = 0.05). PLIN2 and PLIN5 content decreased at 3mo versus weaning (p < 0.001). HFD dams had a higher PLIN3 content (p = 0.016). Diet had no effect on ATGL, CGI-58, or HSL content. In conclusion, exposure to a maternal HFD resulted in higher skeletal muscle lipid and PLIN5 content in plantaris of offspring through to young adulthood. PMID:25552350

MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Castelli, Laura M; Miotto, Paula M; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Milburn, Amanda; Roy, Brian D; LeBlanc, Paul J; Ward, Wendy E; Peters, Sandra J

2015-02-01

250

Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

Choi Hyeon-Jeong

2011-11-01

251

The effects of food and maternal conditions in fetal growth and size in wild reindeer  

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Full Text Available Fetal growth rates and birth weights were studied in four wild reindeer areas in Southern Norway (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø, Forelhogna, representing high and low density populations, with a 5-fold difference in mean lichen winter-food availability. Fetal growth was depressed by 42% in the high-densitv Hardangervidda population, and mean birth weights were 3.7 vs. 6.2 kg, with a 10 days difference in mean birth dates. Fetal size was better correlated with maternal weight, than age. Maternal weights increased until 5 yrs. of age and then decreased in the high-density Hardangervidda population (but not so in the low density Knutshø-Forclhogna populations. 55% of the offspring died before weaning in the Hardangervidda herd, but no significant calf losses were found amont the large-sized does in the food-abundant areas.Effekter av ernæring og simlas kondisjon på vekst og størrelse av foster hos villrein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fostervekst og fødselsvekter ble undersøkt i fire villreinområder i Sør-Norge (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø og Forelhogna som representerer høg- og lågtetthetsstammer, med en 5-foldig forskjell i gjennomsnittlig lavbeite-tilgang om vinteren. Fosterveksten ble nedsatt med 42% i høgtetthetsstammen på Hardangervidda og fødselsvektene var i gjennomsnitt 3,7 kg, mot 6,2 kg i det beste området, og med en 10 dagers forsinkelse i midlere fødselsdato. Fosterets størrelse var korrelert med morens vekt, som igjen var avhengig av hennes alder. Hos de minste simlene i det dårligste området økte vektene til 5-års alder, for deretter å avta for hvert gjenlevende år. Hos simlene i det beste området økte vektene til 10-års alder, og var da dobbelt så tunge som fra det dårligste området. 55% av avkommet døde før de var avvent med diing hos Hardangervidda-simlene, mens det ikke var noen statistisk målbar dødelighet hos kalvene i Knutshø-Forelhogna.Ravinnon vaikutus ja naarasporon kunto porosikion kasvuun ja suuruuteen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Etelå-Norjan neljallå peura-alueella, jotka ovat Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutsho ja Forelhogna, tutkittiin porosikion kasvua ja syntymåpainoja. Alueet edustavat ylintå ja alinta tiheyskantaa ja loytyy 5-kertainen eroavaisuus keskimåarin jåkålålaiduntaan talvisaikaan. Sikion kasvu aleni 42% ylemmåsså tiheyskannassa Hardangervidda-alueella ja syntymåpainot olivat keskimåarin 3,7 kg mutta 6,2 kg parhaimmalla alueella, ja 10 påivån myohastyminen keskimååråisesta syntymåpåivayksestå. Sikion suuruus oli vastaavuussuhteessa emon painoon, joka oli taas riippuvainen sen iåstå. Huonoimmalla alueella pieninpien naaraiden painot lisåantyivåt 5-ikåvuoteen asti, vahetåkseen sen jålkeen jokaista jåljellåolevaa elovuotta kohden. Parhaimmalla alueella naaraiden painot lisåantyivåt 10-ikåvuoteen asti, ja oli silloin kaksi kertaa niin raskaita kuin huonoimman alueen naarasporot. 55% jålkelåisistå kuoli ennenkuin ne olivat vierottuneet Hardangervidda-naarasporoista. Sitåvastoin ei ollut mitåån tilastollisesti mitattavissa olevaa Knutsho - Forelhogna-alueiden vasakuolevaisuudesta.

Terje Skogland

1984-05-01

252

194 effect of maternal age on the granulosa cell transcriptome of preovulatory follicles in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to determine how maternal age influences the transcriptome of the dominant follicle during the preovulatory period. We tested the hypotheses that delayed ovulation in aged cows is associated with 1) altered gene expression of granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle and 2) decreased synthesis of progesterone by granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle. Granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles were obtained 24h after LH treatment from aged Hereford cows (17.0±2.5 years; n=6) and their daughters (9.0±0.6 years; n=6), and compared using bovine specific microarrays (EMBV3, EmbryoGENE, Québec, QC, Canada). Results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. A total of 1340 genes or gene isoforms were expressed differentially (?2-fold change; P?0.05) in aged cows v. their younger daughters. Differentially expressed up- and down-regulated genes were related to 1) LH response (?RGS2, ?SERPINE2, ?PTGS2), 2) cellular differentiation and luteinization (?TNFAIP6, ?GADD45B, ?VNN1), and 3) progesterone synthesis (?STAR, ?HSD3B2, ?NR5A2, ?NR4A1). Intra-follicular concentration of progesterone was lower (Pcows. Pathway analysis of the dataset revealed that mechanisms of delayed ovulation in aged cows may involve 1) post-receptor desensitization of G-coupled protein receptors, 2) inactivation of tissue plasminogen activator, and 3) delayed production of prostaglandin E2. In conclusion, transcriptome analysis of granulosa cells from aged cows revealed a delayed or suboptimal response to the preovulatory LH stimulus, represented by delayed cellular differentiation, luteinization, and progesterone synthesis. PMID:25472243

Khan, M I R; Dias, F C F; Sirard, M A; Adams, G P; Singh, J

2014-12-01

253

Effect of nutritional supplementation of breastfeeding HIV positive mothers on maternal and child health: findings from a randomized controlled clinical trial  

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Abstract Background It has been well established that breastfeeding is beneficial for child health, however there has been debate regarding the effect of lactation on maternal health in the presence of HIV infection and the need for nutritional supplementation in HIV positive lactating mothers. Aims To assess the effect of nutritional supplementation to HIV infected lactating mothers on nutritional and health status of mothers and their infants. Methods

Kindra Gurpreet; Coutsoudis Anna; Esposito Francesca

2011-01-01

254

Do clinical and laboratory parameters effect maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome?  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the clinical features and laboratory parameters affect maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with HELLP syndrome.Material and Methods: The medical records of pregnant patients complicated with HELLP syndrome were analyzed retrospectively between June 01, 2003 and June 01, 2010. The demographic data, medical history, admission symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings and recovery time were evaluated. The adverse maternal outcomes including eclampsia, placental abruption, disseminated intravascular coagulation, postpartum hemorrhage, pulmonary complications, cerebral edema and visual loss were recorded. Fetal growth restriction, necessity for neonatal intensive care unit admission and perinatal mortality were recorded as an adverse fetal outcome. Results: The incidence of HELLP syndrome was 0.52%. The mean age of the patients was 28.93±7.90 (range 17-45. HELLP syndrome was diagnosed on average in the 33.68±4.41th (ranged 24-40 week of gestation. Eighteen cases (40.9% were nullipara and twenty-six cases (59.1% multipara. The most common complications were eclampsia (40.9% and abruption placenta (15.9%. Pregnancy was terminated within 48 hours in all patients. The rate of cesarean section was 90.9%. Perinatal mortality rate in HELLP syndrome was 31.8%. There was no maternal mortality. Conclusion: Neither clinical characteristics nor laboratory parameters was found effective for prediction of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

?ncim Bezircio?lu

2012-03-01

255

Maternal depressive symptoms, maternal behavior, and toddler internalizing outcomes: a moderated mediation model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal depression relates to child internalizing outcomes, but one missing aspect of this association is how variation in depressive symptoms, including mild and moderate symptoms, relates to young children's outcomes. The current study examined a moderated mediation model to investigate how maternal behaviors may mediate this association in the context of child temperament and gender. Mothers and toddlers completed a free-play/clean-up task in the laboratory. Mothers rated their depressive symptoms and their toddlers' temperament and internalizing behaviors. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of maternal warmth on the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler internalizing outcomes for boys with low negative emotionality. Toddler gender and temperament moderated the relation between maternal intrusiveness and toddler internalizing outcomes, but mediation was not supported. Results highlight the important interaction between child and maternal variables in predicting child outcomes, and suggest mechanisms by and conditions under which mild maternal depressive symptomatology can be a risk factor for toddler internalizing outcomes. PMID:24553739

Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

2015-02-01

256

Efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en el oligohidramnios aislado: its effectiveness in isolated oligohydramnios Parenteral maternal hydrotherapy:  

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Full Text Available El oligohidramnios u oligoamnios es la disminución del líquido amniótico a cifras patológicas con un índice de líquido amniótico (ILA menor o igual a 5 cm, y constituye un alto riego fetal y secundariamente materno. OBJETIVO: demostrar a través de un ensayo clínico controlado la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en oligoamnios aislados, en el aumento del ILA y consecutivamente su repercusión en esos resultados perinatológicos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado para valorar la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral (HMP en gestantes con oligoamnios aislado, de 28 sem o más de embarazo, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Docente de Guanabacoa, entre el 1ro de enero del 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004. La muestra fue de 141 oligoamnios aislados y se dividió en 2 grupos: grupo estudio: 56 y el grupo control: 85. Al grupo estudio se le aplicó HMP con 2000 mL de solución salina isotónica al 0,9 %, y con el grupo control se mantuvo conducta expectante. RESULTADOS: el oligoamnios aislado es más frecuente en el embarazo a término. Al administrar HMP aumenta el ILA en un 43 % (grupo estudio y solo en un 22 % de los casos del grupo control. Igualmente, se logra aumentar la edad gestacional en 2 sem desde el diagnóstico. Fue mayor el parto transpelviano en el grupo estudio; la principal causa de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo en ambos, principalmente en el grupo control. En el grupo estudio no hubo recién nacidos con Síndrome de distress respiratorio ni bronconeumonía congénita. CONCLUSIONES: la HMP parece ser efectiva en el manejo del oligoamnios aislado, lo cual disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal y secundariamente el bienestar materno.Oligohydramnios or oligoamnios is the amniotic fluid decrease to pathological figures with a high amniotic fluid rate (AFR less or similar to 5 cm, and it is a fetal high risk, and secondarily maternal. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate through a controlled clinical assay the effectiveness of parenteral maternal hydrotherapy (PMH in isolated oligoamnios, in increase of AFR, and consecutively its repercussion on those perinatal results. METHODS: We made a controlled clinical assay to assess effectiveness of PHM in pregnants with isolated oligoamnios of 28 weeks or more of pregnancy in Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. Sample included 141 isolated oligoamnios and it was divided in two groups: study group with 56 patients and control-group with 85 patients. In study group, we administered PHM with 2000 mL of 0,9% isotopic saline solution, and in control-group there was an expectant behavior RESULTS: Isolated aligoamnios is more frequent in term pregnancy. Administration of PHM increases AFR in 43% (study group, and only in 22% of cases from control- group. Likewise, it was possible to increase gestational age in two weeks from diagnosis. In study group, transpelvic pregnancy; main cause of cesarean section was the acute fetal suffering in both groups, mainly in the control one. In study group there were not newborns presenting with neither respiratory syndrome nor congenital bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: PMH looks to be effective in management o isolated oligoamnios, decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality, and secondarily, maternal wellbeing.

Itsel Cárdenas Ramón

2009-09-01

257

Effect of Maternal Intake of Organically or Conventionally Produced Feed on Oral Tolerance Development in Offspring Rats  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings’ response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother’s milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups’ anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L).

Melballe Jensen, Maja; Halekoh, Ulrich

2013-01-01

258

B Vitamins in Breast Milk: Relative Importance of Maternal Status and Intake, and Effects on Infant Status and Function12  

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Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and choline as examples and reviews the evidence for risk of inadequate intakes by infants in the first 6 mo of life. F...

Allen, Lindsay H.

2012-01-01

259

Maternal Care Effects on the Development of a Sexually Dimorphic Motor System: The Role of Spinal Oxytocin  

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Maternal licking in rats affects the development of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB), a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus that controls penile reflexes involved with copulation. Reduced maternal licking results in decreased motoneuron number, size, and dendritic length in the adult SNB, as well as deficits in adult male copulatory behavior. Our previous findings that licking-like tactile stimulation influences SNB dendritic development and upregulates Fos expression in the lumbo...

Lenz, Kathryn M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.

2010-01-01

260

Metabolismo mineral óseo durante la gestación y efectos sobre la masa ósea de la madre / Bone mineral metabolism during gestation and its effects on maternal bone mass  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La gestación y lactancia son periodos de alta demanda de calcio, para el crecimiento fetal y para la producción de leche materna. Durante la gestación, la madre transfiere al feto 25 a 30 g de calcio y durante la lactancia se secretan 200 a 240 mg de calcio diario en la leche materna. Durante la ges [...] tación, los mecanismos adaptativos más importantes son el incremento en la absorción de calcio y el incremento del recambio óseo materno; durante la lactancia, hay tendencia a conservar más calcio a nivel renal, pero la desmineralización temporal del esqueleto materno parece ser el mecanismo más importante. Los estudios que emplean absorciometría dual de rayos X (DXA) son escasos, por el riesgo de radiación materna y fetal; pero, con otras técnicas, como el ultrasonido cuantitativo, se ha descrito una pérdida de masa ósea durante la gestación predominantemente dependiente del hueso trabecular. Mediante marcadores bioquímicos del remodelamiento óseo se ha demostrado que los suplementos de calcio reducen la tasa de remodelamiento durante el embarazo y parecen tener efecto benéfico sobre la pérdida ósea materna. Estudios longitudinales que emplean ultrasonido cuantitativo también han encontrado una disminución de la pérdida ósea, entre las mujeres que recibieron aporte o suplemento adecuado de calcio durante la gestación. Abstract in english Pregnancy and lactation are periods of high calcium demand for skeletal growth and maternal milk production. Approximately 25-30 g of calcium are transferred to the fetus during pregnancy, and breast-feeding mothers secrete 200-240 mg/day of calcium in breast milk every day. During pregnancy, major [...] physiologic adaptations include increased both calcium intestinal absorption and rate of maternal bone turnover; during lactation, there is a contribution of renal calcium conservation, but temporary maternal bone demineralization is the main mechanism to meet calcium requirements. Data on bone mineral density assessed by dual energy x-ray absortiometry (DXA) are sparse mainly due to concern about potential risk of radiation exposure to the fetus. Other radiation-free techniques like quantitative ultrasound have been used to assess maternal bone mass changes during pregnancy. Maternal bone loss mainly depending on trabecular areas during pregnancy has been described. Calcium supplements reduce maternal skeletal-bone turnover as evaluated by bone resorption markers during pregnancy and seem to have beneficial effects on maternal bone loss. Longitudinal studies with repeated measurements of quantitative ultrasound during pregnancy have found decrease in bone loss in pregnant women with adequate calcium intake or supplementation.

Luis, Vidal; Maritza, Vidal; Santiago, Cabrera; Eduardo, Ortega; Vicente, Santiváñez; Jorge, Polo; Jorge, Barnaby; Rolando, Vargas; Angélica, del Castillo.

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Maternal health and child mortality in rural India  

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In this paper, the effect of maternal health on the under-five mortality has been examined. Third wave of micro-level National Family Health Survey 2005-06 data for rural India is used. Using various alternative measures of maternal health, the paper finds strong association between maternal health and child mortality. In particular, the effects of maternal height, weight, presence of any disease and anemia are found significant. Based on our findings, we argue that if the possible generation...

Pandey, Manoj K.

2009-01-01

262

Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study  

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Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

2011-01-01

263

The effect of maternal body mass index on spontaneous versus induced preterm birth: a prospective study  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Preterm birth which is defined as delivery before 37 completed weeks was implicated in approximately two thirds of neonatal death. Also preterm labors are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity of infants in recent years and it costs high prices for health system. We evaluate the relationship between prepregnancy maternal body mass Index (BMI and spontaneous and indicated preterm birth."n"n Methods: This study included 250 healthy pregnant women, without any risk factors of preterm birth, were classified into categories that were based on their body mass index. Association between BMI, weight gain and rout of delivery were examined. Rates of indicated and spontaneous preterm birth were compared."n"n Results: Obese women delivered at a more advanced gestational age. (38/34±1/66 weeks vs 37/61±2/44, p=0/006. Obese patients had significantly lower incidence of spontaneous preterm birth at < 37 weeks of gestation (16/8% vs 31/2% p=0/008. Obese women had larger infants (3354/95±596/75 vs 311.24±558/357 p=0/001, and had more frequent cesarean delivery (69/6% vs 52/8%, p=0/006. Weight gain during pregnancy is poorly correlated with prepregnancy BMI (14/41±7/93 kg vs 13/78±4/94kg, p=0/4 and preterm birth."n"n Conclusion: In this survey, there was adverse correlation between body mass index (BMI before pregnancy and preterm labor less than 37 completed weeks and we suggest more study for evaluation between spontaneous and induced preterm labor mechanism and in obese and non obese women. However according to this survey obesity before pregnancy is associated with a lower rate of spontaneous preterm birth.

Moghadami N

2009-06-01

264

Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática  

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Full Text Available Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by hand, a total of nine studies were analyzed. Results: Three out of four papers observed a higher risk for delay lactogenesis among obese mothers, odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.10. The study assessing the initiation of lactation showed that non-obese mothers initiated lactation sooner, OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25-0.62. The overall risk for cessation of breastfeeding showed that obese mothers had higher risks of early cessation, HR: 1.50 (CI 95% 1.11-2.04. In one study it was observed that obese mothers were not more likely to never breastfeed, OR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.97-1.50. Conclusions: This review shows that in prospective studies, obese mothers are more likely to have delayed lactogenesis and reduced lactation. Therefore, weight control and breastfeeding promotion should be reinforced before and during pregnancy. In overweight and obese mothers, breastfeeding should be closely monitored after birth.Objetivo: La falta de lactancia o su corta duración ha sido asociada con la obesidad materna. El propósito de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios prospectivos que estudiaron el efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed, se incluyeron estudios prospectivos del efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la iniciación, la intención y la duración de la lactancia: se encontraron 653 artículos, y siete fueron estudios prospectivos. Después de agregar otros estudios seleccionados a mano, se analizaron nueve estudios. Resultados: Tres de cuatro estudios observaron un mayor riesgo de retraso de la lactogénesis en madres obesas, OR: 1,02 a 1,10. El estudio que analizó la iniciación de la lactancia describió que las madres no obesas iniciaron la lactancia más temprano, OR: 0,39 (95% CI: 0,25-0,62. El riesgo de terminación temprana de la lactancia fue mayor en madres obesas, HR: 1,50 (CI 95% 1,11-2,04. En un estudio se observó que las madres obesas no tenían más probabilidades de no lactar, OR = 1,56 (95% CI: 0,97-1,50. Conclusiones: Esta revisión realizada en estudios prospectivos indica que, es más probable que las madres obesas tengan lactogénesis atrasada o un periodo corto de lactancia. Por lo tanto, el control de peso y la promoción de la lactancia deben reforzarse antes y durante el embarazo. En madres con sobrepeso y obesidad, la lactancia debe de ser promovida y supervisada después de nacimiento.

M. Lepe

2011-12-01

265

Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review / Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: La falta de lactancia o su corta duración ha sido asociada con la obesidad materna. El propósito de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios prospectivos que estudiaron el efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed, se [...] incluyeron estudios prospectivos del efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la iniciación, la intención y la duración de la lactancia: se encontraron 653 artículos, y siete fueron estudios prospectivos. Después de agregar otros estudios seleccionados a mano, se analizaron nueve estudios. Resultados: Tres de cuatro estudios observaron un mayor riesgo de retraso de la lactogénesis en madres obesas, OR: 1,02 a 1,10. El estudio que analizó la iniciación de la lactancia describió que las madres no obesas iniciaron la lactancia más temprano, OR: 0,39 (95% CI: 0,25-0,62). El riesgo de terminación temprana de la lactancia fue mayor en madres obesas, HR: 1,50 (CI 95% 1,11-2,04). En un estudio se observó que las madres obesas no tenían más probabilidades de no lactar, OR = 1,56 (95% CI: 0,97-1,50). Conclusiones: Esta revisión realizada en estudios prospectivos indica que, es más probable que las madres obesas tengan lactogénesis atrasada o un periodo corto de lactancia. Por lo tanto, el control de peso y la promoción de la lactancia deben reforzarse antes y durante el embarazo. En madres con sobrepeso y obesidad, la lactancia debe de ser promovida y supervisada después de nacimiento. Abstract in english Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included [...] prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by hand, a total of nine studies were analyzed. Results: Three out of four papers observed a higher risk for delay lactogenesis among obese mothers, odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.10. The study assessing the initiation of lactation showed that non-obese mothers initiated lactation sooner, OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25-0.62). The overall risk for cessation of breastfeeding showed that obese mothers had higher risks of early cessation, HR: 1.50 (CI 95% 1.11-2.04). In one study it was observed that obese mothers were not more likely to never breastfeed, OR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.97-1.50). Conclusions: This review shows that in prospective studies, obese mothers are more likely to have delayed lactogenesis and reduced lactation. Therefore, weight control and breastfeeding promotion should be reinforced before and during pregnancy. In overweight and obese mothers, breastfeeding should be closely monitored after birth.

M., Lepe; M., Bacardí Gascón; L. M., Castañeda-González; M.ª E., Pérez Morales; A., Jiménez Cruz.

1266-12-01

266

Maternal high fat feeding and gestational dietary restriction: effects on offspring body weight, food intake and hypothalamic gene expression over three generations in mice.  

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Excessive gestational weight gain and maternal obesity have both been associated with increased incidence of obesity and metabolic disorder in offspring in both humans and animal models. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether mild gestational food restriction during the third trimester (GFR) would alter food intake and growth parameters of offspring, (2) whether effects of GFR depended on diet (high fat [HF] vs chow), (3) whether effects of excessive gestational weight gain (WG) would become magnified across generations, and (4) whether diet and GFR would alter hypothalamic gene expression in adult offspring. Three generations of female C57BL/6 mice were fed chow or HF diet, mated at 11 weeks of age and assigned to ad libitum feeding or 25% GFR. Offspring were fed the same diet as their mothers. Results showed (1) maternal gestational WG was positively correlated with offspring WG. (2) HF offspring weighed less (pWWT) but gained more during the 8 weeks after weaning than chow-fed offspring (pWWT (p<0.05), but subsequent WG and final BW were less (p<0.05) compared to males from ad lib mothers. (4) In the HF group, GFR also resulted in decreased FI (p<0.05) and FE (p<0.07) in offspring, compared to offspring from ad lib mothers. (5) In generation 3, hypothalamic expression of tyrosine hydroxylase was lower in HF males from GFR mothers compared to HF males from ad lib mothers (p<0.05). In conclusion, gender and maternal GFR had independent effects on growth and FI, and hypothalamic gene expression was dependent on both gender and maternal GFR in HF offspring. Even mild food restriction of obese mothers during pregnancy may have beneficial effects in reducing the risk or degree of obesity in offspring. PMID:20430050

Giraudo, Silvia Q; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Proctor, Lindsey; Wickwire, Kathie; Ambati, Suresh; Baile, Clifton A

2010-11-01

267

Effect of Multivitamin-Mineral versus Multivitamin Supplementation on Maternal, Newborns' Biochemical Indicators and Birth Size: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial  

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Objective: Micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy is associated with several complications. This study was designed to determine the effects of received multivitamin-mineral vs. multivitamin supplements on maternal, newborns' biochemical indicators, and birth size. Methods: This double-blind randomized-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 48 Iranian pregnant women, primigravida, aged 18-35 years old in their second and third trimester from December 2011 to September 2012. Subj...

Mohsen Taghizadeh; Mansooreh Samimi; Zohreh Tabassi; Zahra Heidarzadeh; Zatollah Asemi

2014-01-01

268

Effects of maternal separation on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses, cognition and vulnerability to stress in adult female rats.  

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We studied the long term effects of neonatal stress in female rats and subsequent responses to stress when adults. Female rats that experienced maternal separation (MS) showed in adulthood depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and cognitive impairments in the novel object recognition test, which were reverted by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone or the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Markers of HPA axis (corticosterone levels, CRF mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus and glucocorticoid receptor density in the hippocampus) were altered by MS, suggesting that an altered HPA axis function may be associated to behavioral and cognitive deficits in MS female rats. In addition, MS rats were found to be more vulnerable to chronic stress than controls as shown by decreases in open field activity, increases in immobility time in the forced swim test, and changes in markers of HPA axis (decreases in the density of glucocorticoid receptors). These present findings are discussed in terms of gender differences in adulthood. PMID:18554808

Aisa, B; Tordera, R; Lasheras, B; Del Río, J; Ramírez, M J

2008-07-17

269

Effects of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome: a randomized controlled trial on pregnant women in Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome. Methods: The case-control study was conducted between January and July, 2011. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Toyserkan Azad University, and data was collected at prenatal clinics and delivery centres located in Hamedan, Iran. It comprised 80 pregnant women between 20-26 weeks of gestation randomly assigned to two equal and matching groups of cases and controls. The intervention group did exercise continuously on a bicycle ergometre for 15 minutes, three times a week; the intensity being 50-60% of maximal heart rate. The control group did not do any exercise training. All information was obtained from the clinics, delivery centres, and from the reports of delivery room midwives. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in gestational weight gain, pregnancy length, mode of delivery, first and second stage of labour, perineal tear, and 1st and 5th min Apgar score. Mean neonatal weight was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Exercising on a bicycle ergometer during pregnancy seems to be safe for the mother and the neonate. (author)

270

THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL EMPLOYMENT ON THE PERSONALITYAND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO AGE AND GENDER  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted on a random sample of 90 boys and girls whose mothers were employed and another 90 boys and girls whose mothers were employed from fourth, fifth and sixth grades. For measuring the personality, junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (1965 was administered. The subjects' examination marks were taken into consideration to measure their academic achievement. The statistical test of Mean, Standard deviation, Student 't' test, ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test were used to compute the data and the results, were discussed in the light of previous research findings. The results of the present study revealed that children of employed mothers have high extroverted personality than children of unemployed mothers. No significant difference existed between 9 year old boys of employed mothers and unemployed mothers with regard to personality and academic achievement. Whereas 9 year old girls of unemployed mothers showed high neurotic behavior than the children of employed mothers, whereas significant difference was observed in the extroversion scores of 10 year old boys of employed and unemployed mothers. Lastly maternal employment had no significant effect on the personality and academic achievement of 10 year old girls.

Mahjabeen

2014-09-01

271

Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil  

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Full Text Available We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19 and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.

Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira Lôbo

2009-01-01

272

Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper [...] sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB.

Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira, Lôbo; Raimundo Nonato Braga, Lôbo; Samuel Rezende, Paiva.

273

Maternal immune transfer in mollusc.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal immunity refers to the immunity transferred from mother to offspring via egg, playing an important role in protecting the offspring at early life stages and contributing a trans-generational effect on offspring's phenotype. Because fertilization is external in most of the molluscs, oocytes and early embryos are directly exposed to pathogens in the seawater, and thus maternal immunity could provide a better protection before full maturation of their immunological systems. Several innate immune factors including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like lectins, and immune effectors like lysozyme, lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) and antioxidant enzymes have been identified as maternally derived immune factors in mollusc eggs. Among these immune factors, some maternally derived lectins and antibacterial factors have been proved to endue mollusc eggs with effective defense ability against pathogen infection, while the roles of other factors still remain untested. The physiological condition of mollusc broodstock has a profound effect on their offspring fitness. Many other factors such as nutrients, pathogens, environment conditions and pollutants could exert considerable influence on the maternal transfer of immunity. The parent molluscs which have encountered an immune stimulation endow their offspring with a trans-generational immune capability to protect them against infections effectively. The knowledge on maternal transfer of immunity and the trans-generational immune effect could provide us with an ideal management strategy of mollusc broodstock to improve the immunity of offspring and to establish a disease-resistant family for a long-term improvement of cultured stocks. PMID:24858027

Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng

2015-02-01

274

Maternal complications in diabetic pregnancy.  

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Pregnant women with diabetes have to manage both the effect of pregnancy on glucose control and its effect on pre-existing diabetic complications. Most women experience hypoglycaemia as a consequence of tightened glycaemic control and this impacts on daily living. Less commonly, diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious metabolic decompensation of diabetic control and a medical emergency, can cause foetal and maternal mortality. Microvascular complications of diabetes include retinopathy and nephropathy. Retinopathy can deteriorate during pregnancy; hence, regular routine examination is required and, if indicated, ophthalmological input. Diabetic nephropathy significantly increases the risk of obstetric complications and impacts on foetal outcomes. Pregnancy outcome is closely related to pre-pregnancy renal function. Diabetic pregnancy is contraindicated if the maternal complications of ischaemic heart disease or diabetic gastropathy are known to be present before pregnancy as there is a significant maternal mortality associated with both of these conditions. PMID:21130689

Hawthorne, Gillian

2011-02-01

275

Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PMID:22004338

Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

2012-03-01

276

Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artificial food colourings and additives (AFCAs) have long been suggested to adversely affect the learning and behaviour in children. In this study, we aimed to provide additional data to clarify the possible side effects of colouring additives on behaviour and memory. We administered acceptable daily intake values of AFCAs as a mixture (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation and then tested their effects on behaviour and on spatial working memory in their offspring. Effects on spatial learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze, behavioural effects were evaluated by open-field test and forced swim test. Our results showed that commonly used artificial food colourings have no adverse effects on spatial working memory and did not create a depressive behaviour in offspring. But they showed a few significant effects on locomotor activity as AFCAs increased some parameters of locomotor activity. PMID:22323474

Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Ozturk, Mustafa; Gultekin, Fatih

2013-08-01

277

Maternal-fetal HLA sharing and preeclampsia: variation in effects by seminal fluid exposure in a case-control study of nulliparous women in Iowa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas histocompatibility is critical for transplantation, HLA histoincompatibility is associated with successful pregnancy. Literature on HLA sharing and preeclampsia has been inconsistent; most studies focused on maternal-paternal rather than maternal-fetal sharing. This study examines whether maternal-fetal histocompatibility is associated with preeclampsia, and whether effects vary by semen exposure history. This case-control study of nulliparous women was designed to examine associations among HLA sharing, semen exposure, and preeclampsia. 258 preeclampsia cases and 182 normotensive controls met the eligibility criteria. HLA typing for mother and baby was performed for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1. We further restricted our study sample to 224 mother-baby pairs who had complete HLA typing for all five genes. Seminal fluid exposure indexes incorporated information on type of practice, frequency, contraceptive use (for vaginal exposure) and ingestion practices (for oral exposure). Multivariate models were adjusted for BMI and education. HLA-A matching, Class I matching, and combined Class I and II matching were associated with increased odds of preeclampsia. Among women with low semen exposure, effects of Class I matching were amplified (HLA-A matching, OR=6.27, 95%CI=1.04, 37.97; Class I matching, OR=4.49 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.89, 14.50). With moderate to high semen exposure, Class II matching effects predominated (HLA-DQB1, OR=3.22, 95%CI=1.04, 9.99; Class II, OR=1.76 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.05, 2.98; and total matches, OR=1.45 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.02, 2.06). We found consistent evidence that maternal-fetal HLA sharing was associated with preeclampsia in a pattern influenced by prior vaginal exposure to paternal seminal fluid. PMID:23998333

Triche, Elizabeth W; Harland, Karisa K; Field, Elizabeth H; Rubenstein, Linda M; Saftlas, Audrey F

2014-03-01

278

The Role of Carnosine in Protection Against the Damaging Effect of Maternal Nicotine Exposure During Gestation and Lactation on the Lung of Albino Rat Offspring  

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Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to investigate the effect of maternal nicotine exposure, during gestation and lactation, on the lung histological structures of rat offspring and its reversibility and (2 to establish whether carnosine would protect the neonatal rat lung against the adverse effects of maternal nicotine exposure. After mating, the pregnant albino rats were divided into three groups; group I (control group received a daily subcutaneous injection of normal saline, group II received a daily a subcutaneous injection of nicotine (1 mg kg-1 body weight and group III received daily both of subcutaneous injection of nicotine (1 mg kg-1 body weight and intramuscular injection of carnosine (10 mg kg-1 body weight. The lung tissue of the rat pups was collected for histological and histomorphometric study on postnatal days 7, 21 and 49. The study showed that maternal nicotine exposure resulted in marked affection of the lung parenchyma of the rat pups including massive cellular infiltration, thickening of the alveolar septa with increase of their cellularity, proliferation and migration of Type II pneumocytes, damage of the elastic tissue and increased fibroblast deposition. Loss of normal lung architecture and rupture septa with coalescence of alveoli giving picture of microscopical emphysema were also noticed. There was also significant decrease in the alveolar count mm-2 and the percentage of elastic tissue fibers with significant increase in the percentage of collagen fibers in the lung parenchyma of these rat pups, compared with age-matched controls. These changes were irreversible as they progressed even after withdrawal of nicotine following weaning, implying that these changes could be induced at gene level. The treatment with carnosine limited the deleterious effects of nicotine on the histological structure of lung parenchyma of rat pups especially the alveolar count, which did not show significant changes compared with the age-matched controls, as time laps. However, carnosine did not prevent completely the induction of microscopic emphysema resulted from maternal nicotine exposure.

Hoda Mahmoud El-Aasar

2007-01-01

279

Maternal mortality in Sweden  

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Every year about half a million women die from complications of pregnancy, parturition and puerperium, most of which are preventable. The purpose of this thesis was to chart the distribution and decline in maternal mortality in Sweden between 1751 and 1980, and furthermore to characterize positive (predisposing) factors and negative (protective) factors of maternal mortality. Maternal mortality declined from 900 to 6.6 per 100,000 live births in these 230 years. Maternal deaths accounted for ...

Ho?gberg, Ulf

1985-01-01

280

Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels (N = 98). Following Mary Ainsworth's lead, our maternal sensitivity measures were primarily based on ratings of direct observations. Six sets of measures were obtained: positive maternal style at home (a mean of four different ratings); providing a sensitive framework, limit setting, allowing autonomy, criticizing/cutting in (each a mean over two laboratory joint tasks); and tension-making (a mean of three different ratings in a fear-inducing task). Regression analyses showed firstly that maternal anxiety rather than behavioral inhibition or sex of child was the significant predictor of each maternal sensitivity measure; and secondly that these measures rather than maternal anxiety or sex were the significant predictors of security of attachment. Finally, ANOVA's indicated which sets of maternal ratings were associated with each pattern of attachment (Avoidant, Secure, Ambivalent, or Controlling). PMID:24299138

Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Maternity support workers and safety in maternity care in England.  

Science.gov (United States)

Errors in health care may lead to poor outcomes or even death. In maternity care the issue is more acute as most women and babies are healthy--and mistakes can have devastating effects. In the last 20 years 'patient' safety in maternity care has received significant attention in terms of both policy and research. With few exceptions, the resultant publications have been aimed at health service managers or registered health professionals. However a substantial section of the workforce now consists of support workers who may receive minimal training. This article aims to serve as a reminder that everyone is responsible for the safety of maternity care, and the learning needs of unregistered care staff require attention to strengthen safety defences. PMID:25582004

Lindsay, Pat

2014-11-01

282

Maternal Neglect: Oxytocin, Dopamine and the Neurobiology of Attachment  

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Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, in order to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified which contribute to maternal caregiving behavior, focusing on the oxy...

Strathearn, Lane

2011-01-01

283

Prenatal lipopolysaccharide increases maternal behavior, decreases maternal odor preference, and induces lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study investigated whether late maternal inflammation disrupts the mother/pup interaction, resulting in long-lasting effects on pup behavior and alterations in biological pathways, thereby programming prepubertal behavior and the pups' inflammatory responses after bacterial endotoxin tre [...] atment. Female rats received 100 ?g/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or .9% saline solution on gestation day 18. Reproductive performance was observed at birth. On lactation days (LD) 5 and LD 6, respectively, maternal behavior and maternal aggressive behavior were assessed. In pups, maternal odor preference on LD 7, open field behavior on LD 21, and serum tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) levels after LPS challenge on LD 21 were investigated. The results showed that prenatal LPS exposure improved maternal care and reduced maternal aggressive behavior but did not alter maternal reproductive performance. Male offspring exhibited increased body weights at birth and reduced maternal odor preference. Lipopolysaccharide challenge increased the duration of immobility in the open field and induced a slight increase in serum TNF-? levels. Prenatal exposure to LPS during late pregnancy improved maternal care, reduced maternal olfactory preference, and induced TNF-? hyporesponsiveness to a single dose of LPS in pups.

Sandra, Penteado; Cristina de Oliveira Massoco-Salles, Gomes; Thiago, Kirsten; Thiago, Reis-Silva; Rafael César de, Melo; Michelli, Acenjo; Nicolle, Queiroz-Hazarbassanov; Maria Martha, Bernardi.

2013-06-01

284

EFFECTS ON THE FETUS OF MATERNAL BENOMYL EXPOSURE IN THE PROTEIN-DEPRIVED RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The separate and combined effects of protein deprivation and benomyl ((methyl 1-butylcarbomoyl)2-benzimidazole carbamate) exposure were studied in the pregnant rat fed a diet containing 24% (control) or 8% (deficient) casein throughout gestation. Within each diet group, subgroups...

285

The antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) moderates the deleterious effects of maternal hyperthermia on follicle-enclosed oocytes in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperthermia-induced oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms suggested to underlie loss of developmental competence in mouse embryos. In this study, we examined whether pretreatment with the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can alleviate the negative effects of hyperthermia on developmental competence of the ovarian pool of oocytes and improve embryonic development. Female mice (CB6F1) were synchronized (eCG+hCG) and injected with 0.4 ml EGCG (100 mg/kg body weight) or with saline. Both EGCG- and saline-treated mice were exposed to heat stress (HS; 40 degrees C, 65% RH) or kept under normothermal conditions (Control; 22 degrees C, 45% RH). In vivo-derived zygotes were recovered 20 h after hCG administration and cultured in vitro. Maternal hyperthermia attenuated embryonic cleavage rate in association with further disruption in embryonic early cleavage and subsequently, with embryonic development. While pretreatment with EGCG did not affect the proportion of zygotes that cleaved to the two-cell stage, it appeared to moderate the effect of hyperthermia on both cleavage timing and developmental rate, as reflected by an increased rate of early cleaved embryos and blastocyst formation. Blastocyst developmental competence was also improved, as indicated by the increased total cell number and percentage of embryos that underwent hatching, in association with reduced apoptotic status, as reflected by the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells and intensity of caspase activity for the HS-EGCG embryos vs. HS-saline ones. In summary, while hyperthermia disrupts the competence of the follicle-enclosed oocyte, in vivo administration of the antioxidant EGCG improves developmental competence and the quality of the embryos that develop from these oocytes. PMID:18585774

Roth, Z; Aroyo, A; Yavin, S; Arav, A

2008-10-01

286

Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.27±0.04 v. 1.55±0.02 kg; Pdiet on mortality was found. Lower DHA concentrations were observed in the brain of the lighter piglets compared with their heavier littermates (9.46±0.05 v. 9.63±0.04 g DHA/100 g fatty acids; P=0.008), suggesting that the higher incidence of pre-weaning mortality in low birth weight piglets may be related to their lower brain DHA status. Adding n-3 PUFA to the sow diet could not significantly reduce this difference in DHA status, although numerically the difference in the brain DHA concentration between the piglet weight groups was smaller when fish oil was included in the sow diet. Independent of birth weight, echium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed. PMID:25322791

Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

2014-11-01

287

Altered Starch Turnover in the Maternal Plant Has Major Effects on Arabidopsis Fruit Growth and Seed Composition1[W][OA  

Science.gov (United States)

Mature seeds of both the high-starch starch-excess1 (sex1) mutant and the almost starchless phosphoglucomutase1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have 30% to 40% less lipid than seeds of wild-type plants. We show that this is a maternal effect and is not attributable to the defects in starch metabolism in the embryo itself. Low lipid contents and consequent slow postgerminative growth are seen only in mutant embryos that develop on maternal plants with mutant phenotypes. Mutant embryos that develop on plants with wild-type starch metabolism have wild-type lipid contents and postgerminative growth. The maternal effect on seed lipid content is attributable to carbohydrate starvation in the mutant fruit at night. Fruits on sex1 plants grow more slowly than those on wild-type plants, particularly at night, and have low sugars and elevated expression of starvation genes at night. Transcript levels of the transcription factor WRINKLED1, implicated in lipid synthesis, are reduced at night in sex1 but not in wild-type seeds, and so are transcript levels of key enzymes of glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis. sex1 embryos develop more slowly than wild-type embryos. We conclude that the reduced capacity of mutant plants to convert starch to sugars in leaves at night results in low nighttime carbohydrate availability in the developing fruit. This in turn reduces the rate of development and expression of genes encoding enzymes of storage product accumulation in the embryo. Thus, the supply of carbohydrate from the maternal plant to the developing fruit at night can have an important influence on oilseed composition and on postgerminative growth. PMID:22942388

Andriotis, Vasilios M.E.; Pike, Marilyn J.; Schwarz, Sabine L.; Rawsthorne, Stephen; Wang, Trevor L.; Smith, Alison M.

2012-01-01

288

Efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en el oligohidramnios aislado: its effectiveness in isolated oligohydramnios / Parenteral maternal hydrotherapy:  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El oligohidramnios u oligoamnios es la disminución del líquido amniótico a cifras patológicas con un índice de líquido amniótico (ILA) menor o igual a 5 cm, y constituye un alto riego fetal y secundariamente materno. OBJETIVO: demostrar a través de un ensayo clínico controlado la efectividad de la h [...] idroterapia materna parenteral en oligoamnios aislados, en el aumento del ILA y consecutivamente su repercusión en esos resultados perinatológicos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado para valorar la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral (HMP) en gestantes con oligoamnios aislado, de 28 sem o más de embarazo, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Docente de Guanabacoa, entre el 1ro de enero del 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004. La muestra fue de 141 oligoamnios aislados y se dividió en 2 grupos: grupo estudio: 56 y el grupo control: 85. Al grupo estudio se le aplicó HMP con 2000 mL de solución salina isotónica al 0,9 %, y con el grupo control se mantuvo conducta expectante. RESULTADOS: el oligoamnios aislado es más frecuente en el embarazo a término. Al administrar HMP aumenta el ILA en un 43 % (grupo estudio) y solo en un 22 % de los casos del grupo control. Igualmente, se logra aumentar la edad gestacional en 2 sem desde el diagnóstico. Fue mayor el parto transpelviano en el grupo estudio; la principal causa de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo en ambos, principalmente en el grupo control. En el grupo estudio no hubo recién nacidos con Síndrome de distress respiratorio ni bronconeumonía congénita. CONCLUSIONES: la HMP parece ser efectiva en el manejo del oligoamnios aislado, lo cual disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal y secundariamente el bienestar materno. Abstract in english Oligohydramnios or oligoamnios is the amniotic fluid decrease to pathological figures with a high amniotic fluid rate (AFR) less or similar to 5 cm, and it is a fetal high risk, and secondarily maternal. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate through a controlled clinical assay the effectiveness of parenteral ma [...] ternal hydrotherapy (PMH) in isolated oligoamnios, in increase of AFR, and consecutively its repercussion on those perinatal results. METHODS: We made a controlled clinical assay to assess effectiveness of PHM in pregnants with isolated oligoamnios of 28 weeks or more of pregnancy in Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. Sample included 141 isolated oligoamnios and it was divided in two groups: study group with 56 patients and control-group with 85 patients. In study group, we administered PHM with 2000 mL of 0,9% isotopic saline solution, and in control-group there was an expectant behavior RESULTS: Isolated aligoamnios is more frequent in term pregnancy. Administration of PHM increases AFR in 43% (study group), and only in 22% of cases from control- group. Likewise, it was possible to increase gestational age in two weeks from diagnosis. In study group, transpelvic pregnancy; main cause of cesarean section was the acute fetal suffering in both groups, mainly in the control one. In study group there were not newborns presenting with neither respiratory syndrome nor congenital bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: PMH looks to be effective in management o isolated oligoamnios, decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality, and secondarily, maternal wellbeing.

Itsel, Cárdenas Ramón; Sonia, Águila Setién; Jacinta, Otero Iglesias.

2009-09-01

289

Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl2) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks n both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

290

THE EFFECT OF ACUTE MATERNAL CuCL2 INTOXICATION UPON MOUSE FETAL SKELETON  

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Full Text Available The acute copper intoxication during mouse embryogenesis was performed on day 9 of pregnancy by intraperitoneal injection (i.p. of CuCl2 0,1ml/10 g body weight. Late, fetal effects were controled on day 19 of gestation (the fetal and placental wet weight, external anomalies and the control of fetal skeleton were performed.The control revealed the lowering of the mean fetal and placental weight after acute copper intoxication.The fetal macroscopic examination showed exencephaly in some fetuses from the treated group; the control of fetal skeleton revealed a marked teratogenic effect of copper upon some bones or ossification centers.

Maria Checiu

2004-01-01

291

Mothers Caring for an Adult Child with Schizophrenia: The Effects of Subjective Burden on Maternal Health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined long-term effects that burdens associated with coping with mental illness have on parental health. Data from 81 mothers of adult children with schizophrenia revealed that subjective burdens associated with stigma and worries were related to lower levels of physical well-being among the mothers. (Author/NB)

Greenberg, Jan Steven; And Others

1993-01-01

292

Interaction Effects between Maternal Lifetime Depressive/Anxiety Disorders and Correlates of Children's Externalizing Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the interaction effects between mother's lifetime depressive/anxiety disorders and psychosocial correlates of 6 to 11 year-old children's self-reported externalizing symptoms in the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey. A representative subsample of 1,490 Quebec children aged 6 to 11 years was selected from the original sample. We…

Piche, Genevieve; Bergeron, Lise; Cyr, Mireille; Berthiaume, Claude

2011-01-01

293

Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Berg, A.H. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S.J.; Hinton, D.E. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M. [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

1999-02-01

294

HIV-1: maternal prognosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Profound modifications in the profile of patients are currently being observed within the epidemic context of AIDS, especially with respect to pauperization and feminization of the disease. The population most frequently affected is in the reproductive age, and among adults aged 18 to 24 years, the ratio is 1 man to 1 woman, a phenomenon occurring uniformly all over the world. One of the main challenges for HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their doctors is the effect of the interaction between HIV infection and pregnancy. The present article is a review of the literature; and its objective is to assess the influence of HIV-1 infection seen from the maternal perspective, with a discussion of immunologic function, maternal prognosis, and the HIV-abortion interface. At present, we cannot conclude that pregnancy has a short-term effect on the evolution of HIV infection, but the concomitance of HIV and pregnancy may adversely affect the prognosis of gestation, especially in view of its frequent association with increased abortion and puerperal morbidity rates.

El Beitune Patrícia

2004-01-01

295

Maternal Depression and Adolescent Behavior  

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Full Text Available ... in adolescence? A new study published in the journal Pediatrics investigates the effect of maternal depression on ... Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

296

CHRONIC ZEBRAFISH PFOS EXPOSURE ALTERS SEX RATIO AND MATERNAL RELATED EFFECTS IN F1 OFFSPRING  

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Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Few studies have assessed its chronic toxicity on aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of long-term exposure to PFOS on zebrafish development and reproduction. Specifically, zebrafish at 8 h postfertilization (hpf) were exposed to PFOS at 0, 5, 50, and 250 ?g/L for five months. Growth suppression was observed in the 250 ?g/L PFOS-treated group. The sex ratio...

Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Jiangfei; Lin, Kuanfei; Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Wei; Tanguay, Robert L.; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

2011-01-01

297

Antipsychotic drugs in pregnancy: a review of their maternal and fetal effects  

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Understanding the risks of antipsychotic medication use in pregnancy is becoming an important clinical concern given the evidence of their increasing rate of prescription in the general population for a range of disorders. Despite antipsychotics being amongst the earliest of psychotropic medications to be introduced, the evidence for their effects secondary to pregnancy exposure is extremely limited. While this review does not identify clear evidence for a risk of malformation, there is evide...

Galbally, Megan; Snellen, Martien; Power, Josephine

2014-01-01

298

The effects of maternal social phobia on mother-infant interactions and infant social responsiveness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We addressed these problems in the current study.Methods: We assessed mothers with social phobia (N = 84) and control mothers (N = 89) at 10 weeks in face-...

Murray, L.; Cooper, P.; Creswell, C.; Schofield, E.; Sack, C.

2007-01-01

299

Effect of undernutrition on the uterine environment during maternal recognition of pregnancy in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of pregnancy and undernutrition on endometrial gene expression were investigated in ewes fed all or half their maintenance requirements and killed on Day 14 of pregnancy or of the oestrous cycle. The endometrial expression of progesterone, oestrogen, oxytocin and interferon receptors (PR, ERalpha, OXTR and IFNAR, respectively), cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-I and -II, and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was studied by immunohistochemistry or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The luminal epithelium of cyclic control ewes was devoid of PR staining and had relatively high levels of ERalpha, OXTR, COX-2 and IFNAR2. The presence of a conceptus decreased the in vitro uterine secretion of prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) and the expression of IFNAR2 in most cell types, and increased the gene expression of IGF-I and IGF-II. Undernutrition tended to increase ERalpha protein and gene, but decreased in vitro uterine secretion of PGE(2) and the gene expression of IFNAR2 in cyclic ewes. There was no effect of undernutrition on pregnancy rates or the number of conceptuses recovered. Consistent with this, undernutrition of pregnant ewes did not have any effect on uterine gene expression. Moreover, in cases where changes were observed in cyclic ewes, these changes were negated when a conceptus was present. PMID:19698291

Sosa, C; Abecia, J A; Carriquiry, M; Vázquez, M I; Fernández-Foren, A; Talmon, M; Forcada, F; Meikle, A

2009-01-01

300

Effect of Maternal Morphine Sulfate Exposure on Neuronal Plasticity of Dentate Gyrus in Balb/c Mice Offspring  

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Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effects of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation period on the neuronal cells of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days Balb/c mice offspring. In this experimental study 10 female mice were randomly allocated into cases and controls. In experimental group, animals were received morphine sulfate 10 mg/kg/body weight intraperitoneally during 7 days before mating, gestational period (GD0-21, 18 and 32 days after delivery. The control animals were received an equivalent volume normal saline. Cerebrum of six infant for each group were removed and stained with cresyl violet and monoclonal anti-neuronal nuclei (NeuN antibody. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on dentate gyrus of hippocampus. In the P18 mice , the numbers of granular cells in dentate gyrus medial blade and dentate gyrus lateral blade significantly reduced from 171.45±4.2 and 174.51±3.1 cells in control group to 153.32±2.8 and 151.23±3.2 cells in 10000 ?m2 area of granular layer in treated group (p<0.001. In P32 mice the numbers of granular cells in mb and lb of dentate gyrus significantly decreased from 155.31±4.1 and 153.77±3.4 in control group to 138.33±4.5 and 135.13±4.3 in treated group, respectively (p<0.001. The granular layer thickness in mb and lb area of dentate gyrus significantly reduced in treated mice in compared to controls in P18 and P32 mice (p<0.05. This study revealed that morphine administration before, during pregnancy and lactation period causes neuronal cells loss of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days old infant mice.

S. Kaboli Kafshgiri

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil Eficacia de intervenciones en la comunidad para mejorar la salud maternoinfantil en el nordeste de Brasil  

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Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilitie...

Alan Emond; Jon Pollock; Nilma da Costa; Técia Maranhão; Albanita Macedo

2002-01-01

302

Búsqueda intencionada y reclasificación de muertes maternas en México: el efecto en la distribución de las causas / Intentional search and reclassification of maternal deaths in Mexico: The effect on the distribution of causes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Corregir la mala clasificación y mejorar la calidad de la información sobre la mortalidad materna en México. Material y métodos. A través de los registros clínicos y autopsias verbales, se estudiaron todas las defunciones certificadas como maternas y una selección de defunciones de mujeres [...] en edad fértil, cuyas causas fueron consideradas como sospechosas de encubrir una muerte materna; todas ocurridas durante 2011 en México. Resultados. La búsqueda intencionada y reclasificación de muertes maternas permitió rescatar más de 100 muertes que no habían sido registradas ni codificadas inicialmente como maternas y se ratificaron o rectificaron las causas anotadas en los certificados de defunción. Este procedimiento también permitió reclasificar como muertes maternas 297 defunciones de la base preliminar del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Conclusiones. La Búsqueda Intencionada y Reclasificación de Muertes Maternas es un procedimiento muy útil para mejorar la calidad de la información sobre la mortalidad materna. Abstract in english Objective. To correct the misclassification and improve the quality of information on maternal mortality in Mexico. Materials and methods. Using clinical records and verbal autopsies, we studied all deaths certified as maternal deaths as well as a selection of deaths of women of childbearing age who [...] se causes were considered as suspected of hiding a maternal death, all of which occurred during 2011 within Mexico. Results. The deliberate search of maternal deaths and reclassification allowed the rescue of just over 100 deaths that were not originally registered or coded as maternal and confirmed or corrected the causes of death recorded on death certificates as confirmed maternal deaths. This procedure also allowed the reclassification of 297 maternal deaths of women in the groundwork of the National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Conclusions. International Search and Reclassification of Maternal Deaths is a very useful procedure for improving the classification of cases that were not classified as maternal deaths and the effect was greater with the coding of indirect obstetric deaths.

Luis Manuel, Torres; Ana Luisa, Rhenals; Aline, Jiménez; Dolores, Ramírez-Villalobos; Rocío, Urióstegui; Miriam, Piña; Humberto, Rocha.

2014-08-01

303

Búsqueda intencionada y reclasificación de muertes maternas en México: el efecto en la distribución de las causas / Intentional search and reclassification of maternal deaths in Mexico: The effect on the distribution of causes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Corregir la mala clasificación y mejorar la calidad de la información sobre la mortalidad materna en México. Material y métodos. A través de los registros clínicos y autopsias verbales, se estudiaron todas las defunciones certificadas como maternas y una selección de defunciones de mujeres [...] en edad fértil, cuyas causas fueron consideradas como sospechosas de encubrir una muerte materna; todas ocurridas durante 2011 en México. Resultados. La búsqueda intencionada y reclasificación de muertes maternas permitió rescatar más de 100 muertes que no habían sido registradas ni codificadas inicialmente como maternas y se ratificaron o rectificaron las causas anotadas en los certificados de defunción. Este procedimiento también permitió reclasificar como muertes maternas 297 defunciones de la base preliminar del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Conclusiones. La Búsqueda Intencionada y Reclasificación de Muertes Maternas es un procedimiento muy útil para mejorar la calidad de la información sobre la mortalidad materna. Abstract in english Objective. To correct the misclassification and improve the quality of information on maternal mortality in Mexico. Materials and methods. Using clinical records and verbal autopsies, we studied all deaths certified as maternal deaths as well as a selection of deaths of women of childbearing age who [...] se causes were considered as suspected of hiding a maternal death, all of which occurred during 2011 within Mexico. Results. The deliberate search of maternal deaths and reclassification allowed the rescue of just over 100 deaths that were not originally registered or coded as maternal and confirmed or corrected the causes of death recorded on death certificates as confirmed maternal deaths. This procedure also allowed the reclassification of 297 maternal deaths of women in the groundwork of the National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Conclusions. International Search and Reclassification of Maternal Deaths is a very useful procedure for improving the classification of cases that were not classified as maternal deaths and the effect was greater with the coding of indirect obstetric deaths.

Luis Manuel, Torres; Ana Luisa, Rhenals; Aline, Jiménez; Dolores, Ramírez-Villalobos; Rocío, Urióstegui; Miriam, Piña; Humberto, Rocha.

2014-08-01

304

THE EFFECT OF ACUTE MATERNAL CuCL2 INTOXICATION UPON MOUSE FETAL SKELETON  

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The acute copper intoxication during mouse embryogenesis was performed on day 9 of pregnancy by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of CuCl2 0,1ml/10 g body weight. Late, fetal effects were controled on day 19 of gestation (the fetal and placental wet weight, external anomalies and the control of fetal skeleton were performed).The control revealed the lowering of the mean fetal and placental weight after acute copper intoxication.The fetal macroscopic examination showed exencephaly in some fetus...

Maria Checiu; Checiu, I.; Ioana Ilut; Ioana Tuduce; Delia Hutanu Checiu

2004-01-01

305

Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults  

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Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

2008-01-01

306

Effects of Maternal Work Status in Single-Parent Families on Children's Perception of Self and Family and School Achievement.  

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Mothers from low-income, single-parent families and their 10- to 12-year-old children were interviewed to assess their beliefs. Findings indicated that children with employed mothers perceived more cohesion in their families, had greater self-esteem, and were more accurate in predicting maternal beliefs than children with unemployed mothers. (LB)

Alessandri, Steven M.

1992-01-01

307

Anger and Positive Reactivity in Infancy: Effects on Maternal Report of Surgency and Attention Focusing in Early Childhood  

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We examined two aspects of temperamental approach in early infancy, positive reactivity and anger, and their unique and combined influences on maternal reports of child surgency and attention focusing at 4 years of age. One hundred and fourteen infants were observed for their positive reactions to novel stimuli at 4 months, and their anger…

He, Jie; Hane, Amie Ashley; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Henderson, Heather A.; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

2013-01-01

308

Effects of inadequate maternal dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy on offspring immunity in pigs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n?=?13, low (LP, 6.5%; n?=?15, or high (HP, 30%; n?=?14 protein content, made isoenergetic by varying carbohydrate levels. Cortisol, total protein and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA concentrations were measured in the blood of sows over the course of pregnancy. Cortisol, total protein, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation, immune cell counts, and cytokines were assessed in the blood of offspring at baseline and under challenging conditions (weaning; lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration. Results In sows, the LP diet increased cortisol (P?P?P?P?+ cell percentage and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased after weaning (P?P?=?0.09 and HP (P?P? Conclusions Our results indicate that both low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant sows can induce short-term as well as long-lasting effects on immune competence in piglets that may have serious consequences for host defence against bacterial pathogens.

Tuchscherer Margret

2012-11-01

309

Towards ending preventable maternal deaths by 2035.  

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Maternal mortality has been reduced by half from 1990 to 2010, yet a woman in sub-Saharan Africa has a lifetime risk of maternal death of 1 in 39 compared with around 1 in 10,000 in industrialized countries. Annual rates of reduction of maternal mortality of over 10% have been achieved in several countries. Highly cost-effective interventions exist and are being scaled up, such as family planning, emergency obstetric and newborn care, quality service delivery, midwifery, maternal death surveillance and response, and girls' education; however, coverage still remains low. Maternal mortality reduction is now high on the global agenda. We examined scenarios of reduction of maternal mortality by 2035. Ending preventable maternal deaths could be achieved in nearly all countries by 2035 with challenging yet realistic efforts: (1) massive scaling-up and skilling up of human resources for family planning and maternal health; (2) reaching every village in every district and every urban slum toward universal health coverage; (3) enhanced financing; (4) knowledge for action: enhanced monitoring, accountability, evaluation, and R&D. PMID:25565508

Bergevin, Yves; Fauveau, Vincent; McKinnon, Britt

2015-01-01

310

Prenatal Enrichment And Recovery From Perinatal Cortical Damage: Effects Of Maternal Complex Housing  

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Full Text Available Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group for 12 hours per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their home (standard cages with their pups. Four dams were housed in standard cages (cagemom group throughout pregnancy and with their pups until weaning. At postnatal day 3 (P3 infants of both groups received frontal cortex removals or sham surgery. Behavioural testing began on P60 and included the Morris water task and a skilled reaching task. Brains were processed for Golgi analyses. Complex housing of the mother had a significant effect on the behaviour of their pups. Control animals from the condomom group outperformed those of the cagemom group in the water task. Condomom animals with lesions performed better than their cagemom cohorts in both the water task and in skilled reaching. Condomom animals showed an increase in cortical thickness at anterior planes and thalamic area at both anterior and posterior regions. Golgi analyses revealed an increase in spine density. These results suggest that prenatal enrichment alters brain organization in manner that is prophylactic for perinatal brain injury. This result could have significant implications for the prenatal management of infants expected to be at risk for difficult birth.

Robbin Gibb

2014-06-01

311

Childhood and Maternal Effects on Physical Health Related Quality of Life Five Decades Later: The British 1946 Birth Cohort  

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Limited research has been done on the relationships between childhood factors and adult physical health related quality of life, with the underlying pathways not fully elucidated. Data from 2292 participants of the British 1946 birth cohort were used to examine the relationship of childhood characteristics and family environment with principal component summary (PCS) scores and the physical functioning (PF) subscale of the SF-36 at age 60–64 years. Impaired physical functioning was defined as the lowest quartile scores in the PF subscale. Childhood factors (father in manual social class versus non-manual (??=? ?2.34; 95%CI: ?3.39, ?1.28) and poor maternal health versus good/excellent maternal health (??=? ?6.18; ?8.78, ?3.57)) were associated with lower PCS scores at 60–64 years. Adult health behaviours (increasing BMI, lifelong smoking, and lower physical activity) at 53 years were identified as strong risk factors for lower PCS scores. After adjusting for these factors and education level (N?=?1463), only poor maternal health remained unattenuated (??=? ?5.07; ?7.62, ?2.51). Similarly poor maternal health doubled the risk of reporting impaired PF (Odds ratio?=? 2.45; 95%CI: 1.39, 4.30); serious illness in childhood (OR?=?1.44; 1.01, 2.06) and lower educational level attained were also risk factors for impaired PF (N?=?1526). While findings suggest the influence of father's social class on physical health related quality of life are mediated by modifiable adult social factors and health behaviours; health professionals should also be mindful of the inter-generational risk posed by poor maternal health on the physical health related quality of life of her offspring almost five decades later. PMID:24670776

Mishra, Gita D.; Black, Stephanie; Stafford, Mai; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana

2014-01-01

312

The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

de Jongh Beatriz E

2012-09-01

313

Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents  

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Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

MayumiNishi

2014-06-01

314

Effect of Maternal Nutrition on Kits During Pre and Post Partum Period  

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Full Text Available A total of 15 young rabbits (kits of 35 days old were randomly allocated to same concentrate mixture (T2 in a completely randomized design. All the rabbits were offered ad-libitum green grass with same concentrate mixture. All the animals were kept in the same management. The feed intake, live weight changes and feed conversion efficiency was recorded. DM intake in three different groups (A, B, C were 350.53?46.57, 403.62 ± 41.89 and 389.30 ± 53.71 (g/wk which were not significant. The average daily gains in group A, B and C were 11.25 ± 8.71, 15.20 ± 8.33 and 14.43 ± 9.84 respectively and the differences among groups were not significant. The differences in growth velocity among different groups were not significant. Feed conversion efficiency were 4.45, 3.79 and 3.85 for group A, B and C respectively and the values were found non-significantly different. The result indicated that feeding of mother in terms of energy did not have any significant effect on DM intake, live weight changes, growth velocity and feed conversion efficiency upon their kits.

M. Hasanuzzaman

2002-01-01

315

Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the levels of urinary cotinine and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex of both smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. We also looked for a relationship between those findings and fetal growth and birth weight. Methods In a prospective design, thirty pregnant smokers and thirty-four pregnant non-smokers were studied. The volunteers signed consent forms, completed a self-applied questionnaire and were subjected to Doppler velocimetry. Tobacco smoking exposure was quantified by subject provided information and confirmed by the measurement of urinary cotinine levels and by the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex. The weight of newborns was evaluated immediately after birth. Results Comparing smoking to non-smoking pregnant women, a significant increase in the resistance index was observed in the uterine arteries (P = 0.001 and umbilical artery (P = 0.001, and a decrease in the middle cerebral artery (P = 0.450. These findings were associated with progressively higher concentrations of COex and urinary cotinine. A decrease in the birth weight was also detected (P Conclusions In pregnant women who smoke, higher arterial resistance indices and lower birth weights were observed, and these findings were associated with increasing levels of tobacco smoking exposure. The values were significantly different when compared to those found in non-smoking pregnant women. This study contributes to the findings that smoking damage during pregnancy is dose-dependent, as demonstrated by the objective methods for measuring tobacco smoking exposure.

Petersen Guilherme O

2011-03-01

316

HIV and maternal mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence. PMID:25097142

Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

2014-11-01

317

The effect of maternal hyperglycemia on gross body movements in human fetuses at 32-34 weeks' gestation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrated that fetal gross body movements were not significantly altered by fluctuations in maternal plasma glucose concentration. Fetuses moved episodically a relatively constant amount of time whether mother received water orally, 50 g of glucose orally or a 25 g bolus of glucose intravenously. In addition, depending on the length of the observational epoch, the incidence of fetal gross body movements differed. As the length of the observational period increased, the chance of finding no fetal gross body movements decreased and at intervals of 24 min duration, fetal gross body movements were absent in only 2% of 24 min periods examined, irrespective of whether they had received water orally, 50 g of glucose orally or 25 g of glucose intravenously. It is concluded that maternal carbohydrate intake was not an important determinant of fetal body movements in healthy fetuses at 32-34 weeks' gestation. PMID:6851911

Natale, R; Richardson, B; Patrick, J

1983-03-01

318

Effect of Perception and Free Maternal Health Services on Antenatal Care Facilities Utilization in Selected Rural and Semi-Urban Communities of Ondo State, Nigeria  

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Aims: We aimed at assessing perception and effect of free maternal health services on the utilization of ANC services among women of child bearing age. Study Design: A cross-sectional study involving 460 women aged 15-49 years who were currently pregnant or had their most recent birth within the previous five years prior the survey was conducted using a two-stage sampling technique. Place of Study: Rural and semi-urban communities in Ondo State, Nigeria. Methodology: We administered semi-s...

Akanbiemu, Francis Adegoke; Manuwa-olumide, Aderonke; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen

2013-01-01

319

The Effect of Ephedrine on Fetal Outcome in Treatment of Maternal Hypotension Caused by Spinal Anesthesia During Cesarean Section  

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Objective: To compare maternal complications and labor outcome in obese and non-obese women. Materials and methods: It is a retrospective comparative study conducted at the Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Unit 1, Civil Hospital, Karachi from December 2008 to December 2009. A sample size of 220 gravid women is selected by Non Probability Convenience sampling technique. In these 110 obese women as cases was compared with 110 non-obese women as controls, booked at <20 weeks of ge...

Fardin Yousefshahi; Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Mahbod Kaveh; Roghayeh Hamidian; Khosro Barkhordari

2010-01-01

320

Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children’s Physiological Regulation  

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Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children’s physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation (?RSA) were explored as predictors of individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation and negativity (mother-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist; A. M. Shields & D....

Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O’brien, Marion

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Sex-specific effects of maternal immunization on yolk antibody transfer and offspring performance in zebra finches  

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Trans-generational antibody transfer constitutes an important mechanism by which mothers may enhance offspring resistance to pathogens. Thus, differential antibody deposition may potentially allow a female to differentiate offspring performance. Here, we examined whether maternal immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) prior to egg laying affects sex-specific yolk antibody transfer and sex-specific offspring performance in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We showed that immunized m...

Martyka, Rafa?; Rutkowska, Joanna; Cichon?, Mariusz

2011-01-01

322

Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123  

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There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

2012-01-01

323

Direct and Indirect Effects of Maternal and Peer Influences on Sexual Intention among Urban African American and Hispanic Females.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peer and family influences are interconnected in complex ways. These influences shape adolescent decision-making regarding engagement in sexual behaviors. Evidence indicates the more proximal (and direct) a process is to an individual, the more likely it is to affect his/her development and behavior. Therefore, family factors (e.g., parenting practices) and peer influence (e.g., peer norms) tend to be more strongly associated with adolescent behavior than distal factors (e.g., media or the economy). Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored how maternal influence variables interact with perceptions of peer influence to affect daughters' intentions to have sex. A nonprobability sample of 176 mother-daughter dyads was recruited in clinics and service organizations in the northeastern United States. Results from path analysis revealed that maternal influence variables had a significant indirect relationship with daughters' intentions to have sex through daughters' perceptions of peer influence. Maternal processes can act as protective factors for adolescent girls who perceive their peers are engaged in sexual behaviors. Therefore, risk reduction interventions with adolescents should include opportunities for parents to learn about sex-related issues and develop skills that will allow them to buffer negative peer influence. PMID:25422533

Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Cederbaum, Julie; Sathoff, Chelsea; Toro, Rosa

2014-12-01

324

Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies  

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in...

Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu

2012-01-01

325

Radionuclides and maternal lactation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

326

Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased risk of maternal worry was found if the mother herself had type 1 diabetes (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.2-4.78. Conclusions This study did not find evidence supporting the notion that genetic risk information about newborns has a negative impact on the mental health of Norwegian mothers.

Magnus Per

2010-07-01

327

The effect of acetaminophen on the expression of BCRP in trophoblast cells impairs the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acetaminophen is used as first-choice drug for pain relief during pregnancy. Here we have investigated the effect of acetaminophen at subtoxic doses on the expression of ABC export pumps in trophoblast cells and its functional repercussion on the placental barrier during maternal cholestasis. The incubation of human choriocarcinoma cells (JAr, JEG-3 and BeWo) with acetaminophen for 48h resulted in no significant changes in the expression and/or activity of MDR1 and MRPs. In contrast, in JEG-3 cells, BCRP mRNA, protein, and transport activity were reduced. In rat placenta, collected at term, acetaminophen administration for the last three days of pregnancy resulted in enhanced mRNA, but not protein, levels of Mrp1 and Bcrp. In fact, a decrease in Bcrp protein was found. Using in situ perfused rat placenta, a reduction in the Bcrp-dependent fetal-to-maternal bile acid transport after treating the dams with acetaminophen was found. Complete biliary obstruction in pregnant rats induced a significant bile acid accumulation in fetal serum and tissues, which was further enhanced when the mothers were treated with acetaminophen. This drug induced increased ROS production in JEG-3 cells and decreased the total glutathione content in rat placenta. Moreover, the NRF2 pathway was activated in JEG-3 cells as shown by an increase in nuclear NRF2 levels and an up-regulation of NRF2 target genes, NQO1 and HMOX-1, which was not observed in rat placenta. In conclusion, acetaminophen induces in placenta oxidative stress and a down-regulation of BCRP/Bcrp, which may impair the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis. PMID:24631341

Blazquez, Alba G; Briz, Oscar; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ester; Perez, Maria J; Ghanem, Carolina I; Marin, Jose J G

2014-05-15

328

A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. Methods and design 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. Control group: usual prenatal care (PC and placebo (maltodextrine. 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg, selenium (70 ?g, vitamin A (400 ?g, alphatocopherol (30 mg, vitamin C (200 mg, and niacin (100 mg. 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Discussion Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. Trial registration NCT00872365.

Girón Sandra

2011-02-01

329

Effect of Multivitamin-Mineral versus Multivitamin Supplementation on Maternal, Newborns' Biochemical Indicators and Birth Size: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial  

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Full Text Available Objective: Micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy is associated with several complications. This study was designed to determine the effects of received multivitamin-mineral vs. multivitamin supplements on maternal, newborns' biochemical indicators, and birth size. Methods: This double-blind randomized-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 48 Iranian pregnant women, primigravida, aged 18-35 years old in their second and third trimester from December 2011 to September 2012. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either the multivitamin-mineral (n=24 or multivitamin supplements (n=24 for 20 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after a 20-week intervention of pregnant women as well as umbilical cord blood of the babies immediately after delivery to measure serum calcium, vitamin D, iron, magnesium, zinc and biomarkers of oxidative stress including plasma total antioxidant capacity and total glutathione. Results: Multivitamin-mineral compared to multivitamin supplementation resulted in a significant increase in maternal serum calcium (0.5 vs. -0.1 mg/dL, p=0.04 and magnesium levels (0.1 vs. -0.2 mg/dL, p<0.001. Furthermore, mean plasma total glutathione levels (1791 ± 566 vs. 1434 ± 622 µmol/l, p=0.04 of the newborns whose mothers received multivitamin-mineral were higher than those whose mothers received multivitamin supplements. Conclusions: Overall, multivitamin-mineral compared to multivitamin supplementation for 20 weeks during pregnancy resulted in a significant increase in maternal serum calcium and magnesium levels as well as a significant elevation of newborn plasma total glutathione levels.

Mohsen Taghizadeh

2014-03-01

330

Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Secondary Organic Aerosols on Novel Object Recognition Ability and Maternal Behavior in BALB/C Mice  

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Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control, DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER-a, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively.

Tin-Tin Win-Shwe

2014-10-01

331

Effects of diesel engine exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols on novel object recognition ability and maternal behavior in BALB/c mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE) in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs) produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control), DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week) and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-?, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively. PMID:25361045

Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujitani, Yuji; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Furuyama, Akiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Hirano, Seishiro

2014-11-01

332

Treatment with tianeptine induces antidepressive-like effects and alters the neurotrophin levels, mitochondrial respiratory chain and cycle Krebs enzymes in the brain of maternally deprived adult rats.  

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Maternally deprived rats were treated with tianeptine (15 mg/kg) once a day for 14 days during their adult phase. Their behavior was then assessed using the forced swimming and open field tests. The BDNF, NGF and energy metabolism were assessed in the rat brain. Deprived rats increased the immobility time, but tianeptine reversed this effect and increased the swimming time; the BDNF levels were decreased in the amygdala of the deprived rats treated with saline and the BDNF levels were decreased in the nucleus accumbens within all groups; the NGF was found to have decreased in the hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens of the deprived rats; citrate synthase was increased in the hippocampus of non-deprived rats treated with tianeptine and the creatine kinase was decreased in the hippocampus and amygdala of the deprived rats; the mitochondrial complex I and II-III were inhibited, and tianeptine increased the mitochondrial complex II and IV in the hippocampus of the non-deprived rats; the succinate dehydrogenase was increased in the hippocampus of non-deprived rats treated with tianeptine. So, tianeptine showed antidepressant effects conducted on maternally deprived rats, and this can be attributed to its action on the neurochemical pathways related to depression. PMID:23325329

Della, Franciela P; Abelaira, Helena M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Santos, Maria Augusta B dos; Tomaz, Débora B; Antunes, Altamir R; Scaini, Giselli; Morais, Meline O S; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

2013-03-01

333

Fortification of maternal milk  

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Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

Cecilia Di Natale

2013-06-01

334

Asma na gestação: efeitos na vitalidade fetal, complicações maternas e perinatais / Asthma during pregnancy: effects on fetal well-being, and maternal and perinatal complications  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da asma materna sobre a gravidez, analisando as repercussões da gravidade da doença no comprometimento do bem-estar fetal, bem como as complicações maternas e perinatais associadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de 117 gestações complicadas pela asma matern [...] a e sem outras comorbidades, no período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2010. Os critérios de inclusão foram: gestação única; diagnóstico de asma prévio à gestação; início do pré-natal antes da 28ª semana de gravidez; parto realizado na instituição; peso do recém-nascido acima de 500g e idade gestacional no parto acima de 22 semanas; ausência de malformações fetais ou anomalias cromossômicas; ausência de comorbidades maternas. A gravidade da asma foi classificada em intermitente, persistente leve, persistente moderada, persistente grave. Foram analisados os resultados do perfil biofísico fetal e da dopplervelocimetria de artéria umbilical realizados até 14 dias antes do parto. RESULTADOS: Do total de 117 gestantes asmáticas analisadas: 41 (35,0%) eram intermitentes, 33 (28,2%) persistentes leves, 21 (17,9%) persistentes moderadas e 22 (18,8%) persistentes graves. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto ao tipo de parto: a cesárea foi realizada em 65,8% dos casos, a corticoterapia materna no momento do parto em 20,5%, a idade gestacional no parto apresentou média de 38,6 semanas (DP 1,9 semanas) e o peso ao nascimento apresentou média de 3056 g (DP 581 g). O perfil biofísico fetal realizado no período anteparto (n = 90, 76,9%) apresentou resultado normal (8 ou 10) em 99% dos casos. A dopplervelocimetria de artéria umbilical foi avaliada em 23,9% (n = 28) das gestantes, e apresentou-se normal em 100% dos casos. O uso de corticoterapia sistêmica foi significativamente (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of maternal asthma on pregnancy, analyzing the consequences of the severity of the disease in the impairment of fetal well-being, as well as the related maternal and perinatal complications. METHODS: A retrospective study with 117 pregnancies complicated by maternal [...] asthma and with no other comorbidities, in the period from January, 2005 to December, 2010. Inclusion criteriawere as follows: singleton pregnancy; pregnantwomen diagnosed with asthma prior to pregnancy; initiation of prenatal care before the 28th week of pregnancy; birth at this institution; newborn weighing over 500 g and gestational age at delivery of 22 weeks or more; absence of fetal malformations or chromosomal abnormalities; absence of maternal comorbidities. Asthma was classified as intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, or severe persistent. The results of fetal biophysical profile and of Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery performed 14 days prior to birth were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the total of 117 pregnant women with asthma, 41 (35.0%) had intermittent, 33 (28.2%) mild persistent, 21 (17.9%) moderate persistent, and 22 (18.8%) severe persistent asthma. There was no significant difference among the groups as to the type of birth: cesarean section was performed in 65.8% of the cases, maternal corticosteroid therapy was used at the moment of birth in 20.5%, the gestational age at birth averaged 38.6 weeks (SD 1.9 weeks), and birth weight averaged 3,056 g (SD 581 g). The fetal biophysical profile performed during the antepartum period (n = 90, 76.9%) showed a normal result (8 or 10) in 99% of the cases. Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery was assessed in 23.9% (n = 28) of the pregnant women, and delivered normal results in 100% of the cases. The use of systemic corticosteroid therapy was significantly (p

Renata Franco Pimentel, Mendes; Roseli Mieko Yamamoto, Nomura; Cristiane, Ortigosa; Rossana Pulcineli Vieira, Francisco; Marcelo, Zugaib.

2013-04-01

335

Effects of severe reduction in maternal placental blood flow on blood flow distribution in the sheep fetus.  

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To test the hypothesis that fetal lambs are able to maintain oxygen delivery to myocardial, brain and adrenal tissues during reduction in uterine blood flow to 25% of control, we performed experiments on five ewes and their fetuses. A snare occluder was placed around the maternal common hypogastric artery and catheters were placed for measurement of blood pressures, flows, blood gas tensions, pH and oxygen content. After a five day recovery period, control measurements were made. The snare occluder was then closed until the artery was fully occluded. The arterial occlusion caused uteroplacental blood flow to fall to 32 +/- 4% and maternal placental blood flow to fall to 25 +/- 3% of control values. This level of asphyxia was maintained for 19 +/- 3 minutes, when maternal and fetal blood flows were measured again. In response to occlusion, fetal ascending aortic PO2 fell from 21 +/- 2 (SEM) to 13 +/- 2 mmHg (P less than or equal to 0.01), oxygen content from 4.3 +/- 0.3 to 1.4 +/- 0.2 mM (P less than or equal to 0.01) and pH from 7.37 +/- 0.01 to 7.21 +/- 0.05 (P less than or equal to 0.01). PCO2 rose from 48 +/- 1 to 62 +/- 3 mmHg (P less than or equal to 0.01). Fetal arterial blood pressure increased from 51 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 3 mmHg (P less than or equal to 0.001) and heart rate decreased from 172 +/- 10 to 104 +/- 4 beats.min-1 (P less than or equal to 0.01). The heart, brain and adrenals showed vasodilation in response to the asphyxic stimulus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1940144

Reid, D L; Parer, J T; Williams, K; Darr, D; Phernetton, T M; Rankin, J H

1991-03-01

336

Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice  

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Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levelure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

337

The conditioning of intervention effects on early adolescent alcohol use by maternal involvement and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genetic variants.  

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Data drawn from the in-home subsample of the PROSPER intervention dissemination trial were used to investigate the moderation of intervention effects on underage alcohol use by maternal involvement and candidate genes. The primary gene examined was dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4). Variation in this gene and maternal involvement were hypothesized to moderate the influence of intervention status on alcohol use. The PROSPER data used were drawn from 28 communities randomly assigned to intervention or comparison conditions. Participating youth were assessed in five in-home interviews from sixth to ninth grades. A main effect of sixth-grade pretest maternal involvement on ninth-grade alcohol use was found. Neither intervention status nor DRD4 variation was unconditionally linked to ninth-grade drinking. However, moderation analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction among DRD4 status, maternal involvement, and intervention condition. Follow-up analyses revealed that prevention reduced drinking risk, but only for youth with at least one DRD4 seven-repeat allele who reported average or greater pretest levels of maternal involvement. To determine if this conditional pattern was limited to the DRD4 gene, we repeated analyses using the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region site near the serotonin transporter gene. The results for this supplemental analysis revealed a significant three-way interaction similar but not identical to that found for DRD4. PMID:25640830

Cleveland, H Harrington; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark; Greenberg, Mark; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve; Shriver, Mark D; Zaidi, Arslan A; Hair, Kerry L

2015-02-01

338

Maternal immunization: opportunities for scientific advancement.  

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Maternal immunization is an effective strategy to prevent and/or minimize the severity of infectious diseases in pregnant women and their infants. Based on the success of vaccination programs to prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus, maternal immunization has been well received in the United States and globally as a promising strategy for the prevention of other vaccine-preventable diseases that threaten pregnant women and infants, such as influenza and pertussis. Given the promise for reducing the burden of infectious conditions of perinatal significance through the development of vaccines against relevant pathogens, the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored a series of meetings to foster progress toward clinical development of vaccines for use in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary group of stakeholders convened at the NIH in December 2013 to identify potential barriers and opportunities for scientific advancement in maternal immunization. PMID:25425719

Beigi, Richard H; Fortner, Kimberly B; Munoz, Flor M; Roberts, Jeff; Gordon, Jennifer L; Han, Htay Htay; Glenn, Greg; Dormitzer, Philip R; Gu, Xing Xing; Read, Jennifer S; Edwards, Kathryn; Patel, Shital M; Swamy, Geeta K

2014-12-15

339

Effects of maternal deprivation on the somatotrophic axis and neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus and pituitary in female lambs. The histomorphometric study.  

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Full Text Available The effects of maternal deprivation on the somatotrophic axis and neuropeptide Y (NPY neuronal system in the hypothalamus of female lambs were evaluated. Twelve-week-old lambs were divided into two groups: the control (lambs stayed with mothers and maternally deprived (MD; lambs separated for 3 days from mothers. The expression of immunoreactive (ir somatostatin in the neurons of the periventricular nucleus (PEV and in nerve terminals of the median eminence (ME, growth hormone (GH in the adenohypophyseal cells and NPY in the neurons of the PEV and arcuate (ARC nuclei of the hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry followed by the image analysis were estimated. Concentrations of GH in the blood plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay. The expression of ir somatostatin in the PEV and ME, ir NPY in the ARC and PEV, ir GH in adenohypophyseal cells, and blood plasma GH concentrations were greater (p<0.05 in MD than in the control lambs. In conclusion, MD affects the somatotrophic axis by enhancement of GH secretion via restraining of somatostatin output. The simultaneous increase of expression of hypothalamic ir NPY suggests NPY involvement in the regulation of psychoemotional stress through the somatotrophic axis in the female lambs.

Marta Wa?kowska

2010-08-01

340

Maternal effects mediated by egg quality in the Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis in relation to laying order and embryo sex  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects mediated by egg size and quality may profoundly affect offspring development and performance, and mothers may adjust egg traits according to environmental or social influences. In avian species, context-dependency of maternal effects may result in variation in egg composition, as well as in differential patterns of covariation among selected egg components, according to, for example, position in the laying sequence or offspring sex. We investigated variation in major classes of egg yolk components (carotenoids, vitamins and steroid hormones in relation to egg size, position in the laying sequence and embryo sex in clutches of the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis. We also investigated their covariation, to highlight mutual adjustments, maternal constraints or trade-offs in egg allocation. Results Laying sequence-specific patterns of allocation emerged: concentration of carotenoids and vitamin E decreased, while concentrations of androgens increased. Vitamin A, estradiol and corticosterone did not show any change. There was no evidence of sex-specific allocation or covariation of yolk components. Concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins were positively correlated. Egg mass decreased along the laying sequence, and this decrease was negatively correlated with the mean concentrations of carotenoids in clutches, suggesting that nutritionally constrained females lay low quality clutches in terms of carotenoid content. Finally, clutches with smaller decline in antioxidants between first- and last-laid eggs had a larger increase in yolk corticosterone, suggesting that a smaller antioxidant depletion along the laying sequence may entail a cost for laying females in terms of increased stress levels. Conclusions Since some of the analyzed yolk components (e.g. testosterone and lutein are known to exert sex-specific phenotypic effects on the progeny in this species, the lack of sex-specific egg allocation by mothers may either result from trade-offs between contrasting effects of different egg components on male and female offspring, or indicate that sex-specific traits are controlled primarily by mechanisms of sexual differentiation, including endogenous hormone production or metabolism of exogenous antioxidants, during embryonic development.

Caprioli Manuela

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers  

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Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

Howard Cuckle

2014-05-01

342

Embryo transfer cannot delineate between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects in the transgenerational transmission of disease in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse conditions in utero can have transgenerational effects, in the absence of a subsequent insult. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the maternal pregnancy environment vs. germ line effects in mediating alterations to cardiorenal and metabolic physiology in offspring from mothers born small. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (Restricted group) or sham surgery (Control group) in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Restricted and control female offspring (F1) were mated with either breeder males (embryo donor) or vasectomized males (embryo recipient). Embryo transfer was performed at embryonic day (E) 1, whereby second-generation (F2) embryos gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a control (Cont-in-Cont, Rest-in-Cont) or restricted (Cont-in-Rest, Rest-in-Rest) mother. In male and female offspring, glomerular number and size were measured at postnatal day (PN) 35, and systolic blood pressure, glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic ?-cell mass were measured in separate sibling cohorts at 6 mo. Rest-in-Rest offspring were hypothesized to have similar characteristics (reduced growth, altered metabolic control, and hypertension) to non-embryo-transferred Rest, such that embryo transfer would not be a confounding experimental influence. However, embryo-transferred Rest-in-Rest offspring underwent accelerated growth during the peripubertal phase, followed by slowed growth between 2 and 3 mo of age compared with non-embryo-transferred Rest groups. Furthermore, renal function and insulin response to a glucose load were different to respective non-embryo-transferred groups. Our data demonstrate the long-term effects of in vitro embryo manipulation, which confounded the utility of this approach in delineating between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects that drive transgenerational outcomes. PMID:24523338

Tran, Melanie; Gallo, Linda A; Hanvey, Alanna N; Jefferies, Andrew J; Westcott, Kerryn T; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Gardner, David K; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

2014-04-15

343

Effects of caesarean section on maternal health in low risk nulliparous women: a prospective matched cohort study in Shanghai, China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of caesarean section are progressively increasing in many parts of the world. As a result of psychosocial factors there has been an increasing tendency for pregnant women without justifiable medical indications for caesarean section to ask for this procedure in China. A critical examination of this issue in relation to maternal outcomes is important. At present there are no clinical trials to help assess the risks and benefits of caesarean section in low risk women. To fill the gap left by trials, this indication-matched cohort study was carried out to examine prospectively the outcomes of caesarean section on women with no absolute obstetric indication compared with similar women who had vaginal delivery. Methods An indication-matched cohort study was undertaken to compare maternal outcomes following caesarean section with those undergoing vaginal delivery, in which the two groups were matched for non-absolute indications. 301 nulliparous women with caesarean section were matched successfully with 301 women who delivered vaginally in the Maternal and Children's Hospitals (MCHs in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression model or binomial regression model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR directly. Adjusted RRs were calculated adjusting for propensity score and medical indications. Results The incidence of total complications was 2.2 times higher in the caesarean section group during hospitalization post-partum, compared with the vaginal delivery group (RR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.4. The risk of haemorrhage from the start of labour until 2 hours post-partum was significantly higher in the caesarean group (RR = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.2-26.9. The risk of chronic abdominal pain was significantly higher for the caesarean section group (RR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.2-10.9 than for the vaginal delivery group within 12 months post-partum. The two groups had similar incidences of anaemia and complicating infections such as wound complications or urinary tract infection. Conclusions In nulliparous women who were at low risk, caesarean section was associated with a higher rate of post-partum morbidity. Those requesting the surgical procedure with no conventional medical indication, should be advised of the potential risks.

Gao Xiao-ling

2010-12-01

344

Maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in early pregnancy.  

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The possibility of improving the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in maternal serum during the second trimester to select women for diagnostic amniocentesis was examined. The median maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was twice the median concentration in 385 unaffected pregnancies matched for maternal age, gestational age, and duration of ...

Wald, N. J.; Cuckle, H. S.; Densem, J. W.; Nanchahal, K.; Royston, P.; Chard, T.; Haddow, J. E.; Knight, G. J.; Palomaki, G. E.; Canick, J. A.

1988-01-01

345

The Effect of Health Education with modelling Approach on Maternal Confidence and Lactation Status of Infant in Maros District, South Sulawesi Province  

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Health education with modelling approach can increase knowledge, skill, ability, family support and maternal confidence in doing maternal role (based on Maternal Role Attainment nursing theory) and in optimizing infant growth and development through exclusive breastfeeding and stimulation. Maros District has low health growth level, especially related to mother awareness on infant care as well as infant growth development. If can be seen from only 65.8 % infant visit of 90% the government ex...

Saleh, Ariyanti

2008-01-01

346

The effect of feeding a low iron diet prior to and during gestation on fetal and maternal iron homeostasis in two strains of rat  

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Background Iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy is a global problem, with short and long term consequences for maternal and child health. Animal models have demonstrated that the developing fetus is vulnerable to maternal iron restriction, impacting on postnatal metabolic and blood pressure regulation. Whilst long-term outcomes are similar across different models, the commonality in mechanistic events across models is unknown. This study examined the impact of iron deficiency on matern...

Cornock, Ruth; Gambling, Lorraine; Langley-evans, Simon C.; Mcardle, Harry J.; Mcmullen, Sarah

2013-01-01

347

The Effect of Maternal Child Marriage on Morbidity and Mortality of Children Under 5 in India: Cross Sectional Study of a Nationally Representative Sample  

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Objective: To assess associations between maternal child marriage (marriage before age 18) and morbidity and mortality of infants and children under 5 in India. Design: Cross-sectional analyses of nationally representative household sample. Generalised estimating equation models constructed to assess associations. Adjusted models included maternal and child demographics and maternal body mass index as covariates. Setting: India. Population: Women aged 15-49 years (n=124?385); data collecte...

Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Winter, Michael; Labonte, Alan; Decker, Michele R.; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay Glen

2010-01-01

348

Effect of maternal deprivation on the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH-associated peptide neurobiology in lambs during the transition from infancy to prepuberty.  

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Using morphological criteria we describe the effect of maternal deprivation on the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) of the GnRH prohormone (proGnRH) in the preoptic area (POA)-hypothalamus during the weaning period. The immunohistochemical GnRH- and GAP-neuroanatomy was investigated in female 12-week-old weanling and maternally deprived lambs and 15-week-old weaned lambs. The GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) nerve elements in the POA were more numerous in weanl...

Jolanta Polkowska; Marta Wa?kowska

2010-01-01

349

The effect of maternal thyroxine injection on growth, survival and development of the digestive system of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, larvae  

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Full Text Available The present study deals with the effect of exogenous treatment of O. niloticus females with L-thyroxine (T4 on the development of the digestive system during larval rearing, and its subsequent effect on larval growth and survival. The development of the digestive tract and accessory glands was investigated histologically and histochemically in the developing O. niloticus larvae, from control and T4-treated spawners. During yolk-sac absorption, the digestive system of the fish underwent further differentiation and the rudimentary alimentary canal became segmented into four different histological regions: the buccopharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestine. The injection of females O. niloticus with thyroxine (1 or 10 ?g T4/g BW greatly enhanced the development of the digestive tract and accessory glands of larvae as indicated by the quantitative and qualitative changes of the mucus composition from predominantly neutral to a mixture of neutral and acid mucosubstances, or acid mucosubstances occurred during the rearing period for the larvae produced from T4-treated females. This may be due to the direct effect of exogenous thyroxine, which might have been transferred from maternal circulation into the oocytes and larvae, on the synthesis of proteins, which increased with larval development. Thus, thyroxine directly or indirectly improved O. niloticus larval growth, since a marked increase in both, length and weight of larvae occurred during the experimental period. In addition, larvae from treated females also gave a significantly higher survival rate than that of control. It could be concluded that exogenous T4 in maternal circulation might have been transferred into oocytes and larvae. The transferred thyroid hormone appears to play some role in the early development of larvae and may confer a distinct advantage for the growth of the offspring of the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

Noha A. Khalil

2011-10-01

350

Effects of maternal exposure to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl or propylthiouracil in rats trained to discriminate apomorphine from saline.  

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In the present experiment drug discrimination was examined in rats after maternal exposure to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) using apomorphine (APO) as the training drug at a dose reported to act on dopamine D2 receptors. A group with maternal exposure to 6n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was included as a positive control for effects induced by PCB 77 on thyroid hormones. On gestational day (GD) 19 reduced levels of free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were detected in dams exposed to PCB 77 or PTU. In the offspring decreases in levels of FT4 and TT4 were found in both treated groups on postnatal day (PND) 21, while reductions of FT3 were observed only in the PTU group. PTU-treated rats needed more daily sessions for successful discrimination between apomorphine and saline. There were no differences between groups in generalization tests and sessions with the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole, the D2 antagonist haloperidol plus APO, or with the GABAergic drug pentobarbital and only minor differences in sessions with the D1 agonist SKF-38393. Differences between controls and groups exposed to PCB 77 or PTU were detected in a blocking test using the mixed serotonin 5-HT1A agonist and partial D2 antagonist buspirone. This outcome suggests long-lasting effects by developmental exposure to PCB 77 on the interaction between dopaminergic and serotonergic processes which may be mediated by effects on thyroid hormone levels. PMID:9299608

Lilienthal, H; Weinand-Härer, A; Winterhoff, H; Winneke, G

1997-09-01

351

Long-term effects of maternal separation on the responsiveness of the circadian system to melatonin in the diurnal nonhuman primate (Macaca mulatta).  

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Depression is often linked to early-life adversity and circadian disturbances. Here, we assessed the long-term impact of early-life adversity, particularly preweaning mother-infant separation, on the circadian system's responsiveness to a time giver or synchronizer (Zeitgeber). Mother-reared (MR) and peer-reared (PR) rhesus monkeys were subjected to chronic jet-lag, a forced desynchrony protocol of 22 hr T-cycles [11:11 hr light:dark (LD) cycles] to destabilize the central circadian organization. MR and PR monkeys subjected to the T-cycles showed split locomotor activity rhythms with periods of ~22 hr (entrained) and ~24 hr (free-running), simultaneously. Continuous melatonin treatment in the drinking water (20 ?g/mL) gradually increased the amplitude of the entrained rhythm at the expense of the free-running rhythm, reaching complete entrainment by 1 wk. Upon release into constant dim light, a rearing effect on anticipation for both the predicted light onset and food presentation was observed. In MR monkeys, melatonin did not affect the amplitude of anticipatory behavior. Interestingly, however, PR macaques showed light onset and food anticipatory activities in response to melatonin treatment. These results demonstrate for the first time a rearing-dependent effect of maternal separation in macaques, imprinting long-term plastic changes on the circadian system well into late adulthood. These effects could be counteracted by the synchronizer molecule melatonin. We conclude that the melatonergic system is targeted by early-life adversity of maternal separation and that melatonin supplementation ameliorates the negative impact of stress on the circadian system. PMID:24446898

Rawashdeh, Oliver; Dubocovich, Margarita L

2014-04-01

352

The Effect of Ephedrine on Fetal Outcome in Treatment of Maternal Hypotension Caused by Spinal Anesthesia During Cesarean Section  

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Full Text Available Objective: To compare maternal complications and labor outcome in obese and non-obese women. Materials and methods: It is a retrospective comparative study conducted at the Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Unit 1, Civil Hospital, Karachi from December 2008 to December 2009. A sample size of 220 gravid women is selected by Non Probability Convenience sampling technique. In these 110 obese women as cases was compared with 110 non-obese women as controls, booked at <20 weeks of gestation. Data were collected regarding maternal complication, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome by trained medical officers. Data were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 11.0 through descriptive analysis, chi-square test and independent sample t test. The p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Pregnancy induced hypertension was present in 9 (8.2% women in control group and 21 (19.1% in cases (p=0.01. Gestational diabetes was seen in one (0.9% in control compared to 8 (7.3% in obese women (p=0.01. Obese women were found to be at increased risk of caesarean section [17 (15.5% "nVs. 39 (35.4%, p=0.002]. Apgar score at 1 and 10 minute were lower in cases compared to controls (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Obese women are at increased risk of pregnancy induced obesity and associated with an increased risk of hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolic disease and urinary tract infection.    

Fardin Yousefshahi

2010-12-01

353

Effect of excessive GnRH-binding substance on circulating maternal hCG in human pregnancy.  

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) can stimulate the release of placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Thus, at the onset of these studies it was the objective to define the relationship of hCG to GnRH in the maternal circulation throughout pregnancy, focusing on early pregnancy. Blood samples were collected at 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation during labor and the GnRH and hCG levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Of 39 pregnancies, a GnRH-binding substance was found in the maternal circulation of three. This GnRH-binding substance resulted in erroneous GnRH levels, due to the very high non-specific binding. In the pregnant women without this GnRH-binding substance, GnRH attained highest concentrations at 12-14 weeks. The typical peak of hCG at 8-10 weeks of gestation was observed in this group, while the group of patients having the GnRH-binding substance had significantly lower hCG levels. Each of the patients with circulating GnRH-binding substance had prior pregnancy(s) and two of the three had a prior pregnancy loss. The nature of this GnRH-binding substance was investigated using gel chromatography. After incubation of [125I]GnRH with patient plasma for 3 days this substance was shown to be of high molecular weight which was ethanol precipitable. This binding substance may therefore be an antibody, since it appears to be a high molecular weight protein requiring a number of days to bind the [125I] GnRH. This GnRH-binding substance may be of physiological importance, since the circulating hCG level was significantly less in the group of patients with this substance than in those without. PMID:9265553

Siler-Khodr, T M; Smikle, C B; Sorem, K A; Grayson, M A; Spencer, D K; Yoder, B A; Khodr, G S

1997-03-01

354

Efectos mnemónicos maternos prenatales sobre el sexo psíquico humano. Insuficiencia del mecanismo inmunitario: Nueva propuesta desde la tolerancia-rechazo materno-fetal Prenatal maternal mnemonic effects on the human neuro-psychic sex: A new proposition from fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection  

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Full Text Available In approximately 15% of homosexual men, their phenotype is associated to the fraternal birth order. Older biological brothers induce in their mothers anti-male factors (antibodies that interfere the brain maleness development ofyounger fetuses. This effect is seldom seen in non-right-handed men and is not seen in women. The influence of older siblings is seen in their sex ratio (SR. In contradiction with previous hypothesis, significant heterogeneities of SR have been found among older siblings of males or females, right or non-right-handed and homo or heterosexual individuáis. This can only be understood as if the ñndings found among homosexuals were part of a general mechanism of fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection processes of placental mammals. We found, in relation to ABO and Rh systems and sex, that embryos with genes different from those of their mothers, induced better pregnancies and maternal tolerance than embryos similar to their mothers. Assuming that homo or heterosexuality and right or non-right-handedness behave similar to ABO or Rh alíeles, the author provides a speculative interpretation ofthese results. Homosexual women (¡esbians and especially if they are non-right-handed, are preceded by siblings with a high SR (maternal environment with anti-female or pro-male factors; then lesbianism or non-right-handedness may induce tolerance to be a woman in such anti-female environment. Non-right-handedness could induce tolerance for anti-male factors of mothers, thus preventing the production ofgays in a pro-male maternal environment, but leading to the production of non-right-handed gays in anti-male maternal environments. Several new hypotheses and interpretations merge from this newproposition. Also, complete sexual orientation could be acquired after birth.

Carlos Y Valenzuela

2008-12-01

355

Maternal mortality in Uganda  

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The World Health Organization (WHO) defines maternal health as the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. According to estimates from UNICEF, Uganda’s maternal mortality ratio, the annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births stands at 435. Women die as a result of complications during and following pregnancy and childbirth and the major complications include severe bleeding, infections, unsafe abortion and obstructe...

Nantume, S.

2014-01-01

356

Maternal-Child Health  

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Maternal-Child Health is one of the greatest challenges the world has to cope with today. Every year, thousands of women, newborns and children die unnecessarily, particularly in resource-poor settings. There is a great disparity caused by food insecurity and hunger, environmental health risks, sanitation challenges, cultural barriers and non-accessibility to diagnosis and treatment. "Maternal-Child Health: Interdisciplinary Aspects within the Perspective of Global Health" addresses these iss...

Groß, Uwe; Wydra, Kerstin

2013-01-01

357

Maternal aggression in Wistar rats: effect of 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist and antagonist microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter and medial septum  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the role of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor at two specific brain sites, i.e., the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG and the medial septal (MS area, in maternal aggressive behavior after the microinjection of either a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist or antagonist. Female Wistar rats were microinjected on the 7th postpartum day with the selective agonist alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine maleate (5-HT2A/2C or the antagonist 5-HT2A/2C, ketanserin. The agonist was injected into the DPAG at 0.2 (N = 9, 0.5 (N = 10, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 9, and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 9. The agonist was injected into the medial septal area (MS at 0.2 (N = 9, 0.5 (N = 7, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 6 and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 5. For the control, saline was injected into the DPAG (N = 7 and the MS (N = 12. Both areas are related to aggressive behavior and contain a high density of 5-HT receptors. Non-aggressive behaviors such as horizontal locomotion (walking and social investigation and aggressive behaviors such as lateral threat (aggressive posture, attacks (frontal and lateral, and biting the intruder were analyzed when a male intruder was placed into the female resident's cage. For each brain area studied, the frequency of the behaviors was compared among the various treatments by analysis of variance. The results showed a decrease in maternal aggressive behavior (number of bites directed at the intruder after microinjection of the agonist at 0.2 and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (1.6 ± 0.7 and 0.9 ± 0.3 into the DPAG compared to the saline group (5.5 ± 1.1. There was no dose-response relationship with the agonist. The present findings suggest that the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist has an inhibitory effect on maternal aggressive behavior when microinjected into the DPAG and no effect when microinjected into the MS. Ketanserin (1.0 µg/0.2 µl decreased locomotion when microinjected into the DPAG and MS, but did not affect aggressive behavior. We interpret these findings as evidence for a specific role of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the DPAG in the inhibition of female aggressive behavior, dissociated from those on motor activity.

Almeida R.M.M. de

2005-01-01

358

Modelagem do efeito materno e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos para pesos corporais de caprinos Anglo Nubiano / Modeling the maternal effect and estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Anglo Nubian goats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o modelo mais adequado, bem como estimar os parâmetros genéticos do peso ao nascimento até os 196 dias de idade de caprinos da raça Anglo-nubiana. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML), utilizando o pro [...] grama WOMBAT. Doze diferentes modelos animais foram ajustados por meio da inclusão ou exclusão do efeito genético materno, ambiente permanente materno, ambiente temporário materno e a covariância genética entre os efeitos direto e materno. Com base no critério de informação Bayesiano de Schwarz (BIC), o modelo II, que incluiu os efeitos genético direto e de ambiente temporário da mãe, foi o mais apropriado para todas as características. O efeito de ambiente temporário materno foi a mais importante fonte de variação. Este efeito contribuiu com 33% a 44% da variação fenotípica de acordo com o peso analisado. Estes resultados indicam que a seleção para efeitos direto e/ou materno em caprinos da raça Anglo-nubiana podem gerar progresso genético em características de crescimento. Abstract in english The aim of the study were to determine the most appropriate model, and to estimate genetic parameters of birth weight to the 196 day-old Anglo-Nubian breed goat. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML procedure using WOMBAT program. Twelve different animal models were fitted by including or exclu [...] ding maternal genetic effect, maternal permanent environmental effect, maternal temporary environmental effect and covariance between direct-maternal genetic effects. On the basis of Bayesian information criterion results, model II, which included direct genetic and maternal temporary environmental effects, was determined to be the most appropriate model for both traits. The maternal temporary environmental effect was the most important source of variation for both traits. This effect contributed about 33% at 44% to the phenotypic variance for weight analized. These results indicate that selecting for improved maternal and/or direct effects in Anglo-nubian goats would generate genetic progress in growth traits.

Gleyson Vieira dos, Santos; José Ernandes Rufino de, Sousa; José Lindenberg Rocha, Sarmento; Severino Cavalcante de, Sousa Júnior; Wandrick Hauss de, Sousa; Daniel, Biagiotti; Natanael Pereira da Silva, Santos; Aurino de Araujo, Rêgo Neto.

2013-06-01

359

The effect of maternal linseed supplementation and/or lamb linseed supplementation on muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid composition of indoor lambs.  

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Eighty eight lambs were used in a 2×2 factorial arrangement 1) to investigate the effect of maternal dietary linseed supplementation and/or lamb linseed supplemented concentrate on growth performance, carcass fat quality and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle and dorsal adipose tissue of indoor lambs 2) to study the relationships between subcutaneous fat quality and FA composition. Feeding linseed to ewes increased C18:3 n-3 (ALA) proportion in milk and therefore the ALA supply to suckling lambs. However, ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA) proportions in lamb tissues were not affected. Feeding linseed to lambs during the post-weaning period significantly increased the proportions of ALA and n-3 PUFA in tissues. Softer and more colored fat was associated with a decrease in even medium-chain saturated FA and increases in odd and methyl FA proportions but not with ALA proportion in subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:22014835

Berthelot, V; Bas, P; Pottier, E; Normand, J

2012-03-01

360

Efecto de la ganancia de peso gestacional en la madre y el neonato / The effect of gestational weight gain on maternal and neonatal outcomes  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la ganancia de peso gestacional (GPG) en la madre y el neonato. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 1 000 mujeres en puerperio inmediato atendidas en el Hospital de Ginecología del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, en Tijuana, Baja California, México. Se consideró un [...] a GPG óptima si en las mujeres con bajo peso, peso normal, sobrepeso u obesidad previo al embarazo, la GPG fue Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) on maternal and neonatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 2009, women in the immediate puerperium were assessed at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. GWG was considered optimal when [...] 18 kg,

Abraham, Zonana-Nacach; Rogelio, Baldenebro-Preciado; Marco Antonio, Ruiz-Dorado.

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Efecto de la ganancia de peso gestacional en la madre y el neonato / The effect of gestational weight gain on maternal and neonatal outcomes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la ganancia de peso gestacional (GPG) en la madre y el neonato. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 1 000 mujeres en puerperio inmediato atendidas en el Hospital de Ginecología del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, en Tijuana, Baja California, México. Se consideró un [...] a GPG óptima si en las mujeres con bajo peso, peso normal, sobrepeso u obesidad previo al embarazo, la GPG fue Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) on maternal and neonatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 2009, women in the immediate puerperium were assessed at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. GWG was considered optimal when [...] 18 kg,

Abraham, Zonana-Nacach; Rogelio, Baldenebro-Preciado; Marco Antonio, Ruiz-Dorado.

2010-06-01

362

Effect of maternal alcohol consumption on gestational diabetes detection and mother-infant’s outcomes in Kinshasa, DR Congo  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Since it has been suggested that moderate alcohol drinking would increase insulin sensitivity, which could benefit Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM, the study aimed at evaluating alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and seeing whether this consumption influences GDM detection and maternal/perinatal outcomes. Study design: Women with already known diabetes and those with multiple pregnancy were excluded. All other pregnant women attending antenatal care unit of the university clinics, Kinshasa, DR Congo during the period from 1 March throughout 31 October 2010, were invited at 24-week gestation to enroll in O’Sullivan blood glucose testing and if eligible in 100-gram oral glucose tolerance test. Alcohol consumption, risk factors for GDM, and general characteristics such as age, parity, gestity, BMI, fat mass were registered. Diagnosed GDM was first treated with diet and exercise, thereafter with Metformin, and if necessary with insulin. For other (normal women data remained blinded until confinement. Maternal and infant’s adverse outcomes such as maternal urinary infection, preeclampsia, cesarean section, intrauterine growth retardation, birth weight < 2500 g, birth weight ? 3800 g (as stated > percentile 90 in our milieu, Apgar score at the first minute < 7, shoulder dystocia or other birth injury, neonatal hypoglycemia and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS were compared and analyzed according to GDM diagnosis as well to alcohol status. Results: Up to 240 pregnant women accepted to enroll into the study. Alcohol consumption concerned 78 (32.5% of the women, most of them (61 = 25.42% being heavy consumers. Risk factors for GDM and Physical and blood glucose characteristics were alike (p not significant in both consumers and non consumers, except for history of HTA in the family that was significantly more frequent (p = 0.02 among drinkers. GDM’s prevalence was 9%. No adverse outcome was more prominent in any subgroup, except Apgar score < 7 at the first minute that was more frequent (p = 0.038 among neonates of GDM mothers. No FAS, neither shoulder dystocia nor neonatal hypoglycemia were diagnosed. When alcohol status was considered, Birthweight ? 3800 g was found more frequent (p = 0.0284 in alcohol consumers than in abstainers. Risk of this outcome was three times higher when history of family hypertension was present (odds ratio 2.694; CI: 0.536 - 13.544. Conclusions: The prevalence of alcohol consumption by pregnant women of our series (32.5% seems not to impact the detection of GDM (9%. FAS was not diagnosed. Lack of significant differences in adverse outcomes between GDM and non GDM could be attributed to huge follow-up of GDM women. Influence of alcohol consumption on birth weight mostly in setting of familial history of hypertension remains to be addressed.

Tandu-Umba Barthélémy

2011-12-01

363

Effects of maternal deprivation and the duration of reunion time on rat pup ultrasonic vocalization responses to isolation: Possible implications for human infant studies.  

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In a paradigm that may serve as a translational model for maternal separation experiences of human infants in neonatal intensive care units, we examined how the duration of reunion with the dam influenced the phenomenon of maternal potentiation of ultrasonic vocalizations, in which isolated rat pups increase rates of vocalization f