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1

Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

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The effects of maternal passive smoking on maternal milk lipid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive smoking was long overlooked by those in the medical and legal professions as being harmful to one's health, but in recent years the negative effect of passive smoking has come to the fore in the media and laws have been changed so that less people are obliged to unwillingly suffer from passive smoking, particularly in the workplace and in indoor settings. To study the effects of environmental tobacco smoking exposure during the breast-feeding period on maternal milk lipids. This cohort study was conducted on 45 mothers environmental tobacco smoking exposure and 40 non-exposed post-partum mothers referred to the Shahid Ayat health center, Tehran, Iran. Socioeconomic conditions and the demographic characteristics of exposed and non-exposed groups were recorded. Milk samples were collected twice--at baseline (5-7 days after delivery) and four months after delivery. The samples were reserved at -20°C until assay. Milk lipids including cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were evaluated. Dietary intake assessment was performed by means of the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire both times. Maternal occupation status and education levels were significantly different between the two groups. Lipids profiles of milk were significantly higher 5-7 days after delivery in the non-exposed group and four months after delivery. Dietary intake was not significantly different between the two groups. Maternal environmental tobacco smoking exposure affects milk lipids which are essential for infant growth. PMID:24901858

Baheiraei, Azam; Shamsi, Azar; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Shams, Sedigheh; Chamari, Maryam; Boushehri, Hoda; Khedri, Azam

2014-01-01

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Fitness consequences of maternal and grandmaternal effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenerational effects are broader than only parental relationships. Despite mounting evidence that multigenerational effects alter phenotypic and life-history traits, our understanding of how they combine to determine fitness is not well developed because of the added complexity necessary to study them. Here, we derive a quantitative genetic model of adaptation to an extraordinary new environment by an additive genetic component, phenotypic plasticity, maternal and grandmaternal effects. We show how, at equilibrium, negative maternal and negative grandmaternal effects maximize expected population mean fitness. We define negative transgenerational effects as those that have a negative effect on trait expression in the subsequent generation, that is, they slow, or potentially reverse, the expected evolutionary dynamic. When maternal effects are positive, negative grandmaternal effects are preferred. As expected under Mendelian inheritance, the grandmaternal effects have a lower impact on fitness than the maternal effects, but this dual inheritance model predicts a more complex relationship between maternal and grandmaternal effects to constrain phenotypic variance and so maximize expected population mean fitness in the offspring.

Prizak, Roshan; Ezard, Thomas H G; Hoyle, Rebecca B

2014-01-01

4

Fitness consequences of maternal and grandmaternal effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenerational effects are broader than only parental relationships. Despite mounting evidence that multigenerational effects alter phenotypic and life-history traits, our understanding of how they combine to determine fitness is not well developed because of the added complexity necessary to study them. Here, we derive a quantitative genetic model of adaptation to an extraordinary new environment by an additive genetic component, phenotypic plasticity, maternal and grandmaternal effects. We show how, at equilibrium, negative maternal and negative grandmaternal effects maximize expected population mean fitness. We define negative transgenerational effects as those that have a negative effect on trait expression in the subsequent generation, that is, they slow, or potentially reverse, the expected evolutionary dynamic. When maternal effects are positive, negative grandmaternal effects are preferred. As expected under Mendelian inheritance, the grandmaternal effects have a lower impact on fitness than the maternal effects, but this dual inheritance model predicts a more complex relationship between maternal and grandmaternal effects to constrain phenotypic variance and so maximize expected population mean fitness in the offspring. PMID:25247070

Prizak, Roshan; Ezard, Thomas H G; Hoyle, Rebecca B

2014-08-01

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Effects of Poverty and Maternal Depression on Early Child Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used National Maternal and Infant Health Survey data to examine effects of poverty and maternal depression on child development. Found that maternal depression and poverty jeopardized development of very young children. Affluence somewhat buffered the deleterious consequences of depression. Chronic maternal depression had severe implications for…

Petterson, Stephen M.; Albers, Alison Burke

2001-01-01

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Maternal effects on the genetic evaluation of Tabapuã beef cattle  

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Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of maternal effects on the genetic evaluation of sire production in Tabapuã beef cattle. Single and multiple trait analyses were done with adjusted animal weights at 120, 240 and 420 days of age. Antagonism was observed between additive direct and maternal genetic effects, with the maternal effect being higher until weaning. The inclusion of maternal effects in the models removed part of the additive variance only in single trait analyses and resulted in smaller means and standard deviations for the sire breeding values. The use of maternal effect associated with single or multiple traits may affect sire ranking. The contradictory results of the single and multiple trait analyses for additive direct and maternal effects indicate that caution is needed when considering recommendations about the importance of maternal effects in Tabapuã beef cattle.

José Elivalto Guimarães Campêlo

2004-01-01

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The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring  

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Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

JocelienDAOlivier

2013-05-01

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Interaction between maternal effect and zygotic effect mutations during maize seed development.  

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Double fertilization of the embryo sac by the two sperm cells of a pollen grain initiates seed development. Proper development of the seed depends not only on the action of genes from the resulting embryo and endosperm, but also on maternal genes acting at two stages. Mutations with both sporophytic maternal effects and gametophytic maternal effects have been identified. A new maternal effect mutation in maize, maternal effect lethal1 (mel1), causes the production of defective seed from mutan...

Evans, M. M.; Kermicle, J. L.

2001-01-01

9

Maternal smoking effects on infant growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of infants (from non-smoking mothers during pregnancy but smokers during lactation) had a growth pattern intermediate to both curves, suggesting the impact of maternal smoking at any period of infant growth. Smoking had a clear effect on infant height during the period of breast feeding, attributable to the effect of the known content of cadmium in smoker's milk, on the bioavailability of essential nutrients such as zinc. (author)

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Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity services. METHODS: We included all women who were admitted to the maternity unit for childbirth, or within 24 hours of delivery. We recorded maternal mortality during a 1-year baseline period from January to December 1997, and during a 3-year period from January 1998 to December 2000 after MDR had been implemented. Effects of MDR on organization of care were qualitatively evaluated. FINDINGS: The MDR strategy led to changes in organizational structure that improved life-saving interventions with a relatively large financial contribution from the community. Overall mortality significantly decreased from 0.83 (95% CI (confidence interval = 0.60 -1.06 in baseline period to 0.41 (95% CI = 0.25 -0.56 per 100 women 3 years later. CONCLUSION: MDR had a marked effect on resources, management and maternal outcomes in this facility. However, given the design of our study and the local specific context, further research is needed to confirm the feasibility of MDR in other settings and to confirm the benefits of this approach for maternal health in developing countries.

Dumont Alexandre

2006-01-01

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Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. PMID:24820855

Mateo, Jill M

2014-11-01

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Maternal effects in cooperative breeders: from hymenopterans to humans  

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The environment that an offspring experiences during its development can have lifelong consequences for its morphology, anatomy, physiology and behaviour that are strong enough to span generations. One aspect of an offspring's environment that can have particularly pronounced and long-lasting effects is that provided by its parent(s) (maternal effects). Some disciplines in biology have been quicker to appreciate maternal effects than others, and some organisms provide better model systems for...

Russell, Andrew F.; Lummaa, Virpi

2009-01-01

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The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well-documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the quest...

Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; A?kerud, Helena; Kaihola, Helena; Pawluski, J. L.; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Ho?gberg, Ulf; Sundstro?m Poromaa, Inger

2013-01-01

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Maternal-effect selfish genes in flour beetles.  

Science.gov (United States)

A previously unknown class of dominant, maternal-effect lethal M factors was found to be widespread in natural populations of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, collected on several continents. Such factors are integrated into the host chromosomes at variable locations and show the remarkable property of self-selection by maternal-effect lethality to all hatchlings that do not inherit a copy of the factor itself. Offspring are rescued by either paternally or maternally inherited copies. The M-bearing chromosome is thereby perpetuated at the expense of its non-M homolog. M factors that map to different regions of the genome do not rescue one another's maternal-effect lethality. Factors expressing these properties are predicted to spread in a population, even in the absence of any additional selective advantage. Similar factors also occur in the related species T. confusum. PMID:1566060

Beeman, R W; Friesen, K S; Denell, R E

1992-04-01

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Effect of maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles  

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Full Text Available The importance of nanotechnology is widely recognized in both biomedical and industrial applications, so the search for new nano materials with improved physical and chemical characteristics is rapidly growing, causing a consequent increase in the risk of exposure by the population.Engineered nanoparticles, defined as particles having a different shape, but at least one dimension less than 100 nm, are constituents of many everyday products, including for example, sunscreens, cosmetics and some food packaging. This implies that an increasing number of people can come into contact with these nanoparticles in occupational settings, and the environment. It then becomes mandatory to assess what potential effects nanoparticles may have on biological systems. Although many nanoparticles may not be a problem for the general population, may instead be a problem for subgroups of susceptible individuals. In this context, we aimed to study the effect that maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs may have on the health of pregnant individuals, with particular attention to the possible harmful effects on the development of the placenta and fetus. To this end we have produced silica nanoparticles of three different sizes: small, medium and large. Each nanoparticle was in turn modified in two different ways, through the introduction of NH2 or COOH functional groups, in order to make their surface positively or negatively charged.SiO2 NPs were intravenously administered to pregnant mice, through the injection into the venous retro-bulbar eye plexus. Administration was performed at two different gestational stages. A group of females received the material 5.5 days after conception, when the placenta is still poorly formed, while a second group was exposed at 12.5 day of pregnancy, a time at which the placenta has completed development. The difference in the administration timing allowed us to evaluate the possible differences in susceptibility of the fetus depending at different stages of placental development. Our results have shown that the smallest SiO2 NP have a high biocompatibility and do not interfere with the development of the embryo, or with placental development. In contrast, the NPs of medium and large size have demonstrated interference with the development of the fetus, leading to the onset of mild structural alterations and the appearance of a large number of identical twins, an extremely rare phenomenon in rodents, generally secondary to a mild teratogenic stimulus. Such effect became apparent only after administration of high doses of nano particles, showing also a relationship with the surface charge.In conclusion, these results suggest caution in the exposure to SiO2 NP of medium and large size during pregnancy.

Pietroiusti A

2013-07-01

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Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)  

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The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across pre-reproductive age classes in the semi-free ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (max. n=977 mothers, 6240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly “burn off” as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life. PMID:23315583

Blomquist, Gregory E.

2012-01-01

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[Maternal smoking: effect on neonatal's health].  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of maternal smoking on the higher miscarriage rate, premature births and premature detachment of the placenta was proved in numerous so far undertaken medical researches. Apart from that smoking has an influence on fetal developmental retardation, low birth weight as well as the baby's abnormal development. The investigated population comprised of 100 healthy women that gave birth to their children after the 37th week of pregnancy and their newborns. The pregnant women's morphology parameters, the newborns' health (after the third minute of life according to the Apgar's scale) and the birth weight were assessed. The results achieved were analysed taking into consideration the problem of maternal smoking. The lower Apgar's notes as well as lower birth weight of the newborns whose mothers used to smoke during pregnancy were observed. The fact of being pregnant is the most significant argument for women to give up or diminish the habit of smoking. PMID:18409270

Jagielska, Iwona; Kazdepka-Ziemi?ska, Anita; Racinowski, Filip; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Szyma?ski, Wies?aw

2007-01-01

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Maternal programming of defensive responses through sustained effects on gene expression  

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There are profound maternal effects on individual differences in defensive responses in species ranging from plants to insects to birds. In this paper, we review data from the rat that suggest comparable forms of maternal effects on defensive responses to stress, which are mediated by the effects of variations in maternal behaviour on gene expression. Under conditions of environmental adversity, maternal effects enhance the capacity for defensive responses in the offspring. These effects appe...

Diorio, Josie; Meaney, Michael J.

2007-01-01

19

Effect of Maternal Depression on Child Behavior: A Sensitive Period?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…

Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

2010-01-01

20

Maternal smoking effects on infant growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of maternal smoking the nutrient content of breastmilk and impact on infant longitudinal growth rate is unknown. From birth, 23 smoking (S), (7.1 +/- 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 23 non-smoking (NS) mother-infant pairs were followed. The breastmilk volume by deuterium dilution, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in breastmilk and hair by atomic absorption (AAS) and cotinine levels by radio-immuno-analysis (RIA) were evaluated. Birthweight was similar in contrast to height, and infants grew normally. Height and height-for-age (ZHA) were significantly lower in S infants and weight-for-height (ZWH) was higher in S infants in the third month, caused by slower height growth. Cotinine was 19 times greater in the S mothers and six times higher in their infants, as compared to NS group. Breastmilk volume was 743 +/- 119 g/day (S) and 742 +/- 111 g/day (NS), with no difference in zinc, copper, iron contents, except for cadmium (Cd). In infant's hair, all minerals were higher in the S group. Smoking affected infant's height during breastfeeding, attributed to an eventual impaired bioavailability of essential nutrients. PMID:12362783

Berlanga, María del Rocio; Salazar, Gabriela; Garcia, Carola; Hernandez, Jimmy

2002-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Maternal effects on anogenital distance in a wild marmot population.  

Science.gov (United States)

In mammals, prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones may have profound effects on later behavior and fitness and have been reported under both laboratory and field conditions. Anogenital distance is a non-invasive measure of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones. While we know that intra-uterine position and litter sex ratio influence anogenital distance, there are other, heretofore unstudied, factors that could influence anogenital distance, including maternal effects. We capitalized on a long-term study of wild yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to study the importance of maternal effects on explaining variation in anogenital distance and found significant effects. The strength of these effects varied annually. Taken together, our data highlights the strong variability due to environmental effects, and illustrates the importance of additive genetic and maternal genetic effects on neonatal anogenital distance. We suspect that, as others apply recently popularised quantitative genetic techniques to study free-living populations, such effects will be identified in other systems. PMID:24651864

Fouqueray, Timothée D; Blumstein, Daniel T; Monclús, Raquel; Martin, Julien G A

2014-01-01

22

Effect of maternal nicotine exposure on neonatal rat lung development: protective effect of maternal ascorbic acid supplementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In previous studies it was shown that maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation interfered with fetal and neonatal lung growth and development. It was suggested that the adverse effects of maternal nicotine exposure on the lungs of the offspring may be due to inadequate protection of these lungs against oxidants. Wistar rats were used in this study. After mating the rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups, namely a control group, a group receiving only nicotine, a group exposed to only vitamin C, and a group exposed to both nicotine and vitamin C. The aim of this study was, firstly, to determine the effect of maternal nicotine exposure (1 mg/kg body weight/day, subcutaneously) during gestation and lactation on the lungs of the offspring; secondly, to test whether the subcutaneous administration of vitamin C (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day) influences lung development; and, lastly, to determine whether subcutaneous administration of vitamin C will prevent the adverse effects of maternal nicotine exposure on lung development in the offspring. Morphologic and morphometric techniques were used to determine the effect of nicotine and vitamin C on lung development in the offspring on postnatal days 14, 21, and 42. The results showed that maternal exposure to nicotine only or vitamin C only resulted in a gradual deterioration of the parenchyma of the lungs of the offspring. These changes, which resembled microscopic emphysema, only became evident after the lungs of the offspring reached maturation. Those animals that were exposed to both nicotine and vitamin C via the placenta and mother's milk were less severely affected. It is also not advisable to use subcutaneous administration of vitamin C during gestation and lactation to prevent smoke- and nicotine-related effects on the developing lung, and other strategies should be investigated. PMID:21077783

Maritz, G S; Rayise, S S

2011-02-01

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Effects of prenatal care on maternal postpartum behaviors  

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Most research on the effectiveness of prenatal care has focused on birth outcomes and has found small or no effects. It is possible, however, that prenatal care is “too little too late” to improve pregnancy outcomes in the aggregate, but that it increases the use of pediatric health care or improves maternal health-related parenting practices and, ultimately, child health. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing birth cohort study that have been augmented with hospital m...

Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Schwartz-soicher, Ofira

2010-01-01

24

Investigating maternal effects on production traits in Duroc pigs using animal and sire models.  

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Variance components for production traits were estimated using different models to evaluate maternal effects. Data analysed were records from the South African pig performance testing scheme on 22 224 pigs from 18 herds, tested between 1990 and 2008. The traits analysed were backfat thickness (BFAT), test period weight gain (TPG), lifetime weight gain (LTG), test period feed conversion ratio (FCR) and age at slaughter (AGES). Data analyses were performed by REML procedures in ASREML, where random effects were successively fitted into animal and sire models to produce different models. The first animal model had one random effect, the direct genetic effects, while the additional random effects were maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. In the sire model, the random effects fitted were sire and maternal grand sire effects. The best model considered the covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects or between sire and maternal grand sire effects. Fitting maternal genetic effects into the animal model reduced total additive variance, while the total additive variance increased when maternal grand sire effects were fitted into the sire model. The correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects were all negative, indicating antagonism between these effects, hence the need to consider both effects in selection programmes. Direct genetic correlations were higher than other correlations, except for maternal genetic correlations of FCR with TPG, LTG and AGES. There has been direct genetic improvement and almost constant maternal ability in production traits as shown by trends for estimated (EBVs) and maternal breeding values (MBVs), while phenotypic trends were similar to those for EBVs. These results suggest that maternal genetic effects should be included in selection programmes for these production traits. Therefore, the animal-maternal model may be the most appropriate model to use when estimating genetic parameters for production traits in this population. PMID:24476043

Dube, B; Mulugeta, S D; Dzama, K

2014-08-01

25

The Effects of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Infant Anthropometric Measurements  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: The association between maternal smoking and poor pregnancy outcome, which is well established in medi­cal literature, has also been corroborated by the results of this study conducted in a Turkish hospital. Our objective was to investi­gate the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on infant head circumference, height, weight, and body mass in­dex (BMI."nMethods: In this retrospective study, the data was collected from the Medical Live Birth Registry in a maternity hospital with the largest capacity of births in a city of northwest Turkey during 2002."nResults: We found that 16.4% (1040/6332 of mothers investigated had smoked during their pregnancy, with a mean of 5 ciga­rettes per day. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of male infants whose mothers smoked were found to be less than those of infants whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, for each one. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of female infants whose mothers smoked were less than those whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, P< 0.01, P< 0.05 and P> 0.05, respectively. According to analysis of variance, infant head circumferences, heights and weights in all infants decreased as the rate of the mother's smoking increased (P> 0.05, P< 0.001 and P> 0.05, respec­tively."nConclusions: The results support that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a linear reduction of height meas­urement, and the infants appeared to be more susceptible to the growth retarding effects of cigarette smoking on height. Thus, if cessation-of-smoking programs are initiated before conception, many of the harmful effects of smoking on fe­tal growth might be prevented.

F Sahin Mutlu

2008-12-01

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Effect of Maternal Deprivation on Brain and Behaviors in Experimental Models  

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Full Text Available Early development period adverse experience have effects on the adulthood behaviors. Maternal deprivation describe that prolonged loss of the care of the mother to the infant may have intense and/or long continued even irreversible effects on the child?s personality development. Maternal deprivation lead to alterations structural, functional, neurochemical and behavioural. The light of recent studies, in this review examined the effects of maternal deprivation on the central nervous system and behavior.

Kubra Akillioglu

2014-04-01

27

The effect of maternal diabetes on the synthesis and secretion of phosphatidylcholine in fetal and maternal rat lungs in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incorporation of (methyl-14C)choline into phosphatidylcholine and the release of prelabelled phosphatidylcholine was investigated in vitro using lung slices from pregnant rats and their offspring near term. Tissue from normal, diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic pregnant rats and their offspring was utilized to assess the effects of maternal diabetes on fetal lung maturation. The results show that the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in fetal/newborn lungs through the cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine pathway was not affected by maternal diabetes. However, secretion of phosphatidylcholine from the lungs of fetuses of diabetic mothers was very much suppressed one day after parturition. Insulin treatment of the diabetic pregnant rats restored secretion of phosphatidylcholine from the fetal/newborn lungs to control values. These results suggest that an impaired secretion of phosphatidylcholine from the lungs of fetuses of diabetic mothers may be partly responsible for the higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome among children of diabetic mothers. The results also revealed some correlation between the secretion of phosphatidylcholine from maternal lungs, maternal serum phospholipids and synthesis of phosphatidylcholine by fetal lungs during late gestation, suggesting a possible relationship between maternal phospholipid metabolism and fetal lung maturation. PMID:6548458

Nijjar, M S; Khangura, B S; Juravsky, L I

1984-08-01

28

Hormonally mediated maternal effects, individual strategy and global change.  

Science.gov (United States)

A challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists is predicting organismal responses to the anticipated changes to global ecosystems through climate change. Most evidence suggests that short-term global change may involve increasing occurrences of extreme events, therefore the immediate response of individuals will be determined by physiological capacities and life-history adaptations to cope with extreme environmental conditions. Here, we consider the role of hormones and maternal effects in determining the persistence of species in altered environments. Hormones, specifically steroids, are critical for patterning the behaviour and morphology of parents and their offspring. Hence, steroids have a pervasive influence on multiple aspects of the offspring phenotype over its lifespan. Stress hormones, e.g. glucocorticoids, modulate and perturb phenotypes both early in development and later into adulthood. Females exposed to abiotic stressors during reproduction may alter the phenotypes by manipulation of hormones to the embryos. Thus, hormone-mediated maternal effects, which generate phenotypic plasticity, may be one avenue for coping with global change. Variation in exposure to hormones during development influences both the propensity to disperse, which alters metapopulation dynamics, and population dynamics, by affecting either recruitment to the population or subsequent life-history characteristics of the offspring. We suggest that hormones may be an informative index to the potential for populations to adapt to changing environments. PMID:22566673

Meylan, Sandrine; Miles, Donald B; Clobert, Jean

2012-06-19

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Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factor [...] s for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P

Janine Santos, Müller; Marcelo, Antunes; Ivo, Behle; Lucas, Teixeira; Paulo, Zielinsky.

2002-02-01

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Effects of Repeated Maternal Separation On Oxidative Stress In Adolescent Male and Female Rat Brains  

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Full Text Available In a previous study we demonstrated that repeated maternal separation impaired spatial memory performance in both male and female adolescent rats. The mechanisms of these cognitive alterations are unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated maternal separation on oxidative stress in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum regions of the brain of the adolescent male and female rats. The results showed that repeated maternal separation increased antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in adolescent male rat brains; however, maternal separation did not effects antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in adolescent female rat brains. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused damage in repeated maternal separated adolescent male rat brains, also a strong role of gender in the response of adolescent subjects to maternal separation.

Giray YALAZ

2008-09-01

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Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factors for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P<0.001 as was the mean fetal heart rate (P=0.044. Maternal systolic blood pressure (P=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.033 were also elevated after smoking. A decrease occurred in the systolic/diastolic ratio in the right uterine artery (P=0.014 and in the left uterine artery (P=0.039. The other hemodynamic variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking can cause changes in physiologic variables of fetal-placental circulation, but it does not change fetal cardiac function, in the dose of nicotine and its components used in this study. The decrease in systolic/diastolic ratio in the uterine arteries is probably related to a dose-dependent nicotine pattern.

Müller Janine Santos

2002-01-01

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Effects of maternal exposure to cadmium on pregnancy outcome and breast milk  

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Objective: The effects of cadmium (Cd) on birth weight have been discussed in the scientific literature. However, investigations on the effects of maternal body burden of Cd on the next generation during pregnancy and lactation have been limited. The relation between maternal exposure to Cd and pregnancy outcome or Cd in breast milk in Japanese mothers was investigated.

Nishijo, M.; Nakagawa, H.; Honda, R.; Tanebe, K.; Saito, S.; Teranishi, H.; Tawara, K.; Wong, O.

2002-01-01

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Testing for evidence of maternal effects among individuals and populations of white crappie  

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For an increasing number of species, maternal characteristics have been correlated with the characteristics of their eggs or larvae at the individual level. Documenting these maternal effects at the population level, however, is uncommon. For white crappies Pomoxis annularis, we evaluated whether individual maternal effects on eggs existed and then explored whether incorporating maternal effects explained additional variation in recruitment, a population-level response. Individual egg quality (measured as ovary energy density) increased with maternal length among individuals from seven Ohio reservoirs in 1999 and three in 2000. Among these same individuals, egg quality increased with maternal condition factor (measured as residual wet mass for a given length) in 1999 but not in 2000. In 2000 we estimated somatic energy density, an improved measure of condition; egg quality increased with somatic energy density, but somatic energy density was also strongly correlated with maternal length. Hence, we could not determine whether maternal length or condition was the primary factor influencing white crappie egg quality. Across seven populations, the relative population fecundity (i.e., stock size) of the 1999 year-class was unable to explain the variation in recruitment to age 2 (Ricker model r2 = 0.04 and Beverton and Holt model r2 = 0.02). Mean ovary energy density (i.e., egg quality), however, was unable to explain additional recruitment variability in either model. Hence, we documented evidence of maternal effects on individual ovaries but not on population-level recruitment. Nonetheless, we recommend that future studies seeking to understand white crappie recruitment continue to consider maternal effects as a potential factor, especially those studies that may have greater sample sizes at the population level and, in turn, a greater probability of documenting a population-level effect. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Bunnell, D. B.; Scantland, M. A.; Stein, R. A.

2005-01-01

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Environmental maternal effects mediate the resistance of maritime pine to biotic stress.  

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The resistance to abiotic stress is increasingly recognised as being impacted by maternal effects, given that environmental conditions experienced by parent (mother) trees affect stress tolerance in offspring. We hypothesised that abiotic environmental maternal effects may also mediate the resistance of trees to biotic stress. The influence of maternal environment and maternal genotype and the interaction of these two factors on early resistance of Pinus pinaster half-sibs to the Fusarium circinatum pathogen was studied using 10 mother genotypes clonally replicated in two contrasting environments. Necrosis length of infected seedlings was 16% shorter in seedlings grown from favourable maternal environment seeds than in seedlings grown from unfavourable maternal environment seeds. Damage caused by F. circinatum was mediated by maternal environment and maternal genotype, but not by seed mass. Mechanisms unrelated to seed provisioning, perhaps of epigenetic nature, were probably involved in the transgenerational plasticity of P. pinaster, mediating its resistance to biotic stress. Our findings suggest that the transgenerational resistance of pines due to an abiotic stress may interact with the defensive response of pines to a biotic stress. PMID:23922944

Vivas, María; Zas, Rafael; Sampedro, Luis; Solla, Alejandro

2013-01-01

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Maternally Derived Egg Hormones, Antibodies and Antimicrobial Proteins: Common and Different Pathways of Maternal Effects in Japanese Quail  

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Avian eggs contain a variety of maternally-derived substances that can influence the development and performance of offspring. The levels of these egg compounds vary in relation to environmental and genetic factors, but little is known about whether there are correlative links between maternal substances in the egg underlying common and different pathways of maternal effects. In the present study, we investigated genetically determined variability and mutually adjusted deposition of sex hormones (testosterone-T, androstenedione-A4 and progesterone-P4), antibodies (IgY) and antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme) in eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We used different genetic lines that were independently selected for yolk T concentrations, duration of tonic immobility and social reinstatement behaviour, since both selections for behavioural traits (fearfulness and social motivation, respectively) produced considerable correlative responses in yolk androgen levels. A higher selection potential was found for increased rather than decreased yolk T concentrations, suggesting that there is a physiological minimum in egg T levels. Line differences in yolk IgY concentrations were manifested within each selection experiment, but no consistent inter-line pattern between yolk IgY and T was revealed. On the other hand, a consistent inverse inter-line pattern was recorded between yolk IgY and P4 in both selections for behavioural traits. In addition, selections for contrasting fearfulness and social motivation were associated with changes in albumen lysozyme concentrations and an inverse inter-line pattern between the deposition of yolk IgY and albumen lysozyme was found in lines selected for the level of social motivation. Thus, our results demonstrate genetically-driven changes in deposition of yolk T, P4, antibodies and albumen lysozyme in the egg. This genetic variability can partially explain mutually adjusted maternal deposition of sex hormones and immune-competent molecules but the inconsistent pattern of inter-line differences across all selections indicates that there are other underlying mechanisms, which require further studies. PMID:25390303

Okuliarova, Monika; Kankova, Zuzana; Bertin, Aline; Leterrier, Christine; Mostl, Erich; Zeman, Michal

2014-01-01

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Partitioning of General and Specific Combining Ability Effects for Estimating Maternal and Reciprocal Effects  

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Full Text Available General and specific combining ability effects were partitioned according to a proposed model to estimate general and specific combining ability effects for each parent when it is used as a female or a male in its hybrid combinations. A working example includes a full-diallel among eight parents was used so that all possible hybrid combinations were included. The objectives of this study were: (1 to compare the GCA and SCA effects before and after partitioning, (2 to evaluate the relative contribution of each parent to its cross combination when it is used as a male or female parent, (3 to estimate maternal effects in the form of GCA and SCA effects, and (4 to estimate the relationship between maternal and reciprocal effects. Results revealed that estimated GCA effects according to Griffing’s method is equal to the average of GCA effects of each parent, after partitioning, when it is used as a male and a female in its hybrid combinations. In addition, the average of the difference between female and male GCA effects would provide precise estimation of the maternal effect. This would prove that maternal effect provides precise estimation to the favorable alleles, which is mainly additive. The SCA effects calculated according to Griffing’s method is the average of SCA effects of each cross and its reciprocal. The average of the difference between SCA effects of each cross and its reciprocal, according to the proposed model, is equal to the reciprocal effect. This would prove that reciprocal effect provides precise estimation to the interaction effect between nuclear and cytoplasmic genes given that the interaction between male and female alleles inside the nucleus of the cross is similar to its reciprocal hybrid.

Galal M. A. Mahgoub

2011-06-01

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Long-Lasting Effects of Maternal Condition in Free-Ranging Cervids  

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Causes of phenotypic variation are fundamental to evolutionary ecology because they influence the traits acted upon by natural selection. One such cause of phenotypic variation is a maternal effect, which is the influence of the environment experienced by a female (and her corresponding phenotype) on the phenotype of her offspring (independent of the offspring’s genotype). While maternal effects are well documented, the longevity and fitness impact of these effects remains unclear because i...

Freeman, Eric D.; Larsen, Randy T.; Clegg, Ken; Mcmillan, Brock R.

2013-01-01

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Maternal and Neonatal Death Review (MNDR: A Useful Approach to Identifying Appropriate and Effective Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiatives in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the effects of Maternal and Neonatal Death Review (MNDR in terms of improving maternal and neonatal health at the community level in Bangladesh. Methods: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were undertaken for collecting data in Kashipur Union, Bangladesh. Death notifications from households, subsequent data collections from a focus-group discussion (FGD, a group discussion (GD and in-depth interviews (IDIs were obtained using structured tools and guidelines. Results: A total of four maternal deaths, 21 neonatal deaths and 15 still births were reported in the MNDR death notification system at Kashipur Union in 2010. Data were presented to local programme managers, who took various initiatives including awareness programmes, pregnancy registration, antenatal care, birth planning, and also the revitalization of a community clinic. The coverage of antenatal care, delivery in clinics, postnatal care and referral of complications increased through the active participation of the community. Community healthcare providers, care recipients and members of the community expressed satisfaction with the quality of maternal and neonatal services. In the preceding two years, maternal and neonatal deaths substantially reduced in Kashipur (in 2011 maternal death = 1, neonatal death = 20, still birth = 8; in 2012 maternal death = 1, neonatal death = 8, still birth = 13. Conclusions: The MNDR system successfully delivered notification of all maternal and neonatal deaths in the defined area and collected information for the formulation and implementation of specific interventions, which resulted in visible and tangible changes in care-seeking and client satisfaction.

Animesh Biswas

2014-07-01

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Effects of infants’ birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status on birth weight  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the effects of infants’ birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES on birth weight. Methods. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants’ first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants’ birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. Results: First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Conclusion: Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants’ birth weight. 

Seyed J. Gaemmaghami

2013-09-01

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Effect of health insurance on the use and provision of maternal health services and maternal and neonatal health outcomes: a systematic review.  

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Financial barriers can affect timely access to maternal health services. Health insurance can influence the use and quality of these services and potentially improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence on health insurance and its effects on the use and provision of maternal health services and on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in middle- and low-income countries. Studies were identified through a literature search in key databases and consultation with experts in healthcare financing and maternal health. Twenty-nine articles met the review criteria of focusing on health insurance and its effect on the use or quality of maternal health services, or maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Sixteen studies assessed demand-side effects of insurance, eight focused on supply-side effects, and the remainder addressed both. Geographically, the studies provided evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (n = 11), Asia (n = 9), Latin America (n = 8), and Turkey. The studies included examples from national or social insurance schemes (n = 7), government-run public health insurance schemes (n = 4), community-based health insurance schemes (n = 11), and private insurance (n = 3). Half of the studies used econometric analyses while the remaining provided descriptive statistics or qualitative results. There is relatively consistent evidence that health insurance is positively correlated with the use of maternal health services. Only four studies used methods that can establish this causal relationship. Six studies presented suggestive evidence of over-provision of caesarean sections in response to providers' payment incentives through health insurance. Few studies focused on the relationship between health insurance and the quality of maternal health services or maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The available evidence on the quality and health outcomes is inconclusive, given the differences in measurement, contradictory findings, and statistical limitations. Consistent with economic theories, the studies identified a positive relationship between health insurance and the use of maternal health services. However, more rigorous causal methods are needed to identify the extent to which the use of these services increases among the insured. Better measurement of quality and the use of cross-country analyses would solidify the evidence on the impact of insurance on the quality of maternal health services and maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:24992805

Comfort, Alison B; Peterson, Lauren A; Hatt, Laurel E

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Maternal and child undernutrition: effective action at national level.  

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80% of the world's undernourished children live in just 20 countries. Intensified nutrition action in these countries can lead to achievement of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and greatly increase the chances of achieving goals for child and maternal mortality (MDGs 4 and 5). Despite isolated successes in specific countries or for interventions--eg, iodised salt and vitamin A supplementation--most countries with high rates of undernutrition are failing to reach undernourished mothers and children with effective interventions supported by appropriate policies. This paper reports on an assessment of actions addressing undernutrition in the countries with the highest burden of undernutrition, drawing on systematic reviews and best-practice reports. Seven key challenges for addressing undernutrition at national level are defined and reported on: getting nutrition on the list of priorities, and keeping it there; doing the right things; not doing the wrong things; acting at scale; reaching those in need; data-based decisionmaking; and building strategic and operational capacity. Interventions with proven effectiveness that are selected by countries should be rapidly implemented at scale. The period from pregnancy to 24 months of age is a crucial window of opportunity for reducing undernutrition and its adverse effects. Programme efforts, as well as monitoring and assessment, should focus on this segment of the continuum of care. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions unlikely to be effective in the context of country or local realities. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions that have not been proven to have a direct effect on undernutrition, such as stand-alone growth monitoring or school feeding programmes. In addition to health and nutrition interventions, economic and social policies addressing poverty, trade, and agriculture that have been associated with rapid improvements in nutritional status should be implemented. There is a reservoir of important experience and expertise in individual countries about how to build commitment, develop and monitor nutrition programmes, move toward acting at scale, reform or phase-out ineffective programmes, and other challenges. This resource needs to be formalised, shared, and used as the basis for setting priorities in problem-solving research for nutrition. PMID:18206224

Bryce, Jennifer; Coitinho, Denise; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Pelletier, David; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

2008-02-01

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Maternal over weight and obesity: its effect on pregnancy outcome.  

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Obesity in pregnancy remains a significant health problem that result in physiological, emotional, social and economic consequences on woman, their families and society. Obesity is considered one of the nutritional problems complicating pregnancy in our country. This study was conducted in antenatal clinic at out patient department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, BIRDEM Hospital, one of the countries largest tertiary level hospitals, during January 2007 to December 2008. During the study period of two years, a total no. of 100 cases were enrolled in two groups. Out of this 50 were control and 50 were over weight and obese. In this study, Mean of height, weight and BMI of the over weight and obese group were 5.21±0.21, 79.35±13.66, 32.36±4.76 respectively. The Mean of birth weight, APGAR score after 1 min and after 5 min of the over weight and obese group were 3.07±0.75, 7.10±1.11, 9.92±0.98 respectively and in normal weight group were 2.74±0.55, 7.40±1.56, 9.92±1.83 respectively. There was significant difference in birth weight, APGAR score after 1 min between the groups (p0.05). Regarding the fetal outcome in this study, 20% of the over weight and obese group delivered macrosomic baby in comparison to only 4% in the normal weight group. On the other hand 46% of the case group had to refer their babies to the neonatal unit in comparison to only 12% in the control group. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) (46%) and Preeclampsia (44%) developed more in obese group. Eighty eight (88%) of obese and overweight mother experienced in caesarean delivery. Asphyxia, Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), congenital anomaly and prenatal death were more in the over weight and obese group than normal weight group. Thus, overweight and obesity has got significant deleterious effect on maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancy. PMID:21522090

Mazumder, U; Sarker, S; Riaz, B K; Chowdhury, T A

2011-04-01

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The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of newborns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the relation between maternal prenatal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal anthropometric measurements. All pregnant women who gave birth at the Obstetrics Department of Dr. LK Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006, and their newborns were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The newborns weight, height, head, and chest circumference were recorded. Mothers with hemoglobin concentration less than 11g/dl were evaluated as anemic. The anemic mothers were then grouped into 3 categories according to the corresponding hemoglobin concentration: mild (10.9-9.0g/dl), moderate (8.9-7.0 g/dl), and severe anemic (less than 7 g/dl). The anthropometric measurements of newborns from non-anemic and anemic mother groups were compared. Of the 3688 pregnant women, 1588 (43%) were found to be anemic. Among the anemic mothers, 1245 had mild (78.5%), 311 had moderate (19.5%), and 32 (2%) had severe anemia. The anthropometric measurements (height, weight, head and chest circumference) of newborns of anemic and non-anemic mother groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.036, p=0.044, p=0.013, and p=0.0002). There was a statistically significant difference in height, weight, and chest circumference of newborns of severe anemic and mild anemic mothers (p=0.017, p=0.008 and p=0.02). The height (1.1 cm), weight (260 g), head (0.42 cm), and chest (1 cm) circumference of neonates in the severcm) circumference of neonates in the severe anemic group is less than the mild anemic group. Anemia during pregnancy affect the anthropometric measurements of a newborn. Severe anemia had significant negative effect on neonatal anthropometric measurements. (author)

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The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

Khashan, A S

2012-01-31

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"THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL AGE, GESTATIONAL AGE AND PARITY ON THE SIZE OF THE NEWBORN "  

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Full Text Available A descriptive prospective study was undertaken to determine birth weight, length and head circumference of live births and to examine the effect of maternal age, parity and gestational age on birth sizes of the live births. A total of 459 term singleton maternal– neonate pairs were studied. The neonates had anthropometric measurements determined with in 24hours of life using standard methods. There were 247 (53.8% males and 212 (46.2% females. The mean birth weight was 3123.75 ? 492.04, ranging between 1700-4550 gr. The incidence of low birth weight of the newborns was significantly higher for females (P < 0.05, younger maternal age (P = 0.007, primiparas (P = 0.001 and pre-term babies (P < 0.001. On the multivariate analysis, gestational age and sex of the newborn respectively had significant effects on birth weight, length and head circumference of the neonates controlling for the other variables. On the other hand parity and maternal age had significant effects only on the birth weight of the neonates. This study has provided information of the effects of some of maternal characteristics on the size, particularly length and head circumferences be given importance for monitoring and evaluating maternal and child health programs.

M. R. Mohammady P. Heshmaty

2006-11-01

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Maternal Care Effects on SNB Motoneuron Development: The Mediating Role of Sensory Afferent Distribution and Activity  

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Maternal licking in rats affects the development of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB), a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus that controls penile reflexes involved with copulation. Reduced maternal licking produces decreased motoneuron number, size, and dendritic length in the rostral portion of the adult SNB as well as deficits in adult male copulatory behavior. Previous research suggests that decreases in perineal tactile stimulation may be responsible for these effects. To deter...

Lenz, Kathryn M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.

2009-01-01

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Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight  

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Abstract Background Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, pre- and post-term delivery, induction of labor, macrosomia, increased rate of caesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) on pregnancy outcomes. Methods 1000 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. In order to explore the relationship between ma...

Yazdani Shahla; Yosofniyapasha Yousofreza; Nasab Bahman; Mojaveri Mohsen; Bouzari Zinatossadat

2012-01-01

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Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in maternal care.

ElizabethThomasCox

2011-06-01

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Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 14C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed

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The maternal environment affects offspring viability via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size.  

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Environmental conditions that reproductive females experience can influence patterns of offspring provisioning and fitness. In particular, prey availability can influence maternal reproduction and, in turn, affect the viability of their offspring. Although such maternal effects are widespread, the mechanisms by which these effects operate are poorly understood. We manipulated the amount of prey available to female brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to evaluate how this factor affects patterns of reproductive investment (total egg output, egg size, yolk steroids) and offspring viability (morphology, growth, survival). Experimental reduction of yolk in a subset of eggs enabled us to evaluate a potential causal mechanism (yolk investment) that mediates the effect of maternal prey availability on offspring viability. We show that limited prey availability significantly reduced egg size, which negatively influenced offspring size, growth, and survival. Experimental yolk removal from eggs directly reduced offspring size, which, in turn, negatively affected offspring growth and survival. These findings show that maternal environments (i.e., low prey) can affect offspring fitness via an indirect effect of yolk investment on offspring size and highlight the complex set of indirect effects by which maternal effects can operate. PMID:24642545

Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B

2014-01-01

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Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior  

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Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was t...

Purcell, Ryan H.; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L.; Power, Michael L.; Moran, Timothy H.; Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.

2011-01-01

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Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls.  

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Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure. PMID:23466987

Blumstein, Daniel T; Nguyen, Kathy T; Martin, Julien G A

2013-05-01

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Effects of combinations of maternal agents on the fetal cerebrum in rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ent. Independently of X-irradiation, ethanol-treatment resulted in increased fetal mortality and LP, and decreased body weight. These results suggest that the combined effects of maternal agents on live fetuses should be investigated as to whether they act independently of or dependently with each other and how the effects appear either singly or mixed. (author)

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Effects of maternal and infant co-infections, and of maternal immunisation, on the infant response to BCG and tetanus immunisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some vaccines show poor efficacy in tropical countries. Within a birth cohort in Uganda, we investigated factors that might influence responses to BCG and tetanus immunisation. Whole blood assay responses to crude culture filtrate proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cCFP)) and tetanus toxoid (TT) were examined among 1506 and 1433 one-year-olds, respectively. Maternal Mansonella perstans infection was associated with higher interleukin (IL)-10 responses to both immunogens but no reduction in gamma interferon (IFN-?), IL-5 and IL-13 responses; other maternal helminth infections showed little effect. Tetanus immunisation during pregnancy was associated with higher infant responses to TT; maternal BCG scar (from past immunisation) with lower infant IL-5 and IL-13 responses to cCFP. IFN-?, IL-5 and IL-13 to TT were reduced in HIV-exposed-uninfected infants; infant malaria and HIV were associated with lower IFN-?, IL-5 and IL-13 responses to both immunogens. We conclude that maternal helminth infections are unlikely to explain poor vaccine efficacy in the tropics. Effects of maternal immunisation on infant responses to vaccines should be explored. Prevention of infant malaria and HIV could contribute to effectiveness of immunisation programmes. PMID:21040693

Elliott, Alison M; Mawa, Patrice A; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Lyadda, Nancy; Bukusuba, Joseph; Kizza, Moses; Namujju, Proscovia B; Nabulime, Juliet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Muwanga, Moses; Whitworth, James A G

2010-12-16

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Systematic review of effect of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to provide a systematic review of the effectiveness of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We searched published papers using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, CINAHL, BNI, CAB ABSTRACTS, IBSS, Web of Science, LILACS and African Index Medicus from inception or at least 1982 to June 2006; searched unpublished works using National Research Register website, metaRegister and the WHO International Trial Registry portal. We hand searched major references. Selection criteria were maternity or childbearing age women, comparative study designs with concurrent controls, community-level interventions and maternal death as an outcome. We carried out study selection, data abstraction and quality assessment independently in duplicate. Results We found five cluster randomised controlled trials (RCT and eight cohort studies of community-level interventions. We summarised results as odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals (CI, combined using the Peto method for meta-analysis. Two high quality cluster RCTs, aimed at improving perinatal care practices, showed a reduction in maternal mortality reaching statistical significance (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.98. Three equivalence RCTs of minimal goal-oriented versus usual antenatal care showed no difference in maternal mortality (1.09, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.25. The cohort studies were of low quality and did not contribute further evidence. Conclusion Community-level interventions of improved perinatal care practices can bring about a reduction in maternal mortality. This challenges the view that investment in such interventions is not worthwhile. Programmes to improve maternal mortality should be evaluated using randomised controlled techniques to generate further evidence.

Deeks Jonathan J

2009-01-01

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The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Africa low birth weight (LBW ( Methods In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002 with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p 12 years of education. Conclusion Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

Schmalisch Gerd

2008-07-01

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Analysis of stunter1, a Maize Mutant with Reduced Gametophyte Size and Maternal Effects on Seed Development  

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Many higher eukaryotes have evolved strategies for the maternal control of growth and development of their offspring. In higher plants this is achieved in part by postmeiotic gene activity controlling the development of the haploid female gametophyte. stunter1 (stt1) is a novel, recessive, maternal effect mutant in maize that displays viable, miniature kernels. Maternal inheritance of stt1 results in seeds with reduced but otherwise normal endosperms and embryos. The stt1 mutation displays re...

Phillips, Allison R.; Evans, Matthew M. S.

2011-01-01

58

Nutrition education and counselling provided during pregnancy: effects on maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes.  

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Nutrition education and counselling (NEC) is a commonly applied strategy to improve maternal nutrition during pregnancy. However, with the exception special populations and specific diets, the effect of NEC on maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes has not been systematically reviewed. Using a modified Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group method we systematically reviewed the literature and identified and abstracted 37 articles. We conducted meta-analyses for the effect of NEC on maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes including gestational weight gain, maternal anaemia, birthweight, low birthweight and preterm delivery. NEC significantly improved gestational weight gain by 0.45 kg, reduced the risk of anaemia in late pregnancy by 30%, increased birthweight by 105 g and lowered the risk of preterm delivery by 19%. The effect of NEC on risk of low birthweight was not significant. The effect of NEC was greater when provided with nutrition support, for example, food or micronutrient supplements or nutrition safety nets. The overall quality of the body of evidence was deemed low for all outcomes due to high heterogeneity, poor study designs and other biases. Additional well-designed research that is grounded in appropriate theories of behaviour change is needed to improve confidence in the effect of NEC. Further, cost-effectiveness research is needed to clarify the added benefit and sustainability of providing NEC with nutritional support and/or safety nets, especially in areas where food insecurity and gender bias may limit women's capacity to adhere to NEC messages. PMID:22742611

Girard, Amy Webb; Olude, Oluwafunke

2012-07-01

59

Inhibitory control as a mediator of bidirectional effects between early oppositional behavior and maternal depression.  

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Maternal depression is an established risk factor for child conduct problems, but relatively few studies have tested whether children's behavioral problems exacerbate mothers' depression or whether other child behavioral characteristics (e.g., self-regulation) may mediate bidirectional effects between maternal depression and child disruptive behavior. This longitudinal study examined the parallel growth of maternal depressive symptoms and child oppositional behavior from ages 2 to 5; the magnitude and timing of their bidirectional effects; and whether child inhibitory control, a temperament-based self-regulatory mechanism, mediated effects between maternal depression and child oppositionality. A randomized control trial of 731 at-risk families assessed children annually from ages 2 to 5. Transactional models demonstrated positive and bidirectional associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and children's oppositional behavior from ages 2 to 3, with a less consistent pattern of reciprocal relations up to age 5. Mediation of indirect mother-child effects and child evocative effects depended on the rater of children's inhibitory control. Findings are discussed in regard to how child evocative effects and self-regulatory mechanisms may clarify the transmission of psychopathology within families. PMID:24963884

Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Brennan, Lauretta M; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

2014-11-01

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Maternal effects of inducible tolerance against the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in the grazer Daphnia carinata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyanobacterial blooms are becoming potent agents of natural selection in aquatic ecosystems because of their high production of some toxins and increased frequency in recent decades with eutrophication and climate change. Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates of a clone of the planktonic grazer Daphnia carinata in an offspring environment where cyanobacteria were present, but not for two additional clones. Offspring from mothers exposed to M. aeruginosa had lower intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates than individuals from unexposed mothers when fed exclusively a green alga. These results suggest that benefits, costs, and clonal variations of maternal effects of inducible tolerance should be considered when trying to understand ecological consequences of cyanobacterial blooms since they can shape the trophic interactions between cyanobacteria and daphnids. -- Highlights: •Maternal exposure to Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the offspring tolerance in a Daphnia carinata clone. •Another two clones, however, failed to response to maternal exposure. •Offspring from exposed mothers had lower fitness when fed exclusively a green alga. -- Capsule: Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa increased offspring fitness in one of three Daphnia carinata clones and carried a

 
 
 
 
61

Black-White Differences in Maternal Age, Maternal Birth Cohort, and Period Effects on Infant Mortality in the U.S. (1983-2002)1  

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We investigate three interrelated sources of change in infant mortality rates over a 20 year period using the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) linked birth and infant death cohort files. The effects of maternal age, maternal birth cohort, and time period of childbirth on infant mortality are estimated using a modified age/period/cohort (APC) model that identifies age, period, cohort effects. We document black-white differences in the patterning of these effects and find that maternal age effects follow the predictable U-shaped pattern, net of period and cohort, but with a less steep gradient in the black population. The largest relative maternal age-specific disparity in IMR occurs among older African American mothers. Cohort effects, while considerably smaller than age and period effects, present an interesting pattern of a modest decline in IMR among later cohorts of African American mothers coupled with an increasing IMR among the same cohorts of non-Hispanic whites. However, period effects dominate the time trends, implying that period-related technologies overwhelmingly shape U.S. infant survival in today’s population. These general findings are mirrored in APC analyses carried out for several leading underlying causes of infant mortality. PMID:23721672

Powers, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

62

Effect of Source and Level of Maternal Vitamin D on Carryover to Newly Hatched Chicks  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the carryover effect of maternal vitamin D level and source on performance and bone development of the progeny. Breeder hens were fed a vitamin D deficient diet for two months to deplete stores. After this period, experimental diets in a factorial arrangement were fed to the hens with five levels of cholecalciferol (0, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 IU/kg and two levels of 25OHD3 (HyD (0 and 68 ?g/kg for a total of 10 treatments. At the end of two months on the experimental diets two sets of eggs were hatched. The progeny obtained were placed in battery brooders to 21 days by maternal diet and received a common diet. The first hatch received a diet with no vitamin D supplement whereas the second hatch received a diet with the same nutrient composition but containing 5500 IU/kg of cholecalciferol. The first set of birds responded to the maternal diet supplementation of vitamin D mostly during the first week post hatch with no clear pattern in later stages. The progeny receiving 5500 IU/kg of vitamin D in the diet responded to the maternal vitamin D supplementation even at 21 days and in a clearer trend. Feed conversion and body weight improved as the cholecalciferol level increased and with the inclusion of HyD in the maternal diet. The response when HyD was added was more noticeable at low levels of cholecalciferol supplementation with no difference at higher levels in the hen’s diet. Bone development of the progeny was improved with the addition of HyD in the maternal diet; this response was not influenced by increasing levels of cholecalciferol in the breeder diet. This study confirms the importance of the maternal vitamin D carryover for an adequate development of the progeny. Certainly, the vitamin D carryover effect did not overcome the effect of supplementing vitamin D directly in the progeny’s diet but it was capable of improving the performance of the progeny even three weeks post-hatch when a high level of cholecalciferol (5500 IU/kg was present in the diet of the progeny. A carryover effect of HyD when added to the maternal diet was observed in this study, thus the feasibility of using the metabolite to supply vitamin D to the developing embryo was confirmed.

F. Yan

2010-01-01

63

Estimation of Direct Genetic and Maternal Effects for Production Traits of Iranian Holstein Cows Using Different Animal Models  

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Full Text Available (Covariance components and genetic parameters were estimated using Derivative-free Restricted Maximum Likelihood (DFREML approach for milk yield and fat yield of Iranian Holsteins of Isfahan province. Data was consisted of first lactation records on milk and fat yields of 12,047 Holsteins from 45 herds, which were calved from 1995 to the end of 2001. Records were pre-adjusted to mature equivalent yields (ME-2X-305d. Six different animal models were fitted, which were differentiated by including or excluding maternal additive genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental effects and direct-maternal genetic covariance. Animal Models included Herd-Year-Season and direct additive genetic effects as fixed and random effects, respectively. Direct heritability estimates (h2 ranged from 0.157 to 0.229 and 0.203 to 0.243 for milk yield and fat yield, respectively. The estimates were substantially higher when maternal effects were ignored from the model. Mean estimates of the maternal genetic and maternal permanent environment variances and direct-maternal genetic covariance as fractions to the phenotypic variances were 0.07, 0.02 and 0.025 for milk yield and 0.01, 0.05 and 0.016 for fat yield, respectively, while, positive direct-maternal relationships (Covam were obtained. The results of this study showed that maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects had not any important influence on the yield of dairy cows. However, they can improve genetic evaluations. Also, there is no need for the inclusion of direct-maternal genetic covariance in the animal models for dairy cows.

M.A. Edriss

2006-01-01

64

Joint effects of child temperament and maternal sensitivity on the development of childhood obesity.  

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The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ? the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents. PMID:20358395

Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng

2011-05-01

65

The Interactive Effects of Temperament and Maternal Parenting on Toddlers' Externalizing Behaviours  

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The present study aimed to determine the potential moderating effects of temperamental traits on the relation between parenting and toddlers' externalizing behaviours. For that purpose, this study examined the interplay between temperament and maternal parenting behaviours in predicting the level as well as the development of toddlers'…

van Aken, C.; Junger, M.; Verhoeven, M.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Dekovic, M.

2007-01-01

66

Estimates of direct, maternal and grandmaternal genetic effects for growth traits in Gobra cattle  

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Full Text Available Estimates of genetic parameters for birth (N = 3909, weaning (N = 3425, yearling (N = 2764 and final (N = 2144 weights were obtained from the records of Gobra cattle collected at the Centre de Recherches Zootechniques de Dahra, Senegal. Three animal models were fitted to obtain estimates by REML using an average information (AI approach. Model 1 considered random direct, maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. In model 2, a general grandmaternal effect was added to the random effects considered in model 1, and in model 3, the general grandmaternal effect was divided into grandmaternal genetic and grandmaternal permanent environmental effects. All models allowed covariances among genetic effects. The inclusion of grandmaternal effects in models 2 and 3 did not change the estimates of the genetic parameters compared to model 1. Variances attributable to grandmaternal effects became negative and were set close to zero, except for yearling weight for which grandmaternal heritability was 0.03 ± 0.03. The estimates for direct and maternal heritabilities were, respectively, 0.08 ± 0.03 and 0.03 ± 0.02 for birth, 0.20 ± 0.05 and 0.21 ± 0.05 for weaning, 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.16 ± 0.07 for yearling and 0.14 ± 0.06 and 0.16 ± 0.06 for final weights. The estimates of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for birth, weaning, yearling and final weights were -0.17 ± 0.40, -0.58 ± 0.32, -0.52 ± 0.34 and -0.34 ± 0.37, respectively. For yearling weight with grandmaternal heritability estimated to be only 0.03, model 3 gave estimates of the genetic correlation between direct and grandmaternal effects and between maternal and grandmaternal effects of 0.28 ± 0.48 and -0.33 ± 0.67, respectively. Estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities were unchanged when grandmaternal effects were not included in the model.

Diop M.

1999-01-01

67

Maternity Leave in Turbulent Times: Effects on Labor Market Transitions and Fertility in Russia, 1985-2000  

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Maternity leave policies are designed to ease the tension between women's employment and fertility, but whether they actually play such a role remains unclear. We analyze the individual-level effects of maternity leave on employment outcomes and on second conception rates among Russian first-time mothers from 1985-2000 using retrospective job and…

Gerber, Theodore P.; Perelli-Harris, Brienna

2012-01-01

68

Maternal effects on offspring locomotion: influence of density and corticosterone elevation in the lizard Lacerta vivipara.  

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Offspring phenotype can be affected by maternal history before and during gestation. Offspring sensitivity to maternal conditions is believed to have evolved to favor preadaptation of offspring to environmental factors they are likely to encounter. Because the locomotor capacity of an individual is likely to have important fitness consequences, we examined the role of long-term and short-term prenatal conditions on offspring's locomotor performance in the lizard Lacerta vivipara. To examine long-term prenatal effects, we manipulated the density of two populations, leaving two additional populations as unmanipulated. We then collected pregnant females within these four populations (Cévennes, Massif Central, France) and kept them in the laboratory until parturition. To examine short-term prenatal effects, we manipulated the corticosterone level of half the females within each population. We took two different measurements of offspring locomotion: sprint speed and endurance. As already documented, sprint speed was positively correlated with offspring body size. Although population density significantly affected female fecundity, neither the density manipulation nor the population of origin influenced offspring phenotype. Corticosterone administered during gestation decreased juvenile sprint speed but did not affect juvenile endurance. Furthermore, we observed that the motivation to run was influenced by maternal hormonal treatment. Juveniles born from corticosterone-treated mothers needed more stimuli than those born from control mothers. We conclude, therefore, that the action of corticosterone on sprint speed could be more behavioral than physiological. Offspring phenotype as measured by endurance and sprint speed appeared partly under maternal control. PMID:15286918

Meylan, Sandrine; Clobert, Jean

2004-01-01

69

Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized [...] into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject’s group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios.

V.T.M., Borges; J., Rososchansky; J.F., Abbade; A., Dias; J.C., Peraçoli; M.V.C., Rudge.

70

Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®, water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject’s group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89 and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95 increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios.

V.T.M. Borges

2011-03-01

71

Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized [...] into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject’s group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios.

V.T.M., Borges; J., Rososchansky; J.F., Abbade; A., Dias; J.C., Peraçoli; M.V.C., Rudge.

2011-03-01

72

A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight  

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Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

Sharma R.K

1999-01-01

73

Environmental induction and phenotypic retention of adaptive maternal effects  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of complex adaptations is one of the most controversial questions in biology. Environmental induction of novel phenotypes, where phenotypic retention of adaptive developmental variation is enabled by organismal complexity and homeostasis, can be a starting point in the evolution of some adaptations, but empirical examples are rare. Comparisons of populations that differ in historical recurrence of environmental induction can offer insight into its evolutionary significance, and recent colonization of North America by the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus provides such an opportunity. Results In both native (southern Arizona and newly established (northern Montana, 18 generations populations, breeding female finches exhibit the same complex adaptation – a sex-bias in ovulation sequence – in response to population-specific environmental stimulus of differing recurrence. We document that, in the new population, the adaptation is induced by a novel environment during females' first breeding and is subsequently retained across breeding attempts. In the native population, first-breeding females expressed a precise adaptive response to a recurrent environmental stimulus without environmental induction. We document strong selection on environmental cue recognition in both populations and find that rearrangement of the same proximate mechanism – clustering of oocytes that become males and females – can enable an adaptive response to distinct environmental stimuli. Conclusion The results show that developmental plasticity induced by novel environmental conditions confers significant fitness advantages to both maternal and offspring generations and might play an important role not only in the successful establishment of this invasive species across the widest ecological range of extant birds, but also can link environmental induction and genetic inheritance in the evolution of novel adaptations.

Oh Kevin P

2008-01-01

74

Neurodevelopmental Effects of Maternal Nutritional Status and Exposure to Methylmercury from Eating Fish during Pregnancy  

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Fish contain nutrients that promote optimal brain growth and development but also contain methylmercury (MeHg) that can have toxic effects. The present study tested the hypothesis that the intake of selected nutrients in fish or measures of maternal nutritional status may represent important confounders when estimating the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on child development. The study took place in the Republic of Seychelles, an Indian Ocean archipelago where fish consumption is h...

Davidson, Philip W.; Strain, J. J.; Myers, Gary J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M. W.; Robson, Paula J.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Georger, Lesley A.; Sloane-reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L.; Cox, Christopher

2008-01-01

75

Maternal caffeine use before, during and after pregnancy and effects upon offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospective information gathered through the course of pregnancy, perinatal measurements, and retrospective data collected postnatally were used to investigate the changing patterns and effects of caffeine use of 286 women participating in the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study. Data were collected on maternal use of tea, coffee, caffeinated soft-drinks, chocolate bars and drinks and caffeinated medication. The volume and analysed caffeine concentration of 53 samples of coffee and tea, prepared by subjects as they usually consumed it, were used to examine the predictive potential of the women's subjective description of the beverages. Self-reports of volume and beverage strength were found to be valid predictors; the method of coffee preparation held little predictive power. An algorithm for estimating caffeine intake retrospectively over time was developed. During pregnancy most women continued to consume caffeine but usually at lower intake levels. After pregnancy, caffeine consumption tended to persist at reduced levels for several months and then returned to prepregnancy patterns. Maternal caffeine intake of more than 300 mg daily during pregnancy was associated with lowered birth weight and smaller head circumference of the infant after accounting for maternal nicotine use. No relationship was apparent between maternal caffeine use and the incidence of caesarian sections, breech births, miscarriages or premature births. PMID:4000371

Watkinson, B; Fried, P A

1985-01-01

76

Effects of maternal obesity on early and long-term outcomes for offspring  

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Full Text Available Laura I Stirrat,1,2 Rebecca M Reynolds2,3 1Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Tommy's Centre for Maternal and Fetal Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 3Endocrinology Unit, University/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The prevalence of maternal obesity has increased significantly in recent years, and obesity is currently the most common comorbidity of pregnancy. Pregnancies of obese women are often defined as "high-risk" for the purposes of clinical care, with many well documented risks to the mother and developing baby. Maternal physiology and metabolism is dysregulated in the context of obesity, which may contribute to some of the adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Furthermore, maternal obesity has been hypothesized to cause harmful effects for the developing baby through "early life programming." This review will examine evidence from human studies for outcomes of offspring from obese women during pregnancy, during labor, during the neonatal period, and later in life. Keywords: pregnancy, short-term, physiology, metabolism, early life programming, neonatal complications, adverse intrauterine environment

Stirrat LI

2014-03-01

77

Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cord-blood mercury concentration is usually considered the best biomarker in regard to developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity. However, the mercury concentration may be affected by the binding of methylmercury to hemoglobin and perhaps also selenium. As cord-blood mercury analyses appear to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N=514) and the Mothers and Children?s Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses were used to ascertain interrelationships between the exposure biomarkers and the possible impact of hemoglobin as well as selenium. Both methods showed a significant dependence of the cord-blood concentration on hemoglobin, also after adjustment for other exposure biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in maternal and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended.

Kim, Byung-Mi; Choi, Anna L

2014-01-01

78

Resolving the effects of maternal and offspring genotype on dyadic outcomes in genome wide complex trait analysis ("M-GCTA").  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) is extended to include environmental effects of the maternal genotype on offspring phenotype ("maternal effects", M-GCTA). The model includes parameters for the direct effects of the offspring genotype, maternal effects and the covariance between direct and maternal effects. Analysis of simulated data, conducted in OpenMx, confirmed that model parameters could be recovered by full information maximum likelihood (FIML) and evaluated the biases that arise in conventional GCTA when indirect genetic effects are ignored. Estimates derived from FIML in OpenMx showed very close agreement to those obtained by restricted maximum likelihood using the published algorithm for GCTA. The method was also applied to illustrative perinatal phenotypes from ~4,000 mother-offspring pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The relative merits of extended GCTA in contrast to quantitative genetic approaches based on analyzing the phenotypic covariance structure of kinships are considered. PMID:25060210

Eaves, Lindon J; Pourcain, Beate St; Smith, George Davey; York, Timothy P; Evans, David M

2014-09-01

79

Natural selection acts in opposite ways on correlated hormonal mediators of prenatal maternal effects in a wild bird population.  

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Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although many experimental studies have demonstrated their potency in shaping offspring phenotypes, we know remarkably little about their adaptive value. Using long-term data on a wild collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) population, we show that natural selection acts in opposite ways on two maternally derived androgens, yolk androstenedione (A4) and yolk testosterone (T). High yolk A4 concentrations are associated with higher fitness, whereas high yolk T concentrations are associated with lower fitness. Natural selection thus favours females that produce eggs with high A4 and low T concentrations. Importantly, however, there exists a positive (non-genetic) correlation between A4 and T, which suggests that females are limited in their ability to reach this adaptive optimum. Thereby, these results provide strong evidence for an adaptive value of differential maternal androgen deposition, and a mechanistic explanation for the maintenance of variation in maternal investment in the wild. PMID:25130200

Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G G; Doligez, Blandine

2014-10-01

80

Linear and threshold analysis of direct and maternal genetic effects for secondary sex ratio in Iranian buffaloes.  

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The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for secondary sex ratio (SSR) in Iranian buffaloes. Calving records from April 1995 to June 2010 comprising 15,207 calving events from the first three lactations of 1066 buffalo herds of Iran were analyzed using linear and threshold animal models to estimate variance components, heritabilities and genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects for SSR. Linear and threshold animal models included direct and maternal genetic effects with covariance between them and maternal permanent environmental effects were implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. Posterior means of direct and maternal heritabilities and repeatability for SSR obtained from linear animal model were 0.15, 0.10, and 0.17, respectively. Threshold estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities and repeatability for SSR were 0.48, 0.27, and 0.52, respectively. The results showed that the correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects of SSR were negative and high in both models. In addition, the ratios of maternal permanent environmental variance were low. Exploitable genetic variation in SSR can take advantage of sexual dimorphism for economically important traits which may facilitate greater selection intensity and thus greater response to selection, as well as reducing the replacement costs. Threshold animal model may be applied in selection programs where animals are to be genetically ranked for female rate. PMID:24648274

Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Navid

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Widespread differential maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone phenotype at mid-gestation.  

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Parent-of-origin-dependent (epi)genetic factors are important determinants of prenatal development that program adult phenotype. However, data on magnitude and specificity of maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone are lacking. We used an outbred bovine model to dissect and quantify effects of parental genomes, fetal sex, and nongenetic maternal effects on the fetal skeleton and analyzed phenotypic and molecular relationships between fetal muscle and bone. Analysis of 51 bone morphometric and weight parameters from 72 fetuses recovered at day 153 gestation (54% term) identified six principal components (PC1-6) that explained 80% of the variation in skeletal parameters. Parental genomes accounted for most of the variation in bone wet weight (PC1, 72.1%), limb ossification (PC2, 99.8%), flat bone size (PC4, 99.7%), and axial skeletal growth (PC5, 96.9%). Limb length showed lesser effects of parental genomes (PC3, 40.8%) and a significant nongenetic maternal effect (gestational weight gain, 29%). Fetal sex affected bone wet weight (PC1, p?weight (74.1%, p?height (98.6%, p?weight and paternally controlled limb ossification, respectively. Bone wet weight and flat bone size correlated positively with muscle weight (r?=?0.84 and 0.77, p?maternally expressed H19 regulates growth factors by miRNA interference, this suggests muscle-bone interaction via epigenetic factors. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24753181

Xiang, Ruidong; Lee, Alice Mc; Eindorf, Tanja; Javadmanesh, Ali; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Gugger, Madeleine; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Pitchford, Wayne S; Leviton, Alison J; Thomsen, Dana A; Beckman, Ian; Anderson, Gail I; Burns, Brian M; Rutley, David L; Xian, Cory J; Hiendleder, Stefan

2014-11-01

82

Effect of maternal use of labetalol on the cerebral autoregulation in premature infants.  

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Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are normally treated to avoid maternal complications. In this study we aimed to investigate if there was an effect of maternal HDP treatment on the cerebral autoregulation of the neonates by analysing measurements of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and rScO2 by means of correlation, coherence, and transfer function analysis. We found that these infants presented higher values of transfer function gain, which indicates impaired cerebral autoregulation, with a decreasing trend towards normality. We hypothesised that this trend was due to a vasodilation effect of the maternal use of labetalol due to accumulation, which disappeared by the third day after birth. Therefore, we investigated the values of pulse pressure in order to find evidence for a vasodilatory effect. We found that lower values of pulse pressure were present in these infants when compared with a control population, which, together with increased transfer function gain values, suggests an effect of the drug on the cerebral autoregulation. PMID:23852483

Caicedo, Alexander; Thewissen, Liesbeth; Naulaers, Gunnar; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank; Van Huffel, Sabine

2013-01-01

83

Investigation of maternal genotype effects in autism by genome-wide association.  

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Like most psychiatric disorders, autism spectrum disorders have both a genetic and an environmental component. While previous studies have clearly demonstrated the contribution of in utero (prenatal) environment on autism risk, most of them focused on transient environmental factors. Based on a recent sibling study, we hypothesized that environmental factors could also come from the maternal genome, which would result in persistent effects across siblings. In this study, the possibility of maternal genotype effects was examined by looking for common variants (single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs) in the maternal genome associated with increased risk of autism in children. A case/control genome-wide association study was performed using mothers of probands as cases, and either fathers of probands or normal females as controls. Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and Illumina Genotype Control Database were used as our discovery cohort (n = 1616). The same analysis was then replicated on Simon Simplex Collection and Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment datasets (n = 2732). We did not identify any SNP that reached genome-wide significance (P < 10(-8) ), and thus a common variant of large effect is unlikely. However, there was evidence for the possibility of a large number of alleles of effective size marginally below our power to detect. PMID:24574247

Yuan, Han; Dougherty, Joseph D

2014-04-01

84

The effects of maternal irradiation during adulthood on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice  

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The long-term genetic effects of maternal irradiation remain poorly understood. To establish the effects of radiation exposure on mutation induction in the germline of directly exposed females and the possibility of transgenerational effects in their non-exposed offspring, adult female BALB/c and CBA/Ca mice were given 1 Gy of acute X-rays and mated with control males. The frequency of mutation at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci in the germline of directly exposed females did not differ from that of controls. Using a single-molecule PCR approach, ESTR mutation frequency was also established for both germline and somatic tissues in the first-generation offspring of irradiated parents. While the frequency of ESTR mutation in the offspring of irradiated males was significantly elevated, maternal irradiation did not affect stability in their F{sub 1} offspring. Considering these data and the results of our previous study, we propose that, in sharp contrast to paternal exposure to ionising radiation, the transgenerational effects of maternal high-dose acute irradiation are likely to be negligible.

Abouzeid Ali, Hamdy E. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Radiobiological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Barber, Ruth C. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2012-04-01

85

GENES AS INSTRUMENTS FOR STUDYING RISK BEHAVIOR EFFECTS: AN APPLICATION TO MATERNAL SMOKING AND OROFACIAL CLEFTS  

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This study uses instrumental variable (IV) models with genetic instruments to assess the effects of maternal smoking on the child’s risk of orofacial clefts (OFC), a common birth defect. The study uses genotypic variants in neurotransmitter and detoxification genes relateded to smoking as instruments for cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. Conditional maximum likelihood and two-stage IV probit models are used to estimate the IV model. The data are from a population-level sample o...

Wehby, George; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Moreno, Lina; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T.

2011-01-01

86

Female sticklebacks transfer information via eggs: effects of maternal experience with predators on offspring  

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There is growing evidence that maternal experience influences offspring via non-genetic mechanisms. When female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to the threat of predation, they produced larger eggs with higher cortisol content, which consumed more oxygen shortly after fertilization compared with a control group. As juveniles, the offspring of predator-exposed mothers exhibited tighter shoaling behaviour, an antipredator defence. We did not detect an effect of m...

Giesing, Eric R.; Suski, Cory D.; Warner, Richard E.; Bell, Alison M.

2011-01-01

87

Nutrition During Pregnancy and the Effect of Carbohydrates on the Offspring's Metabolic Profile: In Search of the "Perfect Maternal Diet"  

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Fetal growth and development is primarily dependent upon the nutritional, hormonal and metabolic environment provided by the mother. A wartime famine study in Holland first showed that a low food intake reduces the glucose offered to the fetus and thus produces smaller size infants at birth. Maternal glucose regulation is however affected by numerous factors including physiological changes of pregnancy (e.g. insulin resistance [IR]), pathological conditions (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus) and maternal nutrition. Maternal glucose is substantially influenced by the type of carbohydrates in the diet through its direct effect on glycemia. The rate at which each carbohydrate raises blood glucose levels after ingestion, can be measured via the dietary glycemic index (GI). Carbohydrate type and the GI of the diet enhance or inhibit abnormal hyperglycemia during pregnancy caused by either pathological conditions or the inability of the mother to cope with the physiological IR of pregnancy. In turn, maternal gestational hyperglycemia may be involved in the pathogenesis of IR, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, the Metabolic Syndrome and subsequent cardiovascular diseases in adult offspring. A low GI maternal diet has been associated with measurable benefits to the offspring. These include a positive effect on altering maternal blood glucose production, insulinemia and reduced adiposity as well as fetal and placental insulin and glucose regulation, fetal growth, birth weight and offspring adiposity. We review the possible links between dietary carbohydrate in health during pregnancy and the effect of maternal carbohydrate ingestion on programming the offspring’s metabolic profile. PMID:21673843

Tzanetakou, Irene P; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Perrea, Despina N

2011-01-01

88

The genetics of maternal care: direct and indirect genetic effects on phenotype in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus.  

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While theoretical models of the evolution of parental care are based on the assumption of underlying genetic variance, surprisingly few quantitative genetic studies of this life-history trait exist. Estimation of the degree of genetic variance in parental care is important because it can be a significant source of maternal effects, which, if genetically based, represent indirect genetic effects. A major prediction of indirect genetic effect theory is that traits without heritable variation can evolve because of the heritable environmental variation that indirect genetic effects provide. In the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus, females provide care to offspring by provisioning a brood mass. The size of the brood mass has pronounced effects on offspring phenotype. Using a half-sib breeding design we show that the weight of the brood mass females produce exhibits significant levels of additive genetic variance due to sires. However, variance caused by dams is considerably larger, demonstrating that maternal effects are also important. Body size exhibited low additive genetic variance. However, body size exerts a strong maternal influence on the weight of brood masses produced, accounting for 22% of the nongenetic variance in offspring body size. Maternal body size also influenced the number of offspring produced but there was no genetic variance for this trait. Offspring body size and brood mass weight exhibited positive genetic and phenotypic correlations. We conclude that both indirect genetic effects, via maternal care, and nongenetic maternal effects, via female size, play important roles in the evolution of phenotype in this species. PMID:11983863

Hunt, John; Simmons, Leigh W

2002-05-14

89

The Effect of Maternal Stress Activation on the Offspring during Lactation in Light of Vasopressin  

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Although it is obvious that preconceptional effects as well as stressors during pregnancy profoundly influence the progeny, the lactation period seems to be at least as important. Here we summarize how maternal stressors during the lactation period affect the offspring. As vasopressin is one of the crucial components both for stress adaptation and social behavior, special emphasis was given to this neuropeptide. We can conclude that stressing the mother does not have the same acute effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (as the main target of stress adaptation) of the pups as stressing the pups, but later endocrine and behavioral consequences can be similar. Vasopressin plays a role in acute and later consequences of perinatal stressor applied either to the mother or to the offspring, thereby contributing to transmitting the mothers' stress to the progeny. This mother-infant interaction does not necessarily mean a direct transmission of molecules, but rather is the result of programming the brain development through changes in maternal behavior. Thus, there is a time lag between maternal stress and stress-related changes in the offspring. The interactions are bidirectional as not only stress in the dam but also stress in the progeny has an effect on nursing. PMID:24550698

2014-01-01

90

Effect of maternal education on the rate of childhood handicap.  

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Female education plays a major role in child health. The results of this study suggest investment in female education, which would have substantial positive effects in reducing incidence of childhood handicap in Jeddah.

S. Shawky

2001-01-01

91

Placental serotonin: implications for the developmental effects of SSRIs and maternal depression  

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Full Text Available In addition to its role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders, increasing evidence points to serotonin (5-HT as a crucial molecule for the modulation of neurodevelopmental processes. Recent evidence indicates that the placenta is involved in the synthesis of 5-HT from maternally derived tryptophan (TRP. This gives rise to the possibility that genetic and environmental perturbations directly affecting placental TRP metabolism may lead to abnormal brain circuit wiring in the developing embryo, and therefore contribute to the developmental origin of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we discuss how perturbations of the placental TRP metabolic pathway may lead to abnormal brain development and function throughout life. Of particular interest is prenatal exposure to maternal depression and antidepressants, both known to alter fetal development. We review existing evidence on how antidepressants can alter placental physiology in its key function of maintaining fetal homeostasis and have long-term effects on fetal forebrain development.

JuanCVelasquez

2013-04-01

92

Birthdate, mass and survival in mountain goat kids: effects of maternal characteristics and forage quality.  

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In temperate environments, early-born ungulates may enjoy a longer growth period before winter, and so attain a higher body mass and an increased probability of survival compared to late-born ones. We assessed the effects of maternal characteristics, forage quality and population density on kid birthdate, mass and survival in a population of marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Alberta. The duration and timing of the birth season were similar in all years. Births were highly synchronised: 80% of kids were born within 2 weeks of the first birth. Maternal age, maternal social rank and density did not affect kid birthdate or mass. Previous breeding experience was not related to kid birthdate, but kids born to pluriparous mothers were heavier during summer than kids born to primiparous mothers. Male and female kids had similar mass and accumulated mass linearly during summer. Early-born kids were heavier than late-born kids. Faecal crude protein (FCP) in late spring and maternal mass were positively related to kid mass. Survival to weaning appeared higher for males (90%) than for females (78%), but survival to 1 year was 65% for both sexes. FCP in late spring, density, birthdate and mass did not affect kid survival to weaning in either sex. Survival to 1 year increased with FCP in late spring for females, but not for males. Survival to 1 year was independent of birthdate for both sexes, but heavy females survived better than light ones. Multiple logistic regression revealed a positive effect of mass on survival to 1 year when the sexes were pooled. Our results suggest that mountain goats are constrained to give birth in a short birth season synchronised with forage productivity. PMID:24577654

Côté, S D; Festa-Bianchet, M

2001-04-01

93

Impact of maternal effects on ranking of animal models for genetic parameter estimation for birth weight in male Afrikaner cattle in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available Variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, permanent environmental maternal effects, the covariance between additive direct and maternal effects were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting four animal models from 1359 pedigree male birth weight records of Afrikaner cattle of Zimbabwe. All investigated models included a random direct genetic effect, but different combinations of random maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects as well as direct-maternal genetic covariance. The direct heritability (h2a ranged from 0.40 to 0.43 when the maternal genetic effects were included in the model, whereas h2a was highest 0.45 when maternal effects were excluded. The maternal heritability (h2m was 0.00 when only maternal genetic effects were included in the model and were 0.09 and 0.09 when the permanent environmental effect of the dam was added. The permanent environmental effect of the dam was negligible. A weak negative covariances between direct and maternal genetic effects (?2am was observed in model which had all the random effects fitted and proved to the appropriate among the four models using the log likelihood ration test.

N. Assan

2012-07-01

94

The effect of home care services on maternal health after cesarean delivery in Turkey  

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Full Text Available Background: Cesarean delivery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed today in Turkey. Maternal death after cesarean delivery is rare. However, more maternal problems arise after cesarean delivery compared to vaginal delivery. Therefore, it is very important for the nurses to make home visits to the women who can not properly benefit health services due to early postpartum discharge. The present research was conducted in order to determine the effect on maternal health of home care services given to the women who were discharged from hospital 96 hours after cesarean delivery. Methods: This randomized control study consisted of 140 women (intervention group=70, control group=70 who resided in Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Three home visits were made on the 2nd, 15th and 42nd postpartum days after discharge of the women in the intervention group. Care and training was given to the women during these visits. There was no intervention for women in the control group. Results: A statistically significant difference was found in favor of the intervention group in terms of health problems during the 6-week postpartum period. Conclusions: The research indicated that nurses’ planned home visits to women discharged early from hospital following birth by cesarean delivery affected mother’s health positively. 

Nuriye Büyükkayac? Duman

2012-07-01

95

Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, pre- and post-term delivery, induction of labor, macrosomia, increased rate of caesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal Body Mass Index (BMI on pregnancy outcomes. Methods 1000 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. In order to explore the relationship between maternal first trimester Body Mass Index and pregnancy outcomes, participants were categorized into five groups based on their first trimester Body Mass Index. The data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square tests in SPSS 18. Differences were considered significant if p Results Women with an above-normal Body Mass Index had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia, induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor, and macrosomia than women with a normal Body Mass Index (controls. There was no significant difference in the incidence of post-term delivery between the control group and other groups. Conclusion Increased BMI increases the incidence of induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor and macrosomia. The BMI of women in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.

Yazdani Shahla

2012-01-01

96

Antipsychotic drugs in pregnancy: a review of their maternal and fetal effects.  

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Understanding the risks of antipsychotic medication use in pregnancy is becoming an important clinical concern given the evidence of their increasing rate of prescription in the general population for a range of disorders. Despite antipsychotics being amongst the earliest of psychotropic medications to be introduced, the evidence for their effects secondary to pregnancy exposure is extremely limited. While this review does not identify clear evidence for a risk of malformation, there is evidence for risks associated with pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Studies identified found risks that included prematurity, low and high birth weight, and gestational diabetes. There have also been studies that suggest neonatal withdrawal and abnormal muscles movements. The longer term neurodevelopmental outcomes for children exposed in utero remain unclear with only four studies identified: two of first generation antipsychotics and two of second generation antipsychotics. When considering the risk of these medications in pregnancy, the risk of untreated maternal illness (particularly schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) on both maternal and child outcomes is relevant. Future research needs to focus on prospective, longitudinal studies with adequate measures of key confounding variables including maternal mental illness, other exposures (such as smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use) and adequate length of follow up where accurate child developmental measures are obtained. PMID:25083265

Galbally, Megan; Snellen, Martien; Power, Josephine

2014-04-01

97

Effect of iron supplementation on zinc and magnesium concentrations in maternal milk and plasma  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Iron in the diet can influence the absorption of certain elements including zinc (Znand magnesium (Mg. In this study the effect of iron supplementation on zinc and magnesiumconcentrations in maternal milk and plasma at puerperal period were evaluated.Materials and Methods: Ninety nine non anemic mothers with single pregnancy and normaldelivery were randomly enrolled in two groups (iron and placebo group; blood samples werecollected at the time of delivery and also 140 mid 40 days after delivery. Milk samples were collectedtwice; at two weeks (transient milk and 40 days after the delivery (mature milk. They weresupplemented orally with either 150mg ferrous sulfate or placebo from the time of delivery for 40days. Zinc and magnesium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry.Results: The maternal dietary intake for zinc and magnesium were similar between two groups.Mean iron indexes (ferritin, serum iron and TIBC were not significantly different between two groupsat the time of delivery. No significant differences in Zn and mg levels were detected in maternal milkbetween two groups but in plasma although there was no significant difference in plasma magnesiumconcentrations; The zinc concentrations was significantly (p<0.001 decreased in the group receivingiron supplementation (0.076±0.047mg/dL compared with the group receiving placebo (0.163±0.137until 40 days after delivery.Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that iron supplementation does not affect the contents ofthese elements in maternal milk but despite the possible improvement in body iron status, it candecrease the plasma zinc concentrations, so the zinc supplementation may be needed with iron.

Parvin Ehsani

2009-08-01

98

Effects of Maternal Nicotine Exposure on Expression of Laminin Alpha 5 in Lung Tissue of Newborn  

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Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been clearly demonstrated to be associated with increased health problems in infants and children. Nicotine is the chemical substance with high level of toxicity. It crosses through the placenta and accumulates in the developing organs of fetus. Previous investigation indicated that maternal nicotine exposures induce decreased fibronectin expression in lung parenchyma. In this study, the effect of maternal nicotine exposure on laminin expression of the newborn mice lungs has been evaluated. Female pregnant Balb/C mice were divided randomly in to four groups as fallow: Experimental group1 (Exp D1; was received 3 mg kg-1 nicotine intra peritoneal injection (IP from gestational day 7 (GD7 to the last day of pregnancy, Experimental group 2 (Exp D14; was received 3 mg kg-1 nicotine from GD7 to postnatal day 14, Groups 3 and 4; as sham control groups (Sha-Con were received the same volume (3 mg kg-1 of normal saline parallel to experimental groups. At the end of exposure times, all of newborns were anesthetized; their lungs were removed and prepared for immunohistochemical method and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The finding indicated that laminin alpha 5 (Lama5 mRNA expressions in the lung of newborn in the nicotine treated Exp D1 decreased by 0.63 fold but increased in Exp D14 by 1.57 fold comparing to Sh-Con groups. Lama5 immunoreactivity was not similar in different parts of the lungs including alveoli and bronchiole, having a significant increase in the experimental groups in contrast to the Sh-Con groups. However, increase in immunoreactivity observed more in Exp D14. Immunoreactivity intensity in small vessels of all experimental groups was not significantly different. These data also indicate that maternal nicotine exposure may induce abnormal laminin expression which may cause defects in lung function during life time.

Mojtaba Sankian

2012-01-01

99

The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study  

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Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD) appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS) in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian popula...

Abdulahi Abdulreshid; Aray Mesfin; Worku Bogale; Lakew Zufan; Tesfaye Fikru; Alem Atalay; Dewey Michael; Hanlon Charlotte; Medhin Girmay; Tomlinson Mark; Hughes Marcus; Patel Vikram; Prince Martin

2010-01-01

100

Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol.  

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Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid-base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid-base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy. PMID:24810329

Sawant, Onkar B; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of cocaine on periadolescent rats with or without early maternal separation  

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Full Text Available Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and weight loss were investigated in periadolescent Wistar rats kept with their mothers or subjected to repeated maternal separation. Litters allocated to the separation procedure were placed in a temperature-controlled (33ºC chamber for 3 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6 to P20. Non-handled rats were left undisturbed until weaning. Treatments were started on P30-31 and the test was performed on P36-37. Animals received injections of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, sc twice daily for 5 days. On day 6 all animals received saline. On day 7 animals were challenged with 10 mg/kg cocaine and their locomotion was evaluated in activity cages. A third group received saline throughout the 7-day period. Body weights were recorded on P30-31 and P36-37. Two-way ANOVA on body weights showed a main effect of treatment group (F(1,35 = 10.446, P = 0.003; N = 10-12. Non-handled rats treated with cocaine for 5 days gained significantly less weight, while no significant effect was observed in maternally separated rats. Two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of drug treatment on locomotor activity (F(2,32 = 15.209, P<0.001; N = 6-8, but not on rearing condition (F(1,32<0.001, P = 0.998. Animals pretreated with cocaine showed a clear behavioral sensitization relative to the saline group. No difference in the magnitude of sensitization was found between separated and non-handled animals. Only the effect of cocaine on weight gain was significantly affected by repeated episodes of early maternal separation during the pre-weaning period.

C.S. Planeta

2002-11-01

102

Effects of maternal stress on egg characteristics in a cooperatively breeding fish.  

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Elevated stress experienced by a mother can compromise both her own reproductive success and that of her offspring. In this study, we investigated whether chronically stressed mothers experienced such effects in cooperatively breeding species, in which helpers at the nest potentially compound the negative effects of maternal stress. Using Neolamprologus pulcher, a group-living cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, we observed the effects of experimentally increased stress on female reproductive success (measured as inter-spawn interval, and number of eggs) as well as egg characteristics including egg size and cortisol concentrations. Stress levels were manipulated by repeated exposure to the acute stresses of chasing and netting. Stressed females had longer inter-spawn intervals and laid fewer, smaller eggs. Although no significant differences in egg cortisol concentrations were detected between control and stressed females, egg cortisol concentration fell between spawns in control but not in stressed fish. No effect of helper number was detected for any parameter examined, except there appeared to be less change in egg cortisol content in groups with helpers present. Our results suggest that stress imposes fitness costs on breeding females, and social regulation of a dominance hierarchy does not appear to exacerbate or alleviate the negative effects of maternal stress. PMID:20728559

Mileva, Viktoria R; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Balshine, Sigal

2011-01-01

103

Reexamining the effects of gestational age, fetal growth, and maternal smoking on neonatal mortality  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight ( Methods We derived data on over 10 million singleton live births delivered at ? 24 weeks from the 1998–2000 U.S. natality data files. Nonparametric multivariable logistic regression based on generalized additive models was used to examine neonatal mortality (deaths within the first 28 days in relation to fetal growth (gestational age-specific standardized birth weight, gestational age, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. All analyses were further adjusted for the confounding effects due to maternal age and gravidity. Results The relationship between standardized birth weight and neonatal mortality is nonlinear; mortality is high at low z-score birth weights, drops precipitously with increasing z-score birth weight, and begins to flatten for heavier infants. Gestational age is also strongly associated with mortality, with patterns similar to those of z-score birth weight. Although the direct effect of smoking on neonatal mortality is weak, its effects (on mortality appear to be largely mediated through reduced fetal growth and, to a lesser extent, through shortened gestation. In fact, the association between smoking and reduced fetal growth gets stronger as pregnancies approach term. Conclusions Our study provides important insights regarding the combined effects of fetal growth, gestational age, and smoking on neonatal mortality. The findings suggest that the effect of maternal smoking on neonatal mortality is largely mediated through reduced fetal growth.

Platt Robert W

2004-12-01

104

Effects of Maternal Visitation to Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.  

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Investigated whether directing mothers to make weekly appointments to visit the neonatal intensive care unit would generalize to increase the frequency of independent maternal visiation and affect maternal perceptions of the infant and infants' length of hospitalization. (Author/RH)

Zeskind, Philip Sanford; Iacino, Richard

1984-01-01

105

A life-history evaluation of the impact of maternal effects on recruitment and fisheries reference points  

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Fishing causes dramatic changes in the age and size structure of fish stocks. In particular, the targeting of the largest and oldest individuals in a stock changes the age and size distribution of that stock. A large female produces a higher quantity of eggs than a young female because of its larger size, but recent laboratory evidence further indicates that large females also produce eggs of higher quality, a phenomenon known as maternal effects. However, most traditional management models assume that all female fish contribute equally per unit biomass to future recruitment. Here we investigate whether this assumption is valid by calculating the impact of maternal effects both before and after accounting for density-dependent effects. We find that the contribution of large individuals to reproduction is much more pronounced for unfished than for fished stocks. Fisheries reference points are largely unaffected by maternal effects. Our results indicate that the incorporation of maternal effects into impact assessments of fisheries is not expected to change advice substantially. Important exceptions are stocks whose demography is very vulnerable to fishing (and which therefore have low fishing reference points) for which maternal effects are relevant and necessary to consider.

Calduch-Verdiell, Núria; MacKenzie, Brian R.

2014-01-01

106

A Maternal-Effect Sex-Transformation Mutant of the Housefly, MUSCA DOMESTICA L  

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A maternal-effect sex-transformation mutant, transformer (tra), of the housefly is described. It is located on autosome 4 in close linkage with the Ba locus. Normally, the sex of Musca domestica is determined by the presence or absence of an epistatic factor, M. When produced by tra/tra mothers, a large fraction of the tra/tra genotypic female progeny carrying no M factors are transformed to develop into intersexes or fertile phenotypic males. The tra/+ progeny are also transformed, but le...

Inoue, Hiroaki; Hiroyoshi, Toshiki

1986-01-01

107

Effects of maternal ethanol ingestion on uptake of glucose alanine analogs in fetal rats  

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The distribution of maternally-derived glucose and alanine has been studied in selected tissues of fetuses from ethanol-fed (EF) rats (30% of caloric intake throughout gestation). Controls received diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation, 2 ?Ci 3H 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and 1 ?Ci 14C ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were administered i.v. to each rat. One hour later, maternal blood, placenta, and fetal blood, liver, lung and brain were sampled for 3H and 14C activities. When compared to either control group, the mean 14C AIB activities of tissues from EF animals were reduced from 19 to 46%, with the greatest effect seen in the brain (3.7 +/- 0.1, 7.2 +/- 0.3 and 6.9 +/- 1.3 dpm/mg in EF, PF and AF fetuses respectively). In addition, the ratios of tissue:plasma 14C were reduced (p 3H 2-DG content of placenta (p < 0.05) and of brain (38.6 + 1.2, 48.1 +/- 1.2 and 47.2 +/- 1.2 in EF, PF and AF, p < 0.001). Brain weight showed significant positive correlations with AIB content (r = 0.466, p < 0.001) and with 2-DG content (r = 0.267, p < 0.01). Impaired uptake of maternally-derived nutrients may play a significant role in the effects of ethanol in utero

108

Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum  

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat. The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys. For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease in serum BDNF induced by MeHg exposure. Cord blood BDNF has been reported to increase in association with perinatal brain injuries and has been proposed as a possible predictive marker of neurodevelopmental outcomes. The negative effect that MeHg seems to exert on cord blood BDNF concentration could endanger compensatory responses to an adverse impact and therefore deserves attention.

Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi

2010-01-01

109

Non-Random Mating, Parent-of-Origin, and Maternal-Fetal Incompatibility Effects in Schizophrenia  

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Although the association of common genetic variation in the extended MHC region with schizophrenia is the most significant yet discovered, the MHC region is one of the more complex regions of the human genome, with unusually high gene density and long-range linkage disequilibrium. The statistical test on which the MHC association is based is a relatively simple, additive model which uses logistic regression of SNP genotypes to predict case-control status. However, it is plausible that more complex models underlie this association. Using a well-characterized sample of trios, we evaluated more complex models by looking for evidence for: (a) non-random mating for HLA alleles, schizophrenia risk profiles, and ancestry; (b) parent-of-origin effects for HLA alleles; and (c) maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility in the HLA. We found no evidence for non-random mating in the parents of individuals with schizophrenia in terms of MHC genotypes or schizophrenia risk profile scores. However, there was evidence of non-random mating that appeared mostly to be driven by ancestry. We did not detect over-transmission of HLA alleles to affected offspring via the general TDT test (without regard to parent of origin) or preferential transmission via paternal or maternal inheritance. We evaluated the hypothesis that maternal-fetal HLA incompatibility may increase risk for schizophrenia using eight classical HLA loci. The most significant alleles were in HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 but none was significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. We did not find evidence to support more complex models of gene action, but statistical power may have been limiting. PMID:23177929

Kim, Yunjung; Ripke, Stephan; Kirov, George; Sklar, Pamela; Purcell, Shaun; Owen, Michael; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Sullivan, Patrick F.

2014-01-01

110

Effects of Prenatal Social Stress and Maternal Dietary Fatty Acid Ratio on Infant Temperament: Does Race Matter?  

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Background Infant temperament predicts a range of developmental and behavioral outcomes throughout childhood. Both maternal fatty acid intake and psychosocial stress exposures during pregnancy may influence infant temperament. Furthermore, maternal race may modify prenatal diet and stress effects. The goals of this study are to examine the joint effects of prenatal diet and stress and the modifying effects of race on infant behavior. Methods Analyses included N=255 mother-infant dyads, primarily minorities (21% Blacks; 42% Hispanics), enrolled in an urban pregnancy cohort. Maternal prenatal stress was indexed by a negative life events (NLEs) score on the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey. Prenatal total daily intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (n3, n6) were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire; n3:n6 ratios were calculated. Mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), a measure of infant temperament, when the children were 6 months old. Three commonly used dimensions were derived: Orienting & Regulation, Extraversion, and Negative Affectivity. Associations among prenatal stress, maternal n3:n6 ratio, and race/ethnicity on infant temperament, controlling for maternal education and age and child sex, were examined. Results Among Blacks, prenatal stress effects on infant Orienting & Regulation scores were modified by maternal n3:n6 ratios (p=0.03): As NLEs increased, lower n3:n6 ratios predicted lower infant Orienting & Regulation scores, whereas higher n3:n6 ratios attenuated the effect of prenatal stress. There were no main or interaction effects predicting Extraversion or Negative Affectivity. Conclusions An optimal PUFA ratio may protect the fetus from stress effects on infant behavior, particularly among Blacks. These findings may have implications for later neurodevelopment and social functioning predicted by early temperamental characteristics.

Brunst, Kelly J.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kannan, Srimathi; Carroll, Kecia N.; Coull, Brent A.; Wright, Rosalind J.

2014-01-01

111

Gestational Diabetes Independently Increases Birth Length and Augments the Effects of Maternal BMI on Birth Weight: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

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Objective: To investigate the effect of the interaction between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal body mass index (BMI) on the individual neonatal growth parameters. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: A tertiary maternity service in Sydney, Australia, between 2005 and 2009. Population: A cohort of 8859 women. Methods: Generalized linear models. Main outcome measures: Neonatal growth parameters, represented by z-scores for infant birth weight (BW), birth length (BL), and head circumference (HC) in GDM and non-GDM groups. Results: Only GDM alone had an independent and positive effect on BL (p?=?0.02) but not on BW or HC. In addition, in pregnancies complicated with GDM, the association between maternal weight and BW was significantly stronger (p?maternal BMI significantly affected z-score differences between BW and BL (p?maternal BMI and BW. In accordance with the hypothesis of the fetal origins of health and disease, the pronounced effects of GDM on fetal growth patterns demonstrated in this study are likely to influence long-term health outcomes in children. PMID:25368857

Bystrom, Magdalena; Liu, Anthony; Quinton, Ann Elizabeth; Champion, Bernard Linton; Mann, Kristy; Peek, Michael; Nanan, Ralph Kay Heinrich

2014-01-01

112

Maternal mood and neuroendocrine programming: effects of time of exposure and sex.  

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Adverse exposures that influence growth in prenatal and early postnatal periods are considered to influence vulnerability to chronic diseases via their effects on the neuroendocrine system. In humans, the assessment of the underlying mechanisms has been restricted. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adverse early-life exposures, specifically maternal mood, on hypothlamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) responses to an acute physiological stressor. In addition, we conducted a preliminary examination into whether these effects varied by time of exposure and sex. One hundred and thity-nine individuals (mean age 15.12 years) were recruited from the ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) birth cohort. Participants underwent the CO(2) stress test and indices of the PNS, SNS and HPA axis were measured. Pre-existing data on demographic and psychosocial factors of the mothers during pregnancy (18 and 32 weeks) and postnatally (8 weeks and 8 months) were extracted, as were participants' clinical and demographic data at birth. Increases in both pre- and postnatal anxiety and depression were associated with greater SNS reactivity to the stressor and slower recovery, as well as blunted HPA axis responses. Programming effects on the SNS appeared to be restricted to male offspring only. No consistent relationships were evident for any of the measures of pre-stress function. We have found preliminary evidence that both pre- and postnatal maternal anxiety and depression have sustained programming effects on the SNS and HPA axis. Effects on the SNS were restricted to male offspring. PMID:22385021

Vedhara, K; Metcalfe, C; Brant, H; Crown, A; Northstone, K; Dawe, K; Lightman, S; Smith, G D

2012-07-01

113

Maternal immunocompetence  

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The studies of distribution patterns of 51Cr-labelled lymphocytes in pregnant mice were designed to explore the effect of pregnancy on the immunologic behaviour of the intact pregnant animal rather than on the isolated maternal lymphocyte. The distribution pattern of 51Cr-labelled syngenic and semiallogenic lymphocytes was studied in intact primigravida mice, and there was no difference between interstrain and intrastrain pregnant mice, and there was no evidence of immunologically specific 'trapping' in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the interstrain pregnant uterus. There is little evidence that the primigravida animal is even immunologically aware of the 'foreignness'of a semiallogenic fetus. (JIW)

114

Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts  

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We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects on risk of orofacial clefting (OC) using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a P-value

Shi, Min; Murray, Jeff

2012-01-01

115

Effects of Child Psychopathology on Maternal Depression: The Mediating Role of Child-Related Acute and Chronic Stressors  

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In light of recent research highlighting the potential effects of children's behavior on mothers' mental health, the current study examined 679 mothers and their adolescent children from a community-based sample to determine the effects of youth psychopathology on maternal depression and levels of child-related stress in mothers' lives. It was…

Raposa, Elizabeth B.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

2011-01-01

116

Long-term effects of maternal deprivation on cholinergic system in rat brain.  

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Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated an association between early stressful life events and adult life psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In rodents, early life exposure to stressors such as maternal deprivation (MD) produces numerous hormonal, neurochemical, and behavioral changes and is accepted as one of the animal models of schizophrenia. The stress induces acetylcholine (Ach) release in the forebrain and the alterations in cholinergic neurotransmitter system are reported in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine long-term effects of maternal separation on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in different brain structures and the density of cholinergic fibers in hippocampus and retrosplenial (RS) cortex. Wistar rats were separated from their mothers on the postnatal day (P) 9 for 24 h and sacrificed on P60. Control group of rats was bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Brain regions were collected for AChE activity measurements and morphometric analysis. Obtained results showed significant decrease of the AChE activity in cortex and increase in the hippocampus of MD rats. Density of cholinergic fibers was significantly increased in CA1 region of hippocampus and decreased in RS cortex. Our results indicate that MD causes long-term structure specific changes in the cholinergic system. PMID:24711997

Markovi?, Branka; Radonji?, Nevena V; Aksi?, Milan; Filipovi?, Branislav; Petronijevi?, Nataša

2014-01-01

117

Effects of maternal immune activation on gene expression patterns in the fetal brain.  

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We are exploring the mechanisms underlying how maternal infection increases the risk for schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Several mouse models of maternal immune activation (MIA) were used to examine the immediate effects of MIA induced by influenza virus, poly(I:C) and interleukin IL-6 on the fetal brain transcriptome. Our results indicate that all three MIA treatments lead to strong and common gene expression changes in the embryonic brain. Most notably, there is an acute and transient upregulation of the ?, ? and ? crystallin gene family. Furthermore, levels of crystallin gene expression are correlated with the severity of MIA as assessed by placental weight. The overall gene expression changes suggest that the response to MIA is a neuroprotective attempt by the developing brain to counteract environmental stress, but at a cost of disrupting typical neuronal differentiation and axonal growth. We propose that this cascade of events might parallel the mechanisms by which environmental insults contribute to the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. PMID:22832908

Garbett, K A; Hsiao, E Y; Kálmán, S; Patterson, P H; Mirnics, K

2012-01-01

118

Long-term effects of maternal immune activation on depression-like behavior in the mouse  

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Depression is a debilitating mental disease affecting a large population worldwide, the pathophysiological mechanisms of which remain incompletely understood. Prenatal infection and associated activation of the maternal immune system (MIA) are prominently related to an increased risk for the development of several psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism in the offsprings. However, the role of MIA in the etiology of depression and its neurobiological basis are insufficiently investigated. Here we induced MIA in mice by challenge with polyinosinic:polycytidylic phosphate salt—a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA, which enhances maternal levels of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6)—and demonstrate a depression-like behavioral phenotype in adult offsprings. Adult offsprings additionally show deficits in cognition and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) accompanied by disturbed proliferation of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus and compromised neuronal maturation and survival. The behavioral, neurogenic and functional deficiencies observed are associated with reduced hippocampal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A-VEGFR2. IL-6-STAT3-dependent aberrant VEGFA-VEGFR2 signaling is proposed as neurobiological mechanism mediating the effects of MIA on the developing fetal brain and ensuing consequences in adulthood. PMID:24548878

Khan, D; Fernando, P; Cicvaric, A; Berger, A; Pollak, A; Monje, F J; Pollak, D D

2014-01-01

119

Combined effects of caffeine and zinc in the maternal diet on fetal brains  

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The authors have reported that caffeine (C) intake during the lactational period by dams decreases the Zn content of the brain in their offspring. The objective of the present study is to determine how C plus Zn supplementation to the maternal diet during gestation affects the fetal brains. Timed-pregnant rats at day 3 of gestation were randomly divided into 4 groups (G). G1 was fed a 20% protein diet as a control, G2 was fed a diet supplemented with Zn, G3 was fed a diet with C and G4 was fed a diet with C and Zn. At day 22 of gestation, fetuses were taken out surgically. Fetal brains were removed. Their weights, DNA, Zn, protein, cholesterol, caffeine concentration, and alkaline phosphatase activity were determined. Body and brain weights and cholesterol contents in G4 were greater than in G1, whereas Zn concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity were less. Zn concentration and Zn/DNA in G2 were greater than in G1. Cholesterol content in G4 was higher than in G3. Although mean caffeine concentration in brain and plasma in G4 was greater than in G3, there was no statistical significance between the G due to the wide fluctuation among the pups. It is concluded that supplementation of C and Zn in the maternal diet during gestation could influence fetal brain composition differently than C supplementation alone. Supplementation of Zn alone showed minor effects.

Nakamoto, T.; Gottschalk, S.B.; Yazdani, M.; Joseph, F. Jr. (Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans (United States))

1991-03-15

120

Effect of Maternally Derived Antibody on Vaccination Against Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro with Live Vaccine in Broiler  

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Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important viral disease of poultry usually affects young chickens of 3-6 weeks. Hygienic management and proper vaccination are main way of control of this disease. But maternal antibody affects vaccination with live vaccine. To determine the effect of maternally derived antibody on live vaccine, the study was conducted. A total of 100 day old chicks (50 from vaccinated parent stock and 50 from non-vaccinated parent stock were used in this study. A preset vaccination schedule was followed for chicken and blood samples were collected to find out the actual effect. It is observed that day old chicks contain high level (6294.14±24.95 of maternally derived antibody which gradually decline below positive level within 15-20 days (390.45 ±19.42 and half-life is about 5 days. Vaccination of chicken with high level of maternally derived antibody interferes with the vaccine virus results no immune response but revaccination provokes immune response. Better immune response is found in chickens vaccinated at day 21 and boostered at day 28. But there may be chance of infection because maternal antibody declined below positive level within 15-20 days. Chickens from non-vaccinated parent stock shows good immune response from first time that is from primary vaccination at day 7 and boosting at day 14.

J. Alam

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Methyl Donor Supplementation Blocks the Adverse Effects of Maternal High Fat Diet on Offspring Physiology  

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Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation cou...

Carlin, Jesselea; George, Robert; Reyes, Teresa M.

2013-01-01

122

The influence of phenotypic and genetic effects on maternal provisioning and offspring weight gain in mice  

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Close interactions between mother and offspring are said to result in a coevolution of parental and offspring genotypes such that offspring are adapted in their solicitation behaviour to obtain maternal provisioning that maximizes their fitness. Few empirical studies have been conducted in this field and it remains unclear whether maternal provisioning and offspring weight gain are influenced by the same set of maternal and offspring phenotypic and genotypic factors. Using a cross-foster, spl...

Hager, Reinmar; Johnstone, Rufus A.

2006-01-01

123

Maternal smoking and birth defects: validity of birth certificate data for effect estimation.  

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OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the validity of birth certificate data for estimating the association between maternal smoking and birth defects. The US standard birth certificate includes check boxes for maternal smoking and for 21 congenital anomalies. The sensitivity and specificity of birth certificate data have been studied, but previous studies have not addressed the validity of these data for estimating the association between birth defects and maternal smoking or other risk f...

Honein, M. A.; Paulozzi, L. J.; Watkins, M. L.

2001-01-01

124

Strain-dependent effects of prenatal maternal immune activation on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in offspring.  

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There is converging evidence that prenatal maternal infection can increase the risk of occurrence of neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, autism, anxiety and depression in later life. Experimental studies have shown conflicting effects of prenatal maternal immune activation on anxiety-like behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development in offspring. We investigated the effects of maternal immune activation during pregnancy on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in pregnant mice and their offspring to determine whether these effects are dependent on strain. NMRI and C57BL/6 pregnant mice were treated with either saline or lipopolysaccharide on gestational day 17 and then interleukin (IL)-6 and corticosterone (COR) levels; anxiety or depression in the pregnant mice and their offspring were evaluated. The results indicate that maternal inflammation increased the levels of COR and anxiety-like behavior in NMRI pregnant mice, but not in C57BL/6 dams. Our data also demonstrate that maternal inflammation elevated the levels of anxiety-and depression-like behaviors in NMRI offspring on the elevated plus-maze, elevated zero-maze, tail suspension test and forced swimming test respectively, but not in the open field and light-dark box. In addition, we did not find any significant change in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of adult C57BL/6 offspring. Our findings suggest that prenatal maternal immune activation can alter the HPA axis activity, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in a strain- and task-dependent manner in offspring and further comprehensive studies are needed to prove the causal relationship between the findings found here and to validate their relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. PMID:24326014

Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

2014-03-01

125

Combined effect of maternal serotonin transporter genotype and prenatal stress in modulating offspring social interaction  

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Several studies suggest that prenatal stress is a possible risk factor in the development of autism spectrum disorders. However, many children exposed to stress prenatally are born healthy and develop typically, suggesting that other factors must contribute to autism. Genes that contribute to stress reactivity may, therefore, exacerbate prenatal stress-mediated behavioral changes in the adult offspring. One candidate gene linked to increased stress reactivity encodes the serotonin transporter. Specifically, an insertion/deletion (long/short allele) polymorphism upstream of the serotonin transporter gene correlates with differential expression and function of the serotonin transporter and a heightened response to stressors. Heterozygous serotonin transporter knockout mice show reductions in serotonin transporter expression similar to the human short polymorphism. In this study, the role of prenatal stress and maternal serotonin transporter genotype were assessed in mice to determine whether their combined effect produces reductions in social behavior in the adult offspring. Pregnant serotonin transporter heterozygous knockout and wild-type dams were placed in either a control condition or subjected to chronic variable stress. The adult offspring were subsequently assessed for social interaction and anxiety using a 3-chamber social approach task, ultrasonic vocalization detection, elevated-plus maze and an open field task. Results indicated that prenatal stress and reduced serotonin transporter expression of the dam may have the combined effect of producing changes in social interaction and social interest in the offspring consistent with those observed in autism spectrum disorder. This data indicates a possible combined effect of maternal serotonin transporter genotype and prenatal stress contributing to the production of autistic-like behaviors in offspring. PMID:20470877

Jones, Karen L.; Smith, Ryan M.; Edwards, Kristin S.; Givens, Bennet; Beversdorf, David Q.

2010-01-01

126

Investigating the Effect of Maternal Elective Position during Active Phase on the First Pregnancy Outcome  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Final hours of human pregnancy are diagnosed with floored uterine contractions that induce the dilatation of cervix and pushing of the fetus throughout the delivery passage. Mothers position during labor can influence uterine contractions as well as the mothers psychological status. This study aimed at investigating the effect of maternal elective position in labor stage on the pregnancy outcome. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial (quasi-experimental study a total of 100 people were randomly selected from the population of first pregnancy women referring to Ya Zahra Maternity Hospital and they were randomized into a 50- person usual care or control group and a 50-person elective position or case group. At admission (4- cm dilatation women in the control group remained confined to the labor bed and received the usual medical care. But women in elective position were allowed to choose their preferred position such as walking sitting standing knee-chest etc. The Data were collected through information forms scale clock Burford pain scale and observation record forms and they were analyzed by t-test and Chi-square statistical tests. Results: The results indicated that relative length of the active phase in the case and control groups was 142.2 and 212.4 minutes respectively which shows a significant reduction. The mean labor scores in the case and control groups were respectively reported as 6.9±1.1 and 8.1±1.2 which indicate a significant difference. The need for oxytocin augmentation reduced (8% vs 64% and mothers satisfaction of child birth experience significantly increased. The incidence of fetal heart rate abnormalities was significantly smaller in the case group. When asked whether they would choose elective position during future labors 76% of women in the case group answered positively. Conclusion: Maternal elective position during active phase not only has no abnormal effects on the pregnancy outcome but also it improves many of pregnancy outcomes and it can therefore be used as an appropriate and harmless method in normal deliveries.

Seyed- Mahmoud Latefi

2009-01-01

127

Effects of Maternal Negativity and of Early and Recent Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Children's False Belief Understanding  

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Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children's emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, 3 false belief tasks were administered to 5-year-old children whose mothers had either met…

Rohrer, Lisa M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.; Maughan, Angeline

2011-01-01

128

Effects of Maternal Stimulant Medication on Observed Parenting in Mother-Child Dyads with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

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This pilot study of 23 mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their offspring with ADHD examined the effects of maternal stimulant medication on observed interactions. Parent-child interactions were observed using a structured protocol before and after mothers underwent a 5-week, double-blind stimulant titration. Despite…

Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rooney, Mary; Seymour, Karen E.; Lavin, Heather Jones; Pian, Jessica; Robb, Adelaide; Efron, Lisa; Conlon, Charles; Stein, Mark A.

2010-01-01

129

Maternal Knowledge and Behaviors regarding Discipline: The Effectiveness of a Hands-On Education Program in Positive Guidance  

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This study examined which method is most effective in supporting parents to use positive guidance techniques, a lecture-based only parent training series or a lecture-based plus hands-on parent training series. Maternal characteristics of depression, stress level, and attitudes towards positive guidance were explored as possible moderators. In…

Saunders, Rachel; McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen-Swann, Nancy; Burton, Rosalinda

2013-01-01

130

Bringing it all together: effective maternal and child health practice as a means to improve public health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective maternal and child health (MCH) practice requires skillfully combining a number of theoretical models and frameworks to support systems addressing the health needs of women, children, and families. This paper describes three perspectives relevant to current MCH practice: the federal Maternal & Child Health Bureau's Pyramid of MCH Health Services [1], Frieden's Health Impact Pyramid [Frieden in Am J Public Health 100(4):590-595, (2010)], and life course theory [Halfon in Milbank Quart, 80:433-79, (2002); Kotelchuck in Matern Child Health J, 7:5-11, (2003); Pies (2009)], an emerging conceptual framework that addresses a number of pressing maternal and child health issues including health disparities and the social determinants of health. While developed independently, a synthesis of these three frameworks provides an important analytical perspective to assess the adequacy and comprehensiveness of current public health programs and systems supporting maternal and child health improvement. Synthesizing these frameworks from the specific vantage point of MCH practice provides public health practitioners with important and dynamic opportunities to promote improvements in health, especially for state and local governmental health agencies with the statutory authority and public accountability for improving the health of women, children, and families in their jurisdictions. A crucial finding of this synthesis is that significant improvements in MCH outcomes at the state and local levels are the result of collaborative, integrated, and synergistic implementation of many different interventions, programs and policies that are carried out by a number of stakeholders, and administered in many different settings. MCH programs have a long history of coordinating disparate sectors of the health care and public health enterprise to create systems of services that improve maternal and child health. Future improvements in MCH build on this legacy but will come from a "paradigm shift" in MCH practice that blends (1) evidence-based interventions and best practices that improve the health of individuals, communities, and populations, and crosscuts health service settings with (2) public policies that promote and improve maternal and child health needs at the local, state, and national levels, and (3) supports MCH leadership to implement such changes in MCH systems nationwide. As such, the challenge presented by this synthesis is not merely technical, i.e. having the scientific and organizational capacity to address identified MCH needs. Instead, a more pressing challenge is providing effective leadership in the coordination and integration of these frameworks and using them in practice to develop a vision that guides programs and policies to improve maternal and child health nationwide. PMID:22722915

Fraser, Michael R

2013-07-01

131

Partitioning genetic effects due to embryo, cytoplasm and maternal parent for oil content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.  

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Full Text Available Analysis of genetic main effects and genotype x environment (GE interaction effects on the oil content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was conducted by using a genetic model for the quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants. The experiments were carried out over two years with 8 parents and a diallel mating design, which produced F1 and F2 generations. We found that the oil content of rape was simultaneously controlled by embryo genetic effect, cytoplasmic effects and maternal genetic effect as well as GE interaction effects, with the cytoplasmic and maternal effects playing the main role. The results indicate that selection of maternal plants for high oil content would be more efficient than selection based on single seeds. Since the GE interaction effects accounted for 73.69% of the total genetic effects and were more important than the genetic main effects it seems that selection might be influenced by environmental conditions. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability for oil content was 73.52% with the interaction heritability being larger than the general heritability, indicating that the early generations can be used for selection for high oil content. The prediction of genetic effects suggested that the parent cultivars Youcai 601 and Gaoyou 605 were better than the other cultivars for increasing oil content during the breeding of B. napus. The implications for the quantitative trait loci mapping of seed traits interfered by these three genetic systems is also discussed.

Jian-Guo Wu

2006-01-01

132

Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular e perinatais (peso e prematuridade da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22 e não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19 de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e relativa. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx, volume sistólico (VS e débito cardíaco (DC. Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0% e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0% e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5 e DC de (13,5 para 15,1; no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos.PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity and perinatal (weight and prematurity effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random cohort study, with 41 low-risk pregnant women in their first pregnancy, practicing (study group, n=22 and not (control group, n=19 hydrotherapy. Anthropometric evaluation was used to assess lean mass, and absolute and relative body fat. Ergometric tests were used for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max, stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO. Perinatal results showed premature births and small for gestational age newborns. Initial and final indexes within and between groups were compared. Maternal variables were evaluated using the t test for dependent and independent values; the chi ² test was used to study proportions. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the groups for maternal variables at the start and end of hydrotherapy. Comparison within each group confirmed the beneficial effect of hydrotherapy. In the study group, relative fat index was maintained at 29.0%; the control group showed an increase from 28.8% to 30.7%; the study group maintained VO2max at 35%, and increased SV from 106.6 to 121.5 and CO from 13.5 to 15.1; the control group showed a drop in VO2max and no change in SV and CO. There was no relationship between hydrotherapy and perinatal results. CONCLUSIONS: hydrotherapy adequately assisted metabolic and cardiovascular maternal adaptation to pregnancy and did not cause prematurity or weight loss in newborns.

Tânia Terezinha Scudeller Prevedel

2003-02-01

133

Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez / Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular) e perinatais (peso e prematuridade) da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22) e [...] não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19) de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e relativa. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx), volume sistólico (VS) e débito cardíaco (DC). Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0%) e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0%) e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5) e DC de (13,5 para 15,1); no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity) and perinatal (weight and prematurity) effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random cohort study, with 41 low-risk pregnant women in their first pregnancy, practicing (study group, n=22) and not (co [...] ntrol group, n=19) hydrotherapy. Anthropometric evaluation was used to assess lean mass, and absolute and relative body fat. Ergometric tests were used for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). Perinatal results showed premature births and small for gestational age newborns. Initial and final indexes within and between groups were compared. Maternal variables were evaluated using the t test for dependent and independent values; the chi ² test was used to study proportions. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the groups for maternal variables at the start and end of hydrotherapy. Comparison within each group confirmed the beneficial effect of hydrotherapy. In the study group, relative fat index was maintained at 29.0%; the control group showed an increase from 28.8% to 30.7%; the study group maintained VO2max at 35%, and increased SV from 106.6 to 121.5 and CO from 13.5 to 15.1; the control group showed a drop in VO2max and no change in SV and CO. There was no relationship between hydrotherapy and perinatal results. CONCLUSIONS: hydrotherapy adequately assisted metabolic and cardiovascular maternal adaptation to pregnancy and did not cause prematurity or weight loss in newborns.

Tânia Terezinha Scudeller, Prevedel; Iracema de Mattos Paranhos, Calderon; Marta Helena, De Conti; Elenice Bertanha, Consonni; Marilza Vieira Cunha, Rudge.

134

Revisiting the Effect of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy on Offspring Birthweight: A Quasi-Experimental Sibling Analysis in Sweden  

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Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) seems associated with reduced birthweight in the offspring. This observation, however, is based on conventional epidemiological analyses, and it might be confounded by unobserved maternal characteristics related to both smoking habits and offspring birth weight. Therefore, we apply a quasi-experimental sibling analysis to revisit previous findings. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 677,922 singletons born between 2002 and 2010 from native Swedish mothers. From this population, we isolated 62,941 siblings from 28,768 mothers with discrepant habits of SDP. We applied conventional and mother-specific multilevel linear regression models to investigate the association between maternal SDP and offspring birthweight. Depending on the mother was light or heavy smoker and the timing of exposition during pregnancy (i.e., first or third trimester), the effect of smoking on birthweight reduction was between 6 and 78 g less marked in the sibling analysis than in the conventional analysis. Sibling analysis showed that continuous smoking reduces birthweight by 162 grams for mothers who were light smokers (1 to 9 cigarettes per day) and 226 g on average for those who were heavy smokers throughout the pregnancy in comparison to non-smoker mothers. Quitting smoking during pregnancy partly counteracted the smoking-related birthweight reduction by 1 to 29 g, and a subsequent smoking relapse during pregnancy reduced birthweight by 77 to 83 g. The sibling analysis provides strong evidence that maternal SDP reduces offspring birthweight, though this reduction was not as great as that observed in the conventional analysis. Our findings support public health interventions aimed to prevent SDP and to persuade those who already smoke to quit and not relapse throughout the pregnancy. Besides, further analyses are needed in order to explain the mechanisms through which smoking reduces birthweight and to identify other maternal characteristics that are common causes of both birthweight reduction and maternal smoking. PMID:23616908

Juarez, Sol Pia; Merlo, Juan

2013-01-01

135

Effect of salmon consumption during pregnancy on maternal and infant faecal microbiota, secretory IgA and calprotectin.  

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The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of the immune and gastrointestinal systems of infants. In the present study, we investigated whether increased salmon consumption during pregnancy, maternal weight gain during pregnancy or mode of infant feeding alter the markers of gut immune defence and inflammation. Women (n 123) who rarely ate oily fish were randomly assigned to continue consuming their habitual diet or to consume two 150 g portions of farmed salmon per week from 20 weeks of pregnancy to delivery. Faecal samples were collected from the mothers (n 75) at 38 weeks of gestation and from their infants (n 38) on days 7, 14, 28 and 84 post-partum. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to determine faecal microbiota composition and ELISA to measure faecal secretory IgA (sIgA) and calprotectin concentrations. There was no effect of salmon consumption on maternal faecal microbiota or on maternal or infant faecal sIgA and calprotectin concentrations. The degree of weight gain influenced maternal faecal microbiota, and the mode of infant feeding influenced infant faecal microbiota. Faecal samples collected from infants in the salmon group tended to have lower bacterial counts of the Atopobium cluster compared with those collected from infants in the control group (P=0·097). This difference was significant in the formula-fed infants (P< 0·05), but not in the exclusively breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the impact of oily fish consumption during pregnancy on maternal and infant gut microbiota composition is limited, but significant differences are associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy and mode of infant feeding. PMID:24128654

Urwin, Heidi J; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Vlachava, Maria; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Vulevic, Jelena; Yaqoob, Parveen

2014-03-14

136

Effects of user fee exemptions on the provision and use of maternal health services: a review of literature.  

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User fee removal has been put forward as an approach to increasing priority health service utilization, reducing impoverishment, and ultimately reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. However, user fees are a source of facility revenue in many low-income countries, often used for purchasing drugs and supplies and paying incentives to health workers. This paper reviews evidence on the effects of user fee exemptions on maternal health service utilization, service provision, and outcomes, including both supply-side and demand-side effects. We reviewed 19 peer-reviewed research articles addressing user fee exemptions and maternal health services or outcomes published since 1990. Studies were identified through a USAID-commissioned call for evidence, key word search, and screening process. Teams of reviewers assigned criteria-based quality scores to each paper and prepared structured narrative reviews. The grade of the evidence was found to be relatively weak, mainly from short-term, non-controlled studies. The introduction of user fee exemptions appears to have resulted in increased rates of facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections in some contexts. Impacts on maternal and neonatal mortality have not been conclusively demonstrated; exemptions for delivery care may contribute to modest reductions in institutional maternal mortality but the evidence is very weak. User fee exemptions were found to have negative, neutral, or inconclusive effects on availability of inputs, provider motivation, and quality of services. The extent to which user fee revenue lost by facilities is replaced can directly affect service provision and may have unintended consequences for provider motivation. Few studies have looked at the equity effects of fee removal, despite clear evidence that fees disproportionately burden the poor. This review highlights potential and documented benefits (increased use of maternity services) as well as risks (decreased provider motivation and quality) of user fee exemption policies for maternal health services. Governments should link user fee exemption policies with the replacement of lost revenue for facilities as well as broader health system improvements, including facility upgrades, ensured supply of needed inputs, and improved human resources for health. Removing user fees may increase uptake but will not reduce mortality proportionally if the quality of facility-based care is poor. More rigorous evaluations of both demand- and supply-side effects of mature fee exemption programmes are needed. PMID:24992804

Hatt, Laurel E; Makinen, Marty; Madhavan, Supriya; Conlon, Claudia M

2013-12-01

137

When mothers make sons sexy: maternal effects contribute to the increased sexual attractiveness of extra-pair offspring.  

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Quality differences between offspring sired by the social and by an extra-pair partner are usually assumed to have a genetic basis, reflecting genetic benefits of female extra-pair mate choice. In the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), we identified a colour ornament that is under sexual selection and appears to have a heritable basis. Hence, by engaging in extra-pair copulations with highly ornamented males, females could, in theory, obtain genes for increased offspring attractiveness. Indeed, sons sired by extra-pair partners had larger ornaments, seemingly supporting the genetic benefit hypothesis. Yet, when comparing ornament size of the social and extra-pair partners, there was no difference. Hence, the observed differences most likely had an environmental basis, mediated, for example, via differential maternal investment of resources into the eggs fertilized by extra-pair and social partners. Such maternal effects may (at least partly) be mediated by egg size, which we found to be associated with mean ornament expression in sons. Our results are consistent with the idea that maternal effects can shape sexual selection by altering the genotype-phenotype relationship for ornamentation. They also caution against automatically attributing greater offspring attractiveness or viability to an extra-pair mate's superior genetic quality, as without controlling for differential maternal investment we may significantly overestimate the role of genetic benefits in the evolution of extra-pair mating behaviour. PMID:21957136

Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Rutstein, Alison N; Griffith, Simon C

2012-03-22

138

Maternal effects are long-lasting and influence female offspring's reproductive strategy in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus.  

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The adaptive benefits of maternal investment into individual offspring (inherited environmental effects) will be shaped by selection on mothers as well as their offspring, often across variable environments. We examined how a mother's nutritional environment interacted with her offspring's nutritional and social environment in Xiphophorus multilineatus, a live-bearing fish. Fry from mothers reared on two different nutritional diets (HQ=high quality and LQ=low quality) were all reared on a LQ diet in addition to being split between two social treatments: exposed to a large adult male during development and not exposed. Mothers raised on a HQ diet produce offspring that were not only initially larger (at 14 days of age), but grew faster, and were larger at sexual maturity. Male offspring from mothers raised on both diets responded to the exposure to courter males by growing faster; however, the response of their sisters varied with mother's diet; females from HQ diet mothers reduced growth if exposed to a courter male, whereas females from LQ diet mothers increased growth. Therefore, we detected variation in maternal investment depending on female size and diet, and the effects of this variation on offspring were long-lasting and sex specific. Our results support the maternal stress hypothesis, with selection on mothers to reduce investment in low-quality environments. In addition, the interaction we detected between the mother's nutritional environment and the female offspring's social environment suggests that female offspring adopted different reproductive strategies depending on maternal investment. PMID:24823268

Murphy, A D; Goedert, D; Morris, M R

2014-08-01

139

Study of the effects of maternal hypothyroidism and thyroxin therapy on the neuronal density of subiculum in rat newborns  

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Introduction: It is well established that thyroid hormones are essential for normal development of mammalian brain. Thyroid hormone deficiency during critical period of brain development can exert devastative and irreversible effects on neuronal functions as well as on learning abilities and memory. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on the neuronal structures of the subiculum in an experimental model of cretinism. Methods: Twenty fi...

Zahra Delshad; Morteza Behnam Rasouli; Alireza Fazel

2008-01-01

140

The Role of Maternal Smoking in Effect of Fetal Growth Restriction on Poor Scholastic Achievement in Elementary School  

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Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction and maternal smoking during pregnancy are independently implicated in lowering intellectual attainment in children. We hypothesized that only reduction of fetal growth that is attributable to extrinsic causes (e.g., maternal smoking affects intellectual development of a child. Cross-sectional survey of 3,739 students in Nova Scotia (Canada in 2003 was linked with the perinatal database, parental interviews on socio-demographic factors and the performance on standardized tests when primarily 11–12 years of age, thereby forming a retrospective cohort. Data was analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression with correction for clustering of children within schools. The risk of poor test result among children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA to mothers who smoked was 29.4%, higher than in any other strata of maternal smoking and fetal growth. The adjusted odds ratio among SGA children born to mothers who smoked was the only one elevated compared to children who were not growth restricted and born to mothers who did not smoke (17.0%, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02, 2.09. Other perinatal, maternal and socio-demographic factors did not alter this pattern of effect modification. Heterogeneity of etiology of fetal growth restriction should be consider in studies that address examine its impact on health over life course.

Igor Burstyn

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The Role of Maternal Smoking in Effect of Fetal Growth Restriction on Poor Scholastic Achievement in Elementary School  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal growth restriction and maternal smoking during pregnancy are independently implicated in lowering intellectual attainment in children. We hypothesized that only reduction of fetal growth that is attributable to extrinsic causes (e.g., maternal smoking) affects intellectual development of a child. Cross-sectional survey of 3,739 students in Nova Scotia (Canada) in 2003 was linked with the perinatal database, parental interviews on socio-demographic factors and the performance on standardized tests when primarily 11–12 years of age, thereby forming a retrospective cohort. Data was analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression with correction for clustering of children within schools. The risk of poor test result among children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) to mothers who smoked was 29.4%, higher than in any other strata of maternal smoking and fetal growth. The adjusted odds ratio among SGA children born to mothers who smoked was the only one elevated compared to children who were not growth restricted and born to mothers who did not smoke (17.0%, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02, 2.09). Other perinatal, maternal and socio-demographic factors did not alter this pattern of effect modification. Heterogeneity of etiology of fetal growth restriction should be consider in studies that address examine its impact on health over life course. PMID:22470300

Burstyn, Igor; Kuhle, Stefan; Allen, Alexander C.; Veugelers, Paul

2012-01-01

142

The effect of isosorbide dinitrate on placental blood flow and maternal blood pressure in women with pregnancy induced hypertension.  

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The effect of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) on maternal and fetal circulation was assessed in 23 women with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). A double-blind randomized design was employed. Each woman was given a sublingual tablet of ISDN (5 mg) or placebo. Maternal blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before and every 2 min after the medication or placebo, for a total of 20 min. Flow velocity waveforms in the uterine and umbilical arteries were recorded at the same time periods, using pulsed Doppler ultrasound. The ratio of peak systolic to end-diastolic flow velocity (S/D) in those vessels was calculated. After ISDN mean maternal BP fell from 103 +/- 1.8 mm Hg to 90.5 +/- 2.9 mm Hg at 14 min (P umbilical artery fell from 3.07 +/- 0.33 to 2.58 +/- 0.23 at 8 min (P artery fell from 3.27 +/- 0.6 to 2.38 +/- 0.28 at 10 min (P artery flow velocity waveform the notch diminished or disappeared within the first 6 min after the medication. No significant change in any of the measured parameters was observed in the placebo group. Our finding that ISDN altered maternal and fetal hemodynamics in PIH lends support to the further exploration of nitric oxide donors in the treatment and prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension. PMID:10232493

Thaler, I; Amit, A; Kamil, D; Itskovitz-Eldor, J

1999-04-01

143

Effects of CdCl2 on the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 67Cu and placental blood flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Copper is an essential element while Cd is an extremely toxic heavy metal of questionable biological usefulness. Cadmium has been reported to interfere with the metabolism of Cu, be teratogenic, and decrease blood flow in the fetal placenta. Because of these reported biological interactions of Cd and Cu, this investigation was conducted to determine the effects of Cd on placental transport of 67Cu and placental blood flow in the guinea pig. All guinea pigs used were 60 +/- 1 days pregnant. A placental perfusion technique was used to measure the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 67Cu and 3H2O across the placenta. The clearance of 3H2O served as an indicator of placental blood flow on the maternal side of the circulation. The results indicated that an iv injection of 1 mg Cd/kg body weight resulted in an immediate increase in the clearance of 67Cu which declined over the next 8 min to an elevated level compared to the extrapolated best-fit curve of control values. This iv injection of CdCl2 concomitantly reduced the maternal-to-fetal clearance of 3H2O across the placenta. In conclusion, an acute exposure of the pregnant female to CdCl2 results in an increased maternal-to-fetal clearance 67Cu and a reduced placental blood flow that can alter the supply of nutrients to the developing embryo or fetus, and therefore modify normal development

144

Cholecystokinin modulation of maternal behavior  

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Full Text Available Maternal behavior is regulated by several neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. This mini-review focuses on the role of cholecystokinin (CCK, a neuropeptide and gut hormone best known as a satiety signal, in mediating maternal behavior. In addition to the role of CCK in the infant in mother-infant interactions, maternal CCK appears to also be important. We discuss maternal behavior research, mainly in rats, that has examined the effect of administering CCK to dams, CCK-opioid interactions, and maternal behavior in rats that lack CCK1 receptors. We discuss the possibility that CCK might play a role in neurological adjustments during pregnancy that ultimately influence behavioral adaptations by the offspring during lactation. Finally, we hypothesize that maternal CCK is also involved in maternal memory and reward.

Luciano Freitas Felicio

2013-12-01

145

BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING  

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Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

146

Effect of Gestation and Maternal Copper on the Fetal Fluids and Tissues Copper Concentrations in Sheep  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Samples of allantoic, amniotic fluid, fetal liver, kidney, maternal plasma and liver were collected from 30 ewes and classified into either early or late gestation and copper concentrations were measured. Approach: The Cu concentrations in the maternal plasma, allantoic, amniotic fluid, fetal liver and kidney increased significantly (pResults: Significant positive relationships were recorded between age of the fetus and Cu concentrations in the allantoic and amniotic fluid (r = 0.71-0.83, pConclusion: A significant negative correlation was recorded between the Cu concentrations in the maternal liver and fetal age (r = -0.74, p<0.01. Strong fetal-maternal relationships in Cu concentration were evident throughout the gestational period and dams seem to sacrifice Cu levels in order to maintain that in the fetus. Cu concentrations in the amniotic and allantoic fluids could be used as a possible indicator of the Cu status of the fetus throughout gestation.

Abd E. Hefnawy

2011-01-01

147

Congenital cataract screening in maternity wards is effective : evaluation of the Pediatric Cataract Register of Sweden  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: To study which eye-screening protocol prevails in Swedish maternity/neonatal wards, evaluate efficacy in a prospective study, and compare results with earlier Swedish retrospective results. METHODS: Surveys were sent in 2006 to maternity/neonatal and women's health departments regarding screening policy. Response frequency was 96% (122/127). Data were derived from The Pediatric Cataract Register, PECARE Sweden. All Swedish children diagnosed with congenital cataract and operated on before 1 year of age between January 2007 and December 2009 were included. Statistical comparison with earlier retrospective results was performed. RESULTS: Eye screening is routine protocol at a rate of 90% of Swedish maternity wards. Sixty-one children were included in the study. An increase was shown in case referrals from maternity wards compared to ten years ago (64% versus 50%). Detection was performed within 6 weeks of age in 75% of the cases. A significant difference between the probabilities of early referral (0.38; p

Magnusson, Gunilla; Bizjajeva, Svetlana

2013-01-01

148

MATERNAL AGE EFFECT: THE ENIGMA OF DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER TRISOMIC CONDITIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Aneuploidy is the most frequently observed chromosome abnormality in human liveborn, abortuses, and oocytes. he only etiological factor that has been established is advanced maternal age for the occurrence of trisomies, particularly trisomy 21 which causes Down syndrome. he mater...

149

Effect of maternal smoking on intestinal lactobacilli in infants with colics  

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Maternal smoking could be a potential risk factor for infantile colic in breast-fed infants. The absence of intestinal lactobacilli among infants of smoking mothers suggests an influence of smoking in the development of a normal intestinal microflora.

Carlone, Nicola; Mussa, Gian Carlo; Tullio, Viviana; Cuffini, Annamaria; Bailo, Elena; Roana, Janira; Palumeri, Elisabetta

2003-01-01

150

Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers with a habitual fish intake below the population median were randomized to 4.5 g center dot d(-1) of FO or olive oil (OO) for the first four months of lactation. Fifty-three mothers with habitual fish intake in the highest quartile were included as reference group. The effect of the resulting increase in infant DHA-intake and RBC-DHA level was assessed on problem solving ability at nine months and language at one and two years of age. Infants in the three groups performed equally well on the problem test and no association was observed between problem solving and erythrocyte-DHA at four months. Passive vocabulary at one year was lower in the children of the FO-compared with the OO-group ( P <0.05), but no differences were found at two years of age. Word comprehension at one year was inversely associated with erythrocyte-DHA at four months. The trial indicate a small effect of DHA levels in breast-milk on early language development of breast-fed infants.

Straarup, Ellen Marie

2005-01-01

151

Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents.  

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During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks and exert long-lasting effects on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (MS), an animal model of early life stress, can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and affect subsequent brain function and behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been fully elucidated. In this mini review, we present various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT). We then show a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we introduce how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders, and alterations in gene expression in adult mice subjected to MS. PMID:24987328

Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo

2014-01-01

152

Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

Groziak, Susan Marie

153

Bupivacaine versus bupivacaine plus fentanyl for epidural analgesia: effect on maternal satisfaction.  

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OBJECTIVE--To compare a combination of epidural fentanyl and bupivacaine with bupivacaine alone for epidural analgesia in labour and to evaluate factors in addition to analgesia that may influence maternal satisfaction. DESIGN--A prospective randomised pilot study. SETTING--Birmingham Maternity Hospital. SUBJECTS--85 primiparous women who requested epidural analgesia in labour and their babies. INTERVENTIONS--Group 1 mothers were treated with bupivacaine conventionally, group 2 mothers with b...

Murphy, J. D.; Henderson, K.; Bowden, M. I.; Lewis, M.; Cooper, G. M.

1991-01-01

154

Voluntary exercise reduces the neurotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine in maternally separated rats  

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Maternal separation has been associated with development of anxiety-like behaviour and learning impairments in adult rats. This has been linked to changes in brain morphology observed after exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids during the stress-hyporesponsive period (P4 to P14). In the present study, adult rats that had been subjected to maternal separation (180 min/day for 14 days) during the stress-hyporesponsive period, received unilateral infusions of a small dose of 6-h...

Mabandla, Musa Vuyisile; Russell, Vivienne Ann

2010-01-01

155

Effect of Home Visiting by Nurses on Maternal and Child Mortality  

Science.gov (United States)

IMPORTANCE Mothers and children living in adverse contexts are at risk of premature death. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of prenatal and infant/toddler nurse home visiting on maternal and child mortality during a 2-decade period (1990–2011). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial was designed originally to assess the home visiting program’s effect on pregnancy outcomes and maternal and child health through child age 2 years. The study was conducted in a public system of obstetric and pediatric care in Memphis, Tennessee. Participants included primarily African American women and their first live-born children living in highly disadvantaged urban neighborhoods, who were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: treatment 1 (transportation for prenatal care [n = 166]), treatment 2 (transportation plus developmental screening for infants and toddlers [n = 514]), treatment 3 (transportation plus prenatal/postpartum home visiting [n = 230]), and treatment 4 (transportation, screening, and prenatal, postpartum, and infant/toddler home visiting [n = 228]). Treatments 1 and 3 were included originally to increase statistical power for testing pregnancy outcomes. For determining mortality, background information was available for all 1138 mothers assigned to all 4 treatments and all but 2 live-born children in treatments 2 and 4 (n = 704). Inclusion of children in treatments 1 and 3 was not possible because background information was missing on too many children. INTERVENTIONS Nurses sought to improve the outcomes of pregnancy, children’s health and development, and mothers’ health and life-course with home visits beginning during pregnancy and continuing through child age 2 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All-cause mortality in mothers and preventable-cause mortality in children (sudden infant death syndrome, unintentional injury, and homicide) derived from the National Death Index. RESULTS The mean (SE) 21-year maternal all-cause mortality rate was 3.7% (0.74%) in the combined control group (treatments 1 and 2), 0.4% (0.43%) in treatment 3, and 2.2% (0.97%) in treatment 4. The survival contrast of treatments 1 and 2 combined with treatment 3 was significant (P = .007); the contrast of treatments 1 and 2 combined with treatment 4 was not significant (P = .19), and the contrast of treatments 1 and 2 combined with treatments 3 and 4 combined was significant (post hoc P = .008). At child age 20 years, the preventable-cause child mortality rate was 1.6% (0.57%) in treatment 2 and 0.0% (SE not calculable) in treatment 4; the survival contrast was significant (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Prenatal and infant/toddler home visitation by nurses is a promising means of reducing all-cause mortality among mothers and preventable-cause mortality in their first-born children living in highly disadvantaged settings. PMID:25003802

Olds, David L.; Kitzman, Harriet; Knudtson, Michael D.; Anson, Elizabeth; Smith, Joyce A.; Cole, Robert

2014-01-01

156

[Effects of routine administration of methylergometrin during puerperium on involution, maternal morbidity and lactation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the prospective randomized study reported here, based on 880 puerperae, was to study the effects of methylergometrin on involution, puerperal morbidity, and lactation. Over 4 weeks 444 mothers were given 0.125 mg of methylergometrin 3 times a day, while 436 were given the same dose of placebo. The following differences were found: in the treated group involution of the uterus was accelerated in the first few days following birth, but after 4 weeks there were no longer any significant differences. Post-partum pains were almost twice as intense in the treated group as in the untreated group. It proved impossible to reduce the number of cases of infection (lochiostasis, axillary temperature over 37.5 degrees C) by administering Methergin during the puerperium; following spontaneous births there were actually more cases of endometritis in the treated group. The number of patients with severe afterbleeding after spontaneous birth was also higher in this group. Lactation among untreated puerperae averaged 880 g during the first six days, while among treated patients it was only 563 g. Even after 4 weeks there were still differences in the quantity of milk produced. The incidence of infection and afterbleeding was significantly lower in mothers who breast-fed their children, irrespective of whether they had taken Methergin or not. We therefore consider that routine treatment of puerperae with methylergometrin is no longer justified; we continue to advocate breast-feeding, not least in view of the fact that it reduces maternal morbidity. PMID:3519353

Arabin, B; Rüttgers, H; Kubli, F

1986-04-01

157

Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring  

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Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ?1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ?2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ?2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

158

Effect of exercise on the maternal outcome in pregnancy of spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of exercise (swimming) on pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Thirty three pregnant female SHR were distributed into three groups (n=11 animals/group): SHR Control=non-exercised (sedentary); SHR Ex0 = exercised from day zero to day 20 of [...] pregnancy; and SHR Ex7 = exercised from day 7 to 20 of pregnancy. Body weight and systolic blood pressure were indirectly measured during pregnancy. On gestational day 21, the rats were anaesthetized and uterine content was withdrawn for analysis of maternal reproductive outcome parameters and fetal development. RESULTS: The reduced blood pressure percentage was higher in SHR Ex0 and SHR Ex7 compared to SHR Control group. Weight gain was present in all pregnancy periods, but it was lower in SHR Ex7 than in SHR Control dams. The exercise increased the pre-implantation loss rate. The post-implantation loss rate was lower in SHR Ex0 group. SHR Ex7 group showed a significantly higher percentage of fetuses classified as small for gestational age as compared to others groups. CONCLUSION: The exercise contributed to lowering gestational blood pressure in SHR rats, but had a negative impact on the developing embryo.

Renato, Rocha; José Carlos, Peraçoli; Gustavo Tadeu, Volpato; Débora Cristina, Damasceno; Kleber Eduardo de, Campos.

2014-09-01

159

Effect of Skin to Skin Contact on Maternal State Anxiety in a Cesarean Section Ward  

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Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at investigating the effect of skin to skin contact (SSC on maternal state anxiety (MSA in cesarean section unit in Akbarabadi Hospital in Tehran. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 60 Iranian mothers with at least one record of cesarean section delivery were assigned to two intervention (SSC and control groups. In the morning shift and two hours after the operation, as a routine postoperative care, pain-killers were given to all mothers. Then the mothers’ pain scores were measured using visual analog scale (VAS. If VAS was?3, MSA was measured by using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Scale (Spiel Berger. Thirty minutes of SSC intervention was done for mothers in the intervention group. Six hours later, in case VAS was ? 3, MSA was re-measured by using the Spiel Berger Scale for all mothers. Results: Six hours after implementing the intervention, there were no meaningful statistical differences between the MSA mean scores of the two groups, but severity of MSA in intervention group was less than that of the control group (P=0.037. Six hours after the intervention, there was a significant decrease in the MSA mean score in SSC group (P=0.002. Conclusion: As regards the important role of constant anxiety in developing postpartum depression, and as the results of this study indicate, SSC is recommended in postpartum and especially cesarean section wards.

Hamid Haghani

2011-01-01

160

Effect of maternal and infant vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D levels of breastfed infants.  

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The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of maternal vitamin D3 (400 U/day) supplementation on breastfed infants at 6 months of age. Mothers (n=96) were enrolled within 1 month after birth and assigned to the 400 IU/day regimen or no vitamin D3 supplementation for 6 months. All infants received 400 IU/day of vitamin D3 and were exclusively breastfed until 4 months of age. Of all mothers, 22.2% had vitamin D levels above 20 ng/ml initially. At the end of the study, vitamin D levels of mothers and their infants were similar in both groups. Thirteen percent of the infants in the intervention group and 20.5% in the control group had vitamin D levels below 12 ng/ml. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations at 6 months had increased significantly in mothers in the intervention group. Lactating mothers and their children need vitamin D supplementation but further studies are required with higher doses. PMID:24192675

Bu?rul, Fuat; Devecio?lu, Esra; Ozden, Tülin; Gökçay, Gülbin; Omer, Beyhan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Effects of perinatal stress and maternal traumatic stress on the cortisol regulation of preterm infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preterm infants experience intense stress during the perinatal period because they endure painful and intense medical procedures. Repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during this period may have long-term effects on subsequent cortisol regulation. A premature delivery may also be intensely stressful for the parents, and they may develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Usable saliva samples were collected (4 times per day over 2 days, in the morning at awakening, at midday, in the afternoon, and in the evening before going to bed) to assess the diurnal cortisol regulation from 46 preterm infants when the infants were 12 months of corrected age (? 14 months after birth). Mothers reported their level of PTSD symptoms. The results showed an interaction between perinatal stress and maternal traumatic stress on the diurnal cortisol slope of preterm infants (R(2) = .32). This suggests that the HPA axis of preterm infants exposed to high perinatal stress may be more sensitive to subsequent environmental stress. PMID:25158643

Habersaat, Stephanie; Borghini, Ayala; Nessi, Jennifer; Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Müller-Nix, Carole; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Ansermet, François

2014-08-01

162

The effect of toddler emotion regulation on maternal emotion socialization: Moderation by toddler gender.  

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Although developmental research continues to connect parenting behaviors with child outcomes, it is critical to examine how child behaviors influence parenting behaviors. Given the emotional, cognitive, and social costs of maladaptive parenting, it is vital to understand the factors that influence maternal socialization behaviors. The current study examined children's observed emotion regulatory behaviors in two contexts (low-threat and high-threat novelty) as one influence. Mother-child dyads (n = 106) with toddlers of 24 months of age participated in novelty episodes from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., caregiver-focused, attention, and self-soothing) were coded, and mothers reported their use of emotion socialization strategies when children were 24 and 36 months. We hypothesized that gender-specific predictive relations would occur, particularly from regulatory behaviors in the low-threat contexts. Gender moderated the relation between caregiver-focused emotion regulation in low-threat contexts and nonsupportive emotion socialization. Results from the current study inform the literature on the salience of child-elicited effects on the parent-child relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24821395

Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

2014-08-01

163

Maternal caffeine consumption has irreversible effects on reproductive parameters and fertility in male offspring rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Concerns are growing about the decrease in male reproductive health. Caffeine is one of the popular nutrients that has been implicated as a risk factor for infertility. In the present study, we examined whether in utero and lactational exposure to caffeine affects the reproductive function of the offspring of rats. Methods Pregnant rats received caffeine via drinking water during gestation (26 and 45 mg/kg) and lactation (25 and 35 mg/kg). Body and reproductive organ weight, seminiferous tubule diameter, germinal epithelium height, sperm parameters, fertility rate, number of implantations, and testosterone level of the offspring were assessed from birth to adulthood. Results Significant dose-related decreases were observed in the body and reproductive organ weight, seminiferous tubule diameter, and germinal epithelium height of the offspring. Sperm density had declined significantly in offspring of the low-dose and high-dose groups, by 8.81% and 19.97%, respectively, by postnatal day 150. The number of viable fetuses had decreased significantly in females mated with male offspring of the high-dose group at postnatal days 60, 90, 120, and 150. There were also significant reductions in testosterone levels of high-dose group offspring from birth to postnatal day 150. Conclusion It is concluded that maternal caffeine consumption impairs gonadal development and has long-term adverse effects on the reproductive efficiency of male offspring rats. PMID:23346524

Erfani Majd, Naeem; Nooraei, Parvaneh

2012-01-01

164

Effect of exercise on the maternal outcome in pregnancy of spontaneously hypertensive rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of exercise (swimming) on pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Thirty three pregnant female SHR were distributed into three groups (n=11 animals/group): SHR Control=non-exercised (sedentary); SHR Ex0 = exercised from day zero to day 20 of [...] pregnancy; and SHR Ex7 = exercised from day 7 to 20 of pregnancy. Body weight and systolic blood pressure were indirectly measured during pregnancy. On gestational day 21, the rats were anaesthetized and uterine content was withdrawn for analysis of maternal reproductive outcome parameters and fetal development. RESULTS: The reduced blood pressure percentage was higher in SHR Ex0 and SHR Ex7 compared to SHR Control group. Weight gain was present in all pregnancy periods, but it was lower in SHR Ex7 than in SHR Control dams. The exercise increased the pre-implantation loss rate. The post-implantation loss rate was lower in SHR Ex0 group. SHR Ex7 group showed a significantly higher percentage of fetuses classified as small for gestational age as compared to others groups. CONCLUSION: The exercise contributed to lowering gestational blood pressure in SHR rats, but had a negative impact on the developing embryo.

Renato, Rocha; José Carlos, Peraçoli; Gustavo Tadeu, Volpato; Débora Cristina, Damasceno; Kleber Eduardo de, Campos.

165

Gender-Dependent Effects of Maternal Immune Activation on the Behavior of Mouse Offspring  

Science.gov (United States)

Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by two core symptoms; impaired social interactions and communication, and ritualistic or repetitive behaviors. Both epidemiological and biochemical evidence suggests that a subpopulation of autistics may be linked to immune perturbations that occurred during fetal development. These findings have given rise to an animal model, called the “maternal immune activation” model, whereby the offspring from female rodents who were subjected to an immune stimulus during early or mid-pregnancy are studied. Here, C57BL/6 mouse dams were treated mid-gestation with saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic a bacterial infection, or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly IC) to mimic a viral infection. Autism-associated behaviors were examined in the adult offspring of the treated dams. Behavioral tests were conducted to assess motor activity, exploration in a novel environment, sociability, and repetitive behaviors, and data analyses were carried independently on male and female mice. We observed a main treatment effect whereby male offspring from Poly IC-treated dams showed reduced motor activity. In the marble burying test of repetitive behavior, male offspring but not female offspring from both LPS and Poly IC-treated mothers showed increased marble burying. Our findings indicate that offspring from mothers subjected to immune stimulation during gestation show a gender-specific increase in stereotyped repetitive behavior. PMID:25111339

Xuan, Ingrid C. Y.; Hampson, David R.

2014-01-01

166

Survey study of effective factors on maternal mortality in Kurdestan province from 1998 to 2002  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Pregnancy is a natural phenomena and basis of birth but can induce various dangers to mother and fetus. Since mother is the central part of family, maternal mortality would be an irreparable damage to the community. On average 10100 live births and 12 maternal mortalities occur in Kurdestan province each year; the maternal mortality rate is therefore 118/100000 live births which in comparison to similar figure in whole country (37/100000 live births is three times higher. Materials and Methods: This research is an analytic case-control study. Cases and controls were matched for place of residence and age at gestation. Cases (n=55 were chosen by census and controls (n=220 were chosen by random sampling. The tool used to collect data was questionnaire, validity and reliability of which was tested by content validity and test-retest method. The statistical testing used in this study were Chi square and odds ratio. Data were analyzed by SPSS .11 software. Results: Most of maternal mortalities had occurred in women 18-35 years of age, illiterate and living in rural areas. Marivan had the highest maternal mortality compared to other surveyed cities (29.1%. Prenatal care (OR= 22.7, parturition agent (OR= 9.85, use of one of the method of family planning (OR= 2.5 and parturition method (OR= 2.3 had meaningful relationship with maternal mortality. Conclusion: According to findings of this research, it is possible to decrease the maternal mortality by improving prenatal care and family planning and preventing parturition by uneducated midwives and avoiding unnecessary cesarian sections.

Golyan Tehrani Sh

2004-11-01

167

A biocultural study of the effects of maternal stress on mother and newborn health in the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of stress on human health is a topic of wide-spread relevance and one that is particularly amenable to multidisciplinary investigation. Stress impacts both our psychological and physical health and, thus, may leave evidence on our psyche, our physical body and our genome. We are interested in the effect of extreme stressors, such as war, on health from the perspective of long-term and multigenerational effects. We integrate sociocultural, biological, and epigenetic data from the war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Between May and August, 2010, we measured sociocultural stress exposure among 25 mother-newborn dyads and we measured health outcomes in newborns. We also collected maternal venous blood, placental tissue, and umbilical cord blood to assay for methylation changes to test for a possible epigenetic mechanism that mediates the effects of stress on health. We provide a qualitative description of the wide range of stress exposures experienced by mothers in our study. As we have shown previously, maternal war stress is strongly associated with newborn birthweight and changes in newborn methylation at the glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1. New results presented here demonstrate that maternal war stress and birthweight are also associated with genome-wide changes in maternal methylation levels. In sum, these results suggest that stress may influence gene expression across a broad spectrum in the individual who directly experiences the stress, i.e., the mother, whereas potential heritable effects in the newborn may be focused on specific genes that are uniquely sensitive to environmental cues. PMID:25043696

Rodney, Nicole C; Mulligan, Connie J

2014-10-01

168

Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child  

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The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 paren...

Mihi? Ivana

2010-01-01

169

Effects of Maternal Nutrition, Resource Use and Multi-Predator Risk on Neonatal White-Tailed Deer Survival  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May–31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Svoboda, Nathan J.; Beyer, Dean E.; Lederle, Patrick E.

2014-01-01

170

The effects of maternal depression and use of antidepressants during pregnancy on risk of a child small for gestational age  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

RATIONALE: Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with an increased rate of children small for gestational age (SGA), but it is unclear whether this is due to an effect of the underlying depressive disorder. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of antidepressants on SGA in a nationwide sample and to separate the effect of exposure to antidepressants in utero from the effect of maternal depression. METHODS: A register study was conducted on all pregnant women in Denmark from 1996 to 2006 linking nationwide individualized data from the Medical Birth Register, the Psychiatric Central Register, and a prescription database. The rate of SGA (birth weight below the 10 percentile at given gestational week) was investigated for children exposed in utero to antidepressants or to a maternal psychiatric diagnosis of depression compared to children not prenatally exposed to antidepressants or maternal diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 673,853 pregnancies were included in the study of which 35.737 women had a diagnosis of depression and/or used antidepressants before end of pregnancy. Antidepressant use during pregnancy was weakly associated with SGA (hazard ratios (HR)?=?1.19; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.28), whereas a psychiatric diagnosis before or during pregnancy was not (HR?=?1.02; 95 % CI, 0.92-1.13). The association for use during pregnancy was found for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and newer antidepressants, but not for older antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The use of antidepressants during pregnancy slightly increases the rate of SGA. The association seems unrelated to the underlying maternal depressive disorder.

Jensen, Hans MØrch; GrØn, Randi

2013-01-01

171

Effects of maternal nutrition, resource use and multi-predator risk on neonatal white-tailed deer survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth of ungulate populations is typically most sensitive to survival of neonates, which in turn is influenced by maternal nutritional condition and trade-offs in resource selection and avoidance of predators. We assessed whether resource use, multi-predator risk, maternal nutritional effects, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained variation in daily survival of free-ranging neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during their post-partum period (14 May-31 Aug) in Michigan, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards mixed-effects models to assess survival related to covariates of resource use, composite predation risk of 4 mammalian predators, fawn body mass at birth, winter weather, and vegetation growth phenology. Predation, particularly from coyotes (Canis latrans), was the leading cause of mortality; however, an additive model of non-ideal resource use and maternal nutritional effects explained 71% of the variation in survival. This relationship suggested that dams selected areas where fawns had poor resources, while greater predation in these areas led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resource use alone. Also, maternal nutritional effects suggested that severe winters resulted in dams producing smaller fawns, which decreased their likelihood of survival. Fawn resource use appeared to reflect dam avoidance of lowland forests with poor forage and greater use by wolves (C. lupus), their primary predator. While this strategy led to greater fawn mortality, particularly by coyotes, it likely promoted the life-long reproductive success of dams because many reached late-age (>10 years old) and could have produced multiple generations of fawns. Studies often link resource selection and survival of ungulates, but our results suggested that multiple factors can mediate that relationship, including multi-predator risk. We emphasize the importance of identifying interactions among biological and environmental factors when assessing survival of ungulates. PMID:24968318

Duquette, Jared F; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Lederle, Patrick E

2014-01-01

172

Understanding the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact in maternal and child mortality reduction  

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Full Text Available One of the most unexpected outcomes arising from the efforts towards maternal and child mortality reduction is that all too often the objective success has been coupled with increased inequity in the population. The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equity and suggest strategies that will promote an impact on mortality that reduce population child health inequities.

Mickey Chopra

2012-06-01

173

Effects of maternal basking and food quantity during gestation provide evidence for the selective advantage of matrotrophy in a viviparous lizard.  

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The evolution of matrotrophy (i.e., direct supply of nutrients by the mother during gestation) may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation. However, we lack knowledge about the selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity (live-bearing) in reptiles. In reptiles, the interaction between body temperature and food intake affect maternal net energy gain. In the present study, we examined the effects of basking and food availability (2 by 2 factorial design) during gestation on offspring phenotype in a matrotrophic viviparous lizard (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii). Subsequently, we investigated if the maternal effects were context-dependent using offspring growth rate as an indicator of the adaptive significance of matrotrophy. Offspring were exposed either to the same thermal conditions as their mothers experienced or to thermal conditions different from those experienced by their mothers. We provide the first evidence that an interaction between maternal thermal and maternal food conditions during gestation strongly affects offspring phenotype, including date of birth, body size and performance ability, which affect offspring fitness. Offspring growth rate was dependent on offspring thermal conditions, but was not influenced by maternal effects or offspring sex. Matrotrophic viviparity provided gravid females with the means to enhance offspring fitness through greater energetic input to offspring when conditions allowed it (i.e., extended basking opportunity with high food availability). Therefore, we suggest that selective advantages of matrotrophic viviparity in P. entrecasteauxii may be associated with high maternal energy availability during gestation. PMID:22848629

Itonaga, Keisuke; Jones, Susan M; Wapstra, Erik

2012-01-01

174

Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage  

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Full Text Available The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum, low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density but they had different food availability. In the two latter conditions, daphnids had the same per capita, low, food availability but they lived at different algae and daphnid densities. Moreover, the response of crowded females to recovery at high food availability and low population density was evaluated. Low food availability reduced growth and fecundity of both clones and increased male production only in the Clone L. Crowding per se did not affect growth but reduced fecundity. In both clones, low food availability due to low algae density enhanced investment in offspring size and resistance to starvation. In response to food shortage either due to low algae density and to crowding, Clone P increased the investment in offspring size and starvation tolerance but reduced fecundity to a lesser extent than Clone L and did not produce males. Clone L, in response to food shortage due to crowding at high algae density, increased development time, produced more males, as at low algae density, but halved fecundity producing offspring that were not starvationtolerant. These results might reflect differences in anticipatory maternal effects between clones and suggest that neonate quality varies according to either, the environment the mother experienced and the competitive environment the neonates will cope due to their mother life strategy.

Valeria ROSSI

2011-08-01

175

Partitioning genetic effects due to embryo, cytoplasm and maternal parent for oil content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Analysis of genetic main effects and genotype x environment (GE) interaction effects on the oil content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was conducted by using a genetic model for the quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants. The experiments were carried out over two years with 8 parents an [...] d a diallel mating design, which produced F1 and F2 generations. We found that the oil content of rape was simultaneously controlled by embryo genetic effect, cytoplasmic effects and maternal genetic effect as well as GE interaction effects, with the cytoplasmic and maternal effects playing the main role. The results indicate that selection of maternal plants for high oil content would be more efficient than selection based on single seeds. Since the GE interaction effects accounted for 73.69% of the total genetic effects and were more important than the genetic main effects it seems that selection might be influenced by environmental conditions. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability for oil content was 73.52% with the interaction heritability being larger than the general heritability, indicating that the early generations can be used for selection for high oil content. The prediction of genetic effects suggested that the parent cultivars Youcai 601 and Gaoyou 605 were better than the other cultivars for increasing oil content during the breeding of B. napus. The implications for the quantitative trait loci mapping of seed traits interfered by these three genetic systems is also discussed.

Jian-Guo, Wu; Chun-Hai, Shi; Hai-Zhen, Zhang.

176

Maternal separation attenuates the effect of adolescent social isolation on HPA axis responsiveness in adult rats.  

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Adverse early life experiences that occur during childhood and adolescence can have negative impacts on behavior later in life. The main goal of our work was to assess how the association between stressful experiences during neonatal and adolescent periods may influence stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Stressful experiences included maternal separation and social isolation at weaning. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 PND) significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming across the first two weeks postpartum. Separation also induced a long-lasting increase in dams blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation did not modify brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult offspring, but they demonstrate partial recovery from the reduction induced by social isolation during adolescence. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were subjected to maternal separation was markedly reduced with respect to that observed in animals that were just socially isolated. All experimental groups showed a significant reduction of BDNF and Arc protein expression in the hippocampus. However, the reduction of BDNF observed in animals that were maternally separated and subjected to social isolation was less significantly pronounced than in animals that were just socially isolated. The results sustained the mismatch hypothesis stating that aversive experiences early in life trigger adaptive processes, thereby rendering an individual to be better adapted to aversive challenges later in life. PMID:24745548

Biggio, F; Pisu, M G; Garau, A; Boero, G; Locci, V; Mostallino, M C; Olla, P; Utzeri, C; Serra, M

2014-07-01

177

Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and possible multigenerational effects.

Amorim Elaine MP

2011-12-01

178

Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects  

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Abstract Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. <...

Wang Lei; Baskin Jerry M; Baskin Carol C; Cornelissen J Hans C; Dong Ming; Huang Zhenying

2012-01-01

179

Effects of vitamins B12, folic asid, A, D, E and C on maternal and fetal health  

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Full Text Available Adequate and balanced nutrition together with appropriate weight gain during pregnancy is important for being protected from short and long term complications. During pregnancy energy and nutrition requirements increase. Sufficient intake of nutrients has important effects on both the mother’s and the developing fetus’s health. Deficient or excessive intakes of important vitamins can increase the risk of maternal and fetal health problems. Folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D, or antioxidant vitamins (vitamin E and C deficiencies can cause fetal growth and developmental disorders in addition to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Moreover, insufficient intake of these vitamins during maternal period increases the risk of permanent health problems for the baby. Additionally, it is stated that vitamin deficiencies during the maternal period can have negative effects even on cognitional development of the children. Nowadays, only folic acid supplementation is applied to prevent the risk of neural tube defect, and recently studies are being conducted on vitamin supplementations in the maternal stage. It is stated that the effects of folic acid together with vitamin B12 on lowering the homocysteine levels can protect against the risks of insufficient fetal growth and low birth weight. Additionally, it is reported that vitamin D can be protective against bone development problems, diabetes, preeclampsia, inflammation, and infection. Studies carried on vitamins E and C (antioxidant vitamins were focused on their effects on preventing the risk of preeclampsia. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the exact effects and mechanisms of vitamins during the maternal period. Future research in this area may lead to successful vitamin supplementation practices during pregnancies in the future. Nowadays, following a sufficient and balance diet starting at pre-gestational period leads to early determination of vitamin deficiencies and can decrease the risk of problems that may arise during pregnancy. This review was aimed to evaluate the physiological functions and effects of vitamins B12, folic acid, A, D, E, and C on the mother’s and the fetus’s health.

Seray Kabaran

2013-06-01

180

Microanatomical Study of the Maternal Diabetes Effects on Rat`s Choroids Plexus in Embryonic, Neonatal and Adulthood Stages  

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Full Text Available In this research, the effect of maternal diabetes on the choroids plexus volume changes and total length of capillaries in (15°, 1-day-old and 30-day-old rat neonates was studied. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (60 mg kg-1, given by a single intraperitoneal injection to female Wistar rats (250-300 g. Control animals were given an equivalent amount of citrate buffer saline. In three stage of life, the volume of choroids plexus and total length of capillaries by stereological methods was measured. Statistical analysis`s showed significant difference in choroids plexus volume and total length of capillary`s between diabetic and control groups (p<0.01. This study shows that maternal diabetes causes microvascular disorders in choroids plexus system that lead to an increase in volumes of that.

M. Tehranipour

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Hemoglobinas humanas: hipótese malária ou efeito materno? Human hemoglobins: malaria hypothesis or maternal effect?  

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Full Text Available As hemoglobinopatias têm provido uma das poucas demonstrações convincentes da seleção, influenciando a freqüência de único gene na população humana. A alta taxa de desordens, tais como a anemia falciforme e a beta-talassemia, ocorridas em áreas subtropicais ou tropicais dentro do cinturão da malária, levou Haldane a propor que a malária pode ser o agente seletivo responsável que balanceia a perda dos genes para a talassemia e a anemia falciforme, por morte prematura dos homozigotos a partir do aumento do valor adaptativo de heterozigotos no ambiente com malária. Mas uma nova proposta surgiu para explicar a manutenção deste polimorfismo, baseada na fertilidade diferencial ou efeito parental. Alguns autores observaram uma distorção favorecendo a transmissão de alelos mutantes em áreas não endêmicas de malária. Com base nestas observações, esses autores propuseram um efeito materno para explicar tais distorções. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão destes mecanismos envolvidos na manutenção do polimorfismo de hemoglobinopatias, desde seu modelo clássico até hipóteses alternativas que surgiram recentemente na literatura.Hemoglobinopathies are providing one of the few convincing demonstrations of selection, influencing the frequency of a single gene in the human population. The high rate of disorders, such as the sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia that occur in the subtropical or tropical regions within the strip affected by malaria, led Haldane to propose that malaria may be the selective agent responsible for balancing the loss of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia genes due to the early death of homozygous patients. But a new proposal appeared to explain the maintenance of these polymorphisms, based on the differential fertility or parental effect. Some authors observed a distortion favoring the transmission of mutant alleles in non-endemic malaria areas. Based on these observations, the authors proposed a maternal effect to explain these distortions. This study aims at presenting a review of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of polymorphisms of hemoglobinopathies, both from the classic model and the recently published alternative hypotheses.

Felipe R. Torres

2005-03-01

182

The effects of maternal presence during anesthesia induction on the mother's anxiety and changes in children's behavior.  

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This study aimed to evaluate whether maternal presence during induction has additional beneficial effects on a mother's anxiety or changes in the child's behavior when an information booklet was given to all mothers and premedication was given to all patients. One hundred children, aged 2-10 years, scheduled for ambulatory surgery were randomly assigned to a mother-present (Group M) or mother-absent group (Group C) after premedication with intranasal midazolam. All mothers were informed about general anesthesia with a detailed information booklet. Preoperatively (pre) and one week after the operation (post), maternal anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Posthospitalization Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ) was used to measure changes in children's behavior. Anesthesia was induced using sevoflurane-oxygen-nitrous oxide inhalation. The anesthesiologist graded the level of the children's stress at anesthesia induction with a four-point scale. There were no differences between the two groups regarding demographics, anxiety levels of the mothers and postoperative behavioral changes and stress scores of the children (p>0.05 between the groups *p<0.005 within groups). In summary, maternal presence during induction in addition to premedication for children and information booklets for mothers had no additive effects in terms of reducing the mother's or the child's anxiety or postoperative behavioral changes. PMID:19227421

Akinci, S Banu; Köse, E Arzu; Ocal, Turgay; Aypar, Ulkü

2008-01-01

183

X-ray induction of autosomal translocations in spermatozoa of Drosophila melanogaster and maternal effects of X.Y-chromosomes  

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Wild-type ORK Drosophila melanogaster males were given an exposure of 3000 R X-radiation. Mature sperm were then sampled by mating to X.Y/X.Y, X.Y/X, or X/X females that carried markers on the second and third chromosomes for the detection of induced autosomal translocations. Two pairs of maternal stocks were used and heterozygous X.Y/X females were obtained by making both reciprocal crosses. The highest frequencies of induced translocations were obtained with X/X females. In one series these frequencies are higher than those obtained with either X.Y/X or X.Y/X.Y females. In the other series a uniform frequency of translocations was obtained with all types of female, except for one of the two types of heterozygous female, which gave lower frequencies. The experiments have provided data which show that the addition of Y-chromosomes to the maternal genome does not have a specific effect on the recovery of induced paternal autosomal translocations. Maternal Y-chromosomes increased the proportions of fertile F1 males, this effect being consistent in direction but varying in degree. (Auth.)

184

Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively, preparing at least their major offspring for the sexual competition they will face in the future. This new type of maternal effect in dung beetles represents a novel transgenerational response of alternative reproductive tactics to population density.

Buzatto Bruno A

2012-07-01

185

Effect of 5-HT1B receptor agonists injected into the prefrontal cortex on maternal aggression in rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Serotonin (5-HT1B) receptors play an essential role in the inhibition of aggressive behavior in rodents. CP-94,253, a 5-HT1B receptor agonist, can reduce aggression in male mice when administered directly into the ventro-orbitofrontal (VO) prefrontal cortex (PFC). The objective of the current study [...] was to assess the effects of two selective 5-HT1B receptor agonists (CP-94,253 and CP-93,129), microinjected into the VO PFC, on maternal aggressive behavior after social instigation in rats. CP-94,253 (0.56 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8) or CP-93,129 (1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 9) was microinjected into the VO PFC of Wistar rats on the 9th day postpartum and 15 min thereafter the aggressive behavior by the resident female against a male intruder was recorded for 10 min. The frequency and duration of aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc tests. CP-93,129 significantly decreased maternal aggression. The frequency of lateral attacks, bites and pinnings was reduced compared to control, while the non-aggressive behaviors and maternal care were largely unaffected by this treatment. CP-94,253 had no significant effects on aggressive or non-aggressive behaviors when microinjected into the same area of female rats. CP-93,129, a specific 5-HT1B receptor agonist, administered into the VO PFC reduced maternal aggressive behavior, while the CP-94,253 agonist did not significantly affect this behavior after social instigation in female rats. We conclude that only the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP-93,129 administered into the VO PFC decreased aggression in female rats postpartum after social instigation.

C.P., Veiga; K.A., Miczek; A.B., Lucion; R.M.M. de, Almeida.

2007-06-01

186

Effect of 5-HT1B receptor agonists injected into the prefrontal cortex on maternal aggression in rats  

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Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT1B receptors play an essential role in the inhibition of aggressive behavior in rodents. CP-94,253, a 5-HT1B receptor agonist, can reduce aggression in male mice when administered directly into the ventro-orbitofrontal (VO prefrontal cortex (PFC. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of two selective 5-HT1B receptor agonists (CP-94,253 and CP-93,129, microinjected into the VO PFC, on maternal aggressive behavior after social instigation in rats. CP-94,253 (0.56 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8 or CP-93,129 (1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 9 was microinjected into the VO PFC of Wistar rats on the 9th day postpartum and 15 min thereafter the aggressive behavior by the resident female against a male intruder was recorded for 10 min. The frequency and duration of aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc tests. CP-93,129 significantly decreased maternal aggression. The frequency of lateral attacks, bites and pinnings was reduced compared to control, while the non-aggressive behaviors and maternal care were largely unaffected by this treatment. CP-94,253 had no significant effects on aggressive or non-aggressive behaviors when microinjected into the same area of female rats. CP-93,129, a specific 5-HT1B receptor agonist, administered into the VO PFC reduced maternal aggressive behavior, while the CP-94,253 agonist did not significantly affect this behavior after social instigation in female rats. We conclude that only the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP-93,129 administered into the VO PFC decreased aggression in female rats postpartum after social instigation.

C.P. Veiga

2007-06-01

187

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA  

Science.gov (United States)

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother–child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30–35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10?8 (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10?9 to 4.1 × 10?8) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25313049

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A.; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M.; Paul, Ian M.; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

2014-01-01

188

Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development  

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Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

Schmidt GS

2003-01-01

189

Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC) and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutiv [...] e days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE) was evaluated at 9 (P9), 11 (P11), 13 (P13), 15 (P15), 17 (P17) and 21 (P21) days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO) was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP) and 68.48% (PPc) of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

Schmidt, GS; Figueiredo, EAP de; Ledur, MC; Alves, HJ.

190

Effects of somatotropin on the conceptus, uterus, and ovary during maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on ovarian and uterine function and the production of components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system were examined during the period of maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle. Lactating dairy cows were treated with 25 mg/d rbST (n = 8) or saline (n = 8) for 16 d after estrus. Ovaries, uteri, and conceptuses were collected on Day 17 after estrus. The length (millimeters) of the conceptus was recorded. The concentration of IGF-I and the content of IGF-binding proteins (BP) in uterine flushings were determined. Corpora lutea (CL) were weighed, and the number of follicles (> or = 2 mm in diameter) were counted. Follicular fluid from the largest and second-largest follicles was assayed for the concentration of IGF-I, IGFBP, progesterone, and estradiol. The length of the conceptus and the total amount of IGF-I in uterine fluid were similar for rbST and control. Recombinant bST increased 1) the weight of the CL, 2) the number of largest follicles (10 to 15 mm in diameter), 3) the concentration of IGF-I in the follicular fluid, 4) the follicular fluid content of IGFBP of the largest estrogenic follicle, and 5) the quantity of IGFBP in uterine flushings. The concentration of progesterone in the follicular fluid tended to be increased in rbST-treated cows, whereas the concentration of estradiol was similar to that of control cows. The concentration of progesterone in plasma was similar for rbST compared with control. In conclusion, the administration of rbST in lactating dairy cows for 16 d after estrus did not alter the growth of the conceptus collected on Day 17. The greatest responses to rbST were found within the ovary, where rbST increased the weight of the CL and altered the amount of IGF-I and IGFBP in the follicular fluid. PMID:7542581

Lucy, M C; Thatcher, W W; Collier, R J; Simmen, F A; Ko, Y; Savio, J D; Badinga, L

1995-01-01

191

Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome.

Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei

2014-01-01

192

Effect of Infant Massage by Mothers on Maternal Attachment Behavior in Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Care Units  

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Full Text Available   Background & Aim: Several studies have indicated that hospitalizing infants causes disruption on mother-infant attachment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of infant massage by mothers on maternal attachment behavior in infants hospitalized in the neonatal care units .   Methods & Materials: In this clinical trial, 42 mothers and their neonates were recruited and randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group received training by means of educational movies about practical exercises on how to massage the infants. The trained mothers used massage techniques on their infants for five days. The process lasted 15 minutes. The attachment of the mothers on their infants was assessed before and on the day 5 after the massage. Data were collected using the scale of mother-to-infant attachment. Data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test, Fisher’s exact test and the t-test in the SPSS-19 .   Results: There were no differences between the two groups in terms of demographic variables and the mean of maternal attachment at baseline (P>0.05. Five days after the massage, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the mean maternal attachment (P<0.001 .   Conclusion: According to the role of massage in attachment behavior, this traditional care is recommended to be used in neonatal units .   

Soroor Sohrabi

2014-08-01

193

Effect of Maternal Smoking Cessation Before and During Early Pregnancy on Fetal and Childhood Growth  

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Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction and childhood obesity, but only a few studies have examined the association of smoking cessation before and during pregnancy with fetal and childhood growth. We examined this association in a prospective cohort study in Japan. Methods Our study included children born between 1991 and 2006 and their mothers. Using a questionnaire, maternal smoking status was recorded at pregnancy. The anthropometric data of the children were collected during a medical check-up at age 3 years. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for data analysis stratified by sex. Results In total, 2663 mothers reported their smoking status during early pregnancy, and data were collected from 2230 (83.7%) children at age 3 years. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in birth weight (approximately 120–150 g). Body mass index at age 3 years was significantly higher among boys born to smoking mothers than among boys born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with overweight at age 3 years among boys (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.03–5.4). However, among women who stopped smoking in early pregnancy, there was no increase in the risks of a small for gestational age birth or childhood overweight at age 3 years. Conclusions Children born to mothers who stopped smoking before or during early pregnancy had appropriate fetal and childhood growth. PMID:24335086

Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Zheng, Wei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro

2014-01-01

194

Does neighborhood social capital buffer the effects of maternal depression on adolescent behavior problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D

2014-06-01

195

Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in [...] rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1) compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1). Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively) compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively). Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for control animals) and showed lower differentiation compared to fetuses from the control group. These effects were probably caused by caloric restriction, hypoxia and reduction of umbilical cord length.

A.O., Oliveira; C., Fileto; M.S., Melis.

196

Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function  

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Full Text Available The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1 compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1. Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively. Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for control animals and showed lower differentiation compared to fetuses from the control group. These effects were probably caused by caloric restriction, hypoxia and reduction of umbilical cord length.

Oliveira A.O.

2004-01-01

197

Individual and mixture effects of caffeine and sulfamethoxazole on the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio following maternal exposure.  

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Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) such as caffeine and sulfamethoxazole have been detected in the estuarine environment. The present study characterized effects of a maternal exposure of these compounds on the development of the daggerblade grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio from embryo to juvenile life stage. Ovigerous females were exposed to either caffeine (20?mg/L), sulfamethoxazole (60?mg/L), or a mixture of both (20?mg/L caffeine and 60?mg/L sulfamethoxazole). Embryos were then removed from the females and the effects of the PPCPs on hatching, metamorphosis, juvenile growth, and overall mortality were determined. No significant effect was observed on gravid female survival after 5 d of exposure to caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, or the mixture; however, development of the embryos on the female shrimp was delayed in the mixture. Caffeine and sulfamethoxazole in the mixture significantly reduced embryo survival. There was a significant effect of caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, and the mixture on embryo hatching time. Exposure to sulfamethoxazole alone significantly delayed larval metamorphosis. Exposure to caffeine and sulfamethoxazole separately led to significantly smaller length of juvenile shrimp. Maternal exposure to caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, individually and in mixture, resulted in negative effects on P. pugio offspring survival and development; however, the concentrations tested in the present study were well above maximum detected field concentrations. These results may be incorporated into PPCP risk assessments to protect sensitive estuarine ecosystems more effectively. PMID:24932500

Garcia, Robin N; Chung, Katy W; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Curran, M Carla

2014-09-01

198

Hemoglobinas humanas: hipótese malária ou efeito materno? / Human hemoglobins: malaria hypothesis or maternal effect?  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As hemoglobinopatias têm provido uma das poucas demonstrações convincentes da seleção, influenciando a freqüência de único gene na população humana. A alta taxa de desordens, tais como a anemia falciforme e a beta-talassemia, ocorridas em áreas subtropicais ou tropicais dentro do cinturão da malária [...] , levou Haldane a propor que a malária pode ser o agente seletivo responsável que balanceia a perda dos genes para a talassemia e a anemia falciforme, por morte prematura dos homozigotos a partir do aumento do valor adaptativo de heterozigotos no ambiente com malária. Mas uma nova proposta surgiu para explicar a manutenção deste polimorfismo, baseada na fertilidade diferencial ou efeito parental. Alguns autores observaram uma distorção favorecendo a transmissão de alelos mutantes em áreas não endêmicas de malária. Com base nestas observações, esses autores propuseram um efeito materno para explicar tais distorções. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão destes mecanismos envolvidos na manutenção do polimorfismo de hemoglobinopatias, desde seu modelo clássico até hipóteses alternativas que surgiram recentemente na literatura. Abstract in english Hemoglobinopathies are providing one of the few convincing demonstrations of selection, influencing the frequency of a single gene in the human population. The high rate of disorders, such as the sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia that occur in the subtropical or tropical regions within the str [...] ip affected by malaria, led Haldane to propose that malaria may be the selective agent responsible for balancing the loss of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia genes due to the early death of homozygous patients. But a new proposal appeared to explain the maintenance of these polymorphisms, based on the differential fertility or parental effect. Some authors observed a distortion favoring the transmission of mutant alleles in non-endemic malaria areas. Based on these observations, the authors proposed a maternal effect to explain these distortions. This study aims at presenting a review of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of polymorphisms of hemoglobinopathies, both from the classic model and the recently published alternative hypotheses.

Felipe R., Torres; Claudia R., Bonini-Domingos.

199

Hemoglobinas humanas: hipótese malária ou efeito materno? / Human hemoglobins: malaria hypothesis or maternal effect?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As hemoglobinopatias têm provido uma das poucas demonstrações convincentes da seleção, influenciando a freqüência de único gene na população humana. A alta taxa de desordens, tais como a anemia falciforme e a beta-talassemia, ocorridas em áreas subtropicais ou tropicais dentro do cinturão da malária [...] , levou Haldane a propor que a malária pode ser o agente seletivo responsável que balanceia a perda dos genes para a talassemia e a anemia falciforme, por morte prematura dos homozigotos a partir do aumento do valor adaptativo de heterozigotos no ambiente com malária. Mas uma nova proposta surgiu para explicar a manutenção deste polimorfismo, baseada na fertilidade diferencial ou efeito parental. Alguns autores observaram uma distorção favorecendo a transmissão de alelos mutantes em áreas não endêmicas de malária. Com base nestas observações, esses autores propuseram um efeito materno para explicar tais distorções. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão destes mecanismos envolvidos na manutenção do polimorfismo de hemoglobinopatias, desde seu modelo clássico até hipóteses alternativas que surgiram recentemente na literatura. Abstract in english Hemoglobinopathies are providing one of the few convincing demonstrations of selection, influencing the frequency of a single gene in the human population. The high rate of disorders, such as the sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia that occur in the subtropical or tropical regions within the str [...] ip affected by malaria, led Haldane to propose that malaria may be the selective agent responsible for balancing the loss of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia genes due to the early death of homozygous patients. But a new proposal appeared to explain the maintenance of these polymorphisms, based on the differential fertility or parental effect. Some authors observed a distortion favoring the transmission of mutant alleles in non-endemic malaria areas. Based on these observations, the authors proposed a maternal effect to explain these distortions. This study aims at presenting a review of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of polymorphisms of hemoglobinopathies, both from the classic model and the recently published alternative hypotheses.

Felipe R., Torres; Claudia R., Bonini-Domingos.

2005-03-01

200

Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?  

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Early life stress (ELS) in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces "detrimental" effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first post-natal days and exposure to a "substitute" mother. The maternal care of biological and "substitute" mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM), acoustic startle response (ASR) and forced swim test (FST). In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects). Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behavior by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the "substitute" mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of "detrimental" and "beneficial" effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behavior. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR) and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may "buffer" the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner. PMID:24616673

Fuentes, Sílvia; Daviu, Núria; Gagliano, Humberto; Garrido, Pedro; Zelena, Dóra; Monasterio, Nela; Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effect of maternal dietary energy and protein on live performance and yield dynamics of broiler progeny from young breeders.  

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The objective of this research was to evaluate effects of female broiler breeder dietary ME and CP during rearing and dietary ME during early lay on broiler offspring performance and carcass yield dynamics. A factorial arrangement of treatments, with 2 ME levels, and 2 balanced protein levels from 3 to 24 wk, followed by 2 ME levels in the lay diets, and in the broilers, 2 sexes. A total of 1,635 broilers were housed in 32 pens, with 8 replicate pens according to maternal laying diet and sex. Maternal pullet diets were nested within pen (n = 9 to 14, depending on hatch rate). The broilers originated from 384 Ross 708 hens, which had been fed diets containing high (2,736 kcal/kg, HEREAR) or low ME (2,528 kcal/kg, LEREAR) combined with either high (15.3%, HPREAR) or low balanced protein (13.7% CP, LPREAR). Equal numbers of hens from each pullet treatment were then fed either a high (2,900 kcal/kg, HELAY) or low ME diet (2,800 kcal/kg, LELAY) containing 15% CP. Broilers were hatched from eggs collected at 28 wk of age, and fed identical diets. Broilers were individually weighed weekly. Serial dissections were conducted to evaluate yield breast muscle and abdominal fatpad dynamics. At 39 d, 180 broilers were processed to measure carcass yield. Female progeny of hens with the lowest CP intake during rearing (HEREAR × LPREAR) were lighter from 22 to 36 d of age than female offspring from hens that consumed more CP as pullets. We predicted the heaviest female progeny would result from an ME:CP ratio of 18.25 kcal/g in maternal pullet diets (P = 0.0063). Broiler breast yield increased when maternal EM:CP ratio increased after switching from pullet to laying diets. Hens fed HEREAR were fatter and had fatter progeny than LEREAR. Maternal diet, even during the pullet phase, influenced progeny growth and yield. PMID:25193254

Moraes, T G V; Pishnamazi, A; Mba, E T; Wenger, I I; Renema, R A; Zuidhof, M J

2014-11-01

202

The Indirect Effects of Maternal Emotion Socialization on Friendship Quality in Middle Childhood  

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Emotion development processes have long been linked to social competence in early childhood but rarely have these associations been examined in middle childhood or with relational outcomes. Guided by theories of interpersonal relationships and emotion socialization, the current study was designed to fill these gaps by examining a longitudinal process model indirectly linking emotion development to friendship quality. Data were drawn from 336 children (179 girls, 65% White), their mothers, and their teachers across 3 time points spanning the ages of 5–10 years. A path analysis model was utilized to examine the way in which maternal emotion socialization indirectly affects children’s friendship quality. Results supported the hypothesized model in which maternal emotion socialization strategies used when children were age 5 were associated with changes in friendship quality from ages 7 to 10 via changes in children’s emotion regulation. Findings highlight the importance of emotional processes for relational outcomes in middle childhood. PMID:23795555

Blair, Bethany L.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shanahan, Lilly

2014-01-01

203

The effects of SES on infant and maternal diurnal salivary cortisol output.  

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The present study directly compared diurnal salivary cortisol output and maternal-infant synchrony in low and high socio-economic status (SES) mother-infant dyads. Saliva cortisol samples were collected from 32 6-12-month-old infants and their mothers on the same day in the morning, afternoon and evening, and assayed for free cortisol concentration. Low-SES infants and mothers exhibited higher average salivary cortisol output, without dysregulation, compared to high-SES infants. Low-SES infants and mothers also showed reduced synchrony in cortisol output compared to high-SES infants and mothers. Results are discussed with respect to maternal sensitivity and early stress reduction interventions. PMID:24813589

Clearfield, Melissa W; Carter-Rodriguez, Ariel; Merali, Al-Rahim; Shober, Rachel

2014-08-01

204

Moderating effects of positive parenting and maternal alcohol use on emerging adults' alcohol use: does living at home matter?  

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Positive parenting behaviors and parental modeling of alcohol use are consistent predictors of offspring's alcohol use. Recent research extends these findings to emerging adult children and confirms continued parental influence beyond adolescence. This paper examines how maternal warmth and supervision moderate the effects of mother's heavy alcohol use on their offspring's alcohol use among a sample of non-college-attending emerging adults. Three-way interactions were used to examine if these moderating effects differed between emerging adults who lived at home and those with other living arrangements. Separate analyses within gender were used to further examine these associations. Participants were 245 emerging adults between ages 18 and 22 years with no post-secondary education (59% female) who were selected from a national probability-based internet panel. Path analyses indicated that, regardless of living arrangements, male emerging adults who were more likely to witness their mother getting drunk were themselves more likely to engage in risky drinking. However, among female emerging adults, similarity between mothers' and daughters' drunkenness was strongest among participants who resided with their family and also reported low levels of maternal warmth. This study extends previous research by indicating that the effects of maternal modeling of heavy alcohol use on emerging adults' heavy alcohol use depend upon several factors, including the gender of the child and the family context. Implications of the study findings are discussed in terms of expanding the scope of a parent-based intervention (PBI) to all emerging adults, including those who do not attend colleges or universities. PMID:24583277

Cleveland, Michael J; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; White, Helene R

2014-05-01

205

The effect of maternal nicotine on basement membrane collagen IV of brain microvessels changes in neonatal Balb/C mice  

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Background: Nicotine can pass through placental blood barrier and accumulate in the developing organs of fetus. Also, entering the breast milk, nicotine can have an effect on the neonates. Investigations have showed that collagen IV is one of the most important micro vessels basement membrane components. Objective: In this study, the effect of maternal nicotine exposure in pre and postnatal periods on collagen IV in microvessels of neonatal Balb/C mice brain cortex was studied by immunohistochemistry technique. Materials and Methods: 24 pregnant Balb/C mice were divided in to 4 groups (6 mice in each group): two experimental and 2 control groups. The mothers in the 1st experimental group were injected 3 mg/kg nicotine intrapritoneally from the 5th day of pregnancy to parturition daily and in 2nd experimental group the same procedure was repeated to the 10th day after parturition (lactation). The control groups received the same volume of normal saline during the same time. 10 days after delivery, the brain tissues of newborns were isolated. Then, prepared blocks from fixed brain were cut serially for immunohistochemical assay. Results: The findings of the present study indicated that collagen IV reaction in microvessels basement membrane in the first experimental group increased significantly compared to the first control group (p=0.002). In addition, collagen IV reaction in microvessels basement membrane in the 2nd experimental group increased significantly compared to the 2nd control group (p=0.002). However, no significant difference was observed between the two experimental groups. Conclusion: These results suggested that maternal nicotine exposure during prenatal period may increase basement membrane collagen IV expression. Also, nicotine increases in maternal breast milk has no effect on basement membrane collagen IV expression. PMID:24976823

Tahajjodi, Somayyeh Sadat; Amerion, Maryam; Mahdavi Shahri, Nasser; Jalali, Mehdi; Nikravesh, Mohammad Reza

2014-01-01

206

Evaluation Of The Potential Mutagenic Effects Of Ginseng On Maternally Treated Postimplanted Mouse Foetuses  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of ginseng (herbal medicine on maternally treated postimplanted mouse foetuses. A total of 60 adult albino female mice were used and divided into 6 groups (10 females each. The first group (I served as a control group and received oral doses of the vehicle (0.5 ml disteled water for 60 days before pregnancy to 13th day of pregnancy. The rest 5 groups received orally 4mg/kg.bw of ginseng for 7, 14, 30, 45 and 60 days before day 0 of gestation and extended to 13th day of pregnancy. Then 6 females of each group were sacrificed, feotuses sample from each female were taken and subjected to cytogenetic analysis. The rest females of each group (4 females were continuously treated and sacrificed at day 17 of getation, foetuses were examined morphologically and for different features such as implanation sites, living feotuses, resorbed foetuses and foetus body weight. Chromosome analysis of the present study (Table 1 revealed that there were numerical aberrations (peridiploidy. There was a difference only between group II and III in respect to hypodiploid (2n-, meanwhile, hyperdiploid (2n+ were more frequent in group IV and VI than that in control group (group I. For the total numerical aberrations, there were significant differences between groups II, VI compared to the control group. All groups had little frequencies of structural aberrations especially for chromatid gaps, breaks and fragments. There were a significant differences between group IV and VI compared with the control group for the deletions. Chromosome breaks were more frequent in the groups III and IV compared to the control group, whereas groups V, VI had more frequencies of centromeric attenuations than the control group. There were no differences between control group and the rest of all groups investigated for implantation sites, living foetuses and resorbed foetuses (Table 2, whereas for gross malformation, 5.41 % of group VI where abnormal and the rest of all groups had no malformations. For the mean fetal body weight, there was a significant difference among the control group (I and the groups number II, III and VI. We conclude that treatment with ginseng as a herbal medicine may cause fetal chromosomal aberrations as well as gross malformation especially when taken for a long time and extended during pregnancy. So, we recommend that the use of ginseng during first trimester of pregnancy should be with caution.

H.M. El Ashmaoui, S. M. Girgis and Abd El Raouf, A.

2003-12-01

207

The effect of maternal and child health and family planning services on mortality: is prevention enough?  

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OBJECTIVE--To examine the impact on mortality of a child survival strategy, mostly based on preventive interventions. DESIGN--Cross sectional comparison of cause specific mortality in two communities differing in the type, coverage, and quality of maternal and child health and family planning services. In the intervention area the services were mainly preventive, community based, and home delivered. SUBJECTS--Neonates, infants, children, and mothers in two contiguous areas of rural Bangladesh...

Fauveau, V.; Wojtyniak, B.; Chakraborty, J.; Sarder, A. M.; Briend, A.

1990-01-01

208

Maternal age effect on mouse oocytes: new biological insight from proteomic analysis.  

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The long-standing view of 'immortal germline vs mortal soma' poses a fundamental question in biology concerning how oocytes age in molecular terms. A mainstream hypothesis is that maternal ageing of oocytes has its roots in gene transcription. Investigating the proteins resulting from mRNA translation would reveal how far the levels of functionally available proteins correlate with mRNAs and would offer novel insights into the changes oocytes undergo during maternal ageing. Gene ontology (GO) semantic analysis revealed a high similarity of the detected proteome (2324 proteins) to the transcriptome (22?334 mRNAs), although not all proteins had a cognate mRNA. Concerning their dynamics, fourfold changes of abundance were more frequent in the proteome (3%) than the transcriptome (0.05%), with no correlation. Whereas proteins associated with the nucleus (e.g. structural maintenance of chromosomes and spindle-assembly checkpoints) were largely represented among those that change in oocytes during maternal ageing; proteins associated with oxidative stress/damage (e.g. superoxide dismutase) were infrequent. These quantitative alterations are either impoverishing or enriching. Using GO analysis, these alterations do not relate in any simple way to the classic signature of ageing known from somatic tissues. Given the lack of correlation, we conclude that proteome analysis of mouse oocytes may not be surrogated with transcriptome analysis. Furthermore, we conclude that the classic features of ageing may not be transposed from somatic tissues to oocytes in a one-to-one fashion. Overall, there is more to the maternal ageing of oocytes than mere cellular deterioration exemplified by the notorious increase of meiotic aneuploidy. PMID:24686459

Schwarzer, Caroline; Siatkowski, Marcin; Pfeiffer, Martin J; Baeumer, Nicole; Drexler, Hannes C A; Wang, Bingyuan; Fuellen, Georg; Boiani, Michele

2014-07-01

209

Effects of maternal obesity on early and long-term outcomes for offspring  

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Laura I Stirrat,1,2 Rebecca M Reynolds2,3 1Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Tommy's Centre for Maternal and Fetal Health, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 3Endocrinology Unit, University/British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queens Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The prevalence of m...

Li, Stirrat; Rm, Reynolds

2014-01-01

210

Effects of maternal smoking and caffeine habits on infantile apnea: a retrospective study.  

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To evaluate the relationship of antecedent maternal smoking and caffeine consumption habits on the occurrence of apnea in their offspring, rates for central and obstructive apnea were analyzed in a cohort of mother-infant pairs. The mothers of 298 infants with apnea responded to a questionnaire completed prior to a nine-hour polysomnogram performed as part of the patients' evaluations. Cigarette consumption estimates were computed on a 20-cigarette per pack basis, and caffeine intake, based on dietary sources (coffee, tea, chocolate, and colas), was summarized as milligrams of caffeine consumed per day. Rates of central and obstructive apnea of 6 to 10 seconds in duration were calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis determined that smokers tended to be younger and have lower birth weight infants who presented earlier with apnea than infants of nonsmokers. Increased rates of central apnea occurred in infants of smokers as compared with infants of nonsmokers. During pregnancy, a pack per day increase in maternal smoking habit was associated with a 1.88/h increase in central apneas in their offspring (P less than .01). Maternal smoking after delivery had a similar relationship. Obstructive apnea rates were similar in both groups. Both central and obstructive apnea rates associated positively with increasing maternal caffeine consumption. Smoking habits and caffeine ingestion were correlated (P less than .01). Infants with apnea have greater rates of central apnea when their mothers smoke during pregnancy. Therefore, a history of nicotine consumption should be included in the medical history of infants presenting with apnea. PMID:3725488

Toubas, P L; Duke, J C; McCaffree, M A; Mattice, C D; Bendell, D; Orr, W C

1986-07-01

211

Nobody Home: The Effect of Maternal Labor Force Participation on Long-Term Child Outcomes  

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We investigate how mother?s employment during childhood affects long term child outcomes. We utilize rich longitudinal data from Norway covering the entire Norwegian population between the years 1970 to 2007. The data allows us to match all family members and to measure maternal labor force participation throughout the child?s entire childhood. Our empirical approach exploits the variation in exposure to a working mother that exists across older and younger siblings in different family type...

Haaland, Venke Furre; Rege, Mari; Votruba, Mark

2013-01-01

212

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

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Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

2006-06-01

213

A Complex Interaction of Imprinted and Maternal-Effect Genes Modifies Sex Determination in Odd Sex (Ods) Mice  

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The transgenic insertional mouse mutation Odd Sex (Ods) represents a model for the long-range regulation of Sox9. The mutation causes complete female-to-male sex reversal by inducing a male-specific expression pattern of Sox9 in XX Ods/+ embryonic gonads. We previously described an A/J strain-specific suppressor of Ods termed Odsm1A. Here we show that phenotypic sex depends on a complex interaction between the suppressor and the transgene. Suppression can be achieved only if the transgene is transmitted paternally. In addition, the suppressor itself exhibits a maternal effect, suggesting that it may act on chromatin in the early embryo. PMID:15579706

Poirier, Christophe; Qin, Yangjun; Adams, Carolyn P.; Anaya, Yanett; Singer, Jonathan B.; Hill, Annie E.; Lander, Eric S.; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Bishop, Colin E.

2004-01-01

214

Maternal Employment  

Science.gov (United States)

The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)

Clark, Sam

1975-01-01

215

Estimation of Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Direct and Maternal Effects on Birth Weight in Brown Swiss Cattle  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight in Brown Swiss cattle reared at Malya and Konuklar State Farms, Türkiye. The least square means of birth weight were 39.91±0.005 and 42.26±0.09kg for the calves raised at Malya and Konuklar State Farms, respectively. The effects of calving year, parity and calf sex on birth weight were significant (P<0.05. The effect of calving season on birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01 for Malya State Farm, while it was non-significant for Konuklar State Farm. Direct heritability (h2d, maternal heritability (h2m, total heritability (h2T and the fraction of variance due to maternal permanent environmental effects (c2 were 0.09, 0.04, 0.11 and 0.04, respectively for birth weights of the calves raised at Malya State Farms. The corresponding values of birth weight for calves raised at Konuklar State Farm were 0.39, 0.015, 0.29 and 0.018, respectively.

Ali Kaygisiz*, Galip Bakir1, Isa Yilmaz2 and Yusuf Vanli3

2011-01-01

216

Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor agonist MK212 and 2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 on maternal behavior in postpartum female rats.  

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Maternal behavior in rats is a highly motivated and well-organized social behavior. Given the known roles of serotonin (5-HT) in emotion, motivation, social behavior, and major depression - and its known interaction with dopamine - it is likely that serotonin also plays a crucial role in this behavior. So far, there are surprisingly few studies focusing on 5-HT in maternal behavior, except for maternal aggression. In the present study, we examined the effects of 5-HT2C receptor agonism and 5-HT2A receptor antagonism on maternal behavior in postpartum female rats. We hypothesized that activation of 5-HT2C receptors and blockade of 5-HT2A receptors would produce a functionally equivalent disruption of maternal behavior because these two receptor subtypes often exert opposite effects on various brain functions and psychological processes relevant to rat maternal behavior. On postpartum Days 5, 7, and 9, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of 0.9% NaCl solution, the 5-HT2C agonist MK212 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg, ip), or the 5-HT2A antagonist MDL100907 (0.05, 0.5 or 2.0 mg/kg, ip). Maternal behavior was tested 30 min before and 30 min, 120 min, 240 min after injection. Acute injection of MK212 significantly disrupted pup retrieval, pup licking, pup nursing, and nest building in a dose-dependent fashion. At the tested doses, MDL100907 had little effect on various components of rat maternal behavior. Across the 3 days of testing, no apparent sensitization or tolerance associated with repeated administration of MK212 and MDL100907 was found. We concluded that rat maternal performance is critically dependent on 5-HT2C receptors, while the role of 5-HT2A receptors is still inconclusive. Possible behavioral mechanisms of actions of 5-HT2C receptor in maternal behavior are discussed. PMID:24321440

Chen, Weihai; Zhang, Qi; Su, Wenxin; Zhang, Haorong; Yang, Yu; Qiao, Jing; Sui, Nan; Li, Ming

2014-02-01

217

Comparison between Effects of Intravenous Labetalol and Hydralazine on Control of Hypertension and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Severe Preeclamptic Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Severe preeclampsia and eclampsia are responsible for 25% of maternal mortality, especially in developing countries. Considering the importance of this complication, the present study aimed to compare between effects of labetalol and hydralazine on control of hypertension and the maternal and neonatal outcomes in severe preeclamptic patients.Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 190 severe preeclamptic patients classified into two groups (95 subjects in each group. Two groups were randomly received hydralazine (5 mg intravenously,, every 20 minutes, up to a maximum of five doses or labetalol (at first 20 mg intravenously, and if not effective, 40, 80, 80, 80 mg respectively, every 20 minutes, up to a maximum of five doses. In both groups, blood pressure and heart rate were recorded 20 minutes after drug administration. Blood pressure control, as well as the maternal and neonatal outcomes, compared between two groups. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared using chi-square, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and t tests. All significant differences were at p<0.05. Results: Demographic characteristics and blood pressure control were similar in both groups, only five women in the hydralazine group and four women in labetalol group had persistent severe hypertension after maximum of five doses. Hypotension was not observed in both groups. Maternal tachycardia was similar in two groups. Others maternal and neonatal outcomes had no significant differences between two groups.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the effect of labetalol and hydralazin is similar in the control of hypertension in severe preeclamptic patients and there isn’t significant different in maternal and neonatal outcome in two groups.

Tabasi Z

2013-01-01

218

The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ? six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

Abdulahi Abdulreshid

2010-04-01

219

Effects of maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing on chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasitism and performance of lambs.  

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Forty-eight 4- to 5-yr-old Blackface x Bluefaced Leicester (Mule) ewes and their 24-d-old twin lambs were used to assess the effects of maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing on chicory (Cichorium intybus) on performance and parasitism. The experiment consisted of 2 grazing periods: safe pasture period and experimental pasture period. During an adaptation period of 66 d, ewes were infected through oral dosing with Teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae (3 d per wk) and were supplemented with protein (HP) or not (LP) for the last 45 d of this period. At the end of this period, ewes and their lambs were turned out onto a parasitologically safe pasture; all ewes continued to be dosed with parasite (once a week), and HP ewes received protein supplementation for the first 35 d. Ewes and lambs grazed the safe pasture for an additional 43 d after termination of protein supplementation and of oral dosing with parasites. Ewes and their lambs were then moved onto newly established experimental pastures sown with chicory or grass/clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). During the safe pasture period, HP ewes had decreased fecal egg counts (FEC) compared with LP ewes, whereas HP lambs had temporarily less (P chicory had consistently less (P chicory compared with the grass/clover plots. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between maternal nutrition and grazed forage type on performance or parasitological measurements. Our results suggest that increased maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing of chicory independently improve lamb performance and reduce lamb parasitism. PMID:20023143

Kidane, A; Houdijk, J G M; Athanasiadou, S; Tolkamp, B J; Kyriazakis, I

2010-04-01

220

Effect of postnatal maternal protein intake on prenatal programming of hypertension.  

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This study examined whether postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation during the time of nursing can program hypertension when the offspring are studied as adults. Rats were fed either a 6% or 20% protein diet during the second half of pregnancy and continued on the same diet while rats were nursing their pups. The neonates of all of the rats were cross-fostered to a different mother and studied as adults. Adult rats that had a normal prenatal environment but were reared by mothers fed a low-protein diet until weaning (20%-6%) were hypertensive, had a higher renal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) protein abundance yet a comparable number of glomeruli, and had higher plasma renin and angiotensin II levels compared to control (20%-20%). Rats whose mothers were fed a 6% protein diet and cross-fostered to a different rat fed a 6% protein diet until weaning (6%-6%) were hypertensive, had elevated plasma renin and angiotensin II levels, and had a reduction in nephron number but had NKCC2 and NCC levels comparable to 20% to 20% offspring. The 6% to 20% had blood pressure and glomerular numbers comparable to 20% to 20% rats. The hypertension resulting from prenatal dietary protein deprivation can be normalized by improving the postnatal environment. Combined prenatal and postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation and maternal dietary protein deprivation while nursing alone (20%-6%) results in hypertension, but the mechanism for the hypertension in these groups is different. PMID:24740990

Siddique, Khurrum; Guzman, German Lozano; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies  

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Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364

Emre Yanikkerem

2012-06-01

222

Effects of maternal ischemic preconditioning in the colon of newborn rats submitted to hypoxia-reoxygenation insult  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of maternal remote ischemic preconditioning (IPCr) in the colonic mucosa of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. METHODS: Newborn Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Control Group (CG), Hypoxia and Reoxygenation Group (HRG) and Remote Isc [...] hemic Preconditioning Group (IPCrG). Hypoxia and reoxygenation was performed 2x per day, with an interval of 6 hours, on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd days of life, with 10 minutes of CO2 at 100%, followed by 10 minutes O2 at 100%(HRG/IPCrG). The maternal IPCr was performed 24 hours before delivery by applying a rubber band tourniquet to the left hind limb (IPCrG). Segments of the colon underwent histological (HE) and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 and COX - 2. RESULTS: The histological findings showed no intestinal mucosal damage in the CG group and severe lesions in HRG that was attenuated in the IPCrG (p

Maria Andréia Lopes de, Freitas; Rúdnei de Oliveira Luciano, Gomes; Bruno Leonardo de Freitas, Soares; Ricardo, Artigiani Neto; Edna Frasson de Souza, Montero; José Luiz, Martins.

2014-07-01

223

Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district  

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Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

Gogoi Gourangie

2007-01-01

224

The Effects of Paternal Support and Maternal Support on Vocational Exploration and Commitment of Taiwanese College Students  

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Full Text Available In this study, the effects of paternal support and maternal support on the Vocational Exploration and commitment to career choices of 368 Taiwanese college students were examined. Based on an integrative literature review, this study designed four constructs pertaining to paternal/maternal support: emotional support, information provision, esteem and autonomy support, and tangible assistance. The Commitment to Career Choices Scale (CCCS was divided to two dimensions: a Vocational exploration and Commitment (VEC dimension reflecting variations in one’s level of commitment to career choices, and a Tendency to Foreclose (TTF dimension assessing individual differences in how one commits to career choices. According to the results of regression analysis, the esteem and autonomy support from mothers negatively predicted vocational exploration and commitment (VEC. Furthermore, the esteem and autonomy support from fathers was the only negative and significant predictor of the tendency to foreclose. The negative relationship represents openness to the exploratory experiences of the commitment process with paternal support. The other three significant predictors, esteem and autonomy support from mothers, information support from mothers, and emotional support from fathers, were positively correlated with the tendency to foreclose.

Ching-Hua Mao

2014-06-01

225

Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child  

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Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

Mihi? Ivana

2010-01-01

226

Noninherited Maternal Antigens Identify Acceptable HLA Mismatches: Benefit to Patients and Cost-Effectiveness for Cord Blood Banks.  

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Cord blood unit (CBU) transplantations to patients mismatched for only 1 HLA antigen, which is identical to the CBU noninherited maternal antigen (NIMA), are designated as having a 6/6 "virtual" NIMA-matched phenotype and have a prognosis similar to 6/6 inherited HLA-matched CBUs. Such virtual HLA phenotypes of CBUs can be created by replacing the inherited alleles with 1 or more NIMAs. Phenotypes of Dutch patients (n = 2020) were matched against the inherited and virtual HLA phenotypes of the National Cord Blood Program CBU file (with known NIMA, n = 6827). Inherited 6/6 matches were found for 11% of the patients. Including virtual phenotypes resulted in, overall, 19-fold more different phenotypes than were inherited, conferring 6/6 virtual matches for an additional 20% of the patients, whereas another 17% might benefit from CBUs with a 4/6 HLA match and 1 NIMA match (4/6 + 1NIMA or 5/6 virtual match). The elucidation of donors' maternal HLA phenotypes can provide significant numbers of 6/6 and 5/6 virtually matched CBUs to patients and is potentially cost effective. PMID:25042738

Van der Zanden, Henk G M; Van Rood, Jon J; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Bakker, Jack N A; Melis, Angelo; Brand, Anneke; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Rubinstein, Pablo

2014-11-01

227

Effect of maternal factors on nutritional status of 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population  

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Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother?s demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38% had low weight for age whereas 222 (46.06% had low height for age. Both kinds of malnutrition were common in females than in males. Prevalence of malnutrition was more where mother?s age was less than 20 years. Children of educated mothers were better nourished as compared to illiterate ones. Conclusion: Maternal factors significantly affect a child?s nutritional status, thus encouraging the improvement in the social status of women so as to have healthy children and thereby a healthy future.

Mittal A

2007-01-01

228

Effects of maternal ischemic preconditioning in the colon of newborn rats submitted to hypoxia-reoxygenation insult  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of maternal remote ischemic preconditioning (IPCr) in the colonic mucosa of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. METHODS: Newborn Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Control Group (CG), Hypoxia and Reoxygenation Group (HRG) and Remote Isc [...] hemic Preconditioning Group (IPCrG). Hypoxia and reoxygenation was performed 2x per day, with an interval of 6 hours, on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd days of life, with 10 minutes of CO2 at 100%, followed by 10 minutes O2 at 100%(HRG/IPCrG). The maternal IPCr was performed 24 hours before delivery by applying a rubber band tourniquet to the left hind limb (IPCrG). Segments of the colon underwent histological (HE) and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 and COX - 2. RESULTS: The histological findings showed no intestinal mucosal damage in the CG group and severe lesions in HRG that was attenuated in the IPCrG (p

Maria Andréia Lopes de, Freitas; Rúdnei de Oliveira Luciano, Gomes; Bruno Leonardo de Freitas, Soares; Ricardo, Artigiani Neto; Edna Frasson de Souza, Montero; José Luiz, Martins.

229

Maternal and larval effects of photoperiod on the induction of larval diapause in two species of fly, Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata.  

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The induction of larval diapause in the blowflies Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata was studied in relation to maternal and/or larval exposure to photoperiod. In C. vicina, maternal experience of short daylength was shown to be more important than larval exposure, although diapause was only observed when the larval rearing temperature was below 15 degrees C. The critical daylength was between 12 and 15 h per day. Recovery from diapause was temperature- but not photoperiod-dependent. Some evidence was obtained, however, to suggest that the rate of recovery was more rapid among larvae from short-day mothers which were bred in pre-diapause conditions of long days. By transferring adult flies from short days into darkness several days before oviposition, it was shown that the important photoperiodic effects were truly maternal. In L. sericata, larval sensitivity to photoperiod was also demonstrated, short days inducing a protracted rate of pupariation. 'Waves' of pupariation in short-day cultures indicated intrinsic differences in diapause intensity. The critical day-length for larval sensitivity was close to 14 h per day. It is suggested that the maternal effects of photoperiod on larval diapause probably involve an unknown maternal factor which is incorporated into the developing oocytes during short-day exposure. PMID:3817113

Saunders, D S; Macpherson, J N; Cairncross, K D

1986-01-01

230

Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.  

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Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

ElizabethMcConeByrnes

2011-06-01

231

A mutation with a maternal effect in Lymnaea stagnalis L., affecting development of bilateral symmetry and dorsoventrality and preventing gastrulation  

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A maternal effect mutation is reported in Lymnaea. The effect upon offspring of homozygous mutant snails is supression of gastrulation, resulting in permanent blastulae. Mendelian segregation is monofactorial recessive; penetrance is complete. The mutants were obtained by X-ray irradiation. Morphological analysis of the mutant ''head'' region shows 9 types of cell pattern, in which development of bilateral symmetry and dorsoventrality is disturbed. Elementary cell patterns, characteristic of normal dorsal, lateral and ventral head quadrants are arranged in abnormal, but non-random, combinations. Some elements of the coordination mechanism that is supposed to organize normal head dorsoventrality by vegetative-animal cell interactions are preserved in mutant development, other elements are lost. (Auth.)

232

Mutation with a maternal effect in Lymnaea stagnalis L. , affecting development of bilateral symmetry and dorsoventrality and preventing gastrulation  

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A maternal effect mutation is reported in Lymnaea. The effect upon offspring of homozygous mutant snails is supression of gastrulation, resulting in permanent blastulae. Mendelian segregation is monofactorial recessive; penetrance is complete. The mutants were obtained by X-ray irradiation. Morphological analysis of the mutant ''head'' region shows 9 types of cell pattern, in which development of bilateral symmetry and dorsoventrality is disturbed. Elementary cell patterns, characteristic of normal dorsal, lateral and ventral head quadrants are arranged in abnormal, but non-random, combinations. Some elements of the coordination mechanism that is supposed to organize normal head dorsoventrality by vegetative-animal cell interactions are preserved in mutant development, other elements are lost.

Arnolds, W.J.A. (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Zoologisch Lab.)

1982-03-01

233

Nature of Gene Action and Maternal Effects for Pod Borer, Helicoverpa armigera Resistance and Grain Yield in Chickpea, Cicer arietinum  

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Full Text Available Information on mechanisms and inheritance of resistance is critical to plan an effective strategy to breed for resistance to insect pests. Therefore, we evaluated a diverse array of chickpea genotypes (eight desi and one kabuli with varying levels of resistance to the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera to gain an understanding of the nature of gene action and possible maternal effects. The test genotypes were crossed in all possible combinations for a full diallel. The 72 F1s (36 direct and 36 reciprocal crosses along with the parents were evaluated for resistance to H. armigera under field conditions, and for antibiosis mechanism of resistance (larval survival and larval weight gain by using detached leaf assay under laboratory conditions, and grain yield under un-protected conditions in the field. Additive gene action governed the inheritance of resistance to H. armigera, while non-additive type of gene action was predominant for inheritance of antibiosis component of resistance (larval survival and larval weight and grain yield. Greater magnitude of ?2 A(17.39 and 1.42 than ?2 D (3.93 and 1.21 indicated the preponderance of ?2 Ain inheritance of resistance to pod borer, H. armigera under laboratory and field conditions, respectively. There were no maternal effects for inheritance of resistance to pod borer and grain yield. Lines with significant gca effects for pod borer damage and grain yield were identified for further use in the resistance breeding program. The implications of the inheritance pattern of pod borer resistance and grain yield are discussed in the context of strategies to enhance pod borer resistance and grain yield in chickpea.

Vummadisetty Lakshmi Narayanamma

2013-01-01

234

Study of the effects of maternal hypothyroidism and thyroxin therapy on the neuronal density of subiculum in rat newborns  

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Full Text Available Introduction: It is well established that thyroid hormones are essential for normal development of mammalian brain. Thyroid hormone deficiency during critical period of brain development can exert devastative and irreversible effects on neuronal functions as well as on learning abilities and memory. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on the neuronal structures of the subiculum in an experimental model of cretinism. Methods: Twenty five female Wistar rats were divided into experimental groups 1 and 2 and control. The experimental groups were made hypothyroid (500 mg/L PTU in drinking water. The experimental group 2 received PTU+Levothyroxin (1mg/L in drinking water. The controls only received drinking water. After two weeks the animals were mated. During pregnancy and lactation, the treatment regime of all groups was continued as above. The brain of 20 days old newborns were dissected and fixed for histological preparation. The numerical density (NV of subicular neurons was estimated by applying a stereological technique "dissector". Results: In addition to the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on the litter size and offspring weights, the results showed significant increase of subicular neuronal density in experimental group 1 when compared with control (p<0.001. There was also a significant difference (p<0.001 between the Nv of experimental groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: The increased of neuronal Nv in hypothyroid rats was probably due to the retardation of the neuronal normal growth and extension of their dendritic arborization. It seems that thyroxin therapy can improve the effects of hypothyroidism on the neuronal structure of subiculum.

Zahra Delshad

2008-03-01

235

The effects of cigarette smoking on circulating maternal leukocytes during pregnancy.  

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During pregnancy, cigarette smoke exposure, a common environmental insult, is damaging to both mother and fetus and is associated with pregnancy loss. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of injury is not understood. We hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy interferes with the normal physiological adaptation of the maternal immune system. We used flow cytometry to measure changes in the distribution of subsets of circulating leukocytes and adhesion molecule expression in a prospective cohort of 198 women who had 325 blood samples obtained throughout pregnancy. Smoking status was assessed by plasma cotinine concentration. Smoking increased the frequency of CD3(+) lymphocytes and decreased CD56(+) cells at 14-20 weeks gestation. Smoking also decreased the expression of CD54 on monocytes and CD62L on granulocytes throughout pregnancy. Our data demonstrate that smoking affects several immune parameters, especially early in pregnancy. These perturbations may play a role in pregnancy loss in women who smoke. PMID:17161974

Luppi, Patrizia; Lain, Kristine Y; Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; DeLoia, Julie A

2007-02-01

236

Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response  

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Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR???30 per 100,000 by 2030.

Hounton Sennen

2013-01-01

237

Antioxidant supplementation overcomes the deleterious effects of maternal restraint stress-induced oxidative stress on mouse oocytes.  

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In this study, using a mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that restraint stress would impair the developmental potential of oocytes by causing oxidative stress and that antioxidant supplementation could overcome the adverse effect of stress-induced oxidative stress. Female mice were subjected to restraint stress for 24?h starting 24?h after equine chorionic gonadotropin injection. At the end of stress exposure, mice were either killed to recover oocytes for in vitro maturation (IVM) or injected with human chorionic gonadotropin and caged with male mice to observe in vivo development. The effect of antioxidants was tested in vitro by adding them to IVM medium or in vivo by maternal injection immediately before restraint stress exposure. Assays carried out to determine total oxidant and antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione levels indicated that restraint stress increased oxidative stress in mouse serum, ovaries, and oocytes. Whereas the percentage of blastocysts and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in oocytes from restraint-stressed mice, addition of antioxidants to IVM medium significantly improved their blastocyst development. Supplementation of cystine and cysteamine to IVM medium reduced ROS levels and aneuploidy while increasing glutathione synthesis and improving pre- and postimplantation development of oocytes from restraint-stressed mice. Furthermore, injection of the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate into restraint-stressed mice significantly improved the blastocyst formation and postimplantation development of their oocytes. In conclusion, restraint stress at the oocyte prematuration stage impaired the developmental potential of oocytes by increasing oxidative stress and addition of antioxidants to IVM medium or maternal antioxidant injection overcame the detrimental effect of stress-induced oxidative stress. The data reported herein are helpful when making attempts to increase the chances of a successful outcome in human IVF, because restraint was applied at a stage similar to the FSH stimulation period in a human IVF program. PMID:24043846

Lian, Hua-Yu; Gao, Yan; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Sun, Ming-Ju; Wu, Xiu-Fen; Wang, Tian-Yang; Li, Hong; Tan, Jing-He

2013-12-01

238

Effectiveness of strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants on perinatal and maternal mortality: meta-analysis  

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Objective To assess the effectiveness of strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants on the outcomes of perinatal, neonatal, and maternal death in developing countries. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, the Allied and Complementary Medicine database, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, BioMed Central, PsycINFO, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, African Index Medicus, Web of Science, Reproductive Health Library, and Science Citation Index (from inception to April 2011), without language restrictions. Search terms were “birth attend*”, “traditional midwife”, “lay birth attendant”, “dais”, and “comadronas”. Review methods We selected randomised and non-randomised controlled studies with outcomes of perinatal, neonatal, and maternal mortality. Two independent reviewers undertook data extraction. We pooled relative risks separately for the randomised and non-randomised controlled studies, using a random effects model. Results We identified six cluster randomised controlled trials (n=138?549) and seven non-randomised controlled studies (n=72?225) that investigated strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants. All six randomised controlled trials found a reduction in adverse perinatal outcomes; our meta-analysis showed significant reductions in perinatal death (relative risk 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.88, P<0.001; number needed to treat 35, 24 to 70) and neonatal death (0.79, 0.69 to 0.88, P<0.001; 98, 66 to 170). Meta-analysis of the non-randomised studies also showed a significant reduction in perinatal mortality (0.70, 0.57 to 0.84, p<0.001; 48, 32 to 96) and neonatal mortality (0.61, 0.48 to 0.75, P<0.001; 96, 65 to 168). Six studies reported on maternal mortality and our meta-analysis showed a non-significant reduction (three randomised trials, relative risk 0.79, 0.53 to 1.05, P=0.12; three non-randomised studies, 0.80, 0.44 to 1.15, P=0.26). Conclusion Perinatal and neonatal deaths are significantly reduced with strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants. PMID:22134967

2011-01-01

239

No evidence for pathogenic variants or maternal effect of ZFP57 as the cause of Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome  

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Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome, which, in 50-60% of sporadic cases, is caused by hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1 differentially methylated region (DMR) at chromosome 11p15.5. The underlying defect of this hypomethylation is largely unknown. Recently, recessive mutations of the ZFP57 gene were reported in patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 1, showing hypomethylation at multiple imprinted loci, including KCNQ1OT1 DMR in some. The aim of our study was to determine whether ZFP57 alterations were a genetic cause of the hypomethylation at KCNQ1OT1 DMR in patients with BWS. We sequenced ZFP57 in 27 BWS probands and in 23 available mothers to test for a maternal effect. We identified three novel, presumably benign sequence variants in ZFP57; thus, we found no evidence for ZFP57 alterations as a major cause in sporadic BWS cases.

Boonen, Susanne E; Hahnemann, Johanne M D

2012-01-01

240

Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment  

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Full Text Available Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.

Asher Ornoy

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Superiority of extra-pair offspring: maternal but not genetic effects as revealed by a mixed cross-fostering design.  

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Extra-pair copulations (EPC) are the rule rather than an exception in socially monogamous birds, but despite widespread occurrences, the benefits of female infidelity remain elusive. Most attention has been paid to the possibility that females gain genetic benefits from EPC, and fitness comparisons between maternal half-siblings are considered to be a defining test of this hypothesis. Recently, it was shown that these comparisons may be confounded by within-brood maternal effects where one such effect may be the distribution of half-siblings in the laying order. However, this possibility is difficult to study as it would be necessary to detect the egg from which each chick hatched. In this study, we used a new approach for egg-chick assignment and cross-fostered eggs on an individual basis among a set of nests of the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. After hatching, chicks were ascribed to mothers and therefore to individual eggs by molecular genetic methods. Extra-pair young predominated early in the laying order. Under natural conditions, this should give them a competitive advantage over their half-siblings, mediated by hatching asynchrony. However, we experimentally synchronized hatching, and after this treatment, extra-pair young did not outperform within-pair young in any studied trait including survival up to recruitment and several indicators of reproductive success and attractiveness. We obtained only modest sample sizes for the last two traits and did not test for extra-pair success of male offspring. Thus, we cannot exclude the possibility of advantages of extra-pair young during the adult phase of life. However, our data tentatively suggest that the more likely reason for females' EPCs is the insurance against the infertility of a social mate. PMID:22061105

Krist, Miloš; Munclinger, Pavel

2011-12-01

242

State of maternal, newborn and child health programmes in Nepal: what may a continuum of care model mean for more effective and efficient service delivery?  

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The cost-effective interventions exist across the continuum of maternal to child survival at each level of the health system that can contribute to achieve the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. However, implementation inefficiency, low coverage and equity gaps along this continuum remain a serious challenge to Nepal's efforts to achieve these goals. This paper proposes a continuum of care model; discusses the readiness of policy and programs to provide high impact interventions across the continuum; identifies existing gaps in MNCHN programs; and recommends policy and program actions to improve coverage, equity, effectiveness and efficiency along the continuum of MNCHN service delivery in Nepal. The literature review includes systematic desk review, followed by discussions and deliberations amongst a group of professionals and MNCH experts in Nepal. Within the government health system in Nepal, a continuum of care approach is feasible, as policies and plans exist to ensure an integrated approach across the maternal to child care continuum. However, health programs largely remain vertically oriented. Achieving integration across the maternal to child continuum of care remains a challenge at each level of health system. An integrated system of program management for maternal, newborn and child health would be a feasible solution to enable an efficient and effective delivery of intervention packages. A collaborative and partnership approach to strengthen health systems, building managerial capacity, improving governance and engaging the private and civil sectors remains vital to achieve effective coverage and improve equity across the continuum of care. PMID:22929837

Kc, A; Bhandari, A; Pradhan, Y V; Kc, N P; Upreti, S R; Thapa, K; Sharma, G; Upreti, S; Aryal, D R; Dhakwa, J R; Pun, A

2011-10-01

243

Effects of Maternal Employment and Child-Care Arrangements on Preschoolers' Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes: Evidence from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.  

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Secondary analyses indicated that maternal employment in children's first year had detrimental effects on cognitive and behavioral development. Grandmother care was beneficial for the cognitive development of children in poverty. For behavioral development, mother care was beneficial for boys and babysitter care for girls. (BC)

Baydar, Nazli; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

1991-01-01

244

Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability  

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Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

245

Understanding the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact in maternal and child mortality reduction  

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Background One of the most unexpected outcomes arising from the efforts towards maternal and child mortality reduction is that all too often the objective success has been coupled with increased inequity in the population. The aim of this study is to analyze the determinants of the complex interplay between cost-effectiveness and equity and suggest strategies that will promote an impact on mortality that reduce population child health inequities. Methods We developed a conceptual framework that exposes the nature of the links between the five key determinants that need to be taken into account when planning equitable impact. These determinants are: (i) efficiency of intervention scale-up (requires knowledge of differential increase in cost of intervention scale-up by equity strata in the population); (ii) effectiveness of intervention (requires understanding of differential effectiveness of interventions by equity strata in the population); (iii) the impact on mortality (requires knowledge of differential mortality levels by equity strata, and understanding the differences in cause composition of overall mortality in different equity strata); (iv) cost-effectiveness (compares the initial cost and the resulting impact on mortality); (v) equity structure of the population. The framework is presented visually as a four-quadrant graph. Results We use the proposed framework to demonstrate why the relationship between cost-effectiveness and equitable impact of an intervention cannot be intuitively predicted or easily planned. The relationships between the five determinants are complex, often nonlinear, context-specific and intervention-specific. We demonstrate that there will be instances when an equity-promoting approach, ie, trying to reach for the poorest and excluded in the population with health interventions, will also be the most cost-effective approach. However, there will be cases in which this will be entirely unfeasible, and where equity-neutral or even inequity-promoting approaches may be substantially more cost-effective. In those cases, investments into health system development among the poorest that would increase the quality and reduce the cost of intervention delivery would be required before intervention scale-up is planned. Conclusions The relationships between the most important determinants of cost-effectiveness and equitable impact of health interventions used to reduce maternal and child mortality are highly complex, and the effect on equity cannot be predicted intuitively, or by using simple linear models. PMID:23198135

Chopra, Mickey; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

2012-01-01

246

Efeito da Idade Materna sobre os Resultados Perinatais / Effect of Maternal Age on Perinatal Outcomes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: analisar a relação entre a idade materna e a ocorrência de resultados perinatais adversos na população do Rio Grande do Norte. Métodos: foram analisados os registros oficiais de 57.088 nascidos vivos no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte no ano de 1997. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Info [...] rmação sobre Nascidos Vivos do Ministério da Saúde. A população estudada foi dividida em Grupos I, II e III, segundo a faixa etária materna: 10 a 19, 20 a 34 e 35 anos ou mais, respectivamente. As variáveis analisadas foram: duração da gestação, peso ao nascer e tipo de parto. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste chi². Resultados: observamos uma maior incidência de parto pré-termo no Grupo I (4,3 %), em comparação ao Grupo II (3,7%) (p = 0,0028). A taxa de cesariana foi menor nos Grupos I e III, em comparação ao Grupo II (p Abstract in english Purpose: to investigate the interactions between maternal age and adverse perinatal outcomes in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. Methods: we analyzed official records of 57,088 infants in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, from January 1997 to December 1997. Data were obtained from the Information S [...] ystem of the Health Ministry, Brazil. The sample was divided into three Groups I, II and III according to maternal age range: 10 to 19 years, 20 to 34, and 35 or more, respectively. The main outcome variables were: length of pregnancy, birth weight and mode of delivery. Statistical analysis was performed using chi² test. Results: preterm deliveries were 4.3% in the adolescent group vs 3.7% in Group II (p = 0.0028). The incidence of cesarean section was higher in Group II than in the other Groups (p³35 years old there was a high incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia. Results suggest that cesarean sections are more common in women aged 20-34 years than in adolescent and older mothers.

George Dantas de, Azevedo; Reginaldo Antonio de Oliveira, Freitas Júnior; Ana Karla Monteiro Santana de Oliveira, Freitas; Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes de, Araújo; Elvira Maria Mafaldo, Soares; Técia Maria de Oliveira, Maranhão.

247

Functional mapping of the neural circuitry of rat maternal motivation: effects of site-specific transient neural inactivation.  

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The present review focuses on recent studies from our laboratory examining the neural circuitry subserving rat maternal motivation across postpartum. We employed a site-specific neural inactivation method by infusion of bupivacaine to map the maternal motivation circuitry using two complementary behavioural approaches: unconditioned maternal responsiveness and choice of pup- over cocaine-conditioned incentives in a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference task. Our findings revealed that, during the early postpartum period, distinct brain structures, including the medial preoptic area, ventral tegmental area and medial prefrontal cortex infralimbic and anterior cingulate subregions, contribute a pup-specific bias to the motivational circuitry. As the postpartum period progresses and the pups grow older, it is further revealed that maternal responsiveness becomes progressively less dependent on the medial preoptic area and medial prefrontal cortex infralimbic activity, and more distributed in the maternal circuitry, such that additional network components, including the medial prefrontal cortex prelimbic subregion, are recruited with maternal experience, and contribute to the expression of late postpartum maternal behaviour. Collectively, our findings provide strong evidence that the remarkable ability of postpartum females to successfully care for their developing infants is subserved by a distributed neural network that carries out efficient and dynamic processing of complex, constantly changing incoming environmental and pup-related stimuli, ultimately allowing the progression of appropriate expression and waning of maternal responsiveness across the postpartum period. PMID:21815954

Pereira, M; Morrell, J I

2011-11-01

248

Patterns of Attachment and Maternal Discourse Effects on Children's Emotion Understanding from 3 to 5 Years of Age.  

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Two studies examined the influence of maternal discourse style and security of attachment on preschoolers' emotion understanding. Findings indicated that neither predicted 3-year-olds' emotion understanding. Secure attachment predicted higher emotion understanding among 5-year-olds, especially in the context of maternal use of elaborative…

Ontai, Lenna L.; Thompson, Ross A.

2002-01-01

249

Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is effective in preventing maternal and placental malaria in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP is currently the recommended regimen for prevention of malaria in pregnancy in endemic areas. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of IPT-SP in the prevention of maternal and placental malaria in parturient mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria, where the risk of malaria is present all year round. Method During a larger study evaluating the epidemiology of congenital malaria, the effect of malaria prophylaxis was examined in 983 parturient mothers. Five hundred and ninety eight mothers (60.8% received IPT-SP, 214 (21.8% received pyrimethamine (PYR and 171 (17.4% did not take any chemoprophylactic agent (NC. Results The prevalence of maternal parasitaemia in the IPT-SP, PYR and NC groups was 10.4%, 15.9% and 17% respectively (p = 0.021. The prevalence of placental parasitaemia was 10.5% in the IPT-SP, 16.8% PYR and 17% NC groups, respectively (p = 0.015. The prevalence of maternal anaemia (haematocrit Conclusion IPT-SP is effective in preventing maternal and placental malaria as well as improving pregnancy outcomes among parturient women in Ibadan, Nigeria. The implementation of the recently adopted IPT-SP strategy should be pursued with vigour as it holds great promise for reducing the burden of malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria.

Mokuolu Olugbenga A

2007-07-01

250

Maternal obesity and late effects on offspring metabolism / Obesidade materna e efeitos tardios sobre o metabolismo da prole  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos tardios da obesidade materna induzida por lesão do núcleo ventromedial do hipotálamo sobre o metabolismo da prole. Trinta dias após a lesão bilateral do hipotálamo ventromedial, ratos fêmeas foram colocadas para acasalar e divididas em dois grupos de animais gestantes: Co [...] ntrole (C) – falsa lesão e Obeso (OB) – lesionados. Três meses após o nascimento, de acordo com os grupos das mães, os filhotes foram divididos em animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta normocalórica (C-N and OB-N) e animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta hipercalórica (C-H and OB-H). Aos 120 dias de idade, os animais foram eutanasiados e as carcaças, fezes e ração foram submetidas à análise calorimétrica para determinação do balanço energético e composição corporal.Resultados Durante o período de crescimento, os filhos de mães obesas mostraram maiores valores de peso corporal e ingestão alimentar que animais controle. Os animais obesos apresentaram maiores valores de ganho de peso corporal e eficiência metabólica que os animais controle quando adultos. A dieta hipercalórica levou ao aumento da energia metabolizável, percentagem de energia absorvida e gasto energético para ambos os grupos. A composição corporal foi somente afetada pela associação da dieta hipercalórica com a obesidade materna que levou ao aumento da gordura corporal.Conclusões : A obesidade materna levou ao sobrepeso tardio na prole, sugerindo uma programação fetal. Pela tendência apresentada, acreditamos que a ingestão prolongada de dietas hipercalóricas em animais adultos possa induzir uma piora no quadro de sobrepeso induzido pela obesidade materna. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7 Abstract in english Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism.Materials and methods : Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 [...] groups of pregnant animals: Control (C) – false lesion (sham) and Obese (OB) – lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N), and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H). At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition.Results : During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat.Conclusions : Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7

Daniele Sá, Vido; Mariana Bocca, Nejm; Neila Ribeiro, Silva; Sylvia Maria Affonso, Silva; Sérgio Luiz, Cravo; Jacqueline, Luz.

2014-04-01

251

Maternal obesity and late effects on offspring metabolism / Obesidade materna e efeitos tardios sobre o metabolismo da prole  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos tardios da obesidade materna induzida por lesão do núcleo ventromedial do hipotálamo sobre o metabolismo da prole. Trinta dias após a lesão bilateral do hipotálamo ventromedial, ratos fêmeas foram colocadas para acasalar e divididas em dois grupos de animais gestantes: Co [...] ntrole (C) – falsa lesão e Obeso (OB) – lesionados. Três meses após o nascimento, de acordo com os grupos das mães, os filhotes foram divididos em animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta normocalórica (C-N and OB-N) e animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta hipercalórica (C-H and OB-H). Aos 120 dias de idade, os animais foram eutanasiados e as carcaças, fezes e ração foram submetidas à análise calorimétrica para determinação do balanço energético e composição corporal.Resultados Durante o período de crescimento, os filhos de mães obesas mostraram maiores valores de peso corporal e ingestão alimentar que animais controle. Os animais obesos apresentaram maiores valores de ganho de peso corporal e eficiência metabólica que os animais controle quando adultos. A dieta hipercalórica levou ao aumento da energia metabolizável, percentagem de energia absorvida e gasto energético para ambos os grupos. A composição corporal foi somente afetada pela associação da dieta hipercalórica com a obesidade materna que levou ao aumento da gordura corporal.Conclusões : A obesidade materna levou ao sobrepeso tardio na prole, sugerindo uma programação fetal. Pela tendência apresentada, acreditamos que a ingestão prolongada de dietas hipercalóricas em animais adultos possa induzir uma piora no quadro de sobrepeso induzido pela obesidade materna. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7 Abstract in english Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism.Materials and methods : Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 [...] groups of pregnant animals: Control (C) – false lesion (sham) and Obese (OB) – lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N), and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H). At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition.Results : During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat.Conclusions : Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7

Daniele Sá, Vido; Mariana Bocca, Nejm; Neila Ribeiro, Silva; Sylvia Maria Affonso, Silva; Sérgio Luiz, Cravo; Jacqueline, Luz.

252

Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.

Williams Jim E

2008-06-01

253

Effects of maternal stress on development and behaviour in rat offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retrospective studies suggest that gestational stress in humans can delay the attainment of developmental milestones, increase the incidence of allergic reactions and respiratory infections and cause behavioural abnormalities in the children. Our studies and others have shown that prenatal stress in rats can mimic several of these developmental and behavioural alterations. These include a suppression of immune function, but also enhanced sensitivity to allergens. Prenatally-stressed rats, like children, show a reduced propensity for social interaction and increased anxiety in intimidating or novel situations. They have physiological and behavioural alterations consistent with depressive symptoms, including a phase-shift in their circadian rhythm for corticosterone, sleep abnormalities, and greater acquisition of learned helplessness under appropriate conditions. Prenatally-stressed male rats also show demasculinisation and feminisation of their sexual behaviour. The developmental and behavioural abnormalities in prenatally-stressed offspring may be mediated by alterations in the activity of endogenous opioids or neurosteroids, since several of them can be corrected by maternal administration of an opioid antagonist or by drugs like diazepam and allopregnanolone that modulate GABA transmission. PMID:22432137

Weinstock, M

2001-09-01

254

[Maternity leave and possible effects of working during pregnancy in 160 women].  

Science.gov (United States)

Three years from the approval of the law safeguarding pregnant workers and the foetus (D.Lgs. 151/01), awareness of these provisions and management of pregnancy in relation to their job were assessed in 160 pregnant workers using a questionnaire. Respondents were 147 subjects, mean age 29.4 +/- 4.6 years, employed as blue-collar workers (n=26); white-collar workers (n =47); health workers (n=16); school workers (n=14); workers in shops (n=6); policewomen (n =3) housewives (n=25). Moreprovisions and most of them took advantage of maternal leave. Pre-term birth (16%) and low birth weight (9%) were the mostfrequent events. There were no neonatal diseases. Blue-collar, white-collar work and work in the home were not associated with pre-term births or low birth weight. Analysis based on the fathers' job characteristics did not yield significant associations either. Although the small size of our sample does not allow to draw firm conclusions, it is interesting to note that more than 10% of respondents were not aware of the provisions protecting workers' pregnancy. PMID:16240574

Valentino, M; Rapisarda, V; Ciuccarelli, M; Tranquilli, A L

2005-01-01

255

The effect of maternal flora on Candida colonisation in the neonate.  

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Colonisation may be the first step for the development of Candida infection. The source of neonatal colonisation is thought to be the hospital environment or the maternal vaginal tract. This study investigated to what extend Candida isolates in neonates are similar to isolates from their mother's vaginal tract. Vaginal samples were collected from 347 pregnant women within 48 h before delivery. Samples from oral and rectal mucosa of their neonates were collected within 24-72 h after delivery, were cultured and yeast species were identified. Antifungal susceptibility tests against six antifungal agents were performed. All paired isolates from mother and infant were genotyped by pulse field gel electrophoresis. A total of 82 mothers and of 16 infants were found colonised by Candida spp. C. albicans was the most common species in pregnant women (n = 68) followed by C. glabrata (n = 11). Only C. albicans was isolated from infants, mainly (14/16) from rectal site. All colonised neonates were born to mothers colonised by C. albicans. Candida genotyping revealed identical strains in all investigated neonate-mother pairs. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B. Our findings strongly suggest that vertical transmission has the principal role in the neonatal colonisation by C. albicans in the very first days of life. PMID:23758480

Filippidi, Anthoula; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Maraki, Sofia; Galani, Irene; Drogari-Apiranthitou, Maria; Kalmanti, Maria; Mantadakis, Elpis; Samonis, George

2014-01-01

256

Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

Choi Hyeon-Jeong

2011-11-01

257

Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) : [plus] Corrigendum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains. Maternal plasma and egg cortisol levels were correlated, but no difference between the HR and LR strains was detected in either parameter. LR females produced larger eggs, and larvae with larger yolk sacs compared to HR females, however no differences in larval body size (excluding the yolk) was detected between strains. Considering that the HR and LR strains have a number of correlated behavioral and physiological traits that resemble the reactive and proactive stress coping styles, respectively, the results suggest that proactive mothers invest more energy into their offspring, producing larvae with larger energy reserves. It is possible that larger energy reserves in proactive larvae support the energy requirement for establishing and defending territory in salmonid fish. Furthermore, in the present study we found a positive relationship between mother plasma cortisol and egg cortisol; however neither mother plasma cortisol nor egg cortisol differed between strains. These results indicate that cortisol endowment from the mother to the offspring plays a minor role in the transfer of the behavioral and physiological traits which separates these strains.

Andersson, M. Åberg; Silva, P. I. M.

2011-01-01

258

Neurofunctional maps of the 'maternal brain' and the effects of oxytocin: A multimodal voxel-based meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have tried to understand the possible neurobiological basis of mothering. The putative involvement of oxytocin, in this regard, has been deeply investigated. Performing a voxel-based meta-analysis, we aimed at testing the hypothesis of overlapping brain activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the mother-infant interaction and the oxytocin modulation of emotional stimuli in humans. We performed two systematic literature searches: fMRI studies investigating the neurofunctional correlates of the 'maternal brain' by employing mother-infant paradigms; and fMRI studies employing oxytocin during emotional tasks. A unimodal voxel-based meta-analysis was performed on each database, whereas a multimodal voxel-based meta-analytical tool was adopted to assess the hypothesis that the neurofunctional effects of oxytocin are detected in brain areas implicated in the 'maternal brain.' We found greater activation in the bilateral insula extending to the inferior frontal gyrus, basal ganglia and thalamus during mother-infant interaction and greater left insular activation associated with oxytocin administration versus placebo. Left insula extending to basal ganglia and frontotemporal gyri as well as bilateral thalamus and amygdala showed consistent activation across the two paradigms. Right insula also showed activation across the two paradigms, and dorsomedial frontal cortex activation in mothers but deactivation with oxytocin. Significant activation in areas involved in empathy, emotion regulation, motivation, social cognition and theory of mind emerged from our multimodal meta-analysis, supporting the need for further studies directly investigating the neurobiology of oxytocin in the mother-infant relationship. PMID:24734987

Rocchetti, Matteo; Radua, Joaquim; Paloyelis, Yannis; Xenaki, Lida-Alkisti; Frascarelli, Marianna; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Politi, Pierluigi; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

2014-10-01

259

Low-dose maternal alcohol consumption: effects in the hearts of offspring in early life and adulthood.  

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High alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to deleterious effects on fetal cardiac structure and it also affects cardiomyocyte growth and maturation. This study aimed to determine whether low levels of maternal alcohol consumption are also detrimental to cardiomyocyte and cardiac growth in the early life of offspring and whether cardiac structure and function in adulthood is affected. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat dams were fed a control or 6% (volume/volume) liquid-based ethanol supplemented (isocaloric) diet throughout gestation. At embryonic day 20, the expression of genes involved in cardiac development was analyzed using Real-time PCR. At postnatal day 30, cardiomyocyte number, size, and nuclearity in the left ventricle (LV) were determined stereologically. In 8-month-old offspring, LV fibrosis and cardiac function (by echocardiography) were examined. Maternal ethanol consumption did not alter gene expression of the cardiac growth factors in the fetus or cardiomyocyte number in weanling offspring. However, at 8 months, there were significant increases in LV anterior and posterior wall thickness during diastole in ethanol-exposed offspring (P = 0.037 and P = 0.024, respectively), indicative of left ventricular hypertrophy; this was accompanied by a significant increase in fibrosis. Additionally, maximal aortic flow velocity was significantly decreased in ethanol-exposed offspring (P = 0.035). In conclusion, although there were no detectable early-life differences in cardiac and cardiomyocyte growth in animals exposed to a chronic low dose of ethanol during gestation, there were clearly deleterious outcomes by adulthood. This suggests that even relatively low doses of alcohol consumed during pregnancy can be detrimental to long-term cardiac health in the offspring. PMID:25077510

Nguyen, Vivian B; Probyn, Megan E; Campbell, Fiona; Yin, Kom V; Samuel, Chrishan S; Zimanyi, Monika A; Bertram, John F; Black, Mary Jane; Moritz, Karen M

2014-07-01

260

The effect of maternal low-protein diet on the heart of adult offspring: role of mitochondria and oxidative stress.  

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Protein restriction during perinatal and early postnatal development is associated with a greater incidence of disease in the adult, such arterial hypertension. The aim in the present study was to investigate the effect of maternal low-protein diet on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, antioxidant levels (enzymatic and nonenzymatic), and oxidative stress levels on the heart of the adult offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats received either 17% casein (normal protein, NP) or 8% casein (low protein, LP) throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning male progeny of these NP or LP fed rats, females were maintained on commercial chow (Labina-Purina). At 100 days post-birth, the male rats were sacrificed and heart tissue was harvested and stored at -80 °C. Our results show that restricting protein consumption in pregnant females induced decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (51% reduction in ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption and 49.5% reduction in respiratory control ratio) in their progeny when compared with NP group. In addition, maternal low-protein diet induced a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidant capacity (37.8% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity; 42% decrease in catalase activity; 44.8% decrease in glutathione-S-transferase activity; 47.9% decrease in glutathione reductase; 25.7% decrease in glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase) and glutathione level (34.8% decrease) when compared with control. From these findings, we hypothesize that an increased production of ROS and decrease in antioxidant activity levels induced by protein restriction during development could potentiate the progression of metabolic and cardiac diseases in adulthood. PMID:24905448

Nascimento, Luciana; Freitas, Cristiane M; Silva-Filho, Reginaldo; Leite, Ana Catarina R; Silva, Alessandra B; da Silva, Aline Isabel; Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Pedroza, Anderson Apolonio; Maia, Maria Bernadete Souza; Fernandes, Mariana P; Lagranha, Claudia

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Maternal macronutrient and energy intakes in pregnancy and offspring intake at 10 y: exploring parental comparisons and prenatal effects1234  

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Background: High maternal dietary intakes in pregnancy may lead to increased fetal growth and program neuroendocrine pathways that result in greater appetite, energy intake, and adiposity in offspring later in life. Few prospective dietary studies have explored this relation. Objective: The objective was to assess associations of maternal dietary intake in pregnancy and maternal and paternal dietary intake postnatally with child dietary intake and adiposity. Design: Dietary intakes of energy, protein, total fat, and carbohydrate were assessed prospectively in mothers during pregnancy, in mothers and their partners at 47 mo postnatally, and in children at 10 y (n = 5717 mother-child pairs prenatally, 5593 mother-child pairs postnatally, and 3009 father-child pairs). Child body composition was assessed at 9 and 11 y (n = 5725). Results: Maternal dietary intakes of protein, fat (when adjusted for energy intake), and carbohydrate in pregnancy were positively associated with child dietary intakes of the same nutrients, and these associations were greater than those observed for paternal dietary intake, which was not strongly associated with offspring diet. Associations of maternal prenatal-offspring intakes were stronger than those of maternal postnatal-offspring intakes for protein and fat. Greater child energy and macronutrient intakes were only associated with greater adiposity in children when adjusted for potential energy underreporting. Maternal diet during pregnancy was not associated with offspring adiposity or lean mass. Conclusion: The stronger prenatal maternal associations with child dietary intake, particularly protein and fat, compared with both paternal intake associations and maternal postnatal intake associations provide some evidence for in utero programming of offspring appetite by maternal intake during pregnancy. PMID:20053880

Brion, Marie-Jo A; Ness, Andy R; Rogers, Imogen; Emmett, Pauline; Cribb, Victoria; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A

2010-01-01

262

The Effect of Maternal and Fetal ?2-Adrenoceptor and Nitric Oxide Synthase Genotype on Vasopressor Requirement and Fetal Acid-Base Status During Spinal Anesthesia For Cesarean Delivery  

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Background Previous work demonstrated that maternal haplotypes of the ?2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2) influence ephedrine requirements during cesarean delivery. The use of ephedrine versus a pure ?-adrenergic agonist such as phenylephrine has been associated with lower umbilical artery (UA) pH, thought to be secondary to increased fetal metabolism. There are no data evaluating the effect of fetal/neonatal genotypes on the metabolic response to maternally administered vasopressors. We hypothesized that neonatal ADRB2 genotype would affect the extent of neonatal acidemia. We also examined the effect of maternal ADRB2 and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) on ephedrine and phenylephrine requirements for treatment of maternal hypotension. Methods The study was performed on 104 Chinese women scheduled for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia who were participating in a double-blinded randomized clinical trial evaluating the maternal and neonatal effects of ephedrine versus phenylephrine infusions. Blood samples were drawn from the UA, umbilical vein and maternal radial artery to measure blood gas values, lactate, ephedrine and phenylephrine concentrations, and determine maternal and neonatal genotype at non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms at codons 16 (rs1042713) and 27 (rs1042714) of ADRB2 and codon 298 (rs1799983) of NOS. Clinical variables (UA pH, UA lactate and dose of vasopressors) among genotypes were compared, and regression models were created to assess the effect of genotype on vasopressor dose and fetal acid-base status. Results Maternal ADRB2 genotype did not affect the ephedrine dose. Neonatal genotype at codon 16 influenced fetal acid-base status. UA pH was higher in Arg16 homozygous neonates (7.31 ± 0.03 in p.16Arg/Arg vs 7.25 ± 0.11 in p.16 Arg/Gly and p.16 Gly/Gly; p 2.67 mmol/L ± 0.99 in p.16Arg/Arg vs 4.28 mmol/L ± 2.79 in p.16 Arg/Gly and p.16 Gly/Gly; p 2.40 ~ ?0.82). In neonates born to mothers receiving ephedrine, the magnitude of the difference among genotypes was even greater (pH 7.30 ± 0.02 in p.16Arg/Arg vs 7.19 ± 0.10 in p.16 Arg/Gly and p.16 Gly/Gly; p 2.88 in p.16 Arg/Gly and p.16 Gly/Gly; p = 0.003, 95% C.I of difference ?3.48 ~ ?0.80). In a multiple linear regression model (R2 = 63.6%; P = 0.03), neonatal ADRB2 genotypes (p.16Arg/Arg and p.27Gln/Glu) and lower neonatal birth weight predicted lower UA lactate concentrations. Phenylephrine dose was not affected by maternal ADRB2 or NOS3 genotypes, and neonatal NOS3 genotype did not affect UA pH or UA lactate. Conclusion In contrast to previous findings in a North American cohort, maternal ADRB2 genotype did not affect ephedrine requirements during elective cesarean delivery in a Chinese cohort. However, our findings suggest that neonatal ADRB2 p.Arg16 homozygosity confers a protective effect against developing ephedrine-induced fetal acidemia. PMID:21613201

Landau, Ruth; Liu, Shih-Kai; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Smiley, Richard M.; Ngan Kee, Warwick D.

2011-01-01

263

Effects of maternal separation, early handling, and standard facility rearing on orienting and impulsive behavior of adolescent rats.  

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Effects of maternal separation in rats have been extensively investigated, but no studies have examined its effects in rat adolescence. We examined the effects of neonatal infant-mother separation (MS) for 6h/day and early handling (EH) for 10 days during the first 2 weeks of life by comparing MS and EH groups to standard facility reared (SFR) controls. At adolescence, the animals were evaluated in a novel and familiar open-field, the light-dark box, and the sucrose consumption test. Behavioral indices included orienting behavior (rearing frequency and duration), impulsive behavior (movement velocity and risk taking by entering the center of the open field or the light compartment of the light-dark box), hyperactivity (ambulatory distance and stereotypic movement), and reward-seeking behavior (sucrose drinking time). The prolonged MS during the first 2 weeks of life resulted in decreased orienting behavior and increased impulsive behavior in adolescence. Measures of ambulatory and stereotypic movements showed that MS rats were hyperactive in the novel environment whereas EH rats were less active overall. The impulsive/hyperactive phenotype produced by this MS protocol may provide a useful animal model to investigate the neurological basis for the similar behavioral phenotype found in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PMID:16242858

Colorado, Rene A; Shumake, Jason; Conejo, Nelida M; Gonzalez-Pardo, Hector; Gonzalez-Lima, F

2006-01-10

264

Effects of maternal versus direct exposure to pulp and paper mill effluent on rainbow trout early life stages.  

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The acute and chronic effects of secondary-treated effluent from a New Zealand pulp and paper mill were assessed using both long-term adult and early life stage (ELS) laboratory exposures of rainbow trout. The relative impact of maternal exposure versus ELS exposure was assessed by a comparison of directly exposed eggs and larvae with the eggs and larvae of exposed adult trout that were reared in reference water. Rainbow trout were exposed to a secondary-treated mixed thermomechanical/bleached kraft mill effluent at a concentration of 15% or to reference water from the egg through to 320-d-old juveniles. The 2 adult rainbow trout exposures were undertaken with nominal concentrations of 10% and 12% treated effluent, respectively. There was no marked effect of water hardening with 15% effluent on fertility or survival of eggs to 16 d. In a subsequent exposure (with hardening in reference water), no significant effects were found on mortality to hatch, time to hatch, length at hatch, mortality to swim-up, mortality to 320 d, or deformity rate at hatch. At experimental termination (320 d), direct-exposed juveniles had smaller livers and reduced condition factor, likely due to differences in food consumption. In 2 subsequent consecutive experiments, exposure of adult trout to 10% and 12% effluent for 2 mo, followed by incubation of the fertilized eggs in reference water, produced no impact on fertility, survival to hatch, survival to swim-up, or length and weight of fry at swim-up. Exposure of adult trout to 12% treated effluent for 8 mo prior to egg fertilization also did not result in differing rates of fertility, mortality to hatch or mortality to swim-up. However, the 8-mo maternal exposure did result in swim-up fry that were significantly shorter and weighed less than the reference swim-up fry. This difference was directly attributable to smaller eggs in the 8-mo-exposed female trout. These results demonstrate that this pulp and paper mill effluent is more likely to elicit indirect impacts on progeny size through chronic exposure of adults to effluent during gonadal recrudescence rather than through direct exposure of early life stages to effluent. PMID:15799628

Ellis, Rosanne J; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Smith, Murray A; Ling, Nicholas

2005-03-12

265

The effects of pollen and seed migration on nuclear-dicytoplasmic systems. I. Nonrandom associations and equilibrium structure with both maternal and paternal cytoplasmic inheritance.  

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We determine the nuclear-dicytoplasmic effects of unidirectional gene flow via pollen and seeds upon a mixed-mating plant population, focusing on nuclear-mitochondrial-chloroplast systems where mitochondria are inherited maternally and chloroplasts paternally, as in many conifers. After first delineating the general effects of admixture (via seeds or individuals) on the nonrandom associations in such systems, we derive the full dicytonuclear equilibrium structure, including when disequilibria...

Asmussen, M. A.; Orive, M. E.

2000-01-01

266

Do clinical and laboratory parameters effect maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome?  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the clinical features and laboratory parameters affect maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with HELLP syndrome.Material and Methods: The medical records of pregnant patients complicated with HELLP syndrome were analyzed retrospectively between June 01, 2003 and June 01, 2010. The demographic data, medical history, admission symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings and recovery time were evaluated. The adverse maternal outcomes including eclampsia, placental abruption, disseminated intravascular coagulation, postpartum hemorrhage, pulmonary complications, cerebral edema and visual loss were recorded. Fetal growth restriction, necessity for neonatal intensive care unit admission and perinatal mortality were recorded as an adverse fetal outcome. Results: The incidence of HELLP syndrome was 0.52%. The mean age of the patients was 28.93±7.90 (range 17-45. HELLP syndrome was diagnosed on average in the 33.68±4.41th (ranged 24-40 week of gestation. Eighteen cases (40.9% were nullipara and twenty-six cases (59.1% multipara. The most common complications were eclampsia (40.9% and abruption placenta (15.9%. Pregnancy was terminated within 48 hours in all patients. The rate of cesarean section was 90.9%. Perinatal mortality rate in HELLP syndrome was 31.8%. There was no maternal mortality. Conclusion: Neither clinical characteristics nor laboratory parameters was found effective for prediction of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

?ncim Bezircio?lu

2012-03-01

267

Effect of a difficult calving on the vigour of the calf, the onset of maternal behaviour, and some behavioural indicators of pain in the dam.  

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The neonate's development and survival is dependent upon being vigorous at birth and receiving appropriate maternal care. However, difficulty at delivery can result in less vigorous offspring and maternal care can be altered, probably as a consequence of exhaustion, pain and human intervention. The first 3h after expulsion of the calf were observed continuously from videos following twelve natural calvings and sixteen calvings assisted by farm staff (including four malpresentations) from Holstein cows. Calvings were balanced within groups for parity of the dam, genetic group, sex and birth weight of the calf, calving pen and calving season. Assisted calves were less vigorous with higher latencies to attempt to stand, achieve standing, walk and reach the udder than unassisted calves (P0.05), indicating no delayed onset or impaired expression of maternal behaviour in dams given assistance at delivery. Study of potential pain-related behaviours revealed that assisted dams spent less time self-grooming (P=0.033) than dams delivering naturally, which could suggest greater pain. However, there were no significant differences in any of the other pain-related behaviours. Our results suggest that, although maternal behaviour was unaffected by a difficult delivery, dairy calves born following difficult calvings have lower vigour in the first 3h after birth than unassisted calves. This might have longer-term effects on the health and survival of the calves. PMID:21958900

Barrier, A C; Ruelle, E; Haskell, M J; Dwyer, C M

2012-03-01

268

Efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en el oligohidramnios aislado: its effectiveness in isolated oligohydramnios Parenteral maternal hydrotherapy:  

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Full Text Available El oligohidramnios u oligoamnios es la disminución del líquido amniótico a cifras patológicas con un índice de líquido amniótico (ILA menor o igual a 5 cm, y constituye un alto riego fetal y secundariamente materno. OBJETIVO: demostrar a través de un ensayo clínico controlado la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en oligoamnios aislados, en el aumento del ILA y consecutivamente su repercusión en esos resultados perinatológicos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado para valorar la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral (HMP en gestantes con oligoamnios aislado, de 28 sem o más de embarazo, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Docente de Guanabacoa, entre el 1ro de enero del 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004. La muestra fue de 141 oligoamnios aislados y se dividió en 2 grupos: grupo estudio: 56 y el grupo control: 85. Al grupo estudio se le aplicó HMP con 2000 mL de solución salina isotónica al 0,9 %, y con el grupo control se mantuvo conducta expectante. RESULTADOS: el oligoamnios aislado es más frecuente en el embarazo a término. Al administrar HMP aumenta el ILA en un 43 % (grupo estudio y solo en un 22 % de los casos del grupo control. Igualmente, se logra aumentar la edad gestacional en 2 sem desde el diagnóstico. Fue mayor el parto transpelviano en el grupo estudio; la principal causa de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo en ambos, principalmente en el grupo control. En el grupo estudio no hubo recién nacidos con Síndrome de distress respiratorio ni bronconeumonía congénita. CONCLUSIONES: la HMP parece ser efectiva en el manejo del oligoamnios aislado, lo cual disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal y secundariamente el bienestar materno.Oligohydramnios or oligoamnios is the amniotic fluid decrease to pathological figures with a high amniotic fluid rate (AFR less or similar to 5 cm, and it is a fetal high risk, and secondarily maternal. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate through a controlled clinical assay the effectiveness of parenteral maternal hydrotherapy (PMH in isolated oligoamnios, in increase of AFR, and consecutively its repercussion on those perinatal results. METHODS: We made a controlled clinical assay to assess effectiveness of PHM in pregnants with isolated oligoamnios of 28 weeks or more of pregnancy in Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. Sample included 141 isolated oligoamnios and it was divided in two groups: study group with 56 patients and control-group with 85 patients. In study group, we administered PHM with 2000 mL of 0,9% isotopic saline solution, and in control-group there was an expectant behavior RESULTS: Isolated aligoamnios is more frequent in term pregnancy. Administration of PHM increases AFR in 43% (study group, and only in 22% of cases from control- group. Likewise, it was possible to increase gestational age in two weeks from diagnosis. In study group, transpelvic pregnancy; main cause of cesarean section was the acute fetal suffering in both groups, mainly in the control one. In study group there were not newborns presenting with neither respiratory syndrome nor congenital bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: PMH looks to be effective in management o isolated oligoamnios, decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality, and secondarily, maternal wellbeing.

Itsel Cárdenas Ramón

2009-09-01

269

The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior  

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In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or post...

Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

2011-01-01

270

Sex-specific effects of maternal immunization on yolk antibody transfer and offspring performance in zebra finches  

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Trans-generational antibody transfer constitutes an important mechanism by which mothers may enhance offspring resistance to pathogens. Thus, differential antibody deposition may potentially allow a female to differentiate offspring performance. Here, we examined whether maternal immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) prior to egg laying affects sex-specific yolk antibody transfer and sex-specific offspring performance in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We showed that immunized mothers deposit anti-SRBC antibodies into the eggs depending on embryo sex and laying order, and that maternal exposure to SRBC positively affects the body size of female, but not male offspring. This is the first study reporting sex-specific consequences of maternal immunization on offspring performance, and suggests that antibody transfer may constitute an adaptive mechanism of maternal favouritism. PMID:20667842

Martyka, Rafal; Rutkowska, Joanna; Cichon, Mariusz

2011-01-01

271

The effect of maternal betamethasone administration on Doppler flow velocity parameters of the fetal branch pulmonary artery.  

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To investigate the effects of antenatal betamethasone on fetal pulmonary blood flow velocity waveforms. The study comprised 28 women with singleton pregnancies at high risk for preterm delivery. They were treated with two doses of 12 mg betamethasone intramuscularly 24 h apart to enhance lung maturity. Flow velocity waveforms were recorded with Doppler ultrasound from the middle segment of pulmonary artery (PA). Compared with the pretreatment mean value, a significant decrease in the pulmonary artery pulsatility (PI) and the resistance indexes (RI) was noted at 24 h and 48 h after the administration of first dose of betamethasone (p = 0.022 and p = 0.018 for PI and p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 for RI, respectively). After 7 days, the pulmonary artery velocity waveforms returned to the types of waveform observed before treatment (p = 0.216 for PI and p = 0.249 for RI). Maternal antenatal betamethasone resulted in a significant transient decrease in the pulsatility and the resistance indexes in the pulmonary artery. These findings indicate a direct effect of betamethasone on fetal pulmonary circulation. PMID:24830337

Ustunyurt, O B; Ustunyurt, E; Korkmazer, E; Altug, N; Bilge, U; Danisman, N

2014-08-01

272

Oxytocin effects on mind-reading are moderated by experiences of maternal love withdrawal: an fMRI study.  

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The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to stimulate a range of social behaviors. However, recent studies indicate that the effects of intranasal oxytocin are more nuanced than previously thought and that contextual factors and individual characteristics moderate the beneficiary oxytocin effects. In this randomized-controlled trial we examine the influence of intranasally administered oxytocin on neural activity during mind-reading with fMRI, taking into account harsh caregiving experiences as a potential moderator. Participants were 50 women who received a nasal spray containing either 16 IU of oxytocin or a placebo and had reported how often their mother used love withdrawal as a disciplinary strategy. Participants performed an adapted version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a task which requires individuals to infer mental states by looking at photographs of the eye region of faces. We found that oxytocin enhanced neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula during the RMET. Moreover, oxytocin increased RMET performance outside the scanner. However, the oxytocin induced changes in STG activation and RMET performance were only brought about in potentially less socially proficient individuals who had low RMET performance, that is, participants reporting higher levels of maternal love withdrawal. PMID:24486563

Riem, Madelon M E; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Voorthuis, Alexandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

2014-06-01

273

The effect of different cold period during maternal incubation on incubation efficiency and hatching term in Austropotamobius pallipes  

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Full Text Available This study tested the effect on the incubation efficiency (E in % and hatching term during maternal incubation of Austropotamobius pallipes of five different cold periods (duration: 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 days under controlled conditions and one group maintained under ambient Irish water temperatures. The six different durations of cold period, used in this study, caused six different terms of hatching from 16 March to 29 June. When compared to the group held under ambient Irish conditions with fluctuating water temperatures during the incubation period (E = 29.9 ± 4.5%, higher incubation efficiency was found in all groups under the controlled conditions (E = 73.1 ± 4.7% ? 41.3 ± 2.7%. In groups under controlled conditions, a positive effect of shortened cold period on incubation efficiency was found, with the highest efficiency (E = 73.1 ± 4.7% ? 68.8 ± 5.2% found after the shortest cold period, while the longest cold period led to the lowest efficiency (E = 41.3 ± 2.7%.

T. Policar

2009-01-01

274

Effect of maternal fluoride exposure on developing CNS of rats: protective role of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum.  

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Fluoride is toxic to neuronal development and its excessive intake during pregnancy cause adverse effects on neonatal development. The present study examined the presence of oxidative stress during maternal exposure of fluoride and the therapeutic strategy of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum extracts in functional prevention of fluoride led oxidative stress. The pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 100 ppm fluoride in drinking water and pups born to them were supplemented with phytoextracts daily. On 21st postpartum day, the pups were sacrificed to analyse fluoride and oxidative stress markers. Fluoride exposure significantly increased its accumulation, lipid peroxidation and decreased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione levels in discrete regions of the central nervous system (CNS) of pups indicating oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant defense. The results implied the vulnerability of developing CNS to fluoride toxicity. On phytoextract supplementation, the oxidant devastation was suppressed by regaining antioxidant homeostasis near normal level proving efficacy and therapeutic strategy. Among the phytoextracts supplemented the Ocimum sanctum is found to be more effective. PMID:21341542

Madhusudhan, N; Basha, P Mahaboob; Rai, Puja; Ahmed, Fiyaz; Prasad, G Ravi

2010-08-01

275

Effect of prepartum maternal energy density on the growth performance, immunity, and antioxidation capability of neonatal calves.  

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This study investigated the effect of prepartum diets differing in energy density on growth performance, immunity, and antioxidation capability of neonatal calves. Thirty Holstein dairy cows were allocated at random into 3 groups: low energy group [L; net energy of lactation (NE(L))=5.25 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM)]; medium energy group (M; NE(L)=5.88 MJ/kg of DM); and high energy group (H; NE(L)=6.48 MJ/kg of DM) at d 21 prepartum. Plasma was sampled for analysis of glucose, total protein, ?-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids at 21, 14, and 7 d before parturition. After calving, birth weight and measurements of the calves in each group were recorded, and blood samples were collected for analysis of CD4, CD8, CD21, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and maleic dialdehyde. The results indicated that although maternal weight did not differ among L, M, and H groups at 21, 14, and 7 d before parturition, the concentrations of glucose and ?-hydroxybutyrate at 14 and 7 d in the L group were decreased compared with that in the H group. In addition, nonesterified fatty acids concentrations increased significantly in the L group at 14 and 7 d before parturition compared with that in the M and H groups. Birth weight, body height, body length, abdominal circumference, thoracic girth, umbilical girth, and levels of CD4, CD4:CD8, IL-2, IL-4, total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase were decreased in calves of the L group compared with those of the H group. For the M group, CD4, CD4:CD8, and superoxide dismutase were decreased; and in the L group glutathione peroxidase and maleic dialdehyde levels were significantly increased compared with those of the H group. Reducing the maternal energy density during the last 21 d before parturition had a negative effect on growth and development, immunity, and antioxidation capability of neonatal calves. PMID:22818465

Gao, F; Liu, Y-C; Zhang, Z-H; Zhang, C-Z; Su, H-W; Li, S-L

2012-08-01

276

Revisiting the Effect of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy on Offspring Birthweight: A Quasi-Experimental Sibling Analysis in Sweden  

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Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) seems associated with reduced birthweight in the offspring. This observation, however, is based on conventional epidemiological analyses, and it might be confounded by unobserved maternal characteristics related to both smoking habits and offspring birth weight. Therefore, we apply a quasi-experimental sibling analysis to revisit previous findings. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register, we identified 677,922 singletons born between 2002 and 2010 from...

Juarez, Sol Pia; Merlo, Juan

2013-01-01

277

Effects of maternal age and cohort of birth on incidence time trends of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

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Several studies report increasing trends in the incidence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Because ALL may generate in utero, this study investigated if maternal age and birth cohort influence ALL temporal trends. Data on 252 ALL cases in children ages 1 to 5 years were extracted from the population-based Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont, Italy. Information on cases' maternal age and year of birth was obtained from the registry, whereas population data were obtained for c...

Merletti, Franco; Maule, Milena Maria; Richiardi, Lorenzo

2007-01-01

278

Maternal Care Effects on the Development of a Sexually Dimorphic Motor System: The Role of Spinal Oxytocin  

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Maternal licking in rats affects the development of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB), a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus that controls penile reflexes involved with copulation. Reduced maternal licking results in decreased motoneuron number, size, and dendritic length in the adult SNB, as well as deficits in adult male copulatory behavior. Our previous findings that licking-like tactile stimulation influences SNB dendritic development and upregulates Fos expression in the lumbo...

Lenz, Kathryn M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.

2010-01-01

279

The Role of Maternal Smoking in Effect of Fetal Growth Restriction on Poor Scholastic Achievement in Elementary School  

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Fetal growth restriction and maternal smoking during pregnancy are independently implicated in lowering intellectual attainment in children. We hypothesized that only reduction of fetal growth that is attributable to extrinsic causes (e.g., maternal smoking) affects intellectual development of a child. Cross-sectional survey of 3,739 students in Nova Scotia (Canada) in 2003 was linked with the perinatal database, parental interviews on socio-demographic factors and the performance on standard...

Igor Burstyn; Stefan Kuhle; Allen, Alexander C.

2012-01-01

280

Effects of Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes during Pregnancy: A Single-Center Cohort Study of a Chinese Population  

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Objective Adverse maternal outcomes and perinatal complications are closely associated with overt maternal hypothyroidism, but whether these complications occur in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) during pregnancy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCH on maternal and perinatal outcomes during pregnancy. Methods A prospective study of data from 8012 pregnant women (371 women with SCH, 7641 euthyroid women) was performed. Maternal serum samples were collected in different trimesters to examine thyroid hormone concentrations. SCH was defined as a thyroid stimulating hormone concentration exceeding the trimester-specific reference value with a normal free thyroxine concentration. The occurrence of maternal outcomes, including gestational hypertension (GH), gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta previa, placental abruption, prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM), and premature delivery; and perinatal outcomes, including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), fetal distress, low birth weight (LBW; live birth weight ?2500 g), stillbirth, and malformation, was recorded. Logistic regression with adjustment for confounding demographic and medical factors was used to determine the risks of adverse outcomes in patients with SCH. Results Compared with euthyroid status, SCH was associated with higher rates of GH (1.819% vs. 3.504%, P?=?0.020; ?2?=?7.345; odds ratio (OR), 2.243; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.251–4.024), PROM (4.973% vs. 8.625%, P?=?0.002; ?2?=?72.102; adjusted OR, 6.014; 95% CI, 3.975–9.099), IUGR (1.008% vs. 2.965%, <0.001; ?2?=?13.272; adjusted OR, 3.336; 95% CI, 1.745–6.377), and LBW (1.885% vs. 4.582%, P<0.001; ?2?=?13.558; adjusted OR, 2.919; 95% CI, 1.650–5.163). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that pregnant women with SCH had increased risks of GH and PROM, and their fetuses and infants had increased risks of IUGR and LBW. Thus, routine maternal thyroid function testing is necessary to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:25353960

Dai, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Si, Guang-Xin; Yang, Hong; Ye, En-Ling; Chen, Qing-Shou; Yu, Le-Chu; Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xue-Mian

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Metabolismo mineral óseo durante la gestación y efectos sobre la masa ósea de la madre / Bone mineral metabolism during gestation and its effects on maternal bone mass  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La gestación y lactancia son periodos de alta demanda de calcio, para el crecimiento fetal y para la producción de leche materna. Durante la gestación, la madre transfiere al feto 25 a 30 g de calcio y durante la lactancia se secretan 200 a 240 mg de calcio diario en la leche materna. Durante la ges [...] tación, los mecanismos adaptativos más importantes son el incremento en la absorción de calcio y el incremento del recambio óseo materno; durante la lactancia, hay tendencia a conservar más calcio a nivel renal, pero la desmineralización temporal del esqueleto materno parece ser el mecanismo más importante. Los estudios que emplean absorciometría dual de rayos X (DXA) son escasos, por el riesgo de radiación materna y fetal; pero, con otras técnicas, como el ultrasonido cuantitativo, se ha descrito una pérdida de masa ósea durante la gestación predominantemente dependiente del hueso trabecular. Mediante marcadores bioquímicos del remodelamiento óseo se ha demostrado que los suplementos de calcio reducen la tasa de remodelamiento durante el embarazo y parecen tener efecto benéfico sobre la pérdida ósea materna. Estudios longitudinales que emplean ultrasonido cuantitativo también han encontrado una disminución de la pérdida ósea, entre las mujeres que recibieron aporte o suplemento adecuado de calcio durante la gestación. Abstract in english Pregnancy and lactation are periods of high calcium demand for skeletal growth and maternal milk production. Approximately 25-30 g of calcium are transferred to the fetus during pregnancy, and breast-feeding mothers secrete 200-240 mg/day of calcium in breast milk every day. During pregnancy, major [...] physiologic adaptations include increased both calcium intestinal absorption and rate of maternal bone turnover; during lactation, there is a contribution of renal calcium conservation, but temporary maternal bone demineralization is the main mechanism to meet calcium requirements. Data on bone mineral density assessed by dual energy x-ray absortiometry (DXA) are sparse mainly due to concern about potential risk of radiation exposure to the fetus. Other radiation-free techniques like quantitative ultrasound have been used to assess maternal bone mass changes during pregnancy. Maternal bone loss mainly depending on trabecular areas during pregnancy has been described. Calcium supplements reduce maternal skeletal-bone turnover as evaluated by bone resorption markers during pregnancy and seem to have beneficial effects on maternal bone loss. Longitudinal studies with repeated measurements of quantitative ultrasound during pregnancy have found decrease in bone loss in pregnant women with adequate calcium intake or supplementation.

Luis, Vidal; Maritza, Vidal; Santiago, Cabrera; Eduardo, Ortega; Vicente, Santiváñez; Jorge, Polo; Jorge, Barnaby; Rolando, Vargas; Angélica, del Castillo.

282

MI-GWAS: a SAS platform for the analysis of inherited and maternal genetic effects in genome-wide association studies using log-linear models  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several platforms for the analysis of genome-wide association data are available. However, these platforms focus on the evaluation of the genotype inherited by affected (i.e. case individuals, whereas for some conditions (e.g. birth defects the genotype of the mothers of affected individuals may also contribute to risk. For such conditions, it is critical to evaluate associations with both the maternal and the inherited (i.e. case genotype. When genotype data are available for case-parent triads, a likelihood-based approach using log-linear modeling can be used to assess both the maternal and inherited genotypes. However, available software packages for log-linear analyses are not well suited to the analysis of typical genome-wide association data (e.g. including missing data. Results An integrated platform, Maternal and Inherited Analyses for Genome-wide Association Studies (MI-GWAS for log-linear analyses of maternal and inherited genetic effects in large, genome-wide datasets, is described. MI-GWAS uses SAS and LEM software in combination to appropriately format data, perform the log-linear analyses and summarize the results. This platform was evaluated using existing genome-wide data and was shown to perform accurately and relatively efficiently. Conclusions The MI-GWAS platform provides a valuable tool for the analysis of association of a phenotype or condition with maternal and inherited genotypes using genome-wide data from case-parent triads. The source code for this platform is freely available at http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/sbrr/mi-gwas.htm.

Mitchell Laura E

2011-04-01

283

The effect of maternal body mass index on spontaneous versus induced preterm birth: a prospective study  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Preterm birth which is defined as delivery before 37 completed weeks was implicated in approximately two thirds of neonatal death. Also preterm labors are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity of infants in recent years and it costs high prices for health system. We evaluate the relationship between prepregnancy maternal body mass Index (BMI and spontaneous and indicated preterm birth."n"n Methods: This study included 250 healthy pregnant women, without any risk factors of preterm birth, were classified into categories that were based on their body mass index. Association between BMI, weight gain and rout of delivery were examined. Rates of indicated and spontaneous preterm birth were compared."n"n Results: Obese women delivered at a more advanced gestational age. (38/34±1/66 weeks vs 37/61±2/44, p=0/006. Obese patients had significantly lower incidence of spontaneous preterm birth at < 37 weeks of gestation (16/8% vs 31/2% p=0/008. Obese women had larger infants (3354/95±596/75 vs 311.24±558/357 p=0/001, and had more frequent cesarean delivery (69/6% vs 52/8%, p=0/006. Weight gain during pregnancy is poorly correlated with prepregnancy BMI (14/41±7/93 kg vs 13/78±4/94kg, p=0/4 and preterm birth."n"n Conclusion: In this survey, there was adverse correlation between body mass index (BMI before pregnancy and preterm labor less than 37 completed weeks and we suggest more study for evaluation between spontaneous and induced preterm labor mechanism and in obese and non obese women. However according to this survey obesity before pregnancy is associated with a lower rate of spontaneous preterm birth.

Moghadami N

2009-06-01

284

Neonatal mydriasis due to effects of atropine used for maternal Tik-20 poisoning.  

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Full Text Available A neonate was born to a mother who had consumed an organophosphorus(OPC compound with suicidal intent. The mother was administered atropine and this caused mydriasis in the neonate without any other pharmacological effects. There was no evidence of placental dysfunction. There are no case reports of OPC consumed in pregnancy and its effect on neonates or of effects of massive doses of atropine in the mother and its effects on the fetus or the newborn.

Shah A

1995-01-01

285

The Study of Maternal Effects on Estimation of Heritabilities and Determination of Environmental Factors on Early Growth Traits in Kermani Sheep  

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Full Text Available Data from the birth weight (BW, the average daily gain from birth to weaning (ADG and the weaning weight (WW of 1182, 1099 and 1099 lambs were respectively collected and applied to estimate the maternal effects on heritabilities as well as on the determination of the environmental factors. The data were collected from Shahrbabak Sheep Breeding Research Station within five year, from 1993 to 1998. The effects of the year of birth, the age of the dam and its sex on all the traits were significant. The type of birth had no effect on BW but it was significant for the other two traits. Estimates of (covariance components and genetic parameters were obtained by restricted maximum likelihood, using single and two-trait animal models. Based on the most appropriate fitted model, direct heritability of BW, ADG and WW were estimated at 0.10± 0.06, 0.21 ±0.08 and 0.22± 0.09, respectively. The maternal heritability for the three traits was also estimated at 0.27± 0.04, 0.15 ±0.05 and 0.19 ±0.05, respectively. Direct genetic and phenotypic correlations between BW and ADG; BW and WW; ADG and WW were estimated at 0.85 and 0.41; 0.82 and 0.48 and 0.99 and 0.99, respectively. Ignoring maternal effects in animal model caused overestimation of direct heritability. Thus maternal effects are significant sources of variation for early growth traits and their ignorance in the animal model causes inaccurate genetic evaluation of the lambs.

L. D. Van Vleck

2005-04-01

286

Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática  

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Full Text Available Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by hand, a total of nine studies were analyzed. Results: Three out of four papers observed a higher risk for delay lactogenesis among obese mothers, odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.10. The study assessing the initiation of lactation showed that non-obese mothers initiated lactation sooner, OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25-0.62. The overall risk for cessation of breastfeeding showed that obese mothers had higher risks of early cessation, HR: 1.50 (CI 95% 1.11-2.04. In one study it was observed that obese mothers were not more likely to never breastfeed, OR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.97-1.50. Conclusions: This review shows that in prospective studies, obese mothers are more likely to have delayed lactogenesis and reduced lactation. Therefore, weight control and breastfeeding promotion should be reinforced before and during pregnancy. In overweight and obese mothers, breastfeeding should be closely monitored after birth.Objetivo: La falta de lactancia o su corta duración ha sido asociada con la obesidad materna. El propósito de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios prospectivos que estudiaron el efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed, se incluyeron estudios prospectivos del efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la iniciación, la intención y la duración de la lactancia: se encontraron 653 artículos, y siete fueron estudios prospectivos. Después de agregar otros estudios seleccionados a mano, se analizaron nueve estudios. Resultados: Tres de cuatro estudios observaron un mayor riesgo de retraso de la lactogénesis en madres obesas, OR: 1,02 a 1,10. El estudio que analizó la iniciación de la lactancia describió que las madres no obesas iniciaron la lactancia más temprano, OR: 0,39 (95% CI: 0,25-0,62. El riesgo de terminación temprana de la lactancia fue mayor en madres obesas, HR: 1,50 (CI 95% 1,11-2,04. En un estudio se observó que las madres obesas no tenían más probabilidades de no lactar, OR = 1,56 (95% CI: 0,97-1,50. Conclusiones: Esta revisión realizada en estudios prospectivos indica que, es más probable que las madres obesas tengan lactogénesis atrasada o un periodo corto de lactancia. Por lo tanto, el control de peso y la promoción de la lactancia deben reforzarse antes y durante el embarazo. En madres con sobrepeso y obesidad, la lactancia debe de ser promovida y supervisada después de nacimiento.

M. Lepe

2011-12-01

287

Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review / Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: La falta de lactancia o su corta duración ha sido asociada con la obesidad materna. El propósito de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios prospectivos que estudiaron el efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed, se [...] incluyeron estudios prospectivos del efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la iniciación, la intención y la duración de la lactancia: se encontraron 653 artículos, y siete fueron estudios prospectivos. Después de agregar otros estudios seleccionados a mano, se analizaron nueve estudios. Resultados: Tres de cuatro estudios observaron un mayor riesgo de retraso de la lactogénesis en madres obesas, OR: 1,02 a 1,10. El estudio que analizó la iniciación de la lactancia describió que las madres no obesas iniciaron la lactancia más temprano, OR: 0,39 (95% CI: 0,25-0,62). El riesgo de terminación temprana de la lactancia fue mayor en madres obesas, HR: 1,50 (CI 95% 1,11-2,04). En un estudio se observó que las madres obesas no tenían más probabilidades de no lactar, OR = 1,56 (95% CI: 0,97-1,50). Conclusiones: Esta revisión realizada en estudios prospectivos indica que, es más probable que las madres obesas tengan lactogénesis atrasada o un periodo corto de lactancia. Por lo tanto, el control de peso y la promoción de la lactancia deben reforzarse antes y durante el embarazo. En madres con sobrepeso y obesidad, la lactancia debe de ser promovida y supervisada después de nacimiento. Abstract in english Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included [...] prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by hand, a total of nine studies were analyzed. Results: Three out of four papers observed a higher risk for delay lactogenesis among obese mothers, odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.10. The study assessing the initiation of lactation showed that non-obese mothers initiated lactation sooner, OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25-0.62). The overall risk for cessation of breastfeeding showed that obese mothers had higher risks of early cessation, HR: 1.50 (CI 95% 1.11-2.04). In one study it was observed that obese mothers were not more likely to never breastfeed, OR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.97-1.50). Conclusions: This review shows that in prospective studies, obese mothers are more likely to have delayed lactogenesis and reduced lactation. Therefore, weight control and breastfeeding promotion should be reinforced before and during pregnancy. In overweight and obese mothers, breastfeeding should be closely monitored after birth.

M., Lepe; M., Bacardí Gascón; L. M., Castañeda-González; M.ª E., Pérez Morales; A., Jiménez Cruz.

288

Effect of maternal obesity on lactation: systematic review / Efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia: revisión sistemática  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: La falta de lactancia o su corta duración ha sido asociada con la obesidad materna. El propósito de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de estudios prospectivos que estudiaron el efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la lactancia. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed, se [...] incluyeron estudios prospectivos del efecto de la obesidad materna sobre la iniciación, la intención y la duración de la lactancia: se encontraron 653 artículos, y siete fueron estudios prospectivos. Después de agregar otros estudios seleccionados a mano, se analizaron nueve estudios. Resultados: Tres de cuatro estudios observaron un mayor riesgo de retraso de la lactogénesis en madres obesas, OR: 1,02 a 1,10. El estudio que analizó la iniciación de la lactancia describió que las madres no obesas iniciaron la lactancia más temprano, OR: 0,39 (95% CI: 0,25-0,62). El riesgo de terminación temprana de la lactancia fue mayor en madres obesas, HR: 1,50 (CI 95% 1,11-2,04). En un estudio se observó que las madres obesas no tenían más probabilidades de no lactar, OR = 1,56 (95% CI: 0,97-1,50). Conclusiones: Esta revisión realizada en estudios prospectivos indica que, es más probable que las madres obesas tengan lactogénesis atrasada o un periodo corto de lactancia. Por lo tanto, el control de peso y la promoción de la lactancia deben reforzarse antes y durante el embarazo. En madres con sobrepeso y obesidad, la lactancia debe de ser promovida y supervisada después de nacimiento. Abstract in english Objective: The short duration or lack of breastfeeding has been associated with maternal obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective studies that assessed the effect of maternal obesity on lactation. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in Pubmed, these included [...] prospective studies on maternal obesity and initiation, intention and duration of breastfeeding: 653 articles were found, only seven were prospective studies. After adding other studies found by hand, a total of nine studies were analyzed. Results: Three out of four papers observed a higher risk for delay lactogenesis among obese mothers, odds ratio ranging from 1.02 to 1.10. The study assessing the initiation of lactation showed that non-obese mothers initiated lactation sooner, OR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25-0.62). The overall risk for cessation of breastfeeding showed that obese mothers had higher risks of early cessation, HR: 1.50 (CI 95% 1.11-2.04). In one study it was observed that obese mothers were not more likely to never breastfeed, OR = 1.56 (95% CI: 0.97-1.50). Conclusions: This review shows that in prospective studies, obese mothers are more likely to have delayed lactogenesis and reduced lactation. Therefore, weight control and breastfeeding promotion should be reinforced before and during pregnancy. In overweight and obese mothers, breastfeeding should be closely monitored after birth.

M., Lepe; M., Bacardí Gascón; L. M., Castañeda-González; M.ª E., Pérez Morales; A., Jiménez Cruz.

1266-12-01

289

Effects of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome: a randomized controlled trial on pregnant women in Iran  

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Objective: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome. Methods: The case-control study was conducted between January and July, 2011. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Toyserkan Azad University, and data was collected at prenatal clinics and delivery centres located in Hamedan, Iran. It comprised 80 pregnant women between 20-26 weeks of gestation randomly assigned to two equal and matching groups of cases and controls. The intervention group did exercise continuously on a bicycle ergometre for 15 minutes, three times a week; the intensity being 50-60% of maximal heart rate. The control group did not do any exercise training. All information was obtained from the clinics, delivery centres, and from the reports of delivery room midwives. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in gestational weight gain, pregnancy length, mode of delivery, first and second stage of labour, perineal tear, and 1st and 5th min Apgar score. Mean neonatal weight was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Exercising on a bicycle ergometer during pregnancy seems to be safe for the mother and the neonate. (author)

290

THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL EMPLOYMENT ON THE PERSONALITYAND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO AGE AND GENDER  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted on a random sample of 90 boys and girls whose mothers were employed and another 90 boys and girls whose mothers were employed from fourth, fifth and sixth grades. For measuring the personality, junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (1965 was administered. The subjects' examination marks were taken into consideration to measure their academic achievement. The statistical test of Mean, Standard deviation, Student 't' test, ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test were used to compute the data and the results, were discussed in the light of previous research findings. The results of the present study revealed that children of employed mothers have high extroverted personality than children of unemployed mothers. No significant difference existed between 9 year old boys of employed mothers and unemployed mothers with regard to personality and academic achievement. Whereas 9 year old girls of unemployed mothers showed high neurotic behavior than the children of employed mothers, whereas significant difference was observed in the extroversion scores of 10 year old boys of employed and unemployed mothers. Lastly maternal employment had no significant effect on the personality and academic achievement of 10 year old girls.

Mahjabeen

2014-09-01

291

Effects of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa on cytokine genes in the hippocampus of maternal separation rats.  

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We investigated the effects of an essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) on early life stress, using maternal separation (MS) rats and a microarray method to analyze the changes in gene expressions caused by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Rats in the MS groups were separated from their respective mothers from postnatal day (pnd) 14 to 28. Rats in the EOCO-treated groups were exposed to EOCO for 1 or 2 h by inhalation from pnd 21 to 28. The EOCO-treated MS rats showed decreased anxiety-related behaviors compared with the untreated MS rats in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. In the microarray analysis, we found that EOCO downregulated the expressions of cytokine genes such as Ccl2, Il6, Cxcl10, Ccl19, and Il1rl in the hippocampus of MS rats, and also confirmed that using reverse transcriptase - PCR. In particular, the expressions of Ccl2 and Il6 were predominantly decreased by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Interestingly, protein expression was also reduced by EOCO in MS rats. These results indicate that EOCO decreases MS-induced anxiety-related behaviors, and modulates cytokines, particularly Ccl2 and Il6, in the hippocampus of MS rats. PMID:24502631

Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Kang, Won Sub; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Jong Woo

2014-02-01

292

Size-assortative mating and effect of maternal body size on the reproductive output of the nassariid Buccinanops globulosus  

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Size- assortative mating is usually present in populations where there is a positive relationship between female size and reproductive output. In this study, we tested for the presence of sexual size dimorphism, size-assortative mating and the effects of female size on reproductive output in a wild population of Buccinanops globulosus, an endemic nassariid of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean with direct development. The results showed that: 1) females were larger than males, indicating sexual size dimorphism; 2) mate sizes were significantly correlated, indicating a component of size-assortative mating; 3) males of medium and large size classes were paired with larger females than small-sized males; 4) larger females were paired with large males; 5) maternal body size was positively related to some proxies of reproductive success (number of nurse eggs per egg capsule, egg capsular area and total length at hatching). Our results suggest that larger females may be favored as mates over smaller ones owing to their higher investment per offspring and consequently a larger initial juvenile size as juvenile.

Avaca, María Soledad; Narvarte, Maite; Martín, Pablo

2012-04-01

293

Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats.  

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Artificial food colourings and additives (AFCAs) have long been suggested to adversely affect the learning and behaviour in children. In this study, we aimed to provide additional data to clarify the possible side effects of colouring additives on behaviour and memory. We administered acceptable daily intake values of AFCAs as a mixture (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation and then tested their effects on behaviour and on spatial working memory in their offspring. Effects on spatial learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze, behavioural effects were evaluated by open-field test and forced swim test. Our results showed that commonly used artificial food colourings have no adverse effects on spatial working memory and did not create a depressive behaviour in offspring. But they showed a few significant effects on locomotor activity as AFCAs increased some parameters of locomotor activity. PMID:22323474

Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Ozturk, Mustafa; Gultekin, Fatih

2013-08-01

294

A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-? and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using ?2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-? responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-? > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-? responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.

Nampijja Margaret

2005-12-01

295

Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow in beef cows.  

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The objective was to examine the effect of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow (BF). On Day 30 of pregnancy, lactating, multiparous Simmental beef cows were assigned randomly to treatments: control (CON; 100% National Research Council; n = 6) and nutrient restriction (RES; 60% of CON; n = 4) from Day 30 to 140 (period 1), and thereafter, realimented to CON until Day 198 of gestation (period 2). Uterine BF, pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) were obtained from both the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine arteries via Doppler ultrasonography. Generalized least square analysis was performed. Ipsilateral uterine BF in both groups increased quadratically (P < 0.01) during period 1 and linearly (P < 0.01) during period 2. There was a treatment (P = 0.05) effect during period 2; where RES cows had greater ipsilateral BF versus CON. Ipsilateral uterine PI and RI decreased linearly (P ? 0.01) during period 1 across treatments. Contralateral uterine BF in CON cows tended (P < 0.09) to be greater versus RES in both periods. Contralateral PI in both groups increased linearly (P ? 0.01) during period 1. Contralateral uterine RI was increased (P ? 0.05) in RES cows versus CON in both periods. There was no interaction or treatment effect (P ? 0.24) for total BF during either period. Nutrient restriction does not alter total uterine BF, but it may increase vascular resistance. However, up on realimentation, local conceptus-derived vasoactive factors appear to influence ipsilateral uterine BF. PMID:24650930

Camacho, L E; Lemley, C O; Prezotto, L D; Bauer, M L; Freetly, H C; Swanson, K C; Vonnahme, K A

2014-06-01

296

Effects of diets enriched in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on offspring sex-ratio and maternal behavior in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been many trials describing the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on fecundity, neonatal development, and maternal behavior in humans, but few controlled studies in rodents. We examined the effects of a maternal diet high in omega 3 (N-3) or omega 6 (N-6) PUFA on NIH Swiss mice. Female mice were ad libitum fed one of three complete and balanced diets (N-3, enriched in menhaden oil; N-6, enriched in corn oil; C, control diet, Purina 5015) from age 4 wk until the end of the study. Mice were bred at approximately 19 wk and 27 wk of age, providing a total of 838 pups from 129 litters in two experiments. After weaning their pups from parity 1, behavior of dams was assessed on elevated-plus and open-field mazes. Although the fraction of male pups from the N-3 and C groups was not different from 0.5, dams on the N-6 diet birthed more daughters than sons (213 vs. 133; P stress has been reported to favor birth of daughters, the behavior of N-6 dams was not different from controls. By contrast, the N-3 dams displayed greater anxiety, spending less time in the open arms and more time in the closed arms of the elevated maze and traveling less distance and exhibiting less exploratory behavior in the open field (P diet had negative effects on murine fecundity and maternal behavior, whereas the N-6 diet favored birth of daughters. PMID:17928632

Fountain, Emily D; Mao, Jiude; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Mueller, Kelly E; Ellersieck, Mark R; Will, Matthew J; Roberts, R Michael; Macdonald, Ruth; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

2008-02-01

297

Young Adults' Attachment: Does Maternal Employment Make a Difference? Attachments Correlates of Maternal Employment after Infancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

As growing numbers of mothers enter the workforce, understanding the effects of maternal employment on children and adolescents has become increasingly important. The effects of maternal employment after infancy on adult attachment, and how these effects vary as a function of children's personality style are examined in this paper. It was…

Domingo, Meera; Keppley, Sharon; Chambliss, Catherine

298

The Role of Carnosine in Protection Against the Damaging Effect of Maternal Nicotine Exposure During Gestation and Lactation on the Lung of Albino Rat Offspring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to investigate the effect of maternal nicotine exposure, during gestation and lactation, on the lung histological structures of rat offspring and its reversibility and (2 to establish whether carnosine would protect the neonatal rat lung against the adverse effects of maternal nicotine exposure. After mating, the pregnant albino rats were divided into three groups; group I (control group received a daily subcutaneous injection of normal saline, group II received a daily a subcutaneous injection of nicotine (1 mg kg-1 body weight and group III received daily both of subcutaneous injection of nicotine (1 mg kg-1 body weight and intramuscular injection of carnosine (10 mg kg-1 body weight. The lung tissue of the rat pups was collected for histological and histomorphometric study on postnatal days 7, 21 and 49. The study showed that maternal nicotine exposure resulted in marked affection of the lung parenchyma of the rat pups including massive cellular infiltration, thickening of the alveolar septa with increase of their cellularity, proliferation and migration of Type II pneumocytes, damage of the elastic tissue and increased fibroblast deposition. Loss of normal lung architecture and rupture septa with coalescence of alveoli giving picture of microscopical emphysema were also noticed. There was also significant decrease in the alveolar count mm-2 and the percentage of elastic tissue fibers with significant increase in the percentage of collagen fibers in the lung parenchyma of these rat pups, compared with age-matched controls. These changes were irreversible as they progressed even after withdrawal of nicotine following weaning, implying that these changes could be induced at gene level. The treatment with carnosine limited the deleterious effects of nicotine on the histological structure of lung parenchyma of rat pups especially the alveolar count, which did not show significant changes compared with the age-matched controls, as time laps. However, carnosine did not prevent completely the induction of microscopic emphysema resulted from maternal nicotine exposure.

Hoda Mahmoud El-Aasar

2007-01-01

299

EFFECTS ON THE FETUS OF MATERNAL BENOMYL EXPOSURE IN THE PROTEIN-DEPRIVED RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The separate and combined effects of protein deprivation and benomyl ((methyl 1-butylcarbomoyl)2-benzimidazole carbamate) exposure were studied in the pregnant rat fed a diet containing 24% (control) or 8% (deficient) casein throughout gestation. Within each diet group, subgroups...

300

Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Studies on formula-fed infants indicate a beneficial effect of dietary DHA on visual acuity. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between breast-milk DHA levels and visual acuity in breast-fed infants. The objective in this study was to evaluate the biochemical and functional effects of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00). The intervention started within a week after delivery and lasted 4 mon. Mothers with habitual high fish intake and their infants were included as a reference group. Ninety-seven infants completed the trial (44 OO-group, 53 FO-group) and 47 reference infants were followed up. The primary outcome measures were: DHA content of milk samples (0, 2, and 4 mon postnatal) and of infant red blood cell (RBC) membranes (4 mon postnatal), and infant visual acuity (measured by swept visual evoked potential at 2 and 4 mon of age). FO supplementation gave rise to a threefold increase in the DHA content of the 4-mon milk samples (P <0.001). DHA in infant RBC reflected milk contents (r = 0.564, P <0.001) and was increased by almost 50% (P <0.001). Infant visual acuity was not significantly different in the randomized groups but was positively associated at 4 mon with infant RBC-DHA (P = 0.004, multiple regression). We concluded that maternal FO supplementation during lactation did not enhance visual acuity of the infants who completed the intervention. However, the results showed that infants with higher RBC levels of n-3 LCPUFA had a better visual acuity at 4 mon of age, suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA may influence visual maturation.

Straarup, Ellen Marie; HØy, Carl-Erik

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Protective effect of maternal prenatal melatonin administration on rat pups born to mothers submitted to constant light during gestation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the effects of adverse conditions such as constant light (LL on the circadian rhythm of malate (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and lactate (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27 dehydrogenase activities of the testes of male Wistar rats on postnatal day 28 (PN28, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test at PN60 and sexual behavior at PN120. The rats were assigned to mother groups on day 10 of pregnancy: control (12-h light/dark, LL (light from day 10 to 21 of pregnancy, and LL+Mel (LL and sc injection to the mothers of a daily dose of melatonin, 1 mg/kg body weight at circadian time 12, from day 17 to 21 of pregnancy. LL offspring did not show circadian rhythms of MDH (N = 62 and LDH (N = 63 activities (cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher. They presented a 44.7% decrease in open-arm entries and a 67.9% decrease in time (plus-maze test, N = 15, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, an increase in mounting (94.4%, intromission (94.5% and ejaculation (56.6% latencies (N = 12, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test and lower numbers of these events (61, 59 and 73%, respectively; P < 0.01, N = 12 compared to controls. The offspring of the LL+Mel group presented MDH and LDH circadian rhythms (P < 0.05, N = 50, cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher, anxiety-like and sexual behaviors similar to control. These findings supported the importance of the melatonin signal and provide evidence for the protective effects of hormones on maternal programming during gestation. This protective action of melatonin is probably related to its entrainment capacity, favoring internal coupling of the fetal multioscillatory system.

C.D. Cisternas

2010-09-01

302

Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.27±0.04 v. 1.55±0.02 kg; Pdiet on mortality was found. Lower DHA concentrations were observed in the brain of the lighter piglets compared with their heavier littermates (9.46±0.05 v. 9.63±0.04 g DHA/100 g fatty acids; P=0.008), suggesting that the higher incidence of pre-weaning mortality in low birth weight piglets may be related to their lower brain DHA status. Adding n-3 PUFA to the sow diet could not significantly reduce this difference in DHA status, although numerically the difference in the brain DHA concentration between the piglet weight groups was smaller when fish oil was included in the sow diet. Independent of birth weight, echium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed. PMID:25322791

Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

2014-11-01

303

Effects of early maternal separation on biobehavioral and neuropathological markers of Alzheimer's disease in adult male rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress has been described as a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). In the present work we aim to study the validity of an experimental model of neonatal chronic stress in order to recapitulate the main hallmarks of AD. Male Wistar rats that were separated daily from the dam during the first 3 weeks of life (maternal separation, MS) showed in adulthood cognitive deficits novel object recognition test. In the hippocampus of MS rats, increases in both A?40 and A?42 levels, the principal constituent of amyloid plaques observed in AD, were accompanied by increased expression of the cleaving enzyme BACE1. Hyperphosphorylation of Tau associated to increased activation of the tau kinase JNK1 was also found. Decreased cell number in the hippocampus was observed in stressed rats, as a consequence of both decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptotic death. Decreases in BDNF and in the synaptic markers synaptophysin and PSD-95 were also found in MS rats. All these effects could be related to an HPA axis hyperactivity, as reflected in significant increases in corticosterone levels and decreases in glucocorticoid receptor expression. Further, SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells treated with corticosterone showed increased BACE1, pTau and pJNK1 expression. In addition, venlafaxine, an antidepressant able to modulate HPA axis activity, reversed all the above cited deleterious effects of chronic stress, both in vivo and in vitro. It is proposed that the MS model can be considered as an appropriate experimental model for the study of sporadic AD. PMID:23305081

Martisova, Eva; Aisa, Bárbara; Guereñu, Gorka; Ramírez, María Javier

2013-05-01

304

Effects of Maternal Diabetes on the Structure of Cervical Segments of the Spinal Cord in the Developing Fetus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetic pregnancy represents both a clinical and research challenge in terms of its detrimental effects on the foetus. Previous studies have suggested that maternal diabetes mellitus may cause lasting effects on the psychoneurological development in the offspring. Thus, the present study is aimed to observe structural changes in the spinal cord of developing foetus of diabetic mouse mother. A total of 124 adult mice (100 females and 24 males of ICR strain were used. Diabetes was induced in 55 female mice by two intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. Animals with blood glucose >level200 mg d-1 L were considered diabetic and mated with adult male mice. Another 45 female mice served as controls without any diabetes induction. Successful mating in treated and control animals was indicated by the presence of vaginal plug and this day was considered as gestational day (GD 0. Pregnancy was terminated on GD 14, 16, 18 and 20 (day of delivery. Foetuses and pups were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for light microscopy study. The light microscopical observation demonstrated bilateral asymmetry of the two-halves of the cervical segments of the spinal cord. Shrunken or eroded dorsal horn represented the most frequent defect in foetus/pup of GD 16 (n=23, GD 18 (n=21 and GD 20 (n=26. In addition, the white matter on the lateral and dorsal side has much reduced or disappeared. Imperfect growth and protrusion of spinal cord were also observed. In some cases, the dorsal part of the spinal cord has protruded beyond the vertebral lamina; showing a condition called meningomyelocele. Irregularity and dilatation of central canal were noticed. These changes were not present in the control samples. These findings implicated that the central nervous system is subjected to structural changes in the developing foetus when exposed to diabetic milieu. The results are supportive of the previous investigations in the human that indicated neurobehavioural and habituation disturbances in the offspring of diabetic mothers.

A.G. Pillay

2003-01-01

305

Antenatal exercise in overweight and obese women and its effects on offspring and maternal health: design and rationale of the IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Obesity Via Exercise) randomised controlled trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Obesity during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring and mother. Lifestyle interventions in pregnancy such as antenatal exercise, are proposed to improve both short- and long-term health of mother and child. We hypothesise that regular moderate-intensity exercise during the second half of pregnancy will result in improved maternal and offspring outcomes, including a reduction in birth weight and adiposity in the offspring, which may be protective against obesity in later life. Methods/Design The IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Risks of Obesity Via Exercise) study is a two-arm parallel randomised controlled clinical trial being conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Overweight and obese women (BMI ?25 kg/m2) aged 18–40 years, with a singleton pregnancy of <20 weeks of gestation, from the Auckland region, are eligible for the trial. Exclusion criteria are ongoing smoking or medical contra-indications to antenatal exercise. Participants are randomised with 1:1 allocation ratio to either intervention or control group, using computer-generated randomisation sequences in variable block sizes, stratified on ethnicity and parity, after completion of baseline assessments. The intervention consists of a 16-week structured home-based moderate-intensity exercise programme utilising stationary cycles and heart rate monitors, commencing at 20 weeks of gestation. The control group do not receive any exercise intervention. Both groups undergo regular fetal ultrasonography and receive standard antenatal care. Due to the nature of the intervention, participants are un-blinded to group assignment during the trial. The primary outcome is offspring birth weight. Secondary offspring outcomes include fetal and neonatal body composition and anthropometry, neonatal complications and cord blood metabolic markers. Maternal outcomes include weight gain, pregnancy and delivery complications, aerobic fitness, quality of life, metabolic markers and post-partum body composition. Discussion The results of this trial will provide valuable insights on the effects of antenatal exercise on health outcomes in overweight and obese mothers and their offspring. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000932864. PMID:24767604

2014-01-01

306

THE EFFECT OF ACUTE MATERNAL CuCL2 INTOXICATION UPON MOUSE FETAL SKELETON  

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Full Text Available The acute copper intoxication during mouse embryogenesis was performed on day 9 of pregnancy by intraperitoneal injection (i.p. of CuCl2 0,1ml/10 g body weight. Late, fetal effects were controled on day 19 of gestation (the fetal and placental wet weight, external anomalies and the control of fetal skeleton were performed.The control revealed the lowering of the mean fetal and placental weight after acute copper intoxication.The fetal macroscopic examination showed exencephaly in some fetuses from the treated group; the control of fetal skeleton revealed a marked teratogenic effect of copper upon some bones or ossification centers.

Maria Checiu

2004-01-01

307

Efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en el oligohidramnios aislado: its effectiveness in isolated oligohydramnios / Parenteral maternal hydrotherapy:  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El oligohidramnios u oligoamnios es la disminución del líquido amniótico a cifras patológicas con un índice de líquido amniótico (ILA) menor o igual a 5 cm, y constituye un alto riego fetal y secundariamente materno. OBJETIVO: demostrar a través de un ensayo clínico controlado la efectividad de la h [...] idroterapia materna parenteral en oligoamnios aislados, en el aumento del ILA y consecutivamente su repercusión en esos resultados perinatológicos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado para valorar la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral (HMP) en gestantes con oligoamnios aislado, de 28 sem o más de embarazo, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Docente de Guanabacoa, entre el 1ro de enero del 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004. La muestra fue de 141 oligoamnios aislados y se dividió en 2 grupos: grupo estudio: 56 y el grupo control: 85. Al grupo estudio se le aplicó HMP con 2000 mL de solución salina isotónica al 0,9 %, y con el grupo control se mantuvo conducta expectante. RESULTADOS: el oligoamnios aislado es más frecuente en el embarazo a término. Al administrar HMP aumenta el ILA en un 43 % (grupo estudio) y solo en un 22 % de los casos del grupo control. Igualmente, se logra aumentar la edad gestacional en 2 sem desde el diagnóstico. Fue mayor el parto transpelviano en el grupo estudio; la principal causa de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo en ambos, principalmente en el grupo control. En el grupo estudio no hubo recién nacidos con Síndrome de distress respiratorio ni bronconeumonía congénita. CONCLUSIONES: la HMP parece ser efectiva en el manejo del oligoamnios aislado, lo cual disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal y secundariamente el bienestar materno. Abstract in english Oligohydramnios or oligoamnios is the amniotic fluid decrease to pathological figures with a high amniotic fluid rate (AFR) less or similar to 5 cm, and it is a fetal high risk, and secondarily maternal. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate through a controlled clinical assay the effectiveness of parenteral ma [...] ternal hydrotherapy (PMH) in isolated oligoamnios, in increase of AFR, and consecutively its repercussion on those perinatal results. METHODS: We made a controlled clinical assay to assess effectiveness of PHM in pregnants with isolated oligoamnios of 28 weeks or more of pregnancy in Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. Sample included 141 isolated oligoamnios and it was divided in two groups: study group with 56 patients and control-group with 85 patients. In study group, we administered PHM with 2000 mL of 0,9% isotopic saline solution, and in control-group there was an expectant behavior RESULTS: Isolated aligoamnios is more frequent in term pregnancy. Administration of PHM increases AFR in 43% (study group), and only in 22% of cases from control- group. Likewise, it was possible to increase gestational age in two weeks from diagnosis. In study group, transpelvic pregnancy; main cause of cesarean section was the acute fetal suffering in both groups, mainly in the control one. In study group there were not newborns presenting with neither respiratory syndrome nor congenital bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: PMH looks to be effective in management o isolated oligoamnios, decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality, and secondarily, maternal wellbeing.

Itsel, Cárdenas Ramón; Sonia, Águila Setién; Jacinta, Otero Iglesias.

308

Efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral en el oligohidramnios aislado: its effectiveness in isolated oligohydramnios / Parenteral maternal hydrotherapy:  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El oligohidramnios u oligoamnios es la disminución del líquido amniótico a cifras patológicas con un índice de líquido amniótico (ILA) menor o igual a 5 cm, y constituye un alto riego fetal y secundariamente materno. OBJETIVO: demostrar a través de un ensayo clínico controlado la efectividad de la h [...] idroterapia materna parenteral en oligoamnios aislados, en el aumento del ILA y consecutivamente su repercusión en esos resultados perinatológicos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado para valorar la efectividad de la hidroterapia materna parenteral (HMP) en gestantes con oligoamnios aislado, de 28 sem o más de embarazo, en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Docente de Guanabacoa, entre el 1ro de enero del 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004. La muestra fue de 141 oligoamnios aislados y se dividió en 2 grupos: grupo estudio: 56 y el grupo control: 85. Al grupo estudio se le aplicó HMP con 2000 mL de solución salina isotónica al 0,9 %, y con el grupo control se mantuvo conducta expectante. RESULTADOS: el oligoamnios aislado es más frecuente en el embarazo a término. Al administrar HMP aumenta el ILA en un 43 % (grupo estudio) y solo en un 22 % de los casos del grupo control. Igualmente, se logra aumentar la edad gestacional en 2 sem desde el diagnóstico. Fue mayor el parto transpelviano en el grupo estudio; la principal causa de cesárea fue el sufrimiento fetal agudo en ambos, principalmente en el grupo control. En el grupo estudio no hubo recién nacidos con Síndrome de distress respiratorio ni bronconeumonía congénita. CONCLUSIONES: la HMP parece ser efectiva en el manejo del oligoamnios aislado, lo cual disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal y secundariamente el bienestar materno. Abstract in english Oligohydramnios or oligoamnios is the amniotic fluid decrease to pathological figures with a high amniotic fluid rate (AFR) less or similar to 5 cm, and it is a fetal high risk, and secondarily maternal. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate through a controlled clinical assay the effectiveness of parenteral ma [...] ternal hydrotherapy (PMH) in isolated oligoamnios, in increase of AFR, and consecutively its repercussion on those perinatal results. METHODS: We made a controlled clinical assay to assess effectiveness of PHM in pregnants with isolated oligoamnios of 28 weeks or more of pregnancy in Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. Sample included 141 isolated oligoamnios and it was divided in two groups: study group with 56 patients and control-group with 85 patients. In study group, we administered PHM with 2000 mL of 0,9% isotopic saline solution, and in control-group there was an expectant behavior RESULTS: Isolated aligoamnios is more frequent in term pregnancy. Administration of PHM increases AFR in 43% (study group), and only in 22% of cases from control- group. Likewise, it was possible to increase gestational age in two weeks from diagnosis. In study group, transpelvic pregnancy; main cause of cesarean section was the acute fetal suffering in both groups, mainly in the control one. In study group there were not newborns presenting with neither respiratory syndrome nor congenital bronchopneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: PMH looks to be effective in management o isolated oligoamnios, decreasing perinatal morbidity and mortality, and secondarily, maternal wellbeing.

Itsel, Cárdenas Ramón; Sonia, Águila Setién; Jacinta, Otero Iglesias.

2009-09-01

309

Mechanisms for the adverse effects of late gestational increases in maternal cortisol on the heart revealed by transcriptomic analyses of the fetal septum.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously shown in sheep that 10 days of modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol resulting from maternal infusion of cortisol (1 mg/kg/day) caused fetal heart enlargement and Purkinje cell apoptosis. In subsequent studies we extended the cortisol infusion to term, finding a dramatic incidence of stillbirth in the pregnancies with chronically increased cortisol. To investigate effects of maternal cortisol on the heart, we performed transcriptomic analyses on the septa using ovine microarrays and Webgestalt and Cytoscape programs for pathway inference. Analyses of the transcriptomic effects of maternal cortisol infusion for 10 days (130 day cortisol vs 130 day control), or ?25 days (140 day cortisol vs 140 day control) and of normal maturation (140 day control vs 130 day control) were performed. Gene ontology terms related to immune function and cytokine actions were significantly overrepresented as genes altered by both cortisol and maturation in the septa. After 10 days of cortisol, growth factor and muscle cell apoptosis pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with our previous histologic findings. In the term fetuses (?25 days of cortisol) nutrient pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with altered metabolism and reduced mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial number by mitochondrial DNA expression confirmed a significant decrease in mitochondria. The metabolic pathways modeled as altered by cortisol treatment to term were different from those modeled during maturation of the heart to term, and thus changes in gene expression in these metabolic pathways may be indicative of the fetal heart pathophysiologies seen in pregnancies complicated by stillbirth, including gestational diabetes, Cushing's disease and chronic stress. PMID:24867915

Richards, Elaine M; Wood, Charles E; Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Antolic, Andrew; Keller-Wood, Maureen

2014-08-01

310

Mother Knows Best: Epigenetic Inheritance, Maternal Effects, and the Evolution of Human Intelligence  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary evolution biology has recognized the role of development in evolution. Evolutionarily oriented psychologists have similarly recognized the role that behavioral plasticity, particularly early in development, may have had on the evolution of species, harking back to the ideas of Baldwin (the Baldwin effect). Epigenetic theories of…

Bjorklund, David F.

2006-01-01

311

Interaction Effects between Maternal Lifetime Depressive/Anxiety Disorders and Correlates of Children's Externalizing Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the interaction effects between mother's lifetime depressive/anxiety disorders and psychosocial correlates of 6 to 11 year-old children's self-reported externalizing symptoms in the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey. A representative subsample of 1,490 Quebec children aged 6 to 11 years was selected from the original sample. We…

Piche, Genevieve; Bergeron, Lise; Cyr, Mireille; Berthiaume, Claude

2011-01-01

312

Effects of Structural Family Therapy on Child and Maternal Mental Health Symptomatology  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points,…

Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

2013-01-01

313

The Effects of Maternal Social Phobia on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Social Responsiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We…

Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Schofield, Elizabeth; Sack, Caroline

2007-01-01

314

Antepartum and Postpartum Exposure to Maternal Depression: Different Effects on Different Adolescent Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered a major public health problem that conveys risk to mothers and offspring. Yet PPD typically occurs in the context of a lifelong episodic illness, and its putative effects might derive from the child's exposure to other episodes, in pregnancy or later childhood. The aim of the study is to test…

Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Sharp, Deborah

2008-01-01

315

EFFECTS ON THE FETUS OF MATERNAL NITROFEN EXPOSURE IN THE PROTEIN-DEPRIVED RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The separate and combined effects of protein deprivation and nitrofen exposure were studied in the pregnant rat. Animals were fed diets containing 24, 8, 6 or 4% casein throughout gestation. Within each diet group, sub-groups were gavage-fed with 12.5 (lower dose) and 25 (higher ...

316

Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Berg, A.H. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S.J.; Hinton, D.E. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M. [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

1999-02-01

317

Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl2) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

318

Effects of inadequate maternal dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy on offspring immunity in pigs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n?=?13), low (LP, 6.5%; n?=?15), or high (HP, 30%; n?=?14) protein conten...

Tuchscherer Margret; Otten Winfried; Kanitz Ellen; Gräbner Maria; Tuchscherer Armin; Bellmann Olaf; Rehfeldt Charlotte; Metges Cornelia C

2012-01-01

319

Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation  

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Abstract Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the leve...

Petersen Guilherme O; Vm, Filho Pli?nio; Machado Julia, B.; Chatkin José M

2011-01-01

320

The effects of maternal social phobia on mother-infant interactions and infant social responsiveness  

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Background: Social phobia aggregates in families. The genetic contribution to intergenerational transmission is modest, and parenting is considered important. Research on the effects of social phobia on parenting has been subject to problems of small sample size, heterogeneity of samples and lack of specificity of observational frameworks. We addressed these problems in the current study.Methods: We assessed mothers with social phobia (N = 84) and control mothers (N = 89) at 10 weeks in face-...

Murray, L.; Cooper, P.; Creswell, C.; Schofield, E.; Sack, C.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Prenatal lipopolysaccharide increases maternal behavior, decreases maternal odor preference, and induces lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study investigated whether late maternal inflammation disrupts the mother/pup interaction, resulting in long-lasting effects on pup behavior and alterations in biological pathways, thereby programming prepubertal behavior and the pups' inflammatory responses after bacterial endotoxin tre [...] atment. Female rats received 100 ?g/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or .9% saline solution on gestation day 18. Reproductive performance was observed at birth. On lactation days (LD) 5 and LD 6, respectively, maternal behavior and maternal aggressive behavior were assessed. In pups, maternal odor preference on LD 7, open field behavior on LD 21, and serum tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) levels after LPS challenge on LD 21 were investigated. The results showed that prenatal LPS exposure improved maternal care and reduced maternal aggressive behavior but did not alter maternal reproductive performance. Male offspring exhibited increased body weights at birth and reduced maternal odor preference. Lipopolysaccharide challenge increased the duration of immobility in the open field and induced a slight increase in serum TNF-? levels. Prenatal exposure to LPS during late pregnancy improved maternal care, reduced maternal olfactory preference, and induced TNF-? hyporesponsiveness to a single dose of LPS in pups.

Sandra, Penteado; Cristina de Oliveira Massoco-Salles, Gomes; Thiago, Kirsten; Thiago, Reis-Silva; Rafael César de, Melo; Michelli, Acenjo; Nicolle, Queiroz-Hazarbassanov; Maria Martha, Bernardi.

322

Effect of Maternal Morphine Sulfate Exposure on Neuronal Plasticity of Dentate Gyrus in Balb/c Mice Offspring  

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Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effects of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation period on the neuronal cells of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days Balb/c mice offspring. In this experimental study 10 female mice were randomly allocated into cases and controls. In experimental group, animals were received morphine sulfate 10 mg/kg/body weight intraperitoneally during 7 days before mating, gestational period (GD0-21, 18 and 32 days after delivery. The control animals were received an equivalent volume normal saline. Cerebrum of six infant for each group were removed and stained with cresyl violet and monoclonal anti-neuronal nuclei (NeuN antibody. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on dentate gyrus of hippocampus. In the P18 mice , the numbers of granular cells in dentate gyrus medial blade and dentate gyrus lateral blade significantly reduced from 171.45±4.2 and 174.51±3.1 cells in control group to 153.32±2.8 and 151.23±3.2 cells in 10000 ?m2 area of granular layer in treated group (p<0.001. In P32 mice the numbers of granular cells in mb and lb of dentate gyrus significantly decreased from 155.31±4.1 and 153.77±3.4 in control group to 138.33±4.5 and 135.13±4.3 in treated group, respectively (p<0.001. The granular layer thickness in mb and lb area of dentate gyrus significantly reduced in treated mice in compared to controls in P18 and P32 mice (p<0.05. This study revealed that morphine administration before, during pregnancy and lactation period causes neuronal cells loss of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days old infant mice.

S. Kaboli Kafshgiri

2013-01-01

323

Supplementation of the maternal diet with tomato powder and marigold extract: effects on the antioxidant system of the developing quail.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of natural dietary carotenoid supplementation of the maternal diet (tomato powder and marigold extract) on transfer to the egg yolk and on the development of the antioxidant system of the young quail liver in early postnatal life were investigated. Sixty Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were allocated to four treatment groups, each with three replicates consisting of four females and one male each. The quail were fed on one of four different diets for 23 d, each of them based on a low carotenoid, wheat/barley-based control diet. Tomato powder and marigold extract were added at rates of 20 and 2 g/kg to treatments 2 and 3, respectively. Marigold extract and tomato powder were also used in combination in treatment 4 at 2 g marigold + 20 g tomato powder/kg of diet. At 20 weeks of age, 60 eggs from each treatment were collected and placed in an incubator. After hatching, d-old quail from each group were reared (under standard commercial conditions) up to 14 d of age. They were fed on a low-carotenoid commercial diet. After hatch, at 1, 7 and 14 d, the livers of five young quail from each treatment were assessed for total carotenoid concentration and carotenoid profile. Results indicated that lycopene is transferred from the feed to the egg yolk and further to the liver of the developing embryo. Elevated carotenoid concentration in the egg yolk and correspondingly in the liver of newly hatched quail remains significant during first week posthatch. Lutein and lycopene did not affect vitamin E concentration in the egg yolk or liver of the newly hatched quail. A combination of increased concentrations of lycopene and lutein in the egg yolk results in elevated concentrations of coenzyme Q in the liver of the newly hatched quail. PMID:16641031

Karadas, F; Surai, P; Grammenidis, E; Sparks, N H C; Acamovic, T

2006-04-01

324

Effects of maternally administered sulphur-35 on the pre- and postnatal mortality and development in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was taken up to screen the effects of 35S on the prenatal development of mouse. Pregnant mice of CBA strain were injected intraperitoneally with a doze of 20 ?Ci of 35S on 10.5 days of gestation and allowed to go to term. No mortality was observed in treated animals. However, a slight reduction in the number of fertile matings was noted in 35S group. But the reduction was statistically insignificant. A significant decrease in litter size was noted in 35S -treated group. While the litter size was 7.5/female in the control, it was 5.9/female in 35S group. The reduced litter size might be due to 35S-induced prenatal mortality. A further reduction in litter size was noted at weaning. This reduction was due to a significant increase in the neo- and postnatal mortality of F1 progeny in the treated group. There was no effect of 35S on the sex ratio and body weights of F1 progeny. (auth.)

325

Effect of maternal lysine supplementation on the performance of growing rabbits. Preliminary results  

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Full Text Available The experiment studied the effect of dietary lysine supplementation to rabbit does on the performance and on meat’s protein and lysine content of their offspring. Half of the does (n=43 fed control diet (C; Lys: 0.68%, while the other half a lysine supplemented diet (L; Lys: 0.80% from 3 days before AI until weaning. After kindling, half of the litters of C does were put under C does, while the other half under L does. The same procedure was followed for offspring of L does. After weaning, rabbits fed the same diet (0.68% Lys. Does’ dietary treatment significantly affected the weaning weight, however, only lysine supplementation during suckling age had negative effect (340 vs 315g for C and L does, respectively; P<0.01. The kit’s milk intake, measured at 3rd and 7th day of age, nursed by L does was significantly lower. Other productive and carcass traits did not differ significantly.

Zsolt Szendrö

2010-01-01

326

Effects of inadequate maternal dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy on offspring immunity in pigs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n?=?13, low (LP, 6.5%; n?=?15, or high (HP, 30%; n?=?14 protein content, made isoenergetic by varying carbohydrate levels. Cortisol, total protein and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA concentrations were measured in the blood of sows over the course of pregnancy. Cortisol, total protein, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation, immune cell counts, and cytokines were assessed in the blood of offspring at baseline and under challenging conditions (weaning; lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration. Results In sows, the LP diet increased cortisol (P?P?P?P?+ cell percentage and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased after weaning (P?P?=?0.09 and HP (P?P? Conclusions Our results indicate that both low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant sows can induce short-term as well as long-lasting effects on immune competence in piglets that may have serious consequences for host defence against bacterial pathogens.

Tuchscherer Margret

2012-11-01

327

Effect of maternal age and growth on placental nutrient transport: potential mechanisms for teenagers' predisposition to small-for-gestational-age birth?  

Science.gov (United States)

Teenagers have an increased risk of delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Young maternal age and continued skeletal growth have been implicated as causal factors. In growing adolescent sheep, impaired placental development and nutrient transfer cause reduced birth weight. In human pregnancies, SGA is associated with reduced placental amino acid transport. Maternal growth has no effect on placental morphology or cell turnover, but growing teenagers have higher birth weight:placental weight ratios than nongrowing teenagers. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporter activity would be affected by maternal age and/or growth status. Placentas from teenagers and adults were collected. Teenagers were defined as growing or nongrowing based on knee height measurements. System A amino acid transporter activity was quantified as sodium-dependent uptake of [(14)C]methylaminoisobutyric acid into placental fragments. Teenagers had lower placental system A activity than adults (P SLC38A1 and -2 was lower in teenagers than in adults (P < 0.05) but did not differ between growing and nongrowing teenagers. There was no difference in transporter protein expression/localization between cohorts. Teenagers have inherently reduced placental transport, which may underlie their susceptibility to delivering SGA infants. Growing teenagers appear to overcome this susceptibility by stimulating the activity, but not expression, of system A transporters. PMID:22028413

Hayward, Christina E; Greenwood, Susan L; Sibley, Colin P; Baker, Philip N; Challis, John R G; Jones, Rebecca L

2012-01-15

328

Effects of maternal folic acid supplementation on morphology and apoptosis-related gene expression in jejunum of newborn intrauterine growth retarded piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the effects of maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation on intestinal morphology and gene expressions relating to cell apoptosis and DNA repair of the intestine in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) and normal body weight (NBW) piglets were investigated. Twenty-four Yorkshire gilts were randomly allotted to a Control diet (1.8 mg FA per kg) or FA supplemented diet (30.3 mg FA per kg) during pregnancy. The expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT-1), genes related to cell apoptosis (p53, Bcl-2 and Bax) and genes involved in DNA repair (Mpg, Apex1 and Tdg, firstly cloned in the present study) were investigated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR in the jejunal section of the intestine. Morphological analysis of middle section of intestine revealed a decreased intestinal development in IUGR piglets characterised by mucosal atrophy and decreased villus height compared with NBW piglets regardless of FA supplementation. The expression of p53, Bax, Mpg and Apex-1 was higher, but expression of DNMT-1 and Bcl-2 was significantly lower in jejunum of IUGR piglets compared with NBW piglets. Maternal FA supplementation could dramatically increase DNMT-1 and Bcl-2 expression, and decrease p53, Bax, Mpg and Apex-1 expression in the jejunum section of IUGR piglets. IUGR impaired intestinal development and apoptosis-related gene expressions in piglets, but maternal FA supplementation could improve the apoptosis-related gene expression of jejunum section of intestine. PMID:22164959

Liu, Jingbo; Chen, Daiwen; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Bing

2011-10-01

329

Studies on the effect of normal labour and obstetric analgesia on maternal and cord venous plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity in primigravidae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A spectrophotometric (optimized) assay of plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was carried out in the plasma of primigravid subjects before and after labour; and in the plasma of cord various blood samples obtained from these subjects. The assay was based on the calorimetric determination of hippurate with cyanuric chloride/dioxan reagent, as described by Hurst and Lovell-Smith. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this method during the assay ranged from 7.36% to 8.19% and from 9.20% to 9.79% for the hippurate standards and the control plasma samples respectively. The mean +/- SD of maternal plasma ACE activity before labour and at delivery in the primigravid subjects were 22.23 +/- 4.17 and 16.44 +/- 1.71 units-1 min-1 respectively; while the corresponding value of enzyme activity in the cord venous plasma for these subjects was 15.71 +/- 1.61 unit-1 min-1. Normal labour did not appear to alter significantly the level of maternal and cord venous plasma ACE activity. It would appear that epidural analgesia has a significant effect on the level of maternal plasma ACE activity during labour (x2 = 12.59 P less than 0.05), but not on the cord venous plasma ACE activity. PMID:2176811

Odum, C U; Broughton Pipkin, F

1990-01-01

330

Effects of maternal dietary supplementation with three sources of carotenoids on the retinyl esters of egg yolk and developing quail liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of supplementation of the maternal diet of quail with three natural sources of carotenoids (alfalfa nutrient concentrate (PX agrotrade mark), tomato powder and marigold extract) on the accumulation of retinol and retinyl esters in egg yolk and in the liver of the new hatchling and maternal were investigated. The present study showed that the vitamin A in quail egg yolk was present in 4 different forms, namely retinol (R 52-62%), retinyl linoleate (RL 9-11%), retinyl stearate (RS 4%), retinyl oleate (RO 11-15%) and retinyl palmitate (RP 13-22%). The retinyl ester profile of the liver of newly hatched quail (R 2-4%, RL 8-12%, RS 19-21%, RO 12-15%, RP 50-55%) differs from that of egg yolk but was similar to that of the liver of adult quail (R 1%, RL 5-6%, RS 21-28%, RO 9-12%, RP 54-63%). It has been shown that RO and RP concentrations in egg yolk and the liver of day old quail chick significantly increased as a result of carotenoid supplementation of the maternal diet. PMID:15936702

Karadas, Filiz; Surai, Peter F; Sparks, Nick H C; Grammenidis, Evangelos

2005-04-01

331

Effect of maternal coffee, smoking and drinking behavior on adult son's semen quality: prospective evidence from the Child Health and Development Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal exposure to caffeine is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Animal and human studies suggest that caffeine may have effects on the developing reproductive system. Here we report on mothers' smoking, coffee and alcohol use, recorded during pregnancy, and semen quality in sons in the age group of 38-47 years. Subjects were a subset of the Child Health and Development Studies, a pregnancy cohort enrolled between 1959 and 1967 in the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan near Oakland, California. In 2005, adult sons participated in a follow-up study (n = 338) and semen samples were donated by 196 participants. Samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, motility and morphology according to the National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network (Fertile Male Study) Protocol. Mean sperm concentration was reduced by approximately 16 million sperms for sons with high prenatal exposure (5 cups of maternal coffee use per day) compared with unexposed sons (P-value for decreasing trend = 0.09), which translates to a proportionate reduction of 25%. Mean percent motile sperm decreased by approximately 7 points (P-value = 0.04), a proportionate decline of 13%, and mean percent sperm with normal morphology decreased by approximately 2 points (P-value = 0.01), a proportionate decline of 25%. Maternal cigarette and alcohol use were not associated with son's semen quality. Adjusting for son's contemporary coffee, alcohol and cigarette use did not explain the maternal associations. Findings for son's coffee intake and father's prenatal coffee, cigarette and alcohol use were non-significant and inconclusive. These results contribute to the evidence that maternal coffee use during pregnancy may impair the reproductive development of the male fetus. PMID:25140488

Cirillo, P M; Cohn, B A; Krigbaum, N Y; Lee, M; Brazil, C; Factor-Litvak, P

2011-12-01

332

Effect of maternal coffee, smoking and drinking behavior on adult son's semen quality: prospective evidence from the Child Health and Development Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal exposure to caffeine is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Animal and human studies suggest that caffeine may have effects on the developing reproductive system. Here we report on mothers' smoking, coffee and alcohol use, recorded during pregnancy, and semen quality in sons in the age group of 38–47 years. Subjects were a subset of the Child Health and Development Studies, a pregnancy cohort enrolled between 1959 and 1967 in the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan near Oakland, California. In 2005, adult sons participated in a follow-up study (n = 338) and semen samples were donated by 196 participants. Samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, motility and morphology according to the National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network (Fertile Male Study) Protocol. Mean sperm concentration was reduced by approximately 16 million sperms for sons with high prenatal exposure (5 cups of maternal coffee use per day) compared with unexposed sons (P-value for decreasing trend = 0.09), which translates to a proportionate reduction of 25%. Mean percent motile sperm decreased by approximately 7 points (P-value = 0.04), a proportionate decline of 13%, and mean percent sperm with normal morphology decreased by approximately 2 points (P-value = 0.01), a proportionate decline of 25%. Maternal cigarette and alcohol use were not associated with son's semen quality. Adjusting for son's contemporary coffee, alcohol and cigarette use did not explain the maternal associations. Findings for son's coffee intake and father's prenatal coffee, cigarette and alcohol use were non-significant and inconclusive. These results contribute to the evidence that maternal coffee use during pregnancy may impair the reproductive development of the male fetus. PMID:25140488

Cirillo, P. M.; Cohn, B. A.; Krigbaum, N. Y.; Lee, M.; Brazil, C.; Factor-Litvak, P.

2014-01-01

333

Maternally-derived antibodies to porcine parvovirus and their effect on active antibody production after vaccination with an inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two sows which had been vaccinated with an oil-emulsion porcine parvovirus vaccine, and had developed high haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody levels to the virus, farrowed three successive litters each, a total of 74 piglets. Serum samples from these piglets were tested for haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody at birth, three and 17 days after birth, and at monthly intervals thereafter to study the decline of maternally-derived antibody. Regression curves were constructed from the data to show the projected pathway (mean and 95 per cent tolerance limits) of the decline of maternally-derived antibody. Approximately half the pigs still had positive titres of up to 1/160 at six months old, and traces of antibody were detected in a few pigs at nine months. Thus, even at the onset of breeding some gilts can have maternally-derived antibody which may interfere with their ability to develop active immunity to porcine parvovirus. From the same litters three groups of 12 pigs were selected randomly and were vaccinated with a single dose of the oil-emulsion vaccine at 70 days, 130 days or 190 days respectively. Despite the presence of moderate to high titres of maternally-derived antibody, especially in the younger pigs, all of those vaccinated showed strong and long lasting antibody responses to the vaccine. High serum antibody titres at the time of vaccination seemed to depress the response to the vaccine slightly but the effect was not statistically significant. These results have important implications for prevention of reproductive failure induced by porcine parvovirus. PMID:3603999

Wrathall, A E; Cartwright, S F; Wells, D E; Jones, P C

1987-05-15

334

Prenatal Enrichment And Recovery From Perinatal Cortical Damage: Effects Of Maternal Complex Housing  

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Full Text Available Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group for 12 hours per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their home (standard cages with their pups. Four dams were housed in standard cages (cagemom group throughout pregnancy and with their pups until weaning. At postnatal day 3 (P3 infants of both groups received frontal cortex removals or sham surgery. Behavioural testing began on P60 and included the Morris water task and a skilled reaching task. Brains were processed for Golgi analyses. Complex housing of the mother had a significant effect on the behaviour of their pups. Control animals from the condomom group outperformed those of the cagemom group in the water task. Condomom animals with lesions performed better than their cagemom cohorts in both the water task and in skilled reaching. Condomom animals showed an increase in cortical thickness at anterior planes and thalamic area at both anterior and posterior regions. Golgi analyses revealed an increase in spine density. These results suggest that prenatal enrichment alters brain organization in manner that is prophylactic for perinatal brain injury. This result could have significant implications for the prenatal management of infants expected to be at risk for difficult birth.

RobbinGibb

2014-06-01

335

Differentiating the effects of maternal and peer encouragement to diet on child weight control attitudes and behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obese and overweight youth are more at risk for engaging in frequent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors and report more body dissatisfaction than their normal weight peers. Previous research has indicated that peer and maternal encouragement to diet is predictive of unhealthy weight related behaviors and attitudes. The current study aims to examine if maternal and peer encouragement to diet equally mediate the relationship between youth BMI z-score and (a) unhealthy weight control behaviors, (b) diet frequency and (c) body dissatisfaction in a sample of racially diverse boys and girls. Participants were 94 children/adolescents between the ages of 8-17. Results were stratified by gender. Three bootstrapped multiple mediation models were conducted to examine each outcome variable. Results indicated that maternal encouragement to diet mediated the relationships predicting unhealthy weight control and diet frequency for girls, but not for boys. Peer encouragement to diet significantly mediated the relationship predicting unhealthy weight control behaviors, with increased peer encouragement associated with fewer unhealthy weight control behaviors for girls. Peer encouragement to diet was not a significant mediator for any of the outcomes for boys. Results suggest that maternal encouragement to diet may play a larger role than peer encouragement to diet in predicting unhealthy weight attitudes and behaviors for girls. PMID:22885728

Armstrong, Bridget; Janicke, David M

2012-12-01

336

Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

2008-01-01

337

Effects of Maternal Self-Concept, Parity, and Marital Status on Development of the Vulnerable Child Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 130 mother-infant pairs participated in a study of the relation of maternal psychological and demographic variables to the vulnerable child syndrome, a condition in which parents persist in viewing their children as vulnerable following recovery from a serious medical complication. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) mothers who…

Christensen, M. J.; And Others

338

Effect of Irradiation Maternal Diets on the Post-natal Development of Brain Rat Pups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Effect of Protein-calorie malnutrition was studied on the pups born to mothers receiving either irradiated normal diet (consisted equal parts of gram and wheat) or irradiation low protein diet (consisted one part of normal diet and three parts of heat). Level of DNA, RNA and protein content were found markedly reduced in the brain of irradiated low protein diet fed pups than in the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found lower while catalase and lipid peroxidation activity were higher in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, compared whit the pups fed irradiated normal diet. On the whole both the irradiated low protein diet as well as irradiated normal diet fed pups showed higher index of biochemical changes than in the unirradiated low protein diet fed pups. Post-natal mortality was 60% in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, whereas the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet did not show any death. The study given evidence that feeding of the irradiated low protein diet interferes more with the development of brain compared with the pups fed on irradiated normal diet

339

Effect of maternal age on endometrial morphology among Ghanaian infertile women  

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Full Text Available As more women choose to delay childbearing, increasing numbers of them face age-related fertility problems. Normal endometrial receptivity is essential for the establishment of any pregnancy and its evaluation is thus considered a basic goal in the assessment of female infertility. It is unclear as to whether women who present to infertility clinics at older age have age-related endometrial retar-dation or luteal phase defect. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of luteal phase defect (LPD among infertile women and its relationship with age. Mid-luteal endometrial biopsies were taken from eighty (80 infertile women attending fertility clinics of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Magazine Clinic and the Bomso Specialist Hospital in Kumasi metropolis and ten fertile women as control using dilatation and curettage and then processed for light microscopy. The re-sults show that 65.0% of the biopsies of the infertile women were normal in development hence their infertility could be due to other factors. In 35.0% of the biopsies the endometrial development was out-of-phase and therefore suggestive of a defective luteal phase which may lead to a non-receptive endometrium during the implantation window. There was no significant difference when LPD was analyzed according to age suggesting that ageing has no significant effect on endometri-al retardation from this study.

Abaidoo, C.S.

2012-01-01

340

Evidence for a priming effect on maternal resource allocation: implications for interbrood competition.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is commonly assumed that there exists interbrood competition mediated by in utero growth. This could be manifested by a female reallocating saved resources to future broods. Here, we report results of a manipulation experiment designed to detect such reallocation. Two groups of female mice were allowed each to produce two broods. In the first brood, the test females were mated with phenotypically normal males heterozygous for an insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) null allele, while the control females were mated to a wild-type male. The test sample females invested 20% less into their first brood than did the control sample. In both test and control groups the females were mated with a wild-type male in the second round of mating. Surprisingly, we found that females that invested little into their first brood also invested little (compared with other second broods) into their second brood. This 'priming' effect suggests that the assumptions of classical models of parent-offspring conflict are overly simplistic but cannot disprove the existence of interbrood competition. PMID:12952649

Charalambous, Marika; Ward, Andrew; Hurst, Laurence D

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents  

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Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

MayumiNishi

2014-06-01

342

Maternal Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Effects on Gastroschisis among Offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs in many occupational settings. There is evidence in animal models that maternal exposure to PAHs during pregnancy is associated with gastroschisis in offspring; however, to our knowledge, no human studies examining this association have been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to conduct a case–control study assessing the association between estimated maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and gastroschisis in offspring. Methods: Data from gastroschisis cases and control infants were obtained from the population-based National Birth Defects Prevention Study for the period 1997–2002. Exposure to PAHs was assigned by industrial hygienist consensus, based on self-reported maternal occupational histories from 1 month before conception through the third month of pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between estimated occupational PAH exposure and gastroschisis among children whose mothers were employed for at least 1 month during the month before conception through the third month of pregnancy. Results: The prevalence of estimated occupational PAH exposure was 9.0% in case mothers (27 of 299) and 3.6% in control mothers (107 of 2,993). Logistic regression analyses indicated a significant association between occupational PAHs and gastroschisis among mothers ? 20 years of age [odds ratio (OR) = 2.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 5.04] after adjusting for maternal body mass index, education, gestational diabetes, and smoking. This association was not seen in mothers < 20 years (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.33), which is notable because although young maternal age is the strongest known risk factor for gastroschisis, most cases are born to mothers ? 20 years. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an association between occupational exposure to PAHs among mothers who are ? 20 years and gastroschisis. These results contribute to a body of evidence that PAHs may be teratogenic. PMID:22330681

Langlois, Peter H.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Lawson, Christina C.; Symanski, Elaine; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Khodr, Zeina G.; Agopian, A.J.; Waters, Martha A.; Duwe, Kara N.; Finnell, Richard H.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Romitti, Paul A.; Shaw, Gary M.

2012-01-01

343

The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

de Jongh Beatriz E

2012-09-01

344

Effect of late-gestation maternal heat stress on growth and immune function of dairy calves.  

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Heat stress during the dry period affects the cow's mammary gland development, metabolism, and immunity during the transition period. However, the effect of late-gestation heat stress on calf performance and immune status is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of heat stress during the final ~45 d of gestation on growth and immune function of calves. Calves (17/treatment) were born to cows that were exposed to cooling (CL) or heat stress (HT) during the dry period. Only heifer calves (CL, n=12; HT, n=9) were used in measurements of growth and immune status after birth. Heifer calves were managed under identical conditions. All were fed 3.78 L of colostrum from their respective dams within 4 h of birth and were weaned at 2 mo of age (MOA). Body weight (BW) was obtained at weaning and then monthly until 7 MOA. Withers height (WH) was measured monthly from 3 to 7 MOA. Hematocrit and plasma total protein were assessed at birth, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, and 28 d of age. Total serum IgG was evaluated at 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, and 28 d of age, and apparent efficiency of absorption was calculated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated at 7, 28, 42, and 56 d of age, and proliferation rate was measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation in vitro. Blood cortisol concentration was measured in the dams during the dry period and in calves in the preweaning period. Gestation length was 4d shorter for HT cows compared with CL cows. Calves from CL cows had greater BW than calves from HT cows at birth (42.5 vs. 36.5 kg). Compared with CL heifers, HT heifers had decreased weaning BW (78.5 vs. 65.9 kg) but similar BW (154.6 vs. 146.4 kg) and WH (104.8 vs. 103.4 cm) from 3 to 7 MOA. Compared with CL, heifers from HT cows had less total plasma protein (6.3 vs. 5.9 g/dL), total serum IgG (1,577.3 vs. 1,057.8 mg/dL), and apparent efficiency of absorption (33.6 vs. 19.2%), and tended to have decreased hematocrit (33 vs. 30%). Additionally, CL heifers had greater peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation relative to HT heifers (23.8 vs. 14.1 fold). Compared with CL, late-gestation HT did not affect the blood cortisol concentration of dams during the dry period or that of the calves in the preweaning period, but CL calves tended to have increased circulating cortisol at birth (7.6 vs. 5.7 µg/dL). We conclude that heat stress of the dam during the dry period compromises the fetal growth and immune function of offspring from birth through weaning. PMID:23021751

Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Thompson, I M; Hayen, M J; Dahl, G E

2012-12-01

345

Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs