WorldWideScience

Sample records for maternal effect

  1. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  2. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences ...

  3. Vascular effects of maternal alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Magness, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant field of scientific exploration primarily because of its negative effects on the developing fetus, which is specifically defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Though the effects on the mother are less explored compared with those on the fetus, alcohol produces multiple effects on the maternal vascular system. Alcohol has major effects on systemic hemodynamic variables, endocrine axes, and paracrine factors regulating vascul...

  4. Limited scope for maternal effects in aphid defence against parasitoids

    OpenAIRE

    Vorburger, C; Gegenschatz, S E; Ranieri, G.; Rodriguez, P

    2008-01-01

    1. A mother’s environment frequently affects her offspring’s phenotype. Such maternal effects may be adaptive, in particular with respect to pathogens or parasites, for example if maternal exposure increases offspring resistance. 2. In aphids, maternal effects are likely to occur as a result of their telescoping generations. This study investigated whether maternal effects influence the susceptibility of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to its parasi...

  5. Fitness consequences of maternal and grandmaternal effects

    OpenAIRE

    Prizak, Roshan; Ezard, Thomas H. G.; Hoyle, Rebecca B.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenerational effects are broader than only parental relationships. Despite mounting evidence that multigenerational effects alter phenotypic and life-history traits, our understanding of how they combine to determine fitness is not well developed because of the added complexity necessary to study them. Here, we derive a quantitative genetic model of adaptation to an extraordinary new environment by an additive genetic component, phenotypic plasticity, maternal and grandmaternal effects. ...

  6. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-06-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with regard to allocation of free amino acids. PMID:26120429

  7. The Maternal Migration Effect : Exploring Maternal Healthcare in Diaspora Using Qualitative Proxies for Medical Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the 'maternal migration effect'. Following migration to a high-income country with a low maternal mortality rate, we assume that some immigrant women’s reliance upon maternal practices that respond to a low-income, high-mortality context can adversely affect care-seeking and utilization of treatment facilities. At highest risk in the United Kingdom and Sweden are those from Africa's Horn, particularly Somali women who have experienced diasporic migration. By applying c...

  8. Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterji, Pinka; Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall heal...

  9. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JocelienDAOlivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  10. Effects of Cocaine on Maternal Behavior and Neurochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Nephew, Benjamin C.; Febo, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves drug seeking and abuse despite the negative social and health consequences. While the potential effects of cocaine on child development have been extensively studied over the last 30 years, few researchers have focused on the effects of cocaine on maternal behavior, which includes offspring care and maternal aggression towards an unfamiliar individual. In humans, maternal cocaine use can lead to child neglect, abuse, and disrupt the...

  11. Maternal effects in birds: effects of nutritional conditions on maternal reproductive effort and offspring performance

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The environment experienced by an organism at different life stages can have substantial effects on its phenotype. The environmental conditions the mother encounters can substantially influence her investment in the present reproductive attempt, and the phenotype of her offspring through the so-called maternal effects. Moreover, prenatal and early postnatal conditions experienced by offspring can interact and modulate their life histories. The aim of this thesis is to give new insight into en...

  12. Maternal smoking effects on infant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of infants (from non-smoking mothers during pregnancy but smokers during lactation) had a growth pattern intermediate to both curves, suggesting the impact of maternal smoking at any period of infant growth. Smoking had a clear effect on infant height during the period of breast feeding, attributable to the effect of the known content of cadmium in smoker's milk, on the bioavailability of essential nutrients such as zinc. (author)

  13. Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumont Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity services. METHODS: We included all women who were admitted to the maternity unit for childbirth, or within 24 hours of delivery. We recorded maternal mortality during a 1-year baseline period from January to December 1997, and during a 3-year period from January 1998 to December 2000 after MDR had been implemented. Effects of MDR on organization of care were qualitatively evaluated. FINDINGS: The MDR strategy led to changes in organizational structure that improved life-saving interventions with a relatively large financial contribution from the community. Overall mortality significantly decreased from 0.83 (95% CI (confidence interval = 0.60 -1.06 in baseline period to 0.41 (95% CI = 0.25 -0.56 per 100 women 3 years later. CONCLUSION: MDR had a marked effect on resources, management and maternal outcomes in this facility. However, given the design of our study and the local specific context, further research is needed to confirm the feasibility of MDR in other settings and to confirm the benefits of this approach for maternal health in developing countries.

  14. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. PMID:24820855

  15. Effect of maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietroiusti A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of nanotechnology is widely recognized in both biomedical and industrial applications, so the search for new nano materials with improved physical and chemical characteristics is rapidly growing, causing a consequent increase in the risk of exposure by the population.Engineered nanoparticles, defined as particles having a different shape, but at least one dimension less than 100 nm, are constituents of many everyday products, including for example, sunscreens, cosmetics and some food packaging. This implies that an increasing number of people can come into contact with these nanoparticles in occupational settings, and the environment. It then becomes mandatory to assess what potential effects nanoparticles may have on biological systems. Although many nanoparticles may not be a problem for the general population, may instead be a problem for subgroups of susceptible individuals. In this context, we aimed to study the effect that maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs may have on the health of pregnant individuals, with particular attention to the possible harmful effects on the development of the placenta and fetus. To this end we have produced silica nanoparticles of three different sizes: small, medium and large. Each nanoparticle was in turn modified in two different ways, through the introduction of NH2 or COOH functional groups, in order to make their surface positively or negatively charged.SiO2 NPs were intravenously administered to pregnant mice, through the injection into the venous retro-bulbar eye plexus. Administration was performed at two different gestational stages. A group of females received the material 5.5 days after conception, when the placenta is still poorly formed, while a second group was exposed at 12.5 day of pregnancy, a time at which the placenta has completed development. The difference in the administration timing allowed us to evaluate the possible differences in susceptibility of the fetus depending at different stages of placental development. Our results have shown that the smallest SiO2 NP have a high biocompatibility and do not interfere with the development of the embryo, or with placental development. In contrast, the NPs of medium and large size have demonstrated interference with the development of the fetus, leading to the onset of mild structural alterations and the appearance of a large number of identical twins, an extremely rare phenomenon in rodents, generally secondary to a mild teratogenic stimulus. Such effect became apparent only after administration of high doses of nano particles, showing also a relationship with the surface charge.In conclusion, these results suggest caution in the exposure to SiO2 NP of medium and large size during pregnancy.

  16. Maternally Derived Egg Hormones, Antibodies and Antimicrobial Proteins: Common and Different Pathways of Maternal Effects in Japanese Quail

    OpenAIRE

    Okuliarova, Monika; Kankova, Zuzana; Bertin, Aline; Leterrier, Christine; Mostl, Erich; Zeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of maternally-derived substances that can influence the development and performance of offspring. The levels of these egg compounds vary in relation to environmental and genetic factors, but little is known about whether there are correlative links between maternal substances in the egg underlying common and different pathways of maternal effects. In the present study, we investigated genetically determined variability and mutually adjusted deposition of sex hormo...

  17. Maternal Environment Effects on Phenolic Defenses in Abutilon theophrasti Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Schutte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A class of phenolic compounds, ortho-dihydroxyphenols (hereafter “o-DHP”, has been implicated with seed survival. Based on expectations of the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, we predicted that seed o-DHP concentration exhibits a curvilinear response to increasing resource availability in the maternal environment, with maximum o-DHP occurring at moderate resource levels. To test this hypothesis, Abutilon theophrasti seeds were produced under field conditions at two locations. Each location included twelve maternal environments established through factorial combinations of soil compost (+/-, species assemblage (A. theophrasti with and without maize, and soil nitrogen fertilizer (0, 0.5× or 1× local recommendations for maize. Resource availability with respect to A. theophrasti growth was summarized by above-ground biomass at seed harvest (maternal biomass. Results indicated that seed o-DHP concentrations increased then decreased in response to increasing maternal biomass. This relationship was modeled with a unimodal function specific to location (Location 1, y = 1.18 + 0.03xe-0.02x, pseudo-R2 = 0.59, p = 0.003; Location 2, y = 1.40 + 0.006xe-0.005x; pseudo-R2 = 0.34, p = 0.05. Seed protein concentrations remained constant across maternal biomass levels. Because inherent vulnerability to predation and decay is considered a consequence of chemical protection relative to nutritional offering, our results suggest that A. theophrasti seed susceptibility to lethal attack is influenced by resource levels in the maternal environment. More broadly, our results suggest that the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis can be extended to maternal effects on seed phenolics.

  18. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ??????? Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  19. Hospital units as social contexts: effects on maternal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, N

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of different styles of nursing in maternity units on maternal behavior. These styles are found to be independent of the units' formal organizational characteristics and to vary depending on specific nursing tasks. The degree to which unit management affords opportunities for individualized patient teaching probably has the greatest impact on maternal behavior. Forty-five mothers, closely matched on ethnicity, age, marital status, socioeconomic status and parity, who delivered in three different hospital units, were observed systematically while feeding their infants. The investigators' observations, supplemented by measures of nurse task conceptions and perceptions of work structure, were used to characterize each unit. Analyses of variance, in which each hospital represented a fixed level of treatment, showed that mothers in the moderately supportive unit were significantly more affectionate and responsive towards their infants, and behaved less passively towards them, than mothers in units where nursing work was highly routinized or where zeal for innovation predominated. The moderately supportive unit also significantly diminished the effects of social class and of prior experience with children on affectionate maternal behavior. The threat to validity posed by self-selection of mothers into hospital units was accounted for by the selection of hospitals owned by one prepaid group plan, each serving socioeconomically similar populations in different catchment areas, and by data from the mothers which showed that plan membership and hospital selection were governed by financial considerations and geographical convenience. The findings provide evidence that the social context of the hospital unit--particularly the opportunity for individualized interaction between nurse and patient--may have an effect on early maternal behavior which is independent of the mother's own characteristics. PMID:6484637

  20. Is there an adverse effect of sons on maternal longevity?

    OpenAIRE

    Cesarini, David; Lindqvist, Erik; Wallace, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a literature examining the effects of giving birth to sons on postmenopausal longevity in pre-industrial mothers. The original paper in this lineage used a sample (n=375) of Sami mothers from northern Finland and found that, relative to daughters, giving birth to sons substantially reduced maternal longevity. We examine this hypothesis using a similar and a much larger sample (n=930) of pre-industrial Sami women from northern Sweden, who in terms o...

  1. Hormonally mediated maternal effects, individual strategy and global change

    OpenAIRE

    Meylan, Sandrine; Miles, Donald B; Clobert, Jean

    2012-01-01

    A challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists is predicting organismal responses to the anticipated changes to global ecosystems through climate change. Most evidence suggests that short-term global change may involve increasing occurrences of extreme events, therefore the immediate response of individuals will be determined by physiological capacities and life-history adaptations to cope with extreme environmental conditions. Here, we consider the role of hormones and maternal effect...

  2. Effect of Health Insurance on the Use and Provision of Maternal Health Services and Maternal and Neonatal Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Comfort, Alison B.; Peterson, Lauren A.; Hatt, Laurel E.

    2013-01-01

    Financial barriers can affect timely access to maternal health services. Health insurance can influence the use and quality of these services and potentially improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence on health insurance and its effects on the use and provision of maternal health services and on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in middle- and low-income countries. Studies were identified through a literature search in key databases and...

  3. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers’ automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother–infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother–infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants’ physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders). PMID:25932017

  4. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Setoh, Peipei; Yoshida, Sachine; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favor their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g., mothers' automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries), and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother-infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g., in humans, big cats, and rodents). These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother-infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants' physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorders and perinatal brain disorders). PMID:25932017

  5. Maternal effects and beta-carotene assimilation in Canary chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvez, Aurélie; Amy, Mathieu; Chastel, Olivier; Leboucher, Gérard

    2009-03-01

    Carotenoids are pigments responsible for the red, orange and yellow coloration of plants and animals. They may be beneficial in two ways; they have a powerful antioxidant activity, and they can behave as an immunostimulant. Animals however cannot synthesize carotenoids de novo, they must obtain them through their diet. In our experiments on Canaries, we investigated how mothers transfer their dietary carotenoid-related benefits to their offspring; either through the egg, or through the diet (during chicks' feeding). Female Canaries were allowed to access beta-carotene enriched food during egg formation and/or chicks' feeding. We sorted the chicks into four groups using the period when they assimilated the beta-carotene as a variable. The four groups were: (i) before hatching (from yolk), (ii) after hatching (from maternal feeding), (iii) before and after hatching, or (iv) never. Colorimetry and HPLC analysis from sub-samples of yolks confirmed the maternal transfer of dietary carotenoids to the yolk. Our results show that benefits from maternal dietary carotenoids are transferred to the chicks, but according to the period when they are assimilated by the chicks, the physiological effects are different. It was found that the chicks' growth was enhanced when carotenoids were assimilated both before and after hatching. However an increase in cellular immunity efficiency only occurs when the assimilation takes place after hatching. PMID:19059274

  6. The Effects of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Infant Anthropometric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sahin Mutlu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The association between maternal smoking and poor pregnancy outcome, which is well established in medi­cal literature, has also been corroborated by the results of this study conducted in a Turkish hospital. Our objective was to investi­gate the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on infant head circumference, height, weight, and body mass in­dex (BMI."nMethods: In this retrospective study, the data was collected from the Medical Live Birth Registry in a maternity hospital with the largest capacity of births in a city of northwest Turkey during 2002."nResults: We found that 16.4% (1040/6332 of mothers investigated had smoked during their pregnancy, with a mean of 5 ciga­rettes per day. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of male infants whose mothers smoked were found to be less than those of infants whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, for each one. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of female infants whose mothers smoked were less than those whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, P< 0.01, P< 0.05 and P> 0.05, respectively. According to analysis of variance, infant head circumferences, heights and weights in all infants decreased as the rate of the mother's smoking increased (P> 0.05, P< 0.001 and P> 0.05, respec­tively."nConclusions: The results support that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a linear reduction of height meas­urement, and the infants appeared to be more susceptible to the growth retarding effects of cigarette smoking on height. Thus, if cessation-of-smoking programs are initiated before conception, many of the harmful effects of smoking on fe­tal growth might be prevented.

  7. Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Janine Santos Müller; Marcelo Antunes; Ivo Behle; Lucas Teixeira; Paulo Zielinsky

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factors for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The ...

  8. Revisiting heritability accounting for shared environmental effects and maternal inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyu; Dupuis, Josée; Larson, Martin G; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ordovas, Jose M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F; Levy, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Heritability measures the proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to genetic factors. In addition to a shared nuclear genetic component, a number of additional variance components, such as spousal correlation, sibship, household and maternal effects, may have strong contributions to inter-individual phenotype variation. In humans, the confounding effects of these components on heritability have not been studied thoroughly. We sought to obtain unbiased heritability estimates for complex traits in the presence of multiple variance components and also to estimate the contributions of these variance components to complex traits. We compared regression and variance component methods to estimate heritability in simulations when additional variance components existed. We then revisited heritability for several traits in Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants. Using simulations, we found that failure to account for or misclassification of necessary variance components yielded biased heritability estimates. The direction and magnitude of the bias varied depending on a variance structure and an estimation method. Using the best fitted models to account for necessary variance components, we found that heritability estimates for most FHS traits were overestimated, ranging from 4 to 47 %, when we compared models that considered necessary variance components to models that only considered familial relationships. Spousal correlation explained 14-36 % of phenotypic variation in several anthropometric and lifestyle traits. Maternal and sibling effects also contributed to phenotypic variation, ranging from 3 to 5 % and 4 to 7 %, respectively, in several anthropometric and metabolic traits. Our findings may explain, in part, the missing heritability for some traits. PMID:25381465

  9. Hormonally mediated maternal effects, individual strategy and global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Sandrine; Miles, Donald B; Clobert, Jean

    2012-06-19

    A challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists is predicting organismal responses to the anticipated changes to global ecosystems through climate change. Most evidence suggests that short-term global change may involve increasing occurrences of extreme events, therefore the immediate response of individuals will be determined by physiological capacities and life-history adaptations to cope with extreme environmental conditions. Here, we consider the role of hormones and maternal effects in determining the persistence of species in altered environments. Hormones, specifically steroids, are critical for patterning the behaviour and morphology of parents and their offspring. Hence, steroids have a pervasive influence on multiple aspects of the offspring phenotype over its lifespan. Stress hormones, e.g. glucocorticoids, modulate and perturb phenotypes both early in development and later into adulthood. Females exposed to abiotic stressors during reproduction may alter the phenotypes by manipulation of hormones to the embryos. Thus, hormone-mediated maternal effects, which generate phenotypic plasticity, may be one avenue for coping with global change. Variation in exposure to hormones during development influences both the propensity to disperse, which alters metapopulation dynamics, and population dynamics, by affecting either recruitment to the population or subsequent life-history characteristics of the offspring. We suggest that hormones may be an informative index to the potential for populations to adapt to changing environments. PMID:22566673

  10. Effect of maternal transmissions on clinical manifestations of myotonic dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, I.; Koike, R.; Onodera, O. [Niigata Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The mutation of myotonic dystrophy (DM) has been identified as unstable expansions of trinucleotide CTG repeat, located on chromosome 19q13-3. Although previous investigations have emphasized the strong association of the sizes of the CTG repeat with ages of onset as well as the clinical manifestations, effects of the paternal or maternal transmissions other than CTG repeats on the clinical manifestations in DM have not been evaluated in detail. To investigate how parental transmission affect the DM phenotype, we analyzed 15 cases of paternal transmission and 25 cases of maternal transmission. We have classified DM patients into 4 clinical grades. As in accordance with previous reports, there is a good correlation on sizes of the CTG repeat with their clinical features. The sizes of the CTG repeat in congenital DM patients (4.13{plus_minus}0.221 kbp) (Mean {plus_minus}SEM), who inherited mutant genes from their mothers, were not significantly larger than those of non-congenital DM patients (3.65 {plus_minus}0.36 kbp). As it has been well established that congenital DM patients are born to affected mothers, we investigated to see if there are any parental bias on the clinical manifestations in non-congenital DM. We classified each case into 4 classes depending on the size ranges of the CTG repeat (0 to 1.5 kbp, 1.5 to 3.0 kbp, 3.0 to 4.5 kbp, 4.5 kbp<). In each group of the size ranges of the CTG repeat, the distribution of cases among grades I to III were compared between paternally and maternally transmitted cases. There were statistically significant differences in the distributions of cases among grades I to III for the size ranges of 3 to 4.5 kbp expansions (p<0.01) and over 4.5 kbp expansions (p<0.05) on {chi}{sup 2} test, respectively. The results revealed that maternally transmitted cases tend to show severe phenotypes compared to paternally transmitted ones even if they have similar sizes of CTG repeat.

  11. Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janine Santos, Müller; Marcelo, Antunes; Ivo, Behle; Lucas, Teixeira; Paulo, Zielinsky.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factor [...] s for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P

  12. Effects of chronic social stress during lactation on maternal behavior and growth in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nephew, Benjamin C.; Bridges, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal mood disorders such as depression and chronic anxiety can negatively affect the lives of not only mothers, but also of partners, offspring, and future generations. Chronic exposure to psychosocial stress is common in postpartum mothers, and one of the strongest predictors of postpartum depression is social conflict. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of chronic social stress (CSS) during lactation on the maternal behavior (which consists of maternal care a...

  13. The maternal-effect, selfish genetic element Medea is associated with a composite Tc1 transposon

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzen, Marce? D.; Gnirke, Andreas; Margolis, Jonathan; Garnes, Jeffrey; Campbell, Margie; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Aggarwal, Rajat; Richards, Stephen; Park, Yoonseong; Beeman, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Maternal-Effect Dominant Embryonic Arrest (“Medea”) factors are selfish nuclear elements that combine maternal-lethal and zygotic-rescue activities to gain a postzygotic survival advantage. We show that Medea1 activity in Tribolium castaneum is associated with a composite Tc1 transposon inserted just downstream of the neurotransmitter reuptake symporter bloated tubules (blot), whose Drosophila ortholog has both maternal and zygotic functions. The 21.5-kb insertion contains defective copie...

  14. Effects of infants’ birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status on birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed J. Gaemmaghami; Leila Nikniaz; Reza Mahdavi; Zeinab Nikniaz; Farzad Razmifard; Farzaneh Afsharnia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of infants’ birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. Methods. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants’ first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants’ birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regre...

  15. Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Santos Müller

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factors for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P<0.001 as was the mean fetal heart rate (P=0.044. Maternal systolic blood pressure (P=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.033 were also elevated after smoking. A decrease occurred in the systolic/diastolic ratio in the right uterine artery (P=0.014 and in the left uterine artery (P=0.039. The other hemodynamic variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking can cause changes in physiologic variables of fetal-placental circulation, but it does not change fetal cardiac function, in the dose of nicotine and its components used in this study. The decrease in systolic/diastolic ratio in the uterine arteries is probably related to a dose-dependent nicotine pattern.

  16. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children’s Academic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Toft Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child’s first three and first 15 years on that child’s grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employment has a positive effect on children’s academic performance in all specifications, particularly when women work part-time. This is in contrast with the larger literature on maternal employment, much of which takes place in other contexts, and which finds no or a small negative effect of maternal employment on children’s cognitive development and academic performance.

  17. Sex-role differentiation in preschoolers: effects of maternal employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, B R

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether maternal employment affects sex-role differentiation in preschoolers, and whether this relationship varies as a function of the sex of the child, father's presence or absence, and/or the sex of the child's siblings (N = 398 boys and girls, mean age 51.2 months). The dependent measure consisted of a maximally reliable composite z score derived from five tests (Draw-A-Person, Occupational Preference, Nadleman Recall, Toy Preference, It Scale for Children). The fact of the mother working and the social status of her occupation were unrelated to sex-role differentiation, regardless of whether the child was a girl or a boy; had brothers, sisters, both, or was an only child; or came from an intact or nonintact family. However, the main effect for sex and the sex of child X sex of sibling interaction were significant. PMID:7365701

  18. Inheritable effect of unpredictable maternal separation on behavioral responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TamaraBFranklin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact of early stress on behavior and emotions is well documented in humans, and can be modeled in experimental animals. In mice, maternal separation during early postnatal development induces poor and disorganized maternal care, and results in behavioral deficits that persist through adulthood. Here, we examined the long-term effect of unpredictable maternal separation combined with maternal stress (MSUS on behavior and its transmissibility. We report that unpredictable maternal separation from birth to postnatal day (PND 14 in C57Bl/6J mice has mild behavioral effects in the animals when adult, but that its combination with maternal stress exacerbates this effect. Further, the behavioral deficits are transmitted to the following generation through females, an effect that is independent of maternal care and is not affected by cross-fostering. The combined manipulation does not alter basic components of the HPA axis but decreases the expression of the corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2 in several nuclei of the amygdala and the hypothalamus in the brain of maternal-separated females. These results suggest a non-genomic mode of transmission of the impact of early stress in mice.

  19. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses M; Oluwole, Doyin; Mwabu, Germano M; Gatwiri, Doris; Kainyu, Lenity H

    2006-01-01

    WHO African region has got the highest maternal mortality rate compared to the other five regions. Maternal mortality is hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on the gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of the current study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to maternal mortality in the WHO African Region. The burden of maternal mortality on GDP was estimated using a double-log econometric model. The analysis is based on cross-sectional data for 45 of the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region. Data were obtained from UNDP and the World Bank publications. All the explanatory variables included in the double-log model were found to have statistically significant effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at 5 % level in a t-distribution test. The coefficients for land (D), capital (K), educational enrollment (EN) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while labor (L), imports (M) and maternal mortality rate (MMR) were found to impact negatively on GDP. Maternal mortality of a single person was found to reduce per capita GDP by US $ 0.36 per year. The study has demonstrated that maternal mortality has a statistically significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through land reform programs, capital investments, export promotion and increase in educational enrollment, they should always remember that investment in maternal mortality-reducing interventions promises significant economic returns. PMID:17348747

  20. Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. S. Barão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg. The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10. The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

  1. Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. A. S., Barão; A. L. A., Nencioni; V. A. C., Dorce.

    Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered t [...] o pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg). The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10). The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

  2. Partitioning of General and Specific Combining Ability Effects for Estimating Maternal and Reciprocal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal M. A. Mahgoub

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available General and specific combining ability effects were partitioned according to a proposed model to estimate general and specific combining ability effects for each parent when it is used as a female or a male in its hybrid combinations. A working example includes a full-diallel among eight parents was used so that all possible hybrid combinations were included. The objectives of this study were: (1 to compare the GCA and SCA effects before and after partitioning, (2 to evaluate the relative contribution of each parent to its cross combination when it is used as a male or female parent, (3 to estimate maternal effects in the form of GCA and SCA effects, and (4 to estimate the relationship between maternal and reciprocal effects. Results revealed that estimated GCA effects according to Griffing’s method is equal to the average of GCA effects of each parent, after partitioning, when it is used as a male and a female in its hybrid combinations. In addition, the average of the difference between female and male GCA effects would provide precise estimation of the maternal effect. This would prove that maternal effect provides precise estimation to the favorable alleles, which is mainly additive. The SCA effects calculated according to Griffing’s method is the average of SCA effects of each cross and its reciprocal. The average of the difference between SCA effects of each cross and its reciprocal, according to the proposed model, is equal to the reciprocal effect. This would prove that reciprocal effect provides precise estimation to the interaction effect between nuclear and cytoplasmic genes given that the interaction between male and female alleles inside the nucleus of the cross is similar to its reciprocal hybrid.

  3. Maternally derived egg hormones, antibodies and antimicrobial proteins: common and different pathways of maternal effects in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuliarova, Monika; Kankova, Zuzana; Bertin, Aline; Leterrier, Christine; Mostl, Erich; Zeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of maternally-derived substances that can influence the development and performance of offspring. The levels of these egg compounds vary in relation to environmental and genetic factors, but little is known about whether there are correlative links between maternal substances in the egg underlying common and different pathways of maternal effects. In the present study, we investigated genetically determined variability and mutually adjusted deposition of sex hormones (testosterone-T, androstenedione-A4 and progesterone-P4), antibodies (IgY) and antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme) in eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We used different genetic lines that were independently selected for yolk T concentrations, duration of tonic immobility and social reinstatement behaviour, since both selections for behavioural traits (fearfulness and social motivation, respectively) produced considerable correlative responses in yolk androgen levels. A higher selection potential was found for increased rather than decreased yolk T concentrations, suggesting that there is a physiological minimum in egg T levels. Line differences in yolk IgY concentrations were manifested within each selection experiment, but no consistent inter-line pattern between yolk IgY and T was revealed. On the other hand, a consistent inverse inter-line pattern was recorded between yolk IgY and P4 in both selections for behavioural traits. In addition, selections for contrasting fearfulness and social motivation were associated with changes in albumen lysozyme concentrations and an inverse inter-line pattern between the deposition of yolk IgY and albumen lysozyme was found in lines selected for the level of social motivation. Thus, our results demonstrate genetically-driven changes in deposition of yolk T, P4, antibodies and albumen lysozyme in the egg. This genetic variability can partially explain mutually adjusted maternal deposition of sex hormones and immune-competent molecules but the inconsistent pattern of inter-line differences across all selections indicates that there are other underlying mechanisms, which require further studies. PMID:25390303

  4. Maternal Effects as the Cause of Parent-of-Origin Effects That Mimic Genomic Imprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Reinmar; Cheverud, James M.; Wolf, Jason B.

    2008-01-01

    Epigenetic effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of variation in complex traits and have emerged as the focus of a rapidly expanding area of research. Principle among these effects is genomic imprinting, which has generally been examined in analyses of complex traits by testing for parent-of-origin-dependent effects of alleles. However, in most of these analyses maternal effects are confounded with genomic imprinting because they can produce the same patterns of phenotypi...

  5. Effect of health insurance on the use and provision of maternal health services and maternal and neonatal health outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Alison B; Peterson, Lauren A; Hatt, Laurel E

    2013-12-01

    Financial barriers can affect timely access to maternal health services. Health insurance can influence the use and quality of these services and potentially improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence on health insurance and its effects on the use and provision of maternal health services and on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in middle- and low-income countries. Studies were identified through a literature search in key databases and consultation with experts in healthcare financing and maternal health. Twenty-nine articles met the review criteria of focusing on health insurance and its effect on the use or quality of maternal health services, or maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Sixteen studies assessed demand-side effects of insurance, eight focused on supply-side effects, and the remainder addressed both. Geographically, the studies provided evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (n = 11), Asia (n = 9), Latin America (n = 8), and Turkey. The studies included examples from national or social insurance schemes (n = 7), government-run public health insurance schemes (n = 4), community-based health insurance schemes (n = 11), and private insurance (n = 3). Half of the studies used econometric analyses while the remaining provided descriptive statistics or qualitative results. There is relatively consistent evidence that health insurance is positively correlated with the use of maternal health services. Only four studies used methods that can establish this causal relationship. Six studies presented suggestive evidence of over-provision of caesarean sections in response to providers' payment incentives through health insurance. Few studies focused on the relationship between health insurance and the quality of maternal health services or maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The available evidence on the quality and health outcomes is inconclusive, given the differences in measurement, contradictory findings, and statistical limitations. Consistent with economic theories, the studies identified a positive relationship between health insurance and the use of maternal health services. However, more rigorous causal methods are needed to identify the extent to which the use of these services increases among the insured. Better measurement of quality and the use of cross-country analyses would solidify the evidence on the impact of insurance on the quality of maternal health services and maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:24992805

  6. Early and late maternal effects on hatching phenology of heterocypris incongruens (crustacea: Ostracoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Valeria; Albini, Dania; Pellegri, Valerio; Menozzi, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    In ephemeral ponds, the hatching asynchrony of resting eggs may be adaptive and the result of a maternal bet-hedging strategy. A mother can influence the progeny phenology through conditions experienced during life cycle even in early development stages. We investigated the consequences of a hatching delay for offspring and compared early and late maternal effects in a clonal lineage of Heterocypris incongruens. We used females from genetically identical, 40 months old, resting eggs that hatched, asynchronically, after a first (FI) or a second (SI) inundation event. Maternal origin (FI or SI) was considered an early effect involving the maternal response to hatching stimuli during the embryological dormant stage. Maternal age at deposition and egg size were considered late effects that account for maternal conditions during active stage. We compared size and development time of eggs produced by FI and SI females under laboratory condition (24°C 12:12 L:D photoperiod). Maternal origin affected development time to adulthood which was later in FI than in SI females, and fecundity that was higher in FI than in SI females. SI eggs were smaller than FI eggs: size was affected by maternal age at deposition and was directly related to the egg development time. Development time varied from 1 to 117 days and was shorter in SI eggs than in FI eggs. Our results showed that maternal response during embryological stage affects the performance in successive active stages and suggested that hatching asynchrony may be considered a risk spread strategy. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 382-391, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25850699

  7. Maternally administered interventions for preterm infants in the NICU: effects on maternal psychological distress and mother-infant relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C; Levy, Janet A; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J

    2014-11-01

    Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993 g for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-min videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal distress variable. Kangaroo care mothers showed a more rapid decline in worry than the other mothers. The only interactive dimensions that differed between the groups were child social behaviors and developmental maturity, which were both higher for kangaroo care infants. Change over time in several individual infant behaviors was affected by the interventions. When mothers reported on the interventions they performed, regardless of group assignment, massage (any form including ATVV) was associated with a more rapid decline in depressive symptoms and higher HOME scores. Performing either intervention was associated with lower parenting stress. These findings suggest that as short-term interventions, KC and ATVV have important effects on mothers and their preterm infants, especially in the first half of the first year. PMID:25247740

  8. Effects on fetal and maternal temperatures of paracetamol administration during labour: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavesson, Tony; Akerman, Fernanda; Ka?lle?n, Karin; Olofsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on maternal and fetal temperatures in labour. STUDY DESIGN: From a cohort of 185 women with continuous maternal axillary and fetal scalp temperature recordings in labour, 18 women treated with 1000mg paracetamol orally for pyrexia and 36 untreated controls matched for parity, cervical dilatation, and epidural analgesia were selected. Electronically stored temperature data were analysed offline post hoc. The dual temperatures record...

  9. Influence of Mom and Dad: Quantitative Genetic Models for Maternal Effects and Genomic Imprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Santure, Anna W.; Spencer, Hamish G

    2006-01-01

    The expression of an imprinted gene is dependent on the sex of the parent it was inherited from, and as a result reciprocal heterozygotes may display different phenotypes. In contrast, maternal genetic terms arise when the phenotype of an offspring is influenced by the phenotype of its mother beyond the direct inheritance of alleles. Both maternal effects and imprinting may contribute to resemblance between offspring of the same mother. We demonstrate that two standard quantitative genetic mo...

  10. The effects of maternity leave extension on training for young women

    OpenAIRE

    Puhani, Patrick A.; Sonderhof, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Using three representative individual-level datasets for West Germany, we estimate the effect of the extension of maternity leave from 18 to 36 months on young women's participation in job-related training. Specifically, we employ difference-indifferences identification strategies using control groups of older women and older women together with young and older men. We find that maternity leave extension negatively affects job-related training for young women, even if they do not have childre...

  11. The problem of confounding in studies of the effect of maternal drug use on pregnancy outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    Bengt Källén

    2012-01-01

    In most epidemilogical studies, the problem of confounding adds to the uncertainty in conclusions drawn. This is also true for studies on the effect of maternal drug use on birth defect risks. This paper describes various types of such confounders and discusses methods to identify and adjust for them. Such confounders can be found in maternal characteristics like age, parity, smoking, use of alcohol, and body mass index, subfertility, and previous pregnancies including previous birth of a mal...

  12. The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the relation between maternal prenatal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal anthropometric measurements. All pregnant women who gave birth at the Obstetrics Department of Dr. LK Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006, and their newborns were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The newborns weight, height, head, and chest circumference were recorded. Mothers with hemoglobin concentration less than 11g/dl were evaluated as anemic. The anemic mothers were then grouped into 3 categories according to the corresponding hemoglobin concentration: mild (10.9-9.0g/dl), moderate (8.9-7.0 g/dl), and severe anemic (less than 7 g/dl). The anthropometric measurements of newborns from non-anemic and anemic mother groups were compared. Of the 3688 pregnant women, 1588 (43%) were found to be anemic. Among the anemic mothers, 1245 had mild (78.5%), 311 had moderate (19.5%), and 32 (2%) had severe anemia. The anthropometric measurements (height, weight, head and chest circumference) of newborns of anemic and non-anemic mother groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.036, p=0.044, p=0.013, and p=0.0002). There was a statistically significant difference in height, weight, and chest circumference of newborns of severe anemic and mild anemic mothers (p=0.017, p=0.008 and p=0.02). The height (1.1 cm), weight (260 g), head (0.42 cm), and chest (1 cm) circumference of neonates in the severcm) circumference of neonates in the severe anemic group is less than the mild anemic group. Anemia during pregnancy affect the anthropometric measurements of a newborn. Severe anemia had significant negative effect on neonatal anthropometric measurements. (author)

  13. The effects of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is presenting a critical challenge to healthcare services. We examined the effect of Body Mass Index in early pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcome. We performed a population register-based cohort study using data from the North Western Perinatal survey (N = 99,403 babies born during 2004-2006), based at The University of Manchester, UK. The main outcome measures were Caesarean section delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, stillbirth, Macrosomia, small for gestational age and large for gestational age. The risk of preterm birth was reduced by almost 10% in overweight (RR = 0.89, [95% CI: 0.83, 0.95]) and obese women (RR = 0.90, [95% CI: 0.84, 0.97]) and was increased in underweight women (RR = 1.33, [95% CI: 1.16, 1.53]). Overweight (RR = 1.17, [95% CI: 1.09, 1.25]), obese (RR = 1.35, [95% CI: 1.25, 1.45]) and morbidly obese (RR = 1.24, [95% CI: 1.02, 1.52]) women had an elevated risk of post-term birth compared to normal women. The risk of fetal macrosomia and operative delivery increased with BMI such that morbidly obese women were at greatest risk of both (RR of macrosomia = 4.78 [95% CI: 3.86, 5.92] and RR of Caesarean section = 1.66 [95% CI: 1.61, 1.71] and a RR of emergency Caesarean section = 1.59 [95% CI: 1.45, 1.75]). Excessive leanness and obesity are associated with different adverse pregnancy outcomes with major maternal and fetal complications. Overweight and obese women have a higher risk of macrosomia and Caesarean delivery and lower risk of preterm delivery. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear and is worthy of further investigation.

  14. Modeling variation in early life mortality in the western lowland gorilla: Genetic, maternal and other effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Monica H; Blomquist, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Uncovering sources of variation in gorilla infant mortality informs conservation and life history research efforts. The international studbook for the western lowland gorilla provides information on a sample of captive gorillas large enough for which to analyze genetic, maternal, and various other effects on early life mortality in this critically endangered species. We assess the importance of variables such as sex, maternal parity, paternal age, and hand rearing with regard to infant survival. We also quantify the proportions of variation in mortality influenced by heritable variation and maternal effects from these pedigree and survival data using variance component estimation. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of generalized linear mixed models produce variance component distributions in an animal model framework that employs all pedigree information. Two models, one with a maternal identity component and one with both additive genetic and maternal identity components, estimate variance components for different age classes during the first 2 years of life. This is informative of the extent to which mortality risk factors change over time during gorilla infancy. Our results indicate that gorilla mortality is moderately heritable with the strongest genetic influence just after birth. Maternal effects are most important during the first 6 months of life. Interestingly, hand-reared infants have lower mortality for the first 6 months of life. Aside from hand rearing, we found other predictors commonly used in studies of primate infant mortality to have little influence in these gorilla data. Am. J. Primatol. 77:666-678, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25809396

  15. Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 14C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed

  16. Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of /sup 14/C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed.

  17. Influence of mom and dad: quantitative genetic models for maternal effects and genomic imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santure, Anna W; Spencer, Hamish G

    2006-08-01

    The expression of an imprinted gene is dependent on the sex of the parent it was inherited from, and as a result reciprocal heterozygotes may display different phenotypes. In contrast, maternal genetic terms arise when the phenotype of an offspring is influenced by the phenotype of its mother beyond the direct inheritance of alleles. Both maternal effects and imprinting may contribute to resemblance between offspring of the same mother. We demonstrate that two standard quantitative genetic models for deriving breeding values, population variances and covariances between relatives, are not equivalent when maternal genetic effects and imprinting are acting. Maternal and imprinting effects introduce both sex-dependent and generation-dependent effects that result in differences in the way additive and dominance effects are defined for the two approaches. We use a simple example to demonstrate that both imprinting and maternal genetic effects add extra terms to covariances between relatives and that model misspecification may over- or underestimate true covariances or lead to extremely variable parameter estimation. Thus, an understanding of various forms of parental effects is essential in correctly estimating quantitative genetic variance components. PMID:16751674

  18. Commentary: Parental care and the proximate links between maternal effects and offspring fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B

    2015-04-01

    Maternal effects influence the phenotype of offspring through non-genetic mechanisms, and thus are important components of individual life-histories and act as drivers of and/or constraints on phenotypic evolution. A maternal effect common in egg-laying vertebrates is provisioning of the yolk with carotenoids, organic pigments that often color sexual ornaments and are hypothesized to play positive and substantial physiological roles. In a recent study, yolks of great tit (Parus major) eggs were directly supplemented with carotenoids, and the effects on offspring fitness proxies measured (Marri and Richner in Oecologia 176:371-377, 2014a). Nestlings from supplemented broods were heavier early in development and more likely to fledge, but otherwise equivalent to control nestlings. The authors consider in detail the potential physiological mechanisms that might underlie this result, and here I expand on their Discussion by considering a non-exclusive explanation: that parents provided higher quality care to broods that received supplemental carotenoids. I discuss the general non-independence of pre- and post-hatching/parturition maternal effects when parents care for offspring, and then briefly review evidence that carotenoids specifically are tied to the intensity of avian begging displays. Finally, I detail how inclusive fitness opportunities and constraints shape the adaptive landscape in which maternal effects operate, highlighting both theoretical and applied concerns surrounding questions about the adaptiveness of maternal effects. PMID:25694043

  19. Effectiveness of strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants on perinatal and maternal mortality: meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Amie; Gallos, Ioannis D.; Plana, Nieves; Lissauer, David; Khan, Khalid S.; Zamora, Javier; Macarthur, Christine; Coomarasamy, Arri

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants on the outcomes of perinatal, neonatal, and maternal death in developing countries.

  20. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Nephew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3 and mid (day 10 lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing. AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress.

  1. Behavioral and hormonal responses to stress in the newborn mouse: effects of maternal deprivation and chlordiazepoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirulli, F; Santucci, D; Laviola, G; Alleva, E; Levine, S

    1994-07-01

    These studies investigated behavioral and hormonal responses to stress in developing mice. Experiment 1 examined the effects of 24-hr maternal deprivation on corticosterone (CORT) secretion and ultrasonic vocalization (UVZ) rate in 4-, 8-, and 12-day-old mice. At these ages, exposure to a novel environment resulted in minimal changes in CORT secretion. Maternal deprivation increased pups' CORT secretion in an age-dependent fashion but did not affect their UVZ rate. The aim of experiment 2 was to test the effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDP), an anxiolytic compound, on CORT secretion and UVZ in both normally reared and in maternally deprived 8-day-old mice. CDP administration elevated CORT secretion in a dose-dependent fashion, producing larger CORT increases in deprived (DEP) animals. CDP affected UVZ only in nondeprived (NDEP) animals: UVZ rate was decreased by high CDP doses. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the infant mouse shows a period of stress hyporesponsiveness similar to the rat and that maternal presence contributes to inhibit adrenocortical activity. CDP administration, but not novelty exposure, increased CORT secretion in 8-day-old normally reared mice suggesting that during the stress hyporesponsive period, the HPA axis is capable of responding only to specific stimuli. Changes in HPA axis activity and UVZ rate resulting from maternal deprivation and/or CDP challenge do not seem to be directly related. PMID:7926282

  2. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E.

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. ...

  3. The Effects of Marriage and Maternal Education in Reducing Child Poverty. A Report of the Heritage Center for Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.

    This paper examines whether marriage is effective in reducing child poverty and notes the comparative effects of marriage and maternal education on combatting child poverty. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth indicate that marriage plays a powerful role in lifting children out of poverty. While both marriage and maternal education…

  4. Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing world: a simple, cost-effective example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Browning,1,2 Birhanu Menber21Maternity Africa, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Vision Maternity Care, Barhirdar, Ethiopia Objectives: To determine the impact of volunteer obstetricians and midwife teams on obstetric services in a rural hospital in Ethiopia.Methods: The intervention was undertaken in Mota district hospital, a rural hospital in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, which is the only hospital for 1.2 million people. Before the placement of volunteer teams it had a rudimentary basic obstetric service, no blood transfusion service, and no operative delivery. The study prospectively analyzed delivery data before, during, and after the placement of volunteer obstetrician and midwife teams. The volunteers established emergency obstetric care, and trained and supervised local staff over a 3-year period. Measurable outcomes consisted of the number of women delivering, the number of referrals of pregnant women, the number of maternal deaths, and the number of referrals of obstetric fistula patients.Results: With the establishment of the service the number of women attending hospital for delivery increased by 40%. In the hospital maternal mortality decreased from 7.1% to <0.5%, and morbidity, as measured by number of obstetric fistulae, decreased from 1.5% deliveries to 0.5% over the 3-year intervention period. The improvements were sustained after handing the project back to the government.Conclusion: The placement of volunteer teams was an effective method of decreasing maternal mortality and morbidity. Keywords: emergency obstetric care, volunteers, obstetric fistula, emergency obstetric care

  5. Intimate partner violence and infant socioemotional development: the moderating effects of maternal trauma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfs-Dunn, Sarah M; Huth-Bocks, Alissa C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on infant regulatory difficulties at 3 months of age and infant socioemotional problems at 12 months of age. Maternal trauma symptoms were explored as potential moderators of these associations. Participants included 120 primarily low-income, ethnically diverse women and their infants. Results revealed that infants whose mothers experienced IPV during pregnancy did not have significantly more regulatory difficulties at 3 months than did infants whose mothers did not experience prenatal IPV. However, infants whose mothers experienced IPV during the first year after birth displayed significantly more socioemotional problems at 12 months, as evidenced by both maternal report and observational data. Furthermore, maternal posttraumatic stress avoidance symptoms served as a moderator of the association between prenatal IPV and infant regulatory difficulties at 3 months whereas maternal posttraumatic stress hyperarousal and reexperiencing symptoms served as moderators of the association between IPV during the first year after birth and infant socioemotional problems at 12 months. The findings highlight the detrimental impact that IPV can have on very young children and the importance of maternal trauma symptoms as a context for understanding the effect of IPV on young children's functioning. PMID:25798485

  6. Maternal effects of inducible tolerance against the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in the grazer Daphnia carinata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanobacterial blooms are becoming potent agents of natural selection in aquatic ecosystems because of their high production of some toxins and increased frequency in recent decades with eutrophication and climate change. Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates of a clone of the planktonic grazer Daphnia carinata in an offspring environment where cyanobacteria were present, but not for two additional clones. Offspring from mothers exposed to M. aeruginosa had lower intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates than individuals from unexposed mothers when fed exclusively a green alga. These results suggest that benefits, costs, and clonal variations of maternal effects of inducible tolerance should be considered when trying to understand ecological consequences of cyanobacterial blooms since they can shape the trophic interactions between cyanobacteria and daphnids. -- Highlights: •Maternal exposure to Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the offspring tolerance in a Daphnia carinata clone. •Another two clones, however, failed to response to maternal exposure. •Offspring from exposed mothers had lower fitness when fed exclusively a green alga. -- Capsule: Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa increased offspring fitness in one of three Daphnia carinata clones and carried a

  7. The problem of confounding in studies of the effect of maternal drug use on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källén, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    In most epidemilogical studies, the problem of confounding adds to the uncertainty in conclusions drawn. This is also true for studies on the effect of maternal drug use on birth defect risks. This paper describes various types of such confounders and discusses methods to identify and adjust for them. Such confounders can be found in maternal characteristics like age, parity, smoking, use of alcohol, and body mass index, subfertility, and previous pregnancies including previous birth of a malformed child, socioeconomy, race/ethnicity, or country of birth. Confounding by concomitant maternal drug use may occur. A geographical or seasonal confounding can exist. In rare instances, infant sex and multiple birth can appear as confounders. The most difficult problem to solve is often confounding by indication. The problem of confounding is less important for congenital malformations than for many other pregnancy outcomes. PMID:22190949

  8. The Effects of Increased Maternal Visual Regard of Neonate Upon the Neonate-Mother Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christina M.; And Others

    This study attempts to investigate the effects of increased maternal visual regard on neonatal social visual behavior and upon patterns of mother-neonate interaction within the context of a learning theory paradigm. Subjects were 3-day-old neonates and their mothers; with 10 of the 15 mother-neonate pairs as the experimental group, and 5 as the…

  9. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  10. Effects of maternal nutrition and arginine supplementation on liver and jejunal oxygen consumption and hypothalamic neuropeptide content in ovine offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal nutrient restriction during gestation exerts long-term effects on offspring health and performance. Energy utilized by fetal visceral tissues can be altered in response to changes in maternal feed intake. Prolonged nutritional changes during early pregnancy can impact hypothalamic neuropept...

  11. Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T.M. Borges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®, water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject’s group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89 and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95 increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios.

  12. Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.T.M., Borges; J., Rososchansky; J.F., Abbade; A., Dias; J.C., Peraçoli; M.V.C., Rudge.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized [...] into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject’s group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios.

  13. Effect of maternal methionine supplementation on the transcriptome of bovine preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Souza, Alex H; Carvalho, Paulo D; Driver, Ashley M; Gambra, Rocio; Kropp, Jenna; Hackbart, Katherine S; Luchini, Daniel; Shaver, Randy D; Wiltbank, Milo C; Khatib, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutrition exclusively during the periconceptional period can induce remarkable effects on both oocyte maturation and early embryo development, which in turn can have lifelong consequences. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal methionine supplementation on the transcriptome of bovine preimplantation embryos. Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments differing in level of dietary methionine (1.89 Met vs. 2.43 Met % of metabolizable protein) from calving until embryo flushing. High quality preimplantation embryos from individual cows were pooled and then analyzed by RNA sequencing. Remarkably, a subtle difference in methionine supplementation in maternal diet was sufficient to cause significant changes in the transcriptome of the embryos. A total of 276 genes out of 10,662 showed differential expression between treatments (FDR SLAMF7, LCP1, and BLA-DQB). Likewise, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that several Gene Ontology terms, InterPro entries, and KEGG pathways were enriched (FDR <0.05) with differentially expressed genes involved in embryo development and immune system. The expression of most genes was decreased by maternal methionine supplementation, consistent with reduced transcription of genes with increased methylation of specific genes by increased methionine. Overall, our findings provide evidence that supplementing methionine to dams prior to conception and during the preimplantation period can modulate gene expression in bovine blastocysts. The ramifications of the observed gene expression changes for subsequent development of the pregnancy and physiology of the offspring warrant further investigation in future studies. PMID:23991086

  14. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  15. Sex-biased maternal effects reduce ectoparasite-induced mortality in a passerine bird

    OpenAIRE

    Badyaev, Alexander V.; Hamstra, Terri L.; Oh, Kevin P.; Acevedo Seaman, Dana A.

    2006-01-01

    Duration of developmental stages in animals evolves under contrasting selection pressures of age-specific mortality and growth requirements. When relative importance of these effects varies across environments, evolution of developmental periods is expected to be slow. In birds, maternal effects on egg-laying order and offspring growth, two proximate determinants of nestling period, should enable rapid adjustment of developmental periods to even widely fluctuating mortality rates. We test thi...

  16. Heterosis, direct and maternal additive effects on rabbit growth and carcass traits from a Canadian experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyed, Abida; Rivest, J.; Brun, Jean Michel

    2011-01-01

    A total of 479 male and female rabbits from the Californian (CA), American Chinchilla (CH) and New-Zealand White (NZ) breeds and nine crosses between them were used in this experiment. This study aimed to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal additive effects as well as some non genetic effects on rabbit growth and carcass traits in order to identify the most appropriate crossbreeding plan to use for rabbit meat production under Quebec conditions. Each rabbit was identified and weighed i...

  17. Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Byung-Mi; Choi, Anna L

    2014-01-01

    The cord-blood mercury concentration is usually considered the best biomarker in regard to developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity. However, the mercury concentration may be affected by the binding of methylmercury to hemoglobin and perhaps also selenium. As cord-blood mercury analyses appear to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N=514) and the Mothers and Children?s Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses were used to ascertain interrelationships between the exposure biomarkers and the possible impact of hemoglobin as well as selenium. Both methods showed a significant dependence of the cord-blood concentration on hemoglobin, also after adjustment for other exposure biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in maternal and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended.

  18. The subtle intracapsular survival of the fittest: maternal investment, sibling conflict, or environmental effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E; Thatje, Sven

    2013-10-01

    Developmental resource partitioning and the consequent offspring size variations are of fundamental importance for marine invertebrates, in both an ecological and evolutionary context. Typically, differences are attributed to maternal investment and the environmental factors determining this; additional variables, such as environmental factors affecting development, are rarely discussed. During intracapsular development, for example, sibling conflict has the potential to affect resource partitioning. Here, we investigate encapsulated development in the marine gastropod Buccinum undatum. We examine the effects of maternal investment and temperature on intracapsular resource partitioning in this species. Reproductive output was positively influenced by maternal investment, but additionally, temperature and sibling conflict significantly affected offspring size, number, and quality during development. Increased temperature led to reduced offspring number, and a combination of high sibling competition and asynchronous early development resulted in a common occurrence of "empty" embryos, which received no nutrition at all. The proportion of empty embryos increased with both temperature and capsule size. Additionally, a novel example ofa risk in sibling conflict was observed; embryos cannibalized by others during early development ingested nurse eggs from inside the consumer, killing it in a "Trojan horse" scenario. Our results highlight the complexity surrounding offspring fitness. Encapsulation should be considered as significant in determining maternal output. Considering predicted increases in ocean temperatures, this may impact offspring quality and consequently species distribution and abundance. PMID:24358712

  19. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2010-08-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged between 8 and 12 years) were exposed to a neutral movie that was interrupted by two commercial breaks. These breaks contained commercials promoting either energy-dense foods, low energy versions of the same energy-dense foods (light food commercials), or neutral commercials aimed at adults. Snack food intake during watching television was measured. Children filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured afterwards. Children who perceived maternal encouragement to be thin ate slightly more when exposed to energy-dense food commercials and especially when exposed to light food commercials than when exposed to neutral commercials. In contrast, children who perceived no maternal encouragement to be thin ate more when exposed to neutral commercials than when exposed to either energy-dense food commercials or light food commercials. These findings suggest that exposure to adult targeted light food cues produced disinhibition in children who experienced maternal encouragement to be thin, resulting in elevated snack food intake. PMID:20362022

  20. Change in maternal environment induced by cross-fostering alters genetic and epigenetic effects on complex traits in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Reinmar; Cheverud, James M.; Wolf, Jason B.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between maternally provided environment and offspring genotype is a major determinant of offspring development and fitness in many organisms. Recent research has demonstrated that not only genetic effects, but also epigenetic effects may be subject to modifications by the maternal environment. Genomic imprinting resulting in parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression is among the best studied of epigenetic effects. However, very little is known about the degree to which genomi...

  1. Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced bioavailability of trace elements in aged CCW. Most importantly, maternal exposure to contaminants coupled with larval exposure to fresh CCW interacted to reduce survival to metamorphosis by 85% compared to reference conditions. Our study yields further evidence that disposal of CCW in aquatic basins potentially creates ecological traps for some amphibian populations. - Highlights: ? The interaction of maternal exposure and larval exposure to CCW reduced survival. ? Previous maternal exposure to CCW had a latent effect on survival to metamorphosis. ? Larval southern toads exposed to CCW experienced prolonged larval periods. ? Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced growth rates. ? Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced mass at metamorphosis. - Maternal and environmephosis. - Maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes interact to decrease survival in larval amphibians.

  2. Maternal effects due to male attractiveness affect offspring development in the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L; Williamson, K A; Hazon, N; Graves, J A

    2006-07-22

    Maternal effects occur when offspring phenotype is influenced by environmental factors experienced by the mother. Mothers are predicted to invest differentially in offspring in ways that will maximize offspring fitness depending on the environment she expects them to encounter. Here, we test for maternal effects in response to mate attractiveness on offspring developmental traits in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. We controlled for parental genetic quality by manipulating male attractiveness using coloured leg rings and by randomly assigning mating pairs. The potential confounding effect of differential nestling care was controlled for by cross-fostering clutches and by allowing for variance due to foster father attractiveness in general linear models. We found a difference in egg mass investment between attractiveness groups and, importantly, we found that all of the offspring traits we measured varied with the attractiveness of the father. This provides strong evidence for maternal effects in response to mate attractiveness. Furthermore, due to the experiment design, we can conclude that these effects were mediated by differential investment of egg resources and not due to genetic differences or differences in nestling care. PMID:16790409

  3. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  4. The Effect of Intermittent Antenatal Iron Supplementation on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Rural Viet Nam: A Cluster Randomised Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T; Simpson, Julie A.; Casey, Gerard J.; Khuong, Nguyen C.; Thoang, Dang D; Thuy, Tran T; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Tran, Thach D.; Tuan, Tran; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Beverley-Anne Biggs and colleagues conduct a community-based cluster randomized trial in rural Viet Nam to compare the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation taken daily or twice weekly on maternal and infant outcomes.

  5. Effectiveness of home visits by public health nurses in maternal and child health: an empirical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Combs-Orme, T; Reis, J.; Ward, L D

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of public health nursing in promoting maternal and child health through home visits is summarized from empirical studies published between 1960 and 1984. Eight reports identified through a comprehensive reference search were first classified according to the components of nursing service studied (assessment, teaching, counseling or support, referral, and clinical services). The results of each study were then analyzed for study population characteristics, the research design...

  6. Effects of Maternal Worm Infections and Anthelminthic Treatment during Pregnancy on Infant Motor and Neurocognitive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Nampijja, Margaret; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Muhangi, Lawrence; Webb, Emily L.; Lewis, Charlie; ELLIOTT, ALISON M.; Alcock, Katie J.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that maternal worm infections in pregnancy affect infant motor and neurocognitive development, and that anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy can reverse these effects. We used measures which examine infant motor, cognitive and executive function, including inhibition. We assessed 983 Ugandan infants aged 15 months, using locally appropriate measures within the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy. Key ex...

  7. Maternal Employment Effects On Family and Preterm Infants at Three Months

    OpenAIRE

    Youngblut, Joanne M.; Loveland-cherry, Carol J.; Horan, Mary

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal employment status and the mother’s degree of choice and satisfaction regarding her employment status on family functioning and, on the preterm infant’s development at three months chronologic age. Families with preterm infants (N = 110) were categorized as employed, nonemployed, and on leave of absence based on the mother’s employment status at three months postpartum. There were no significant differences across emplo...

  8. Effects of Child Psychopathology on Maternal Depression: The Mediating Role of Child-Related Acute and Chronic Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent research highlighting the potential effects of children’s behavior on mothers’ mental health, the current study examined 679 mothers and their adolescent children from a community-based sample to determine the effects of youth psychopathology on maternal depression and levels of child-related stress in mothers’ lives. It was hypothesized that the number of past clinical diagnoses in 15-year-old adolescents would predict the presence of maternal depression at youth age...

  9. Estimates of direct, maternal and grandmaternal genetic effects for growth traits in Gobra cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Diop; J., Dodenhoff; L.D., Van Vleck.

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram obtidas as estimativas dos pesos ao nascimento (N = 3909), ao desmame (N = 3425), com 1 ano de idade (N = 2764) e final (N = 2144) a partir dos registros de gado Gobra coletados no Centro de Pesquisas em Zootecnia de Dahra, Senegal. Três modelos animais foram adaptados para obter estimativas p [...] or REML usando uma abordagem de informação média (AI). O modelo 1 considerou os efeitos ambientais aleatórios direto, genético maternal e maternal permanente. No modelo 2, um efeito geral relativo às avós foi adicionado aos efeitos aleatórios considerados no modelo 1, e no modelo 3 o efeito geral relativo às avós foi dividido em efeitos ambientais genético e permanente. Todos os modelos admitiram covariâncias entre os efeitos genéticos. A inclusão dos efeitos relativos às avós nos modelos 2 e 3 não alterou as estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos comparados com o modelo 1. As variâncias atribuíveis aos efeitos relativos às avós tornaram-se negativas e foram posicionadas próximas a zero, exceto para o peso com 1 ano, para o qual a herdabilidade relativa à avo foi 0,03 ± 0,03. As estimativas para as herdabilidades direta e maternal foram, respectivamente, 0,08 ± 0,03 e 0,03 ± 0,02 para peso ao nascimento, 0,20 ± 0,05 e 0,21 ± 0,05 para peso ao desmame, 0,26 ± 0,07 e 0,16 ± 0,07 para peso com 1 ano e 0,14 ± 0,06 e 0,16 ± 0,06 para o peso final. As estimativas da correlação genética entre os efeitos direto e maternal para os pesos ao nascimento, ao desmame, com 1 ano e final foram -0,17 ± 0,40, -0,58 ± 0,32, -0,52 ± 0,34 e -0,34 ± 0,37, respectivamente. Para o peso com 1 ano com herdabilidade relativa à avó estimada como sendo apenas 0,03, o modelo 3 deu estimativas da correlação genética entre os efeitos direto e relativo à avó e entre os efeitos maternal e relativo à avó de 0,28 ± 0,48 e -0,33 ± 0,67, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade direta e maternal não se alteraram quando os efeitos relativos à avó não foram incluídos no modelo. Abstract in english Estimates of genetic parameters for birth (N = 3909), weaning (N = 3425), yearling (N = 2764) and final (N = 2144) weights were obtained from the records of Gobra cattle collected at the Centre de Recherches Zootechniques de Dahra, Senegal. Three animal models were fitted to obtain estimates by REML [...] using an average information (AI) approach. Model 1 considered random direct, maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. In model 2, a general grandmaternal effect was added to the random effects considered in model 1, and in model 3, the general grandmaternal effect was divided into grandmaternal genetic and grandmaternal permanent environmental effects. All models allowed covariances among genetic effects. The inclusion of grandmaternal effects in models 2 and 3 did not change the estimates of the genetic parameters compared to model 1. Variances attributable to grandmaternal effects became negative and were set close to zero, except for yearling weight for which grandmaternal heritability was 0.03 ± 0.03. The estimates for direct and maternal heritabilities were, respectively, 0.08 ± 0.03 and 0.03 ± 0.02 for birth, 0.20 ± 0.05 and 0.21 ± 0.05 for weaning, 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.16 ± 0.07 for yearling and 0.14 ± 0.06 and 0.16 ± 0.06 for final weights. The estimates of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for birth, weaning, yearling and final weights were -0.17 ± 0.40, -0.58 ± 0.32, -0.52 ± 0.34 and -0.34 ± 0.37, respectively. For yearling weight with grandmaternal heritability estimated to be only 0.03, model 3 gave estimates of the genetic correlation between direct and grandmaternal effects and between maternal and grandmaternal effects of 0.28 ± 0.48 and -0.33 ± 0.67, respectively. Estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities were unchanged when grandmaternal effects were not included in the model.

  10. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. PMID:25900594

  11. The effect of maternal and paternal environments on seed characters in the herbaceous plant Campanula Americana (Campanulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, L F

    2001-05-01

    Maternal environments typically influence the phenotype of their offspring. However, the effect of the paternal environment or the potential for joint effects of both parental environments on offspring characters is poorly understood. Two populations of Campanula americana, a woodland herb with a variable life history, were used to determine the influence of maternal and paternal light and nutrient environments on offspring seed characters. Families were grown in the greenhouse in three levels of light or three levels of nutrients. Crosses were conducted within each environmental gradient to produce seeds with all combinations of maternal and paternal environments. On average, increasing maternal nutrient and light levels increased seed mass and decreased percentage germination. The paternal environment affected seed mass, germination time, and percentage germination. However, the influence of the paternal environment varied across maternal environments, suggesting that paternal environmental effects should be evaluated in the context of maternal environments. Significant interactions between family and the parental environments for offspring characters suggest that parental environmental effects are genetically variable. In C. americana, the timing of germination determines life history. Therefore parental environmental effects on germination timing, and genetic variation in those parental effects, suggest that parental environments may influence life history evolution in this system. PMID:11353708

  12. Effect of valproic acid on fetal and maternal organs in the mouse: a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, E N; Foroglou, N G; Kerameos-Foroglou, C H; Thliveris, J A

    2004-04-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug used clinically. Because of its known teratogenic properties VPA is not recommended for women of child bearing age. The present study was designed to assess the effects of VPA on both fetal and maternal organs. Randomized groups of pregnant mice were treated as follows: Group 1 (n = 10) 500 mg/kg VPA/day on gestation days 8-11; Group 2 (n = 10) 600 mg/kg VPA/day on gestation days 8-11; and Group 3 (n = 4) saline-injected controls. On gestation day 18, the pregnant mice were euthanized, fetuses collected and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. In addition, fetal and maternal organs were processed for routine histology, immunohistochemistry for growth factors (TGF alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and EGF) and transmission electron microscopy. Scanning microscopy revealed specific lesions induced by VPA in the fetus, namely spina bifida occulta, exencephaly, and exophthalmia. On the other hand, there were no detectable morphological changes in fetal or maternal organs by routine histology, immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy. The data suggest that the lesions present in the fetus are due to a direct effect by VPA on retinoic acid, a ubiquitous compound that has a role in normal development, rather than the lack of transport of sufficient nutrients to the fetus as a result of placental insufficiency due to VPA-induced toxicity. PMID:15208813

  13. Male sexual orientation in independent samoa: evidence for fraternal birth order and maternal fecundity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2011-06-01

    In Western cultures, male androphiles tend to have greater numbers of older brothers than male gynephiles (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In the non-Western nation of Independent Samoa, androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) have been shown to have greater numbers of older brothers, older sisters, and younger brothers (Vasey & VanderLaan, 2007). It is unclear, however, whether the observed older brother effect, in the context of the additional sibling category effects, represented a genuine fraternal birth order effect or was simply associated with elevated maternal fecundity. To differentiate between these two possibilities, this study employed a larger, independent replication sample of fa'afafine and gynephilic males from Independent Samoa. Fa'afafine had greater numbers of older brothers and sisters. The replication sample and the sample from Vasey and VanderLaan were then combined, facilitating a comparison that showed the older brother effect was significantly greater in magnitude than the older sister effect. These results suggest that fraternal birth order and maternal fecundity effects both exist in Samoa. The existence of these effects cross-culturally is discussed in the context of biological theories for the development of male androphilia. PMID:20039114

  14. Gestational Diabetes Independently Increases Birth Length and Augments the Effects of Maternal BMI on Birth Weight: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Byström, Magdalena; Liu, Anthony; Quinton, Ann Elizabeth; Champion, Bernard Linton; Mann, Kristy; Peek, Michael; Nanan, Ralph Kay Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the interaction between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal body mass index (BMI) on the individual neonatal growth parameters. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: A tertiary maternity service in Sydney, Australia, between 2005 and 2009. Population: A cohort of 8859 women. Methods: Generalized linear models. Main outcome measures: Neonatal growth parameters, represented by z-scores for infant birth weight (BW), birth...

  15. Carotenoids and egg quality in the lesser blackbacked gull Larus fuscus: a supplemental feeding study of maternal effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Blount, Jonathan D.; Surai, Peter F.; Nager, Ruedi G.; Houston, David C.; Møller, Anders Pape; Trewby, Michael L.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2002-01-01

    Egg quality is a phenotype of, and can profoundly influence fitness in, both mother and offspring. However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. Carotenoids are hypothesized to enhance antioxidant activity and immune function, and are responsible for the pigmentation of egg yolk. The proximate basis and consequences of this maternal investment, however, have not previously been studied in wild birds. In this supplemental feeding study of lesse...

  16. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulahi Abdulreshid; Aray Mesfin; Worku Bogale; Lakew Zufan; Tesfaye Fikru; Alem Atalay; Dewey Michael; Hanlon Charlotte; Medhin Girmay; Tomlinson Mark; Hughes Marcus; Patel Vikram; Prince Martin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD) appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS) in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were intervi...

  17. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

    OpenAIRE

    Gogoi Gourangie; Ahmed F

    2007-01-01

    Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999). Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garde...

  18. Effect of match or mismatch of maternal-offspring nutritional environment on the development of offspring in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Waaij, E.H., van der; Brand, H; Van Arendonk, J.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, maternal food restriction around conception and during pregnancy results in low birth weight and an adjusted growth trajectory of offspring. If, subsequently, the offspring are born into a food-abundant environment, they are at increased risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and renal dysfunction. Here, we show similar effects of maternal undernutrition on hatch weight, growth and fat deposition in offspring of birds (domestic chicken). Both mothers and offspri...

  19. Maternal and Paternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Risk of ADHD Symptoms in Offspring: Testing for Intrauterine Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, Kate; Heron, Jon; Smith, George Davey; Thapar, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. It is assumed by many that this association is causal. Others suggest that observed associations are due to unmeasured genetic factors or other confounding factors. The authors compared risks of maternal smoking during pregnancy with those of paternal smoking during pregnancy. With a causal intrauterine effect, no independent association should be observed between paternal smokin...

  20. Effectiveness of maternal referral system in a rural setting: a case study from Rufiji district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindmark Gunilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional referral system is important in backing-up antenatal, labour and delivery, and postnatal services in the primary level of care facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the maternal referral system through determining proportion of women reaching the hospitals after referral advice, appropriateness of the referral indications, reasons for non-compliance and to find out if compliance to referrals makes a difference in the perinatal outcome. Methods A follow-up study was conducted in Rufiji rural district in Tanzania. A total of 1538 women referred from 18 primary level of care facilities during a 13 months period were registered and then identified at hospitals. Those not reaching the hospitals were traced and interviewed. Results Out of 1538 women referred 70% were referred for demographic risks, 12% for obstetric historical risks, 12% for prenatal complications and 5.5% for natal and immediate postnatal complications. Five or more pregnancies as well as age Conclusion Majority of the maternal referrals were due to demographic risks, where few women complied. To improve compliance to maternal referrals there is need to review the referral indications and strengthen counseling on birth preparedness and complication readiness.

  1. A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E; Mitchell, Murray D; Rice, Gregory E

    2014-01-01

    Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n?=?20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks), second (ST, 22-24 weeks) and third (TT, 32-38 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001). During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001). Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction. PMID:24905832

  2. The Effect of Maternal Healthcare on the Probability of Child Survival in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lida

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of maternal healthcare on child survival by using nonrandomized data from a cross-sectional survey in Azerbaijan. Using 2SLS and simultaneous equation bivariate probit models, we estimate the effects of delivering in healthcare facility on probability of child survival taking into account self-selection into the treatment. For women who delivered at healthcare facilities, the probability of child survival increases by approximately 18%. Furthermore, if every woman had the opportunity to deliver in healthcare facility, then the probability of child survival in Azerbaijan as a whole would have increased by approximately 16%. PMID:25110673

  3. Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings show that long-term effects of maternal ID and prenatal LPS were additive, such that offspring exposed to both insults displayed more adult behavioral abnormalities than offspring exposed to one alone. PMID:24930842

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Clinical Decision Support System in Improving Maternal Health Care in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaba, Maxwell Ayindenaba; Akweongo, Patricia; Aborigo, Raymond Akawire; Saronga, Happiness Pius; Williams, John; Blank, Antje; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Sauerborn, Rainer; Loukanova, Svetla

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper investigated the cost-effectiveness of a computer-assisted Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) in the identification of maternal complications in Ghana. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed in a before- and after-intervention study. Analysis was conducted from the provider’s perspective. The intervention area was the Kassena- Nankana district where computer-assisted CDSS was used by midwives in maternal care in six selected health centres. Six selected health centers in the Builsa district served as the non-intervention group, where the normal Ghana Health Service activities were being carried out. Results Computer-assisted CDSS increased the detection of pregnancy complications during antenatal care (ANC) in the intervention health centres (before-intervention= 9 /1,000 ANC attendance; after-intervention= 12/1,000 ANC attendance; P-value=0.010). In the intervention health centres, there was a decrease in the number of complications during labour by 1.1%, though the difference was not statistically significant (before-intervention =107/1,000 labour clients; after-intervention= 96/1,000 labour clients; P-value=0.305). Also, at the intervention health centres, the average cost per pregnancy complication detected during ANC (cost –effectiveness ratio) decreased from US$17,017.58 (before-intervention) to US$15,207.5 (after-intervention). Incremental cost –effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated at US$1,142. Considering only additional costs (cost of computer-assisted CDSS), cost per pregnancy complication detected was US$285. Conclusions Computer –assisted CDSS has the potential to identify complications during pregnancy and marginal reduction in labour complications. Implementing computer-assisted CDSS is more costly but more effective in the detection of pregnancy complications compared to routine maternal care, hence making the decision to implement CDSS very complex. Policy makers should however be guided by whether the additional benefit is worth the additional cost. PMID:25974093

  5. Maternal effects, flight versus fecundity trade-offs, and offspring immune defence in the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hails Rosemary S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal condition can generate resource-related maternal effects through differential egg provisioning, and can greatly affect offspring performance. In the present study, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L. was used to investigate whether (after controlling for egg size maternal age, and increased flight during the oviposition period, resulted in changes in egg provisioning and whether this contributed to variation in offspring performance, i early in development (egg stage and early post-hatching development, and ii later in larval development after being exposed to the model viral pathogen system; the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV. Results Age-related changes in maternal egg provisioning were observed to influence egg stage development only. Flight-induced changes in maternal egg provisioning had direct consequences for offspring growth and survival across each life stage from egg to adulthood; offspring from forced flight mothers had lower larval masses and longer development times. Offspring with lower larval masses also had reduced survival after exposure to the viral pathogen. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that a change in maternal provisioning as a result of increased flight during the oviposition period has the potential to exert non-genetic cross-generational fitness effects in P. aegeria. This could have important consequences for population dynamics, particularly in fragmented anthropogenic landscapes.

  6. Maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of ADHD symptoms in offspring: testing for intrauterine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Kate; Heron, Jon; Smith, George Davey; Thapar, Anita

    2012-08-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. It is assumed by many that this association is causal. Others suggest that observed associations are due to unmeasured genetic factors or other confounding factors. The authors compared risks of maternal smoking during pregnancy with those of paternal smoking during pregnancy. With a causal intrauterine effect, no independent association should be observed between paternal smoking and offspring ADHD. If the association is due to confounding factors, risks of offspring ADHD should be of similar magnitudes regardless of which parent smokes. This hypothesis was tested in 8,324 children from a well-characterized United Kingdom prospective cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (data from 1991-2000). Associations between offspring ADHD and maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy were compared using regression analyses. Offspring ADHD symptoms were associated with exposure to both maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy (mothers: ? = 0.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.32; fathers: ? = 0.21, 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.27). When paternal smoking was examined in the absence of maternal smoking, associations remained and did not appear to be due to passive smoking exposure in utero. These findings suggest that associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and child ADHD may be due to genetic or household-level confounding rather than to causal intrauterine effects. PMID:22791738

  7. PREMIM and EMIM: tools for estimation of maternal, imprinting and interaction effects using multinomial modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howey Richard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we present two new computer tools, PREMIM and EMIM, for the estimation of parental and child genetic effects, based on genotype data from a variety of different child-parent configurations. PREMIM allows the extraction of child-parent genotype data from standard-format pedigree data files, while EMIM uses the extracted genotype data to perform subsequent statistical analysis. The use of genotype data from the parents as well as from the child in question allows the estimation of complex genetic effects such as maternal genotype effects, maternal-foetal interactions and parent-of-origin (imprinting effects. These effects are estimated by EMIM, incorporating chosen assumptions such as Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or exchangeability of parental matings as required. Results In application to simulated data, we show that the inference provided by EMIM is essentially equivalent to that provided by alternative (competing software packages such as MENDEL and LEM. However, PREMIM and EMIM (used in combination considerably outperform MENDEL and LEM in terms of speed and ease of execution. Conclusions Together, EMIM and PREMIM provide easy-to-use command-line tools for the analysis of pedigree data, giving unbiased estimates of parental and child genotype relative risks.

  8. A life-history evaluation of the impact of maternal effects on recruitment and fisheries reference points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calduch-Verdiell, Núria; MacKenzie, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Fishing causes dramatic changes in the age and size structure of fish stocks. In particular, the targeting of the largest and oldest individuals in a stock changes the age and size distribution of that stock. A large female produces a higher quantity of eggs than a young female because of its larger size, but recent laboratory evidence further indicates that large females also produce eggs of higher quality, a phenomenon known as maternal effects. However, most traditional management models assume that all female fish contribute equally per unit biomass to future recruitment. Here we investigate whether this assumption is valid by calculating the impact of maternal effects both before and after accounting for density-dependent effects. We find that the contribution of large individuals to reproduction is much more pronounced for unfished than for fished stocks. Fisheries reference points are largely unaffected by maternal effects. Our results indicate that the incorporation of maternal effects into impact assessments of fisheries is not expected to change advice substantially. Important exceptions are stocks whose demography is very vulnerable to fishing (and which therefore have low fishing reference points) for which maternal effects are relevant and necessary to consider.

  9. Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration.

  10. Effects on maternal and foetal traits of feeding supplement to grazing pregnant ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos, Pilar; Buratovich, Oswaldo; Gira?ldez, Francisco Javier; Manteco?n, A?ngel R.; Wright, I. A.

    1998-01-01

    Thirty single-bearing Merino ewes were used to examine the effect of feeding supplement, from 91 to 140 days of gestation, on changes in chemical composition of the ewes, on the relationships with live weight and body condition score and on the foetus. Ewes grazed a perennial ryegrass pasture and were offered either no supplement or 500 g per head per day of a concentrate supplement from days 30 to 90 and (or) from days 91 to 140 of pregnancy. Maternal carcass and non-carcass components, uter...

  11. Evaluation Of The Potential Mutagenic Effects Of Ginseng On Maternally Treated Postimplanted Mouse Foetuses

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. El Ashmaoui, S. M. Girgis and Abd El Raouf, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of ginseng (herbal medicine) on maternally treated postimplanted mouse foetuses. A total of 60 adult albino female mice were used and divided into 6 groups (10 females each). The first group (I) served as a control group and received oral doses of the vehicle (0.5 ml disteled water ) for 60 days before pregnancy to 13th day of pregnancy. The rest 5 groups received orally 4mg/kg.bw of ginseng for 7, 14, 30, 45 and 60 days be...

  12. X chromosome effect on maternal recombination and meiotic drive in the mouse.

    OpenAIRE

    La Casa-espero?n, Elena; Loredo-osti, J. Concepcio?n; Pardo-manuel Villena, Fernando; Briscoe, Tammi L.; Malette, Jan Michel; Vaughan, Joe E.; Morgan, Kenneth; Sapienza, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    We observed that maternal meiotic drive favoring the inheritance of DDK alleles at the Om locus on mouse chromosome 11 was correlated with the X chromosome inactivation phenotype of (C57BL/6-Pgk1(a) x DDK)F(1) mothers. The basis for this unexpected observation appears to lie in the well-documented effect of recombination on meiotic drive that results from nonrandom segregation of chromosomes. Our analysis of genome-wide levels of meiotic recombination in females that vary in their X-inactivat...

  13. A Maternal-Effect Sex-Transformation Mutant of the Housefly, MUSCA DOMESTICA L

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Hiroyoshi, Toshiki

    1986-01-01

    A maternal-effect sex-transformation mutant, transformer (tra), of the housefly is described. It is located on autosome 4 in close linkage with the Ba locus. Normally, the sex of Musca domestica is determined by the presence or absence of an epistatic factor, M. When produced by tra/tra mothers, a large fraction of the tra/tra genotypic female progeny carrying no M factors are transformed to develop into intersexes or fertile phenotypic males. The tra/+ progeny are also transformed, but le...

  14. Effect of Source and Level of Maternal Vitamin D on Carryover to Newly Hatched Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, F.; Wang, Z.; Cerate, S.; Cesar Coto; Waldroup, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the carryover effect of maternal vitamin D level and source on performance and bone development of the progeny. Breeder hens were fed a vitamin D deficient diet for two months to deplete stores. After this period, experimental diets in a factorial arrangement were fed to the hens with five levels of cholecalciferol (0, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 IU/kg) and two levels of 25OHD3 (HyD) (0 and 68 ?g/kg) for a total of 10 treatments. At the end of two months on the ...

  15. Effects of Shiga toxin type 2 on maternal and fetal status in rats in the early stage of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, María M; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M; Ibarra, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5?ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

  16. Effect of cocaine on periadolescent rats with or without early maternal separation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.S., Planeta; M.T., Marin.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and weight loss were investigated in periadolescent Wistar rats kept with their mothers or subjected to repeated maternal separation. Litters allocated to the separation procedure were placed in a temperature-controlled (33ºC) chamber for 3 h per day from pos [...] tnatal day 6 (P6) to P20. Non-handled rats were left undisturbed until weaning. Treatments were started on P30-31 and the test was performed on P36-37. Animals received injections of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, sc) twice daily for 5 days. On day 6 all animals received saline. On day 7 animals were challenged with 10 mg/kg cocaine and their locomotion was evaluated in activity cages. A third group received saline throughout the 7-day period. Body weights were recorded on P30-31 and P36-37. Two-way ANOVA on body weights showed a main effect of treatment group (F(1,35) = 10.446, P = 0.003; N = 10-12). Non-handled rats treated with cocaine for 5 days gained significantly less weight, while no significant effect was observed in maternally separated rats. Two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of drug treatment on locomotor activity (F(2,32) = 15.209, P

  17. Heritability and Artificial Selection on Ambulatory Dispersal Distance in Tetranychus urticae: Effects of Density and Maternal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitume, Ellyn Valery; Bonte, Dries; Magalhães, Sara; San Martin, Gilles; Van Dongen, Stefan; Bach, Fabien; Anderson, Justin Michael; Olivieri, Isabelle; Nieberding, Caroline Marie

    2011-01-01

    Dispersal distance is understudied although the evolution of dispersal distance affects the distribution of genetic diversity through space. Using the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, we tested the conditions under which dispersal distance could evolve. To this aim, we performed artificial selection based on dispersal distance by choosing 40 individuals (out of 150) that settled furthest from the home patch (high dispersal, HDIS) and 40 individuals that remained close to the home patch (low dispersal, LDIS) with three replicates per treatment. We did not observe a response to selection nor a difference between treatments in life-history traits (fecundity, survival, longevity, and sex-ratio) after ten generations of selection. However, we show that heritability for dispersal distance depends on density. Heritability for dispersal distance was low and non-significant when using the same density as the artificial selection experiments while heritability becomes significant at a lower density. Furthermore, we show that maternal effects may have influenced the dispersal behaviour of the mites. Our results suggest primarily that selection did not work because high density and maternal effects induced phenotypic plasticity for dispersal distance. Density and maternal effects may affect the evolution of dispersal distance and should be incorporated into future theoretical and empirical studies. PMID:22066017

  18. Effect of acute maternal starvation on tyrosine metabolism and protein synthesis in fetal sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of acute maternal starvation on intrauterine growth, tyrosine concentration and specific activity values in plasma, intracellular free and protein bound pools were determined in catheterized ovine fetuses following an 8 h continuous infusion of L-[2,3,5,6 3H] or L-[U-14C] tyrosine into the ewe and fetus respectively at 115-125 days of gestation. From the kinetic data the rates of whole body and tissue fractional protein synthesis were calculated. Although placental protein synthesis was not significantly changed as a result of acute maternal starvation, fetal whole body protein synthesis was reduced from 63 g/d/kg in the fed to 25 g/d/kg in the starved condition. There was also a 10 fold reduction in the net placental transfer of tyrosine to the fetus in the starved ewes. In addition, a three fold increase was observed in the quantity of tyrosine used for oxidation by the fetuses of starved ewes, changing from 5.2% of tyrosine net utilization in the fed to 13.7% in the starved condition. Significant reductions in tissue fractional protein synthesis rates were also seen in the liver, brain, lung kidney and GIT tissues from 78, 37, 65, 45 and 71%/d respectively in the fed to 12, 10, 23, 22 and 35%/d in the fetuses of starved ewes. The data indicate that during acute maternal starvation the sheep fetus utilizes more tyrosine for oxidation and less for anabolic purposes which is reflected in a decrease both in whole body and cted in a decrease both in whole body and tissue fractional rates of protein synthesis

  19. Effect of maternal autonomy and relatedness and borderline personality disorder on adolescent symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel-Waldheter, Miriam; Macfie, Jenny; Strimpfel, Jennifer M; Watkins, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Several theories propose a relationship between deficits in autonomy and relatedness and the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Empirical work supports relationships between maternal BPD and adolescent symptomatology, as well as between maternal autonomy and relatedness and adolescent symptomatology. However, no study has examined how individuals with BPD differ from normative comparisons on autonomy and relatedness, or whether mothers' BPD mediates the relationship between their autonomy and relatedness and their adolescents' symptomatology. We sampled 28 mothers with BPD and their adolescents aged 14-17 years, as well as 28 normative comparisons matched on demographic variables. We assessed BPD as a categorical diagnosis and along a continuum of self-reported borderline features. In a videotaped problem-solving interaction, controlling for current major depressive disorder, mothers with BPD were less likely to promote and more likely to inhibit relatedness, and they were marginally more likely to inhibit but equally likely to promote autonomy with their adolescents. Mothers' total borderline features mediated the relationship between mothers' promotion of autonomy plus relatedness and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms (anxious depression, withdrawn depression, somatic problems, rule breaking, and aggression) and adolescent borderline features (affective instability and self-harm). Mothers' total borderline features also mediated the relationship between mothers' inhibition of autonomy plus relatedness and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms (anxious depression, withdrawn depression, somatic problems, and aggression but not rule breaking) and adolescent borderline features (affective instability and self-harm). We discuss findings in terms of light shed on BPD and the effect of maternal BPD on adolescent development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867839

  20. Effects of Child Psychopathology on Maternal Depression: The Mediating Role of Child-Related Acute and Chronic Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent research highlighting the potential effects of children's behavior on mothers' mental health, the current study examined 679 mothers and their adolescent children from a community-based sample to determine the effects of youth psychopathology on maternal depression and levels of child-related stress in mothers' lives. It was…

  1. Longitudinal effects of adaptability on behavior problems and maternal depression in families of adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason K; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S

    2011-08-01

    Research on families of individuals with autism has tended to focus on child-driven effects utilizing models of stress and coping. The current study used a family systems perspective to examine whether family level adaptability promoted beneficial outcomes for mothers and their adolescents with autism over time. Participants were 149 families of children diagnosed with autism who were between the ages of 10 and 22 years during the 3-year period examined. Mothers reported on family adaptability, the mother-child relationship, their own depressive symptoms, and the behavior problems of their children at Wave 1, and these factors were used to predict maternal depression and child behavior problems 3 years later. Family level adaptability predicted change in both maternal depression and child behavior problems over the study period, above and beyond the contribution of the dyadic mother-child relationship. These associations did not appear to depend upon the intellectual disability status of the individual with autism. Implications for autism, parent mental health, family systems theory, and intervention with this population are discussed. PMID:21668120

  2. The genetic control of maternal effects on mutations recovered from X-rayed mature drosophila sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosophila melanogaster males carrying a ring-X-chromosome were X-rayed and crossed to virgin females of 7 stocks, which had their second and third chromosomes systematically substituted. In the same experiment dominant lethals, sex-chromosome losses, and reciprocal translocations were recorded. Maternal effects on mutation fixation were observable as differences in the mutation frequencies observed with the different types of females. With the set of substitution stocks studied it was found that the maternal genotype strongly influences the frequencies of chromosome losses. The influence on classical chromosome-breakage phenomena, such as dominant lethals and translocations, however, are weak. The differences in the chromosome-loss frequencies may result either from different time intervals between insemination and the beginning of chromosome replication, and/or the efficiency of a repair system. One or more strong genetic factors reponsible for such modifications could be located on the third chromosome. On the second chromosome, at best only weak factors are present. (Auth.)

  3. Effects of combinations of maternal agents on the fetal cerebrum in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetal cerebral development influenced by maternal ethanol or caffeine either singly or in combination with X-irradiation was investigated in rat. Female Wistar rats were given 20 % ethanol, 0.04 % caffeine and water during the premating period and pregnancy, and 0.03 % vitamin E only during pregnancy. Pregnant rats were X-irradiated with 100 R or sham-irradiated on gestational day 13. Ethanol-treatment alone much reduced the fetal body and cerebral weights, and X-irradiation alone resulted in great reductions in weight and DNA concentration in the fetal cerebrum. The reduction in body weight with ethanol exceeded that with X-irradiation, therefore, the addition of X-irradiation had no effect on that of ethanol. The reduction in cerebral weight on X-irradiation exceeded that with ethanol, thus the addition of ethanol had only a slight effect on that with X-irradiation. The decrease in body and cerebral weights and the increase in lipid peroxide (LP) formation on caffeine-treatment and the decrease in cerebral weight and the increase in LP on vitamin E-treatment were inhibited by X-irradiation as compared to the combined effects of the other drink treatments. The increase in placental weight and the decrease in cerebral weight on ethanol-treatment and the decrease in placental, body and cerebral weights on caffeine-treatment, which findings were covered by the addition of X-irradiation, became much clearer on single drink treatment. Independently of X-irradiation, ethanent. Independently of X-irradiation, ethanol-treatment resulted in increased fetal mortality and LP, and decreased body weight. These results suggest that the combined effects of maternal agents on live fetuses should be investigated as to whether they act independently of or dependently with each other and how the effects appear either singly or mixed. (author)

  4. Effects of maternal clothianidin exposure on behavioral development in F? generation mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohito

    2012-09-01

    Female mice were exposed maternally to clothianidin through diet at levels of 0% (control), 0.002%, 0.006%, and 0.018% during gestation and lactation periods. Selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured in F? generation. There was no adverse effect of clothianidin on litter size, litter weight, or sex ratio at birth. The average body weight of male and female offspring was increased significantly in a dose-related manner during the lactation period. With respect to behavioral developmental parameters, surface righting at postnatal day 7 of female offspring was accelerated significantly in a dose-related manner (p clothianidin in the present study produced several adverse effects in the neurobehavioral parameters in mice. PMID:22025502

  5. Potential effect of pharmacogenetics on maternal, fetal and infant antiretroviral drug exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, Adeniyi; Owen, Andrew; Cressey, Tim R

    2012-10-01

    Mother-to-child-transmission rates of HIV in the absence of any intervention range between 20 and 45%. However, the provision of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding can reduce HIV transmission to less than 2%. Physiological changes during pregnancy can influence ARV disposition. Associations between SNPs in genes coding for metabolizing enzymes, and/or transporters, and ARVs disposition are well described; however, relatively little is known about the influence of these SNPs on ARV pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and lactation as well as their effect on distribution into the fetal compartment and breast milk excretion. Differences in maternal, fetal and infant ARV exposure due to SNPs may affect the efficacy and safety of ARVs used to prevent mother-to-child-transmission. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the effect of pregnancy-induced changes on the pharmacokinetics of ARVs and highlight the potential role of pharmacogenetics. PMID:23057550

  6. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on rat maternal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has several deleterious effects on the nervous system such as alterations in the concentrations of neurotransmitters in the brain and/or behavioral changes, myelination rate, ganglioside pattern [Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R., Antonelli, M., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 2002. Increased sensitivity in dopamine D(2)-like brain receptors from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-exposed and amphetamine-challenged rats. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 965, 314-323; Duffard, R., Garcia, G., Rosso, S., Bortolozzi, A., Madariaga, M., DiPaolo, O., Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., 1996. Central nervous system myelin deficit in rats exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid throughout lactation. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 18, 691-696; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Orta, C., Duffard, R., 1990. Behavioral changes in rats fed a diet containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic butyl ester. Neurotoxicology 11, 563-572; Evangelista de Duffard, A.M., Bortolozzi, A., Duffard, R.O., 1995. Altered behavioral responses in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treated and amphetamine challenged rats. Neurotoxicology 16, 479-488; Munro, I.C., Carlo, G.L., Orr, J.C., Sund, K., Wilson, R.M. Kennepohl, E. Lynch, B., Jablinske, M., Lee, N., 1992. A comprehensive, integrated review and evaluation of the scientific evidence relating to the safety of the herbicide 2,4-D. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 11, 559-664; Rosso et al., 2000], and its administration to pregnant and lactating ratministration to pregnant and lactating rats adversely affects litter growth and milk quality. Since normal growth of the offspring depends on adequate maternal nursing and care, we evaluated the effect of 2,4-D on rat maternal behavior as well as the dam's monoamine levels in arcuate nucleus (AcN) and serum prolactin (PRL) levels. Wistar dams were exposed to the herbicide through the food from post partum day (PPD) 1 to PPD 7. Dams were fed either with a 2,4-D treated diet (15, 25 or 50 mg 2,4-D/kg/day bw) or with a control diet. We observed that maternal nesting behavior was not modified by 2,4-D treatment. However, mother-pup interactions, specially the nursing behavior, were altered. Retrieval, crouching and licking of pups were reduced or suspended after 2,4-D treatment. We also observed an increase in the latency of retrieval and crouching in the dams treated with the herbicide. Dams showed movement along cage peripheries, food consumption during the light phase and high self-grooming. In addition of the deficits observed in maternal behavior parameters, increased catecholamine levels and a drastic decrease in indolamine levels in the AcN of treated dams were determined. Serum PRL levels were also diminished by 62%, 68% and 70% with respect to control dams in the 15, 25 and 50 mg 2,4-D/kg bw treated dams, respectively. In conclusion, exposure to 2,4-D during the first post partum days produced changes in maternal behavior, serum prolactin and monoamine levels in the AcN of treated dams

  7. Effect of Maternally Derived Antibody on Vaccination Against Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro) with Live Vaccine in Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    J. Alam; Rahman, M.M.; B. K. Sil; M. S. R. Khan; Giasuddin; M. S. K. Sarker

    2002-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important viral disease of poultry usually affects young chickens of 3-6 weeks. Hygienic management and proper vaccination are main way of control of this disease. But maternal antibody affects vaccination with live vaccine. To determine the effect of maternally derived antibody on live vaccine, the study was conducted. A total of 100 day old chicks (50 from vaccinated parent stock and 50 from non-vaccinated parent stock) were used in this study. A...

  8. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Sacerdoti; Amaral, Mar Xed A. M.; Elsa Zotta; Franchi, Ana M.; Cristina Ibarra

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5?ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight ...

  9. The influence of phenotypic and genetic effects on maternal provisioning and offspring weight gain in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Reinmar; Johnstone, Rufus A.

    2005-01-01

    Close interactions between mother and offspring are said to result in a coevolution of parental and offspring genotypes such that offspring are adapted in their solicitation behaviour to obtain maternal provisioning that maximizes their fitness. Few empirical studies have been conducted in this field and it remains unclear whether maternal provisioning and offspring weight gain are influenced by the same set of maternal and offspring phenotypic and genotypic factors. Using a cross-foster, spl...

  10. Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers’ adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11–13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the ...

  11. The Effect of Maternal Thyroid Disorders (Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism During Pregnancy and Lactation on Skin Development in Wistar Rat Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amerion

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Previous studies have shown that thyroid hormones are necessary for normal development of many organs and because of the importance of skin as the largest and the most important organ in human body protection in spite of external environment, the study of thyroid hormones effects on skin development is considerable. In this survey we have tried to study the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on skin development in fetus during pregnancy and lactation by immunohistochemistry technique.   Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups, hypothyroids, hyperthyroids, hypothyroids are treated with levothyroxin and a control group. The rat mothers were exposed to PTU with 50 mg/lit dosage and levothyroxin with 1 mg/lit dosage and PTU and levothyroxin simultaneously and with the same dosage respectively in hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and treated hypothyroids with levothyroxin groups. After 14 days, blood sample was taken from mothers, and if thyroid hormones level had change well, mating was allowed. After pregnancy and delivery, 1th day dorsal skin (as the sample for pregnancy assay and 10th day skin (as for lactation assay was used for immunohystochemical and morphometric studies. Results: In this study it was observed that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes significant increase in laminin expression, in most areas of skin, and maternal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation causes significant decrease in laminin expression. Also significant decrease was observed in hair follicles number and epidermis thickness in hypothyroidism groups. Conclusion: This study showed maternal hypothyroidism causes significant decrease in epidermis thickness and hair follicles number and it causes less hair in fetus. Also maternal hypothyroidism causes large changes in laminin expression in different parts of skin. At the same time,maternal hyperthyroidism causes opposite results. In fact, thyroid hormones regulate laminin expression negatively which means increase in thyroid hormone level, decreases laminin expression. So changes in thyroid hormones level can influence skin development significantly.

  12. Investigating the Effect of Maternal Elective Position during Active Phase on the First Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed- Mahmoud Latefi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Final hours of human pregnancy are diagnosed with floored uterine contractions that induce the dilatation of cervix and pushing of the fetus throughout the delivery passage. Mothers position during labor can influence uterine contractions as well as the mothers psychological status. This study aimed at investigating the effect of maternal elective position in labor stage on the pregnancy outcome. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial (quasi-experimental study a total of 100 people were randomly selected from the population of first pregnancy women referring to Ya Zahra Maternity Hospital and they were randomized into a 50- person usual care or control group and a 50-person elective position or case group. At admission (4- cm dilatation women in the control group remained confined to the labor bed and received the usual medical care. But women in elective position were allowed to choose their preferred position such as walking sitting standing knee-chest etc. The Data were collected through information forms scale clock Burford pain scale and observation record forms and they were analyzed by t-test and Chi-square statistical tests. Results: The results indicated that relative length of the active phase in the case and control groups was 142.2 and 212.4 minutes respectively which shows a significant reduction. The mean labor scores in the case and control groups were respectively reported as 6.9±1.1 and 8.1±1.2 which indicate a significant difference. The need for oxytocin augmentation reduced (8% vs 64% and mothers satisfaction of child birth experience significantly increased. The incidence of fetal heart rate abnormalities was significantly smaller in the case group. When asked whether they would choose elective position during future labors 76% of women in the case group answered positively. Conclusion: Maternal elective position during active phase not only has no abnormal effects on the pregnancy outcome but also it improves many of pregnancy outcomes and it can therefore be used as an appropriate and harmless method in normal deliveries.

  13. Evaluative Pressure in Mothers: Effects of Situation, Maternal, and Child Characteristics on Autonomy Supportive versus Controlling Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolnick, Wendy S.; Price, Carrie E.; Beiswenger, Krista L.; Sauck, Christine C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of situational pressure and maternal characteristics (social contingent self-worth, controlling parenting attitudes) on mothers' autonomy support versus control in the social domain. Sixty 4th-grade children and their mothers worked on a laboratory task in preparation for meeting new children, with mothers in either…

  14. Effects of Maternal Stimulant Medication on Observed Parenting in Mother-Child Dyads with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rooney, Mary; Seymour, Karen E.; Lavin, Heather Jones; Pian, Jessica; Robb, Adelaide; Efron, Lisa; Conlon, Charles; Stein, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study of 23 mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their offspring with ADHD examined the effects of maternal stimulant medication on observed interactions. Parent-child interactions were observed using a structured protocol before and after mothers underwent a 5-week, double-blind stimulant titration. Despite…

  15. The different effects of maternal separation on spatial learning and reversal learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Man; Du, Wei; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2015-03-01

    Early postnatal maternal separation (MS) can play an important role in the development of psychopathologies during ontogeny. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4h per day from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 21) on locomotor activity and anxiety behavior in open field, spatial learning and reversal learning in Morris water maze of male and female juvenile (PND 21), adolescent (PND 35) and early adult (PND 56) Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased locomotor activity of rats across all ages and reduced anxiety behavior of adolescent rats in open field test. MS also increased swim distance in spatial learning and decreased escape latency in reversal learning in adolescent and early adult rats. Additionally, for socially reared rats, there was increased spontaneous locomotion with age, decreased reversal learning ability with age. The present study provides novel insights into the consequences of MS and demonstrates unique age-dependent changes at the behavioral levels. PMID:25479401

  16. Partitioning genetic effects due to embryo, cytoplasm and maternal parent for oil content in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jian-Guo, Wu; Chun-Hai, Shi; Hai-Zhen, Zhang.

    Full Text Available Analysis of genetic main effects and genotype x environment (GE) interaction effects on the oil content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was conducted by using a genetic model for the quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants. The experiments were carried out over two years with 8 parents an [...] d a diallel mating design, which produced F1 and F2 generations. We found that the oil content of rape was simultaneously controlled by embryo genetic effect, cytoplasmic effects and maternal genetic effect as well as GE interaction effects, with the cytoplasmic and maternal effects playing the main role. The results indicate that selection of maternal plants for high oil content would be more efficient than selection based on single seeds. Since the GE interaction effects accounted for 73.69% of the total genetic effects and were more important than the genetic main effects it seems that selection might be influenced by environmental conditions. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability for oil content was 73.52% with the interaction heritability being larger than the general heritability, indicating that the early generations can be used for selection for high oil content. The prediction of genetic effects suggested that the parent cultivars Youcai 601 and Gaoyou 605 were better than the other cultivars for increasing oil content during the breeding of B. napus. The implications for the quantitative trait loci mapping of seed traits interfered by these three genetic systems is also discussed.

  17. Protective Effects of Maternal and Peer Support on Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Christine A.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the contributions of maternal and peer support to depressive symptoms in early to mid-adolescence and variation in these contributions across age, gender, and race. Five waves of data on maternal support, peer support, and depressive symptoms were collected on rural youth (N = 3,444) at 6 month intervals. Multilevel…

  18. Effect of Gestation and Maternal Copper on the Fetal Fluids and Tissues Copper Concentrations in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Abd E. Hefnawy; Jorge Tortora-Perez; Saad M. Shousha; Seham Y. AbuKora

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Samples of allantoic, amniotic fluid, fetal liver, kidney, maternal plasma and liver were collected from 30 ewes and classified into either early or late gestation and copper concentrations were measured. Approach: The Cu concentrations in the maternal plasma, allantoic, amniotic fluid, fetal liver and kidney increased significantly (p

  19. Differential Effects of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress and Nondistress on Social-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Associations between maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress and infant social-emotional adjustment were examined in a subset of dyads from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 376). Mothers reported on infant temperament at 1 and 6 months postpartum, and maternal sensitivity to distress and nondistress were observed at 6…

  20. Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Terezinha Scudeller Prevedel

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular e perinatais (peso e prematuridade da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22 e não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19 de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e relativa. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx, volume sistólico (VS e débito cardíaco (DC. Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0% e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0% e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5 e DC de (13,5 para 15,1; no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos.PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity and perinatal (weight and prematurity effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random cohort study, with 41 low-risk pregnant women in their first pregnancy, practicing (study group, n=22 and not (control group, n=19 hydrotherapy. Anthropometric evaluation was used to assess lean mass, and absolute and relative body fat. Ergometric tests were used for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max, stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO. Perinatal results showed premature births and small for gestational age newborns. Initial and final indexes within and between groups were compared. Maternal variables were evaluated using the t test for dependent and independent values; the chi ² test was used to study proportions. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the groups for maternal variables at the start and end of hydrotherapy. Comparison within each group confirmed the beneficial effect of hydrotherapy. In the study group, relative fat index was maintained at 29.0%; the control group showed an increase from 28.8% to 30.7%; the study group maintained VO2max at 35%, and increased SV from 106.6 to 121.5 and CO from 13.5 to 15.1; the control group showed a drop in VO2max and no change in SV and CO. There was no relationship between hydrotherapy and perinatal results. CONCLUSIONS: hydrotherapy adequately assisted metabolic and cardiovascular maternal adaptation to pregnancy and did not cause prematurity or weight loss in newborns.

  1. Maternal effects shape dynamic trajectories of reproductive allocation in the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, G; Michaud, J P; Nechols, J R

    2012-10-01

    We followed lifetime trajectories of reproductive allocation in Coleomegilla maculata females of three different size classes produced by rearing beetles on three different daily larval feeding regimes (30 min, 6 h or ad libitum access to eggs of Ephestia kuehniella). We hypothesized that small females would produce fewer and smaller eggs than larger females and that reproductive effort would decline with female age. Females were mated with a male from the same treatment and then isolated with ad libitum food for their entire adult lives. Egg size increased over time in all treatments; small females started off laying the smallest eggs, but increased egg size more rapidly than larger females, until all treatments converged on a similar egg size around the 20th day of oviposition. Large females realized a larger proportion of their fecundity early in life, but smaller females increased daily fecundity over time. Reproductive effort (egg mass/body mass) did not decline over 30 oviposition days; it remained constant in large females, but increased among small and medium females, suggesting gradual compensation for larval food deprivation. An increase in egg size with maternal age may be an adaptive strategy to maximize fitness on ephemeral patches of aphid prey, assuming females reproduce in a single aphid outbreak and that offspring produced later in the aphid cycle experience greater competition and risk of mortality compared to those produced earlier. We demonstrate for the first time in Coleoptera that dynamic changes in both egg size and number occur as a function of female age and illustrate that such changes are constrained by larval feeding histories via their effects on maternal body size. PMID:22475542

  2. Effect of canthaxanthin content of the maternal diet on the antioxidant system of the developing chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surai, A P; Surai, P F; Steinberg, W; Wakeman, W G; Speake, B K; Sparks, N H C

    2003-09-01

    1. Effects of canthaxanthin supplementation of the maternal diet on the antioxidant system of the developing chick were investigated. 2. Three hundred and twenty female broiler breeder birds were housed in one of 4 controlled environment rooms with 3 replicates for all treatments, with the exception of the control treatment of which there were 4 replicates. All birds received one of 5 diets: control low xanthophyll diet, or the same diet supplemented with 3, 6, 12 or 24 mg/kg canthaxanthin in the form of Carophyll Red. At 30 weeks of age 60 eggs from each of the 5 groups were incubated. At d 16 of the embryo development, at d 1 and d 7 posthatch tissue samples were collected and analysed by HPLC-based methods. 3. Canthaxanthin accumulation in the egg yolk was proportional to dietary content. Furthermore, at 12 to 24 mg/kg canthaxanthin was associated with an increase in gamma-tocopherol concentration in the egg yolk. Canthaxanthin was transferred from the egg yolk to the developing embryo and, as a result, its concentration in the liver of the embryo at 16 and in 1-d-old chicks was increased. Even at d 7 posthatch canthaxanthin concentration in the chicken liver was elevated. 4. Canthaxanthin supplementation of the maternal diet at 12 mg/kg was associated with an increased alpha-tocopherol concentration in the liver of 1-d-old chicks and resulted in decreased tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. 5. Canthaxanthin supplementation at 6 to 24 mg/kg was also associated with a delay in alpha-tocopherol depletion from the liver for 7-d posthatch. As a result of the increased canthaxanthin and vitamin E concentrations in the liver of 7-d-old chicks, tissue susceptibility to lipid peroxidation decreased. 6. The results support an idea that dietary carotenoids can modulate antioxidant systems of the developing chicken. PMID:14584852

  3. Effect of maternal sialoadenectomy on ontogenic response of rat gastric mucosa to luminal H+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepperman, B L; Vozzolo, B L; Soper, B D

    1993-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) originating from salivary glands has been shown to affect the development and integrity of rodent gastrointestinal mucosa. Because newborn rats receive EGF from maternal milk, we have examined the effect of sialoadenectomy as a method of depleting EGF in milk on the resistance of neonatal rat mucosa to luminal H+. Rat dams were sialoadenectomized (SALX) or sham operated 5 days after parturition. Experiments were performed on newborns 10-22 days old. Mucosal permeability responses to intraluminal HCl (300 mM) were examined in terms of luminal appearances of Na+, K+, and protein and H+ loss. EGF levels in maternal milk were determined by immunoassay. In rat pups from control litters, luminal HCl resulted in an age-associated increase in cation and protein flux across the gastric mucosa. Luminal cation and protein fluxes observed in 10- to 18-day-old rat pups from SALX dams were not significantly different from similarly aged rats from control dams. However, in 19- to 22-day-old rats from SALX dams, the permeability responses to luminal HCl were exacerbated compared with similarly aged neonates from control dams. These responses were reduced by treatment with EGF. EGF levels in milk from sham-operated and SALX dams were not significantly different in the 10- to 16-day lactational period. However, in SALX dams EGF was significantly reduced at 19 and 22 days. Chromatographic elution pattern of milk EGF was dissimilar to the pattern exhibited by submandibular gland EGF.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8368317

  4. The Effect of Maternal Teaching Talk on Children's Emergent Literacy as a Function of Type of Activity and Maternal Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal education affects mothers' teaching talk level as a function of activity (book reading vs. looking at a family photo album), and the contribution of maternal teaching talk level during these activities to 88 five- to six-year old children's emergent literacy. Videotaped mother-child interactions…

  5. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This review evaluates the evidence of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, in comparison with standard iron-folate supplements, on specific maternal and pregnancy outcomes of relevance to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Data sources/review methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Search engines used were PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the WHO regional databases and hand search of bibliographies. A standardized data abstraction and Child Health Epidemiology Reference (CHERG adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE technique were used for data abstraction and overall quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary estimates of utility to the LiST model for the specified outcome of incidence of SGA births. We also evaluated the potential impact of multiple micronutrients on neonatal mortality according to the proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities (using a threshold of 60% to indicate functionality of health systems for skilled births. Results We included 17 studies for detailed data abstraction. There was no significant benefit of multiple micronutrients as compared to iron folate on maternal anemia in third trimester [Relative risk (RR = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87 – 1.22 (random model]. Our analysis, however, showed a significant reduction in SGA by 9% [RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 – 0.96 (fixed model]. In the fixed model, the SGA outcome remained significant only in women with mean body mass index (BMI ? 22 kg/m2. There was an increased risk of neonatal mortality in studies with majority of births at home [RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.92]; such an effect was not evident where ? 60% of births occurred in facility settings [RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81-1.09]. Overall there was no increase in the risk of neonatal mortality [RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92 – 1.19 (fixed model]. Conclusion This review provides evidence of a significant benefit of MMN supplementation during pregnancy on reducing SGA births as compared to iron-folate, with no significant increase in the risk of neonatal mortality in populations where skilled birth care is available and majority of births take place in facilities. Given comparability of impacts on maternal anemia, the decision to replace iron-folate with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy may be taken in the context of available services in health systems and birth outcomes monitored.

  6. Cholecystokinin modulation of maternal behavior

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano Freitas, Felicio; Aline de Mello, Cruz; Mariana, Schroeder; Aron, Weller.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal behavior is regulated by several neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. This mini-review focuses on the role of cholecystokinin (CCK), a neuropeptide and gut hormone best known as a satiety signal, in mediating maternal behavior. In addition to the role of CCK in the infant in moth [...] er-infant interactions, maternal CCK appears to also be important. We discuss maternal behavior research, mainly in rats, that has examined the effect of administering CCK to dams, CCK-opioid interactions, and maternal behavior in rats that lack CCK1 receptors. We discuss the possibility that CCK might play a role in neurological adjustments during pregnancy that ultimately influence behavioral adaptations by the offspring during lactation. Finally, we hypothesize that maternal CCK is also involved in maternal memory and reward.

  7. Dual effects of superovulation: loss of maternal and paternal imprinted methylation in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market-Velker, Brenna A; Zhang, Liyue; Magri, Lauren S; Bonvissuto, Anne C; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2010-01-01

    Superovulation or ovarian stimulation is currently an indispensable assisted reproductive technology (ART) for human subfertility/infertility treatment. Recently, increased frequencies of imprinting disorders have been correlated with ARTs. Significantly, for Angelman and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndromes, patients have been identified where ovarian stimulation was the only procedure used by the couple undergoing ART. In many cases, increased risk of genomic imprinting disorders has been attributed to superovulation in combination with inherent subfertility. To distinguish between these contributing factors, carefully controlled experiments are required on spontaneously ovulated, in vivo-fertilized oocytes and their induced-ovulated counterparts, thereby minimizing effects of in vitro manipulations. To this end, effects of superovulation on genomic imprinting were evaluated in a mouse model, where subfertility is not a confounding issue. This work represents the first comprehensive examination of the overall effects of superovulation on imprinted DNA methylation for four imprinted genes in individual blastocyst stage embryos. We demonstrate that superovulation perturbed genomic imprinting of both maternally and paternally expressed genes; loss of Snrpn, Peg3 and Kcnq1ot1 and gain of H19 imprinted methylation were observed. This perturbation was dose-dependent, with aberrant imprinted methylation more frequent at the high hormone dosage. Superovulation is thought to primarily affect oocyte development; thus, effects were expected to be limited to maternal alleles. Our study revealed that maternal as well as paternal H19 methylation was perturbed by superovulation. We postulate that superovulation has dual effects during oogenesis, disrupting acquisition of imprints in growing oocytes, as well as maternal-effect gene products subsequently required for imprint maintenance during pre-implantation development. PMID:19805400

  8. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; JØrgensen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers with a habitual fish intake below the population median were randomized to 4.5 g center dot d(-1) of FO or olive oil (OO) for the first four months of lactation. Fifty-three mothers with habitual fish intake in the highest quartile were included as reference group. The effect of the resulting increase in infant DHA-intake and RBC-DHA level was assessed on problem solving ability at nine months and language at one and two years of age. Infants in the three groups performed equally well on the problem test and no association was observed between problem solving and erythrocyte-DHA at four months. Passive vocabulary at one year was lower in the children of the FO-compared with the OO-group ( P <0.05), but no differences were found at two years of age. Word comprehension at one year was inversely associated with erythrocyte-DHA at four months. The trial indicate a small effect of DHA levels in breast-milk on early language development of breast-fed infants.

  9. Congenital cataract screening in maternity wards is effective : evaluation of the Pediatric Cataract Register of Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Gunilla; Bizjajeva, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study which eye-screening protocol prevails in Swedish maternity/neonatal wards, evaluate efficacy in a prospective study, and compare results with earlier Swedish retrospective results. METHODS: Surveys were sent in 2006 to maternity/neonatal and women's health departments regarding screening policy. Response frequency was 96% (122/127). Data were derived from The Pediatric Cataract Register, PECARE Sweden. All Swedish children diagnosed with congenital cataract and operated on before 1 year of age between January 2007 and December 2009 were included. Statistical comparison with earlier retrospective results was performed. RESULTS: Eye screening is routine protocol at a rate of 90% of Swedish maternity wards. Sixty-one children were included in the study. An increase was shown in case referrals from maternity wards compared to ten years ago (64% versus 50%). Detection was performed within 6 weeks of age in 75% of the cases. A significant difference between the probabilities of early referral (0.38; p

  10. BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

  11. Effect of Home Visiting by Nurses on Maternal and Child Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, David L.; Kitzman, Harriet; Knudtson, Michael D.; Anson, Elizabeth; Smith, Joyce A.; Cole, Robert

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Mothers and children living in adverse contexts are at risk of premature death. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of prenatal and infant/toddler nurse home visiting on maternal and child mortality during a 2-decade period (1990–2011). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial was designed originally to assess the home visiting program’s effect on pregnancy outcomes and maternal and child health through child age 2 years. The study was conducted in a public system of obstetric and pediatric care in Memphis, Tennessee. Participants included primarily African American women and their first live-born children living in highly disadvantaged urban neighborhoods, who were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: treatment 1 (transportation for prenatal care [n = 166]), treatment 2 (transportation plus developmental screening for infants and toddlers [n = 514]), treatment 3 (transportation plus prenatal/postpartum home visiting [n = 230]), and treatment 4 (transportation, screening, and prenatal, postpartum, and infant/toddler home visiting [n = 228]). Treatments 1 and 3 were included originally to increase statistical power for testing pregnancy outcomes. For determining mortality, background information was available for all 1138 mothers assigned to all 4 treatments and all but 2 live-born children in treatments 2 and 4 (n = 704). Inclusion of children in treatments 1 and 3 was not possible because background information was missing on too many children. INTERVENTIONS Nurses sought to improve the outcomes of pregnancy, children’s health and development, and mothers’ health and life-course with home visits beginning during pregnancy and continuing through child age 2 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All-cause mortality in mothers and preventable-cause mortality in children (sudden infant death syndrome, unintentional injury, and homicide) derived from the National Death Index. RESULTS The mean (SE) 21-year maternal all-cause mortality rate was 3.7% (0.74%) in the combined control group (treatments 1 and 2), 0.4% (0.43%) in treatment 3, and 2.2% (0.97%) in treatment 4. The survival contrast of treatments 1 and 2 combined with treatment 3 was significant (P = .007); the contrast of treatments 1 and 2 combined with treatment 4 was not significant (P = .19), and the contrast of treatments 1 and 2 combined with treatments 3 and 4 combined was significant (post hoc P = .008). At child age 20 years, the preventable-cause child mortality rate was 1.6% (0.57%) in treatment 2 and 0.0% (SE not calculable) in treatment 4; the survival contrast was significant (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Prenatal and infant/toddler home visitation by nurses is a promising means of reducing all-cause mortality among mothers and preventable-cause mortality in their first-born children living in highly disadvantaged settings. PMID:25003802

  12. Effects of Early Life Social Stress on Maternal Behavior and Neuroendocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal mood disorders such as depression and chronic anxiety can negatively affect the lives of both mothers and their adult offspring. An active focus of maternal depression and anxiety research has been the role of chronic social stress in the development of these disorders. Chronic exposure to social stress is common in humans, especially in lactating mothers, and postpartum mood disorders have been correlated with high levels of social conflict and low levels of social support. Recent s...

  13. Effects of early life social stress on endocrinology, maternal behavior, and lactation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carini, Lindsay M.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress is a predictor of mental health disorders, and two common forms of early life stress are social conflict and impaired maternal care, which are predominant features of postpartum mood disorders. Exposure of lactating female rats to a novel male intruder involves robust social conflict and induces deficits in maternal care towards the F1 offspring. This exposure is an early life social stressor for female F1 pups that induces inefficient lactation associated with c...

  14. Cocaine Addiction in Mothers: Potential Effects on Maternal Care and Infant Development

    OpenAIRE

    Strathearn, Lane; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal cocaine addiction is a significant public health issue particularly affecting children, with high rates of reported abuse, neglect and foster care placement. This review examines both preclinical and clinical evidence for how cocaine abuse may impact maternal care and infant development, exploring brain, behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms. There is evidence that cocaine may affect infant development both directly, via in utero exposure, and indirectly via alterations in materna...

  15. Role of Filia, a maternal effect gene, in maintaining euploidy during cleavage-stage mouse embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Ping; Dean, Jurrien

    2009-01-01

    During oogenesis, mammalian eggs accumulate proteins required for early embryogenesis. Although limited data suggest a vital role of these maternal factors in chromatin reprogramming and embryonic genome activation, the full range of their functions in preimplantation development remains largely unknown. Here we report a role for maternal proteins in maintaining chromosome stability and euploidy in early-cleavage mouse embryogenesis. Filia, expressed in growing oocytes, encodes a protein that...

  16. STUDY OF EFFECT OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE RELATED RISKS FOR DOWN SYNDROME & OTHER TRISOMIES.

    OpenAIRE

    toral goswami; Vaishali Patel; Amita Mevada; Neha Harjivanbhai Pandya; kinnar somabhai desai; Mitesh Suthar

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTBack ground: Down syndrome is the most frequent live born aneuploidy & recognizable form of mental retardation among all the ethnic groups of human population across the globe. The most common risk factor for DS is advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to find out risks of advanced maternal age for chromosomal abnormalities.  Materials & methods: The chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed by cytogenetic study of 30 clinically diagnosed cases of DS attending paedi...

  17. Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...

  18. Maternal Effects in Relation to Helper Presence in the Cooperatively Breeding Sociable Weaver

    OpenAIRE

    Paquet, Matthieu; Covas, Rita; Chastel, Olivier; Parenteau, Charline; Doutrelant, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In egg laying species, breeding females may adjust the allocation of nutrients or other substances into eggs in order to maximise offspring or maternal fitness. Cooperatively breeding species offer a particularly interesting context in which to study maternal allocation because helpers create predictably improved conditions during offspring development. Some recent studies on cooperative species showed that females assisted by helpers produced smaller eggs, as the additional food brought by t...

  19. Voluntary exercise reduces the neurotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine in maternally separated rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mabandla, Musa Vuyisile; Russell, Vivienne Ann

    2010-01-01

    Maternal separation has been associated with development of anxiety-like behaviour and learning impairments in adult rats. This has been linked to changes in brain morphology observed after exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids during the stress-hyporesponsive period (P4 to P14). In the present study, adult rats that had been subjected to maternal separation (180 min/day for 14 days) during the stress-hyporesponsive period, received unilateral infusions of a small dose of 6-h...

  20. Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-[1-14C]leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancyal amino acids during late pregnancy

  1. An explicit test for the contribution of environmental maternal effects to rapid clinal differentiation in an invasive plant

    OpenAIRE

    Monty, Arnaud; Lebeau, Julie; Meerts, Pierre; Mahy, Gre?gory

    2009-01-01

    Population differentiation of alien invasive plants within their non-native range has received increasingly more attention. Common gardens are typically used to assess the levels of genotypic differentiation among populations. However, in such experiments, environmental maternal effects can influence phenotypic variation among individuals if seed sources are collected from field populations under variable environmental regimes. In the present study, we investigated the causes of an altitudina...

  2. Effect of maternal restraint-stress during gestation on temporal lipopolysacharide-induced neuroendocrine and immune responses of progeny

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, C.T.; Williams, P.N.; J. A. Carroll; Welsh, T. H.; J. C. Laurenz

    2010-01-01

    The impact of gestational dam restraint stress on progeny immune and neuroendocrine temporal hormone responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was assessed. Maternal stress (5-min snout snare restraint stress during d 84 to 112 of gestation) increased (P < 0.05) the magnitude of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6, epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) and serum amyloid A (SAA) production following LPS infusion in the offspring. Moreover, these effects appear to be depende...

  3. Ongoing Maternal Drug Use, Parenting Attitudes, and a Home Intervention: Effects on Mother-Child Interaction at 18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Maureen E.; Nair, Prasanna; Black, Maureen M.

    2002-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effects of ongoing maternal drug use, parenting attitudes, and a home-based intervention on mother-child interaction among drug-using women and their children. At 2 weeks postpartum, mothers and infants were randomly assigned to either an Intervention (n = 67) or Control (n = 64) Group. Intervention families received weekly visits until 6 months postpartum and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months by trained lay visitors. The home intervention was designed to...

  4. A biocultural study of the effects of maternal stress on mother and newborn health in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Nicole C; Mulligan, Connie J

    2014-10-01

    The impact of stress on human health is a topic of wide-spread relevance and one that is particularly amenable to multidisciplinary investigation. Stress impacts both our psychological and physical health and, thus, may leave evidence on our psyche, our physical body and our genome. We are interested in the effect of extreme stressors, such as war, on health from the perspective of long-term and multigenerational effects. We integrate sociocultural, biological, and epigenetic data from the war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Between May and August, 2010, we measured sociocultural stress exposure among 25 mother-newborn dyads and we measured health outcomes in newborns. We also collected maternal venous blood, placental tissue, and umbilical cord blood to assay for methylation changes to test for a possible epigenetic mechanism that mediates the effects of stress on health. We provide a qualitative description of the wide range of stress exposures experienced by mothers in our study. As we have shown previously, maternal war stress is strongly associated with newborn birthweight and changes in newborn methylation at the glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1. New results presented here demonstrate that maternal war stress and birthweight are also associated with genome-wide changes in maternal methylation levels. In sum, these results suggest that stress may influence gene expression across a broad spectrum in the individual who directly experiences the stress, i.e., the mother, whereas potential heritable effects in the newborn may be focused on specific genes that are uniquely sensitive to environmental cues. PMID:25043696

  5. Effect of Skin to Skin Contact on Maternal State Anxiety in a Cesarean Section Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Haghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at investigating the effect of skin to skin contact (SSC on maternal state anxiety (MSA in cesarean section unit in Akbarabadi Hospital in Tehran. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 60 Iranian mothers with at least one record of cesarean section delivery were assigned to two intervention (SSC and control groups. In the morning shift and two hours after the operation, as a routine postoperative care, pain-killers were given to all mothers. Then the mothers’ pain scores were measured using visual analog scale (VAS. If VAS was?3, MSA was measured by using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI Scale (Spiel Berger. Thirty minutes of SSC intervention was done for mothers in the intervention group. Six hours later, in case VAS was ? 3, MSA was re-measured by using the Spiel Berger Scale for all mothers. Results: Six hours after implementing the intervention, there were no meaningful statistical differences between the MSA mean scores of the two groups, but severity of MSA in intervention group was less than that of the control group (P=0.037. Six hours after the intervention, there was a significant decrease in the MSA mean score in SSC group (P=0.002. Conclusion: As regards the important role of constant anxiety in developing postpartum depression, and as the results of this study indicate, SSC is recommended in postpartum and especially cesarean section wards.

  6. Oxytocin effects on complex brain networks are moderated by experiences of maternal love withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riem, Madelon M E; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A S; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2013-10-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in a variety of social processes. However, recent studies indicate that oxytocin does not enhance prosocial behavior in all people in all circumstances. Here, we investigate effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on intrinsic functional brain connectivity with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were 42 women who received a nasal spray containing either 16 IU of oxytocin or a placebo and reported how often their mother used love withdrawal as a disciplinary strategy involving withholding love and affection after a failure or misbehavior. We found that oxytocin changes functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the brainstem. In the oxytocin group there was a positive connectivity between these regions, whereas the placebo group showed negative connectivity. In addition, oxytocin induced functional connectivity changes between the PCC, the cerebellum and the postcentral gyrus, but only for those participants who experienced low levels of maternal love withdrawal. We speculate that oxytocin enhances prosocial behavior by influencing complex brain networks involved in self-referential processing and affectionate touch, most prominently in individuals with supportive family backgrounds. PMID:23453164

  7. The effect of fetal gender on second-trimester maternal serum inhibin-A concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Y H; Tang, M H

    2001-08-01

    Second-trimester serum inhibin-A is increasingly used as a fourth marker in addition to the triple test to screen for Down syndrome. We investigated whether fetal gender had an effect on serum inhibin-A concentration. A retrospective analysis was done on 316 normal pregnancies and 48 Down syndrome pregnancies in which maternal serum inhibin-A assays were performed between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation and in which the fetal sex was known. The median inhibin-A MoM (95% CI) for normal pregnancies in the presence of a male fetus was 0.93 (range 0.88-1.03). This was significantly lower than that in the presence of a female fetus (median MoM=1.04). The gender difference was not observed in the Down syndrome pregnancies. The increased inhibin-A concentration would lead to a 2.3-fold higher false-positive rate in the presence of a female fetus (10.6% vs. 4.6%; psex may be necessary when inhibin-A is used as a screening marker. PMID:11536266

  8. Fetal and maternal effects of continual exposure of rats to 970-MHz circularly polarized microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E.; Weil, C.; Phillips, P.A.; Carter, H.B.; House, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually continual exposure to970-MHz microwaves in circularly-polarized waveguides was used to elicit fetal responses in Sprague-Dawley rats during gestation. Two hundred fifty rats were exposed to microwave radiation at whole-body averaged specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.07, 2.4, or 4.8 W/kg, or concurrently sham-irradiated for 22 h/day from the 1st through the 19th day of gestation. At SAR of 4.8 W/kg, only fetal body weight was significantly altered (-12%, P=.012). Two of twelve rats died during the exposure at SAR of 4.8 W/kg. Bred, but non-pregnant, rats that were exposed at SAR of 4.8 W/kg had significantly lower body weight gain than sham-irradiated rats; similar lower gain is assumed to have occurred in the pregnant rats exposed at SAR of 4.8 W/kg, and whose fetuses were significantly smaller. The authors conclude that continual gestational exposure at SAR of 4.8 (but not 2.4 or lower) W/kg induces fetal alterations. Apparently, deleterious maternal effects are associated with these fetal changes. Although colonic temperature was not measured in these rats, it is expected that exposure at 4.8 W/kg was hyperthermal.

  9. Effect of exercise on the maternal outcome in pregnancy of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato, Rocha; José Carlos, Peraçoli; Gustavo Tadeu, Volpato; Débora Cristina, Damasceno; Kleber Eduardo de, Campos.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of exercise (swimming) on pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Thirty three pregnant female SHR were distributed into three groups (n=11 animals/group): SHR Control=non-exercised (sedentary); SHR Ex0 = exercised from day zero to day 20 of [...] pregnancy; and SHR Ex7 = exercised from day 7 to 20 of pregnancy. Body weight and systolic blood pressure were indirectly measured during pregnancy. On gestational day 21, the rats were anaesthetized and uterine content was withdrawn for analysis of maternal reproductive outcome parameters and fetal development. RESULTS: The reduced blood pressure percentage was higher in SHR Ex0 and SHR Ex7 compared to SHR Control group. Weight gain was present in all pregnancy periods, but it was lower in SHR Ex7 than in SHR Control dams. The exercise increased the pre-implantation loss rate. The post-implantation loss rate was lower in SHR Ex0 group. SHR Ex7 group showed a significantly higher percentage of fetuses classified as small for gestational age as compared to others groups. CONCLUSION: The exercise contributed to lowering gestational blood pressure in SHR rats, but had a negative impact on the developing embryo.

  10. The effect of toddler emotion regulation on maternal emotion socialization: Moderation by toddler gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2014-08-01

    Although developmental research continues to connect parenting behaviors with child outcomes, it is critical to examine how child behaviors influence parenting behaviors. Given the emotional, cognitive, and social costs of maladaptive parenting, it is vital to understand the factors that influence maternal socialization behaviors. The current study examined children's observed emotion regulatory behaviors in two contexts (low-threat and high-threat novelty) as one influence. Mother-child dyads (n = 106) with toddlers of 24 months of age participated in novelty episodes from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., caregiver-focused, attention, and self-soothing) were coded, and mothers reported their use of emotion socialization strategies when children were 24 and 36 months. We hypothesized that gender-specific predictive relations would occur, particularly from regulatory behaviors in the low-threat contexts. Gender moderated the relation between caregiver-focused emotion regulation in low-threat contexts and nonsupportive emotion socialization. Results from the current study inform the literature on the salience of child-elicited effects on the parent-child relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24821395

  11. Developmental Fluoxetine Exposure Normalizes the Long-Term Effects of Maternal Stress on Post-Operative Pain in Sprague-Dawley Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Knaepen, Liesbeth; Rayen, Ine; Charlier, Thierry D.; Fillet, Marianne; Houbart, Virginie; Kleef, Maarten; Steinbusch, Harry W.; Patijn, Jacob; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Elbert A.; Pawluski, Jodi L.

    2013-01-01

    Early life events can significantly alter the development of the nociceptive circuit. In fact, clinical work has shown that maternal adversity, in the form of depression, and concomitant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment influence nociception in infants. The combined effects of maternal adversity and SSRI exposure on offspring nociception may be due to their effects on the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. Therefore, the present study investigated l...

  12. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Elaine MP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and possible multigenerational effects.

  13. Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria ROSSI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum, low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density but they had different food availability. In the two latter conditions, daphnids had the same per capita, low, food availability but they lived at different algae and daphnid densities. Moreover, the response of crowded females to recovery at high food availability and low population density was evaluated. Low food availability reduced growth and fecundity of both clones and increased male production only in the Clone L. Crowding per se did not affect growth but reduced fecundity. In both clones, low food availability due to low algae density enhanced investment in offspring size and resistance to starvation. In response to food shortage either due to low algae density and to crowding, Clone P increased the investment in offspring size and starvation tolerance but reduced fecundity to a lesser extent than Clone L and did not produce males. Clone L, in response to food shortage due to crowding at high algae density, increased development time, produced more males, as at low algae density, but halved fecundity producing offspring that were not starvationtolerant. These results might reflect differences in anticipatory maternal effects between clones and suggest that neonate quality varies according to either, the environment the mother experienced and the competitive environment the neonates will cope due to their mother life strategy.

  14. The insulin-like growth factor system and the fetal brain: effects of poor maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas J; Nijland, Mark J; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2007-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system plays indispensable roles in pre- and post-natal brain growth and development. A large body of studies using both in vivo null mutant and transgenic mice and in vitro neuronal culture techniques indicate that IGF-I acts directly on the brain while IGF-II effects are mediated to a large extent by IGF-II control of placental growth. It appears that all of the mechanisms, except migration, that are involved in normal brain development, e.g., proliferation, apoptosis, maturation and differentiation, are influenced by IGF-I. While IGF system members are produced in the brain, recent reports in post-natal animals indicate that normal brain health and function are dependent upon transfer of circulating IGF-I from the liver and its transfer across the blood brain barrier. Data showing that this phenomenon applies to pre-natal brain growth and development would make an important contribution to fetal physiology. A number of kinase pathways are able to participate in IGF signaling in brain with respect to nutrient restriction; among the most important are the PI3K/AKT, Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK and mTOR-nutrient sensing pathways. Both maternal and fetal IGF-I peripheral plasma concentrations are greatly reduced in nutrient restriction while IGF-II does not appear to be affected. Nutrient restriction also affects IGF binding protein concentrations while effects on the IGF-I receptor appear to vary with the paradigm. Studies on the effects of nutrient restriction on the fetal primate brain in relation to activity of the IGF system are needed to determine the applicability of rodent studies to humans. PMID:17653868

  15. Effects of vitamins B12, folic asid, A, D, E and C on maternal and fetal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adequate and balanced nutrition together with appropriate weight gain during pregnancy is important for being protected from short and long term complications. During pregnancy energy and nutrition requirements increase. Sufficient intake of nutrients has important effects on both the mother’s and the developing fetus’s health. Deficient or excessive intakes of important vitamins can increase the risk of maternal and fetal health problems. Folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin D, or antioxidant vitamins (vitamin E and C deficiencies can cause fetal growth and developmental disorders in addition to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Moreover, insufficient intake of these vitamins during maternal period increases the risk of permanent health problems for the baby. Additionally, it is stated that vitamin deficiencies during the maternal period can have negative effects even on cognitional development of the children. Nowadays, only folic acid supplementation is applied to prevent the risk of neural tube defect, and recently studies are being conducted on vitamin supplementations in the maternal stage. It is stated that the effects of folic acid together with vitamin B12 on lowering the homocysteine levels can protect against the risks of insufficient fetal growth and low birth weight. Additionally, it is reported that vitamin D can be protective against bone development problems, diabetes, preeclampsia, inflammation, and infection. Studies carried on vitamins E and C (antioxidant vitamins were focused on their effects on preventing the risk of preeclampsia. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the exact effects and mechanisms of vitamins during the maternal period. Future research in this area may lead to successful vitamin supplementation practices during pregnancies in the future. Nowadays, following a sufficient and balance diet starting at pre-gestational period leads to early determination of vitamin deficiencies and can decrease the risk of problems that may arise during pregnancy. This review was aimed to evaluate the physiological functions and effects of vitamins B12, folic acid, A, D, E, and C on the mother’s and the fetus’s health.

  16. X-ray induction of autosomal translocations in spermatozoa of Drosophila melanogaster and maternal effects of X.Y-chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild-type ORK Drosophila melanogaster males were given an exposure of 3000 R X-radiation. Mature sperm were then sampled by mating to X.Y/X.Y, X.Y/X, or X/X females that carried markers on the second and third chromosomes for the detection of induced autosomal translocations. Two pairs of maternal stocks were used and heterozygous X.Y/X females were obtained by making both reciprocal crosses. The highest frequencies of induced translocations were obtained with X/X females. In one series these frequencies are higher than those obtained with either X.Y/X or X.Y/X.Y females. In the other series a uniform frequency of translocations was obtained with all types of female, except for one of the two types of heterozygous female, which gave lower frequencies. The experiments have provided data which show that the addition of Y-chromosomes to the maternal genome does not have a specific effect on the recovery of induced paternal autosomal translocations. Maternal Y-chromosomes increased the proportions of fertile F1 males, this effect being consistent in direction but varying in degree. (Auth.)

  17. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively, preparing at least their major offspring for the sexual competition they will face in the future. This new type of maternal effect in dung beetles represents a novel transgenerational response of alternative reproductive tactics to population density.

  18. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young [Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 483 Expo-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Sang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun-young [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa-Young [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Youl, E-mail: youl10@hanmail.net [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ?g OVA with 200 ?g aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue.

  19. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ?g OVA with 200 ?g aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue

  20. Hemoglobinas humanas: hipótese malária ou efeito materno? Human hemoglobins: malaria hypothesis or maternal effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe R. Torres

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinopatias têm provido uma das poucas demonstrações convincentes da seleção, influenciando a freqüência de único gene na população humana. A alta taxa de desordens, tais como a anemia falciforme e a beta-talassemia, ocorridas em áreas subtropicais ou tropicais dentro do cinturão da malária, levou Haldane a propor que a malária pode ser o agente seletivo responsável que balanceia a perda dos genes para a talassemia e a anemia falciforme, por morte prematura dos homozigotos a partir do aumento do valor adaptativo de heterozigotos no ambiente com malária. Mas uma nova proposta surgiu para explicar a manutenção deste polimorfismo, baseada na fertilidade diferencial ou efeito parental. Alguns autores observaram uma distorção favorecendo a transmissão de alelos mutantes em áreas não endêmicas de malária. Com base nestas observações, esses autores propuseram um efeito materno para explicar tais distorções. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão destes mecanismos envolvidos na manutenção do polimorfismo de hemoglobinopatias, desde seu modelo clássico até hipóteses alternativas que surgiram recentemente na literatura.Hemoglobinopathies are providing one of the few convincing demonstrations of selection, influencing the frequency of a single gene in the human population. The high rate of disorders, such as the sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia that occur in the subtropical or tropical regions within the strip affected by malaria, led Haldane to propose that malaria may be the selective agent responsible for balancing the loss of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia genes due to the early death of homozygous patients. But a new proposal appeared to explain the maintenance of these polymorphisms, based on the differential fertility or parental effect. Some authors observed a distortion favoring the transmission of mutant alleles in non-endemic malaria areas. Based on these observations, the authors proposed a maternal effect to explain these distortions. This study aims at presenting a review of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of polymorphisms of hemoglobinopathies, both from the classic model and the recently published alternative hypotheses.

  1. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeon, George K; Goliomytis, Michael; Bizelis, Iosif; Papadomichelakis, George; Pagonopoulou, Olga; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Chadio, Stella E

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10), early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10) and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10). During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (P<0.05). At kindling, C does produced litters with higher proportions of stillborn kits (P<0.05) while the total litter size (alive and stillborn kits) was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively). Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values) at slaughter (70 days of age). Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings. PMID:25671602

  2. Effects of maternal vitamin supplements on malaria in children born to HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, Eduardo; Msamanga, Gernard; Saathoff, Elmar; Fataki, Maulidi; Manji, Karim; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2007-06-01

    Vitamin deficiencies are frequent in children suffering from malaria. The effects of maternal multivitamin supplementation on the risk of malaria in children are unknown. We examined the impact of providing multivitamins or vitamin A/beta-carotene supplements during pregnancy and lactation to HIV-infected women on their children's risk of malaria up to 2 years of age, in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Tanzanian women (N = 829) received one of four daily oral regimens during pregnancy and after delivery: 1) vitamins B, C, and E (multivitamins); 2) vitamin A and beta-carotene (VA/BC); 3) multivitamins including VA/BC; or 4) placebo. After 6 months of age, all children received 6-monthly oral vitamin A supplements irrespective of treatment arm. The incidence of childhood malaria was assessed through three-monthly blood smears and at monthly and interim clinic visits from birth to 24 months of age. Compared with placebo, multivitamins excluding VA/BC reduced the incidence of clinical malaria by 71% (95% CI = 11-91%; P = 0.02), whereas VA/BC alone resulted in a nonsignificant 63% reduction (95% CI = -4% to 87%; P = 0.06). Multivitamins including VA/BC significantly reduced the incidence of high parasitemia by 43% (95% CI = 2-67%; P = 0.04). The effects did not vary according to the children's HIV status. Supplementation of pregnant and lactating HIV-infected women with vitamins B, C, and E might be a useful, inexpensive intervention to decrease the burden of malaria in children born to HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17556612

  3. The effect of maternal Inflammation on foetal programming of metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvorsen, C; Brix, S; Ozanne, S E; Hellgren, L I

    2015-08-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy increases the child's risk of developing obesity and obesity-related diseases later in life. Key components in foetal programming of metabolic risk remain to be identified; however, chronic low-grade inflammation associated with obesity might be responsible for metabolic imprinting in the offspring. We have therefore surveyed the literature to evaluate the role of maternal obesity-induced inflammation in foetal programming of obesity and related diseases. The literature on this topic is limited, so this review also includes animal models where maternal inflammation is mimicked by single injections with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). An LPS challenge results in an immunological response that resembles the obesity-induced immune profile, although LPS injections provoke a stronger response than the subclinical obesity-associated response. Maternal LPS or cytokine exposures result in increased adiposity and impaired metabolic homeostasis in the offspring, similar to the phenotype observed after exposure to maternal obesity. The cytokine levels might be specifically important for the metabolic imprinting, as cytokines are both transferable from maternal to foetal circulation and have the capability to modulate placental nutrient transfer. However, the immune response associated with obesity is moderate and therefore potentially weakened by the pregnancy-driven immune modulation, dominated by anti-inflammatory Treg and Th2 cells. We know from other low-grade inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, that pregnancy can improve disease state. If pregnancy is also capable of suppressing the obesity-associated inflammation, the immunological markers might be less likely to affect metabolic programming in the developing foetus than otherwise implied. PMID:26011013

  4. The effect of maternal ABO blood groups and rhesus status on first trimester biochemical markers

    OpenAIRE

    Çal??kan, Ahmet Cantu?; Aytan, Hakan; Demirturk, Fazl?

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aim. To explore whether first-trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and serum free ß-human chorionic gonadotrophin (free ß-hCG) vary with maternal blood group and rhesus status and to determine their implications for Down syndrome. Methods. Blood samples were collected from all 539 singleton pregnancies undergoing first-trimester screening. Values of maternal serum PAPP-A and ß-hCG were compared among women with different ABO and Rh grou...

  5. Effect of Infant Massage by Mothers on Maternal Attachment Behavior in Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor Sohrabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   Background & Aim: Several studies have indicated that hospitalizing infants causes disruption on mother-infant attachment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of infant massage by mothers on maternal attachment behavior in infants hospitalized in the neonatal care units .   Methods & Materials: In this clinical trial, 42 mothers and their neonates were recruited and randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group received training by means of educational movies about practical exercises on how to massage the infants. The trained mothers used massage techniques on their infants for five days. The process lasted 15 minutes. The attachment of the mothers on their infants was assessed before and on the day 5 after the massage. Data were collected using the scale of mother-to-infant attachment. Data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test, Fisher’s exact test and the t-test in the SPSS-19 .   Results: There were no differences between the two groups in terms of demographic variables and the mean of maternal attachment at baseline (P>0.05. Five days after the massage, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the mean maternal attachment (P<0.001 .   Conclusion: According to the role of massage in attachment behavior, this traditional care is recommended to be used in neonatal units .   

  6. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development

  7. Genetic control of immune response to pseudorabies and atrophic rhinitis vaccines: II. Comparison of additive direct and maternal genetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Rothschild, M F; Christian, L L; Warner, C M; Hill, H T

    1987-02-01

    Data from 52 litters farrowed in two seasons of a cross-fostering experiment were analyzed to estimate variances and covariances for additive direct and maternal genetic effects on immune response to pseudorabies virus and B. bronchiseptica vaccine. Twenty purebred boars and 44 sows of the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds were used. Immune response was measured after vaccine challenge. A modified-live pseudorabies (PR) vaccine was administered to piglets at 28 d of age; response was measured by log2 serum neutralization titers at 56 d. An inactivated B. bronchiseptica bacterin was administered at 28, 42 and 112 d. Antibody levels were measured relative to positive and negative controls at 28, 56 and 119 d by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results from this study for heritability were .18 +/- .09 for PR titer and .15 +/- .07 and .52 +/- .15 for 56- and 119-d ELISA values, respectively. The variability due to nurse environment (maternal genetic variance and common environmental variance) as a percentage of phenotypic variance was 11.1% for PR titers and 29.6 and 8.8% for 56- and 119-d ELISA values, respectively. The heritabilities estimated in this study indicate that, if improved immune response to vaccines is desired, selection may be useful. However, the importance of maternal environment would make early selections less accurate than selections based on immune response measured later in life. PMID:3558147

  8. Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt GS

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

  9. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ?20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ?1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ?30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome.

  10. Role of Filia, a maternal effect gene, in maintaining euploidy during cleavage-stage mouse embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping; Dean, Jurrien

    2009-05-01

    During oogenesis, mammalian eggs accumulate proteins required for early embryogenesis. Although limited data suggest a vital role of these maternal factors in chromatin reprogramming and embryonic genome activation, the full range of their functions in preimplantation development remains largely unknown. Here we report a role for maternal proteins in maintaining chromosome stability and euploidy in early-cleavage mouse embryogenesis. Filia, expressed in growing oocytes, encodes a protein that binds to MATER and participates in a subcortical maternal complex essential for cleavage-stage embryogenesis. The depletion of maternal stores of Filia impairs preimplantation embryo development with a high incidence of aneuploidy that results from abnormal spindle assembly, chromosome misalignment, and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) inactivation. In helping to ensure normal spindle morphogenesis, Filia regulates the proper allocation of the key spindle assembly regulators (i.e., AURKA, PLK1, and gamma-tubulin) to the microtubule-organizing center via the RhoA signaling pathway. Concurrently, Filia is required for the placement of MAD2, an essential component of the SAC, to kinetochores to enable SAC function. Thus, Filia is central to integrating the spatiotemporal localization of regulators that helps ensure euploidy and high-quality cell cycle progression in preimplantation mouse development. Defects in the well-conserved human homologue could play a similar role and account for recurrent human fetal wastage. PMID:19376971

  11. Effects of Maternal Employment on Sex-Role Differentiation in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Bonni R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal employment affects sex role differentiation in preschoolers, and whether this relationship varies as a function of the sex of the child, father's presence or absence, and/or the sex of the child's siblings. Three hundred ninety-eight children (198 females, 200 males), whose mean age was…

  12. The Moderating Effects of Maternal Psychopathology on Children's Adjustment Post-Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, Annie W.; Kelley, Mary Lou; Wang, Jing; Self-Brown, Shannon; Davidson, Karen L.; Pellegrin, Angie; Palcic, Jeannette L.; Meyer, Kara; Paasch, Valerie; Baumeister, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the role of maternal psychopathology in predicting children's psychological distress in a disaster-exposed sample. Participants consisted of 260 children (ages 8-16) recruited from public schools and their mothers. These families were displaced from New Orleans because of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Assessment took place 3…

  13. Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.O., Oliveira; C., Fileto; M.S., Melis.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in [...] rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1) compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1). Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively) compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively). Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for control animals) and showed lower differentiation compared to fetuses from the control group. These effects were probably caused by caloric restriction, hypoxia and reduction of umbilical cord length.

  14. Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1 compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1. Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively. Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for control animals and showed lower differentiation compared to fetuses from the control group. These effects were probably caused by caloric restriction, hypoxia and reduction of umbilical cord length.

  15. Sex-dependent effects of an early life treatment in rats that increases maternal care: vulnerability or resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Nadal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS in rodents has profound long-term effects that are partially mediated by changes in maternal care. ELS not only induces “detrimental” effects in adulthood, increasing psychopathology, but also promotes resilience to further stressors. In Long-Evans rats, we evaluated a combination of two procedures as a model of ELS: restriction of bedding during the first postnatal days and exposure to a “substitute” mother. The maternal care of biological and “substitute” mothers was measured. The male and female offspring were evaluated during adulthood in several contexts. Anxiety was measured by the elevated plus-maze (EPM, acoustic startle response (ASR and forced swim test (FST. In other group of animals, novelty-seeking was measured (activity in an inescapable novel environment, preference for novel environments and exploration of novel objects. Plasmatic ACTH and corticosterone in basal conditions and in response to stress were also measured. Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behaviour by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT. ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the “substitute” mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of “detrimental” and “beneficial” effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behaviour. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces decreased in both genders. Baseline anxiety (EPM and ASR and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the FST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may “buffer” the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner.

  16. Hemoglobinas humanas: hipótese malária ou efeito materno? / Human hemoglobins: malaria hypothesis or maternal effect?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe R., Torres; Claudia R., Bonini-Domingos.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinopatias têm provido uma das poucas demonstrações convincentes da seleção, influenciando a freqüência de único gene na população humana. A alta taxa de desordens, tais como a anemia falciforme e a beta-talassemia, ocorridas em áreas subtropicais ou tropicais dentro do cinturão da malária [...] , levou Haldane a propor que a malária pode ser o agente seletivo responsável que balanceia a perda dos genes para a talassemia e a anemia falciforme, por morte prematura dos homozigotos a partir do aumento do valor adaptativo de heterozigotos no ambiente com malária. Mas uma nova proposta surgiu para explicar a manutenção deste polimorfismo, baseada na fertilidade diferencial ou efeito parental. Alguns autores observaram uma distorção favorecendo a transmissão de alelos mutantes em áreas não endêmicas de malária. Com base nestas observações, esses autores propuseram um efeito materno para explicar tais distorções. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão destes mecanismos envolvidos na manutenção do polimorfismo de hemoglobinopatias, desde seu modelo clássico até hipóteses alternativas que surgiram recentemente na literatura. Abstract in english Hemoglobinopathies are providing one of the few convincing demonstrations of selection, influencing the frequency of a single gene in the human population. The high rate of disorders, such as the sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia that occur in the subtropical or tropical regions within the str [...] ip affected by malaria, led Haldane to propose that malaria may be the selective agent responsible for balancing the loss of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia genes due to the early death of homozygous patients. But a new proposal appeared to explain the maintenance of these polymorphisms, based on the differential fertility or parental effect. Some authors observed a distortion favoring the transmission of mutant alleles in non-endemic malaria areas. Based on these observations, the authors proposed a maternal effect to explain these distortions. This study aims at presenting a review of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of polymorphisms of hemoglobinopathies, both from the classic model and the recently published alternative hypotheses.

  17. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

    2015-02-01

    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information and data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The cohort was established in 1994 and baseline information from the enrolled 100,418 pregnancies was gathered from 1996 to 2002. At their first antenatal visit pregnant women were invited to participate in the cohort by their general practitioner. To contribute the women had to be pregnant, have intentions of carrying the pregnancy to term, reside in Denmark and speak Danish sufficiently well to participate in telephone interviews. When enrolled the women were asked to participate in two telephone interviews during pregnancy at approximately 12-14 and 30-32 weeks of gestation and two after birth when the child was six and 18 months old and a follow-up questionnaire at age seven years.  Exposure to work-related stress was assessed based on information from the first interview on two questions regarding job control and job demands. These questions were interpreted as dimensions of demands and control, and hereafter used as a proxy for the dimensions of the job strain model by Karasek.  Based on their answers, the women were divided into the four job strain categories: high strain, active, passive and low strain. Gestational age at birth, birthweight and congenital malformations were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The outcome variable on asthma and atopic dermatitis were based on maternal self-reports from the fourth (child 18 months) and fifth (child seven years old) interviews/questionnaires. All studies in the thesis were based on protocols describing methods, analyses etc. prior to handling. No associations were found between exposure to high strain (high demands, low control) during pregnancy and preterm birth, small for gestational age, congenital malformations and asthma in the children when compared to women exposed to low strain (low demands, high control). A protective effect on large for gestational age was observed when exposed to high strain, suggesting an impact on the birthweight although it was not seen among the small for gestational age children. An association between hi

  18. Evaluation Of The Potential Mutagenic Effects Of Ginseng On Maternally Treated Postimplanted Mouse Foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. El Ashmaoui, S. M. Girgis and Abd El Raouf, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of ginseng (herbal medicine on maternally treated postimplanted mouse foetuses. A total of 60 adult albino female mice were used and divided into 6 groups (10 females each. The first group (I served as a control group and received oral doses of the vehicle (0.5 ml disteled water for 60 days before pregnancy to 13th day of pregnancy. The rest 5 groups received orally 4mg/kg.bw of ginseng for 7, 14, 30, 45 and 60 days before day 0 of gestation and extended to 13th day of pregnancy. Then 6 females of each group were sacrificed, feotuses sample from each female were taken and subjected to cytogenetic analysis. The rest females of each group (4 females were continuously treated and sacrificed at day 17 of getation, foetuses were examined morphologically and for different features such as implanation sites, living feotuses, resorbed foetuses and foetus body weight. Chromosome analysis of the present study (Table 1 revealed that there were numerical aberrations (peridiploidy. There was a difference only between group II and III in respect to hypodiploid (2n-, meanwhile, hyperdiploid (2n+ were more frequent in group IV and VI than that in control group (group I. For the total numerical aberrations, there were significant differences between groups II, VI compared to the control group. All groups had little frequencies of structural aberrations especially for chromatid gaps, breaks and fragments. There were a significant differences between group IV and VI compared with the control group for the deletions. Chromosome breaks were more frequent in the groups III and IV compared to the control group, whereas groups V, VI had more frequencies of centromeric attenuations than the control group. There were no differences between control group and the rest of all groups investigated for implantation sites, living foetuses and resorbed foetuses (Table 2, whereas for gross malformation, 5.41 % of group VI where abnormal and the rest of all groups had no malformations. For the mean fetal body weight, there was a significant difference among the control group (I and the groups number II, III and VI. We conclude that treatment with ginseng as a herbal medicine may cause fetal chromosomal aberrations as well as gross malformation especially when taken for a long time and extended during pregnancy. So, we recommend that the use of ginseng during first trimester of pregnancy should be with caution.

  19. Effect of maternal diabetes on female offspring / Efeito do diabetes materno na prole feminina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana de Oliveira, Martins; Maurício Isaac, Panício; Marcos Paulo Suehiro, Dantas; Guiomar Nascimento, Gomes.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Avaliar o efeito do diabetes materno sobre a pressão arterial e a função renal da prole feminina, bem como verificar se as alterações observadas se exacerbam durante a prenhez. Métodos O diabetes mellitus foi induzido em ratas com a adminis [...] tração de estreptozocina em dose única, uma semana antes do cruzamento. Durante a prenhez, foram feitas medidas da pressão arterial por pletismografia. No 20o dia da prenhez, os animais foram colocados durante 24 horas em gaiolas metabólicas para obtenção de amostras de urina. Após a retirada dos animais das gaiolas, foram obtidas amostras de sangue. Um mês após a prenhez, foram obtidas novas amostras de sangue e urina para as determinações. A função renal foi avaliada por meio de proteinúria, ureia plasmática, creatinina plasmática, carga excretada de creatinina, fluxo urinário e clearance de creatinina. Resultados As fêmeas da prole de mães diabéticas apresentaram elevação da pressão arterial e redução do ritmo de filtração glomerular em relação ao grupo controle. Conclusão A hiperglicemia durante a gestação foi capaz de causar elevação da pressão arterial e disfunção renal na prole de sexo feminino. Abstract in english Objective To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on the blood pressure and kidney function of female offspring, as well as if such changes exacerbate during pregnancy. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in female rats with the administ [...] ration of streptozotocin in a single dose, one week before mating. During pregnancy, blood pressure was measured through plethysmography. On the 20th day of pregnancy, the animals were placed for 24 hours in metabolic cages to obtain urine samples. After the animals were removed from the cages, blood samples were withdrawn. One month after pregnancy, new blood and urine sample were collected. Kidney function was evaluated through proteinuria, plasma urea, plasma creatinine, creatinine excretion rate, urinary flow, and creatinine clearance. Results The female offspring from diabetic mothers showed an increase in blood pressure, and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate in relation to the control group. Conclusion Hyperglycemia during pregnancy was capable of causing an increase in blood pressure and kidney dysfunction in the female offspring.

  20. Familial Autoimmunity: Maternal Parent-of-Origin Effect in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeft, Andrew; Shear, Edith S.; Thompson, Susan D.; Glass, David N; Prahalad, Sampath

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an autoimmune (AI) disease characterized by chronic arthritis in children. Children with JIA have increased prevalence of other AI diseases. Furthermore, relatives of children with JIA have been shown to have an increased prevalence of AI diseases. Our objective was to determine if there were differences in the prevalence of AI diseases among maternal and paternal relatives of children with JIA. Information about AI diseases among all living first and se...

  1. Effects of Maternal Intravenous Nicotine Administration on Locomotor Behavior in Pre-Weanling Rats

    OpenAIRE

    LeSage, Mark G; Gustaf, Erianne; Dufek, Matthew B.; Pentel, Paul R

    2006-01-01

    Maternal tobacco use is associated with adverse developmental outcomes in offspring, including hyperactivity. Animal studies attempting to model this phenomenon have primarily used continuous s.c. nicotine infusion as the method of nicotine administration, which does not model the intermittent bolus delivery of nicotine associated with smoking in humans. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the locomotor activity of pre-weanling offspring of pregnant rats exposed to an i.v. ni...

  2. Use of a computerised maternity information system to improve clinical effectiveness: thromboprophylaxis at caesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, G.; Mckenzie, C.; Mires, G.

    2000-01-01

    An audit of the introduction of a protocol for thromboprophylaxis at caesarean section revealed over treatment of low risk women and the under treatment of high risk women. A routine computer generated risk assessment profile was introduced as part of a maternity information system. Reaudit showed a significant improvement in adherence to the thromboprophylaxis protocol in all risk groups.???Keywords: thromboprophylaxis; caesarean section; computerised assessment

  3. A Gestational Profile of Placental Exosomes in Maternal Plasma and Their Effects on Endothelial Cell Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E.; Mitchell, Murray D; Gregory E. Rice

    2014-01-01

    Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n?=?20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women ...

  4. Effects of Maternal HIV on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment with Peers and with Their Mother

    OpenAIRE

    MURPHY, DEBRA A.; Marelich, William D.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal assessment was undertaken of young adolescents’ psychosocial outcomes affected by maternal HIV/AIDS, focusing on both parent-child psychosocial ties and peer relationships. Data were taken from the Parents and Children Coping Together study (PACT), a 15-year study assessing mothers with HIV/AIDS and their well children every 6 months. Families (N = 118) who participated in PACT II and PACT III are included in the current analyses, who were assessed every 6 months for 36 month...

  5. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-01-01

    Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sampl...

  6. Maternal effects alter progeny's response to disturbance and nutrients in two Plantago species.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latzel, Vít; Klimešová, Jitka; Hájek, Tomáš; Gómez, S.; Šmilauer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 119, ?. 11 (2010), s. 1700-1710. ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/09/0963; GA ?R GD206/08/H044; GA ?R GPP505/10/P173 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Maternal effec * disturbance * nutrients Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2010

  7. Indiana bat summer maternity distribution: effects of current and future climates

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, Susan C; Winters, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Temperate zone bats may be more sensitive to climate change than other groups of mammals because many aspects of their ecology are closely linked to temperature. However, few studies have tried to predict the responses of bats to climate change. The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a federally listed endangered species that is found in the eastern United States. The northerly distribution of Indiana bat summer maternity colonies relative to their winter distributions suggests that warmer clima...

  8. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

  9. Seed fates in crop-wild hybrid sunflower: crop allele and maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M; Emry, Jason D; Mercer, Kristin L

    2015-02-01

    Domestication has resulted in selection upon seed traits found in wild populations, yet crop-wild hybrids retain some aspects of both parental phenotypes. Seed fates of germination, dormancy, and mortality can influence the success of crop allele introgression in crop-wild hybrid zones, especially if crop alleles or crop-imparted seed coverings result in out-of-season germination. We performed a seed burial experiment using crop, wild, and diverse hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cross types to test how a cross type's maternal parent and nuclear genetic composition might affect its fate under field conditions. We observed higher maladaptive fall germination in the crop- and F1- produced seeds than wild-produced seeds and, due to an interaction with percent crop alleles, fall germination was higher for cross types with more crop-like nuclear genetics. By spring, crop-produced cross types had the highest overwintering mortality, primarily due to higher fall germination. Early spring germination was identical across maternal types, but germination continued for F1-produced seeds. In conclusion, the more wild-like the maternal parent or the less proportion of the cross type's genome contributed by the crop, the greater likelihood a seed will remain ungerminated than die. Wild-like dormancy may facilitate introgression through future recruitment from the soil seed bank. PMID:25685189

  10. Effects of day of gestation and feeding regimen in Holstein × Gyr cows: II. Maternal and fetal visceral organ mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotta, P P; Filho, S C Valadares; Gionbelli, T R S; Costa E Silva, L F; Engle, T E; Marcondes, M I; Campos, M M; Menezes, A C B; Lobo, A A G

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of day of gestation (DG) and feeding regimens (FR) on maternal and fetal visceral organ mass in Holstein × Gyr cows. Forty-four pregnant multiparous Holstein × Gyr cows with an average initial body weight of 480±10.1 kg and an average initial age of 5±0.5 yr were allocated to 1 of 2 FR: ad libitum (AL; n=20) or maintenance level (ML; n=24). Maintenance level was considered to be 1.15% of body weight (dry matter basis) and met 100% of the energy requirements; AL provided 190% of the total net energy requirements. Cows were individually fed a corn silage and concentrate-based diet composed of 93% roughage and 7% concentrate (dry matter basis) as a total mixed ration twice daily. Pregnant cows were slaughtered at 4 DG: 139 (n=11), 199 (n=11), 241 (n=11), and 268 (n=11) d, which was followed by necropsy. Mass of heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract was heavier in AL- than in ML-fed cows. Mammary gland mass was heavier in AL- than in ML-fed cows, and the heaviest mass was observed at 268 d of gestation. Feeding regimen did not influence fetal body weight in this study. The majority of the visceral organ masses were similar in fetuses from cows fed AL or ML. These data indicate that maternal feed restriction does not affect the development of most fetal organs or fetal development; however, some maternal organs are affected by the FR provided. Moreover, the negative effect on mammary gland mass caused by ML feeding will probably not affect the subsequent lactation because the crude protein concentration in the mammary gland increased with ML feeding. However, we suggest that the AL diet in pregnant dry cows should be provided with caution because the amount of fat in the mammary gland increased at 268 d of gestation. PMID:25726105

  11. Effectiveness of Lactobacillus reuteri in infantile colic and colicky induced maternal depression: a prospective single blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Guo-Lin; Zhao, Lei; Qiao, Dong-Dong; Kang, Wen-Qing; Tang, Mao-Qin; Xu, Jin-Ke

    2015-06-01

    Infant colic, excessive crying of unknown cause, is a major burden to families and effects about 10-30 % of infants. Despite decades of research, the exact cause and treatment of infant colic has remained elusive. The use of Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) in infant colic is somewhat controversial and hence, we designed this study to evaluate its efficacy in infantile colic. We recruited predominantly or exclusively breastfed infants, aged less than 4 months in a placebo controlled observational randomized study. Participants' were assigned to receive L. reuteri at a dose 10(8) colony forming units (n = 21) and placebo (n = 21). Placebo was an identical formulation without live micro-organisms. Treatment was given to subjects for 21 days and they were followed for 4 weeks. Treatment success (primary outcome), daily reduction in crying time, parent satisfaction and reduction in maternal depression (secondary outcomes) were assessed at the end of study period. Treatment success was observed in all infants (100 %) of the probiotic group while it was seen in 15.7 % of the placebo group. Mean daily crying time was more significantly reduced to 32.1 ± 8.3 min/day (P < 0.01) from 200.9 ± 6.3 min/day in the probiotic group as compared to the placebo group (120.6 ± 20.0 min/day). Moreover, throughout the study period, parent's satisfaction and improvement in maternal depression (Edinburgh postnatal depression scale) was also significantly higher in the probiotic group. In our study population, reduction in crying time was significant (P < 0.01) even during first week of initiation of therapy. We conclude that L. reuteri (DSM 17938) reduces daily crying time and maternal depression during infantile colic. We suggest L. reuteri may be a safe and efficacious option for reducing infant colic. PMID:25876529

  12. The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Abdulreshid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ? six indicating high levels of CMD. Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50. There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Effects of aging and maternal protein restriction on the muscle fibers morphology and neuromuscular junctions of rats after nutritional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confortim, Heloisa Deola; Jerônimo, Leslie Cazetta; Centenaro, Lígia Aline; Felipe Pinheiro, Patrícia Fernanda; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Michelin Matheus, Selma Maria; Torrejais, Marcia Miranda

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the nutritional status of mothers may predispose their offspring to neuromuscular disorders in the long term. This study evaluated the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on the muscle fibers and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of the soleus muscle in the offspring of rats at 365 days of age that had undergone nutritional recovery. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (CG)--the offspring of mothers fed a normal protein diet (17%) and restricted (RG)--offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet (6%). After lactation, the male pups received standard chow ad libitum. At 365 days, samples of soleus muscle were collected for muscle fiber analysis (HE staining, NADH-TR reaction and ultrastructure), intramuscular collagen quantification (picrosirius red staining) and NMJs analysis (non-specific esterase technique). The cross-sectional area of type I fibers was reduced by 20% and type IIa fibers by 5% while type IIb fibers increased by 5% in the RG compared to the CG. The percentage of intramuscular collagen was 19% lower in the RG. Disorganization of the myofibrils and Z line was observed, with the presence of clusters of mitochondria in both groups. Regarding the NMJs, in the RG there was a reduction of 10% in the area and 17% in the small diameter and an increase of 7% in the large diameter. The results indicate that the effects of maternal protein restriction on muscle fibers and NMJs seem to be long-lasting and irreversible. PMID:25597842

  14. Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Gupta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM, launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective: To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design: A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012 and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the broader themes across the interviews and FGDs. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research.

  15. Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhu; Angeli, Federica; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Bosma, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012) and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the broader themes across the interviews and FGDs. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research. PMID:25676665

  16. Effect of embryonic and maternal genotype on embryo and foetal survival in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, J S; Llobat, M D; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Lavara, R; Marco-Jiménez, F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of embryonic and maternal genotype of two lines of rabbits selected by growth rate (line R) and litter size at weaning (line A) on prenatal survival. Embryos were recovered at 48 h of gestation from R and A donors (39 and 35 does, respectively) and reciprocally transferred to the oviducts of recipient does to the R (n = 15) and A (n = 14) lines. Each recipient doe received six embryos from line R into one oviduct and six embryos from line A into the other. Recipient does were examined by laparoscopy to determine implantation rate on day 14 and slaughtered on day 25 of gestation to determine the number of live foetuses and the weight of foetuses and placentas. No differences were found between lines in fertilization rate and stage of embryo development at 48 h post-insemination. Implantation rate was affected by both the embryonic and maternal genotype. While embryos from donor line A had the highest implantation rate (0.78 ± 0.032 vs 0.65 ± 0.036 for line R), recipient line R had a better implantation rate (0.78 ± 0.033 vs 0.64 ± 0.036 for line A). Foetal survival was affected by the embryonic genotype. Embryos from donor line A had a higher foetal survival rate than embryos from donor line R (0.65 ± 0.036 vs 0.53 ± 0.038, respectively) but lower foetal and placenta weights. In conclusion, while embryonic genotype influenced both implantation and foetal survival rate, R embryos had the lowest rates, maternal genotype affected the implantation rate and R recipients may show a greater uterine receptivity during implantation period. Moreover, it must be observed that foetal and placenta weights were significantly affected by embryonic genotype and heavier for R line. PMID:23035784

  17. The effect of locomotion on the mobilization of minerals from the maternal skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Wendy R; Hobensack, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue from which minerals are deposited or withdrawn according to the body's demand. During late pregnancy and lactation, female mammals mobilize mineral from bone to support the ossification of offspring skeleton(s). Conversely, in response to mechanical loading, minerals are deposited in bone enabling it to develop a stronger architecture. Despite their central importance to reproductive performance and skeletal integrity, the interactions between these potentially opposing forces remains poorly understood. It is possible that inter-individual differences in the loading imposed by different forms of locomotion may alter the amount of mineral mobilized during reproduction. Here, the impact of vertical versus horizontal locomotion on bone mobilization was examined during reproduction in the laboratory mouse. The vertical, or climbing, group had access to a 60-cm tower, increasing strain on their appendicular skeleton. The horizontal, or tunnel, group had access to a 100-cm tunnel, which encouraged movements within the horizontal plane. Form of locomotion did not impact the amount of bone females mobilized during reproduction or the amount of mineral females deposited in the litter, but maternal bone architecture differed between groups. The climbing group displayed more trabeculae than the tunnel group, whereas the tunnel group displayed greater cortical bone mineral density mid-shaft. Interestingly, pups born to mothers in the climbing group had a higher concentration of total body calcium at 16 days than pups of mothers in the tunnel group. As maternal total body calcium composition and the amount of calcium invested in the full litter were not different between groups, the difference in the relative calcium content of pups between groups is not suspected to reflect difference in mineral allocation. Future research should consider the impact of maternal activity on the efficiency of offspring skeletal ossification via hormones and other bioactive factors transferred in utero and in milk. PMID:25799494

  18. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Jorgensen, Marianne; Olsen, Sjúrdur; Straarup, Ellen; Michaelsen, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers with a habitual fish intake below the population median were randomized to 4.5 g*d-1 of FO or olive oil (OO) for the first four months of lactation. Fifty-three mothers with habitual fish intake in...

  19. Effects of hypertension on maternal adaptations to pregnancy: experimental study on spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos, Peraçoli; Marilza Vieira Cunha, Rudge; Maria Salete, Sartori; Roberto Jorge da Silva, Franco.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Os modelos animais de hipertensão arterial têm sido usados para a compreensão das condições patológicas humanas encontradas nas mulheres grávidas hipertensas. OBJETIVO: Estudar os possíveis efeitos da prenhez sobre a hipertensão arterial, e desta sobre a prenhez, em ratas espontaneamente h [...] ipertensas (SHR) e seu controle normotenso Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) TIPO DE ESTUDO: Estudo comparativo com animais de laboratório. LOCAL: Laboratório de pesquisa experimental da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Brasil. AMOSTRA: Foram utilizadas ratas virgens, das linhagens WKY e SHR, com idade entre 10 e 12 semanas. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: 15 SHR-prenhe (SHR-P), 10 SHR não-prenhe (SHR-NP), 15 WKY prenhe (WKY-P) e 10 WKY não-prenhe (WKY-NP). VARIÁVEIS ESTUDADAS: A pressão arterial foi avaliada pelo método do esfigmomanômetro de cauda em ratas adaptadas ou não previamente ao aquecimento necessário para a medida da pressão arterial da cauda. A expansão da volemia foi avaliada indiretamente pelo ganho de peso e por parâmetros sistêmicos como hematócrito, hemoglobina, proteínas totais, albumina e balanço de sódio. O resultado perinatal foi avaliado pelo número de nódulos de reabsorção, tamanho da ninhada, taxa de fetos com baixo peso e número de natimortos. RESULTADOS: A queda da pressão arterial no final da prenhez, das ratas SHR e WKY, ocorreu somente nas ratas adaptadas ao aquecimento para a medida da pressão arterial na cauda. Durante a prenhez o ganho de peso materno foi significativamente maior nas ratas WKY. Os parâmetros sistêmicos foram significativamente menores nas ratas WKY prenhez em relação ao seu controle não-prenhe, não sendo observada diferença significativa entre as ratas SRH prenhes e não-prenhes. Nas ratas WKY prenhez a retenção de sódio foi maior desde o décimo terceiro dia de prenhez, e nas ratas SHR apenas a partir do décimo nono dia. Os aspectos reprodutivos como número e peso dos fetos, mortalidade fetal e número de nódulos de reabsorção foram significativamente afetados na linhagem SHR. CONCLUSÃO: A linhagem SHR pode ser considerada como modelo de hipertensão arterial crônica hipovolêmico, sendo a restrição do crescimento fetal observada, conseqüente a esse estado de hipovolemia materna. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Animal models for essential hypertension have been used for understanding the human pathological conditions observed in pregnant hypertensive women. OBJECTIVE: To study the possible effects of pregnancy on hypertension and of hypertension on pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR [...] ), and in their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) counterparts. TYPE OF STUDY: Comparative study using laboratory animals. SETTING: Animal Research Laboratory of Clinical Medicine at the Medical School of Botucatu, São Paulo State University, Brazil. SAMPLE: Ten to twelve-week-old virgin female normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The animals were separated into four groups: 15 pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-P), 10 non-pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-NP), 15 pregnant normotensive rats (WKY-P), and 10 non-pregnant normotensive rats (WKY-NP). MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The blood pressure was evaluated by the tail cuff method, in rats either with or without prior training for the handling necessary for tail cuff measurements. The maternal volemia expansion was indirectly evaluated by weight gain, and by systemic parameters as hematocrit, hemoglobin, total protein, albumin and sodium retention. The perinatal outcome of pregnancy was evaluated by analysis of resorptions, litter size, rate of low weight and number of stillbirths. RESULTS: The late fall in blood pressure in the pregnant SHR strain and in the normotensive WKY strain can only be detected in rats previously trained to accept the handling necessary for the tail cuff measurement. During pregnancy the body weight gain was significantly higher in WKY

  20. Maternal care

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    In June 2000 a distinguished group of obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners, and medical statisticians came together to discuss maternal care. Chaired by Professor James Drife from Leeds, discussion ranged over many topics, including: the changing role of the obstetrician, general practitioners, and the increasing status and responsibility of midwives. Other subjects include the induction of labour, obstetric analgesia and anaesthesia, and debates about the place and kind of delivery...

  1. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikien?

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  2. The Effect of the Timing of Intramuscular Oxytocin Injection on Maternal Bleeding during the Third Stage of Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Mohamadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The third stage of labour is one of the most troublesome stages of child delivery. The basic principle of the third stage management is administrating prophylactic uterotonics. However, the time of its administration varies in different hospitals. This study aimed to determine the effect of intramuscular oxytocin injection after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder or placental expulsion on bleeding in the third stage of labour. Methodology: This clinical trial was conducted on 100 pregnant women with gestational age of 38-42 weeks, and singleton pregnancies. Subjects were selected using convenience sampling and were then randomly assigned to intervention (injection of 10 IU intramuscular oxytocin after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder and control (injection of 10 IU intramuscular oxytocin after placental expulsion groups. Blood was collected in containers and weighed with a weighing scale.  A checklist was used to record labor and delivery related data. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5, using Chi-square and t-test. Findings: The mean amount of bleeding during the third stage of labour was 183.4 ± 145.8 and 202.2 ±208.8 ml in intervention and control group, respectively. No significant difference was found between two groups in terms of maternal bleeding. Conclusion: Injection of intramuscular oxytocin either after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder or placental expulsion does not affect the amount of maternal bleeding during the third stage of labour.

  3. Effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior on father involvement in care of a pre-school child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihi? Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.

  4. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy: Do the Effects on Innate (Toll-Like Receptor Function Have Implications for Subsequent Allergic Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescott Susan L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Subtle increases in immaturity of immune function in early infancy have been implicated in the rising susceptibility to allergic disease, particularly relative impairment of type 1 interferon (IFN-? responses in the neonatal period. Although genetic predisposition is a clear risk factor, the escalating rates of allergic disease in infancy suggest that environmental factors are also implicated. We previously showed that maternal smoking in pregnancy may impair neonatal IFN-? responses. Our more recent studies now indicate that this common avoidable toxic exposure is also associated with attenuation of innate immune function, with attenuated Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated microbial responses (including TLR-2, -3, -4, and -9 responses. Most notably, the effects were more marked if the mothers were also allergic. In this review, we discuss the significance of these observations in the context of the emerging hypothesis that variations in TLR function in early life may be implicated in allergic propensity. There is now growing evidence that many of the key pathways involved in subsequent T-cell programming and regulation (namely, antigen-presenting cells and regulatory T cells rely heavily on microbe-driven TLR activation for maturation and function. Factors that influence the function and activity of these innate pathways in early life may contribute to the increasing predisposition for allergic disease. Although "cleaner" environments have been implicated, here we explore the possibility that other common environmental exposures (such as maternal smoking could also play a role.

  5. Effects of maternal ischemic preconditioning in the colon of newborn rats submitted to hypoxia-reoxygenation insult

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Andréia Lopes de, Freitas; Rúdnei de Oliveira Luciano, Gomes; Bruno Leonardo de Freitas, Soares; Ricardo, Artigiani Neto; Edna Frasson de Souza, Montero; José Luiz, Martins.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of maternal remote ischemic preconditioning (IPCr) in the colonic mucosa of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. METHODS: Newborn Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Control Group (CG), Hypoxia and Reoxygenation Group (HRG) and Remote Isc [...] hemic Preconditioning Group (IPCrG). Hypoxia and reoxygenation was performed 2x per day, with an interval of 6 hours, on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd days of life, with 10 minutes of CO2 at 100%, followed by 10 minutes O2 at 100%(HRG/IPCrG). The maternal IPCr was performed 24 hours before delivery by applying a rubber band tourniquet to the left hind limb (IPCrG). Segments of the colon underwent histological (HE) and immunohistochemical analysis for caspase-3 and COX - 2. RESULTS: The histological findings showed no intestinal mucosal damage in the CG group and severe lesions in HRG that was attenuated in the IPCrG (p

  6. Noninherited maternal antigens identify acceptable HLA mismatches: benefit to patients and cost-effectiveness for cord blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Zanden, Henk G M; Van Rood, Jon J; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Bakker, Jack N A; Melis, Angelo; Brand, Anneke; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Rubinstein, Pablo

    2014-11-01

    Cord blood unit (CBU) transplantations to patients mismatched for only 1 HLA antigen, which is identical to the CBU noninherited maternal antigen (NIMA), are designated as having a 6/6 "virtual" NIMA-matched phenotype and have a prognosis similar to 6/6 inherited HLA-matched CBUs. Such virtual HLA phenotypes of CBUs can be created by replacing the inherited alleles with 1 or more NIMAs. Phenotypes of Dutch patients (n = 2020) were matched against the inherited and virtual HLA phenotypes of the National Cord Blood Program CBU file (with known NIMA, n = 6827). Inherited 6/6 matches were found for 11% of the patients. Including virtual phenotypes resulted in, overall, 19-fold more different phenotypes than were inherited, conferring 6/6 virtual matches for an additional 20% of the patients, whereas another 17% might benefit from CBUs with a 4/6 HLA match and 1 NIMA match (4/6 + 1NIMA or 5/6 virtual match). The elucidation of donors' maternal HLA phenotypes can provide significant numbers of 6/6 and 5/6 virtually matched CBUs to patients and is potentially cost effective. PMID:25042738

  7. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  8. The Assessment Effect of Kangaroo Care on Maternal Stress of Premature infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kashaninia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available   Background & Aim: Mothers often feel anxious about giving care to their premature babies. This maternal stress is associated with negative attitudes and behaviors towards babies. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Kangaroo mother care on stress among mothers with premature babies .   Methods & Materials: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 46 pairs of mothers and their premature babies hospitalized in the ICUs of Shahid Sadooghi and Tamin Ejtemaee hospitals. The participants were selected using convenience sampling method and were assigned into two intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, the Kangaroo mother care was provided to the babies after breastfeeding for about 30 minutes once a day for four weeks. Maternal stress was measured using the Parental Stress Scale before and immediately after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test, t-test, and Mann-Whitney test .   Results: The mean of stress score in mothers of the intervention and control groups were 102.0 ± 17.02 and 174.52 ± 18.25, respectively (P<0.001. The stress score was significantly different before and after the intervention among mothers of the intervention group (P<0.001 .   Conclusion: The Kangaroo mother care decreased stress score among mothers who had premature babies. The Kangaroo mother care is strongly recommended to be used by mothers with premature babies .   

  9. Study of the effects of maternal hypothyroidism and thyroxin therapy on the neuronal density of subiculum in rat newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Delshad

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well established that thyroid hormones are essential for normal development of mammalian brain. Thyroid hormone deficiency during critical period of brain development can exert devastative and irreversible effects on neuronal functions as well as on learning abilities and memory. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on the neuronal structures of the subiculum in an experimental model of cretinism. Methods: Twenty five female Wistar rats were divided into experimental groups 1 and 2 and control. The experimental groups were made hypothyroid (500 mg/L PTU in drinking water. The experimental group 2 received PTU+Levothyroxin (1mg/L in drinking water. The controls only received drinking water. After two weeks the animals were mated. During pregnancy and lactation, the treatment regime of all groups was continued as above. The brain of 20 days old newborns were dissected and fixed for histological preparation. The numerical density (NV of subicular neurons was estimated by applying a stereological technique "dissector". Results: In addition to the effects of maternal hypothyroidism on the litter size and offspring weights, the results showed significant increase of subicular neuronal density in experimental group 1 when compared with control (p<0.001. There was also a significant difference (p<0.001 between the Nv of experimental groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: The increased of neuronal Nv in hypothyroid rats was probably due to the retardation of the neuronal normal growth and extension of their dendritic arborization. It seems that thyroxin therapy can improve the effects of hypothyroidism on the neuronal structure of subiculum.

  10. MATERNAL SELF-ESTEEM, EXPOSURE TO LEAD, AND CHILD NEURODEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Surkan, Pamela J.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J.; Martha M Téllez-Rojo; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, E. Mauricio; BELLINGER, DAVID C.; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O

    2007-01-01

    The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We ...

  11. Genetic variations in locally adapted turkeys. 3. Influence of direct and maternal genetic effects on growth and growth-related traits

    OpenAIRE

    V.M.O. Okoro; U.E. Ogundu; M.U. Iloeje; C.L. Okoro; O.A. Raji; H.O. Ukwu; Ibe, S N

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine direct and maternal genetic effects, direct and maternal heritabilities as well as phenotypic variances and correlations on growth and some growth-related traits on locally adapted ecotypes of turkeys in southeastern Nigeria. Three parental lines with black (B), bronze (Br), or white (W) plumage colored genotypes were compared. Traits considered were body weight at 4, 8, and 12 weeks-old (BW4, BW8, BW12, respectively), breast width at 4, 8 and 12 weeks-ol...

  12. The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emond Alan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilities at the polyclinic for low-risk deliveries, the introduction of a family planning clinic and a breast-feeding clinic, support from pediatricians for under-5 (well-baby clinics, children's outpatient services and children's emergency care, and the introduction of health agents recruited from the local community. Representative surveys of the population were taken at the project's inception (July 1995 and then 30 months later (December 1997, using a general health questionnaire adapted to the local conditions. Mortality data were collected from local registration systems as well as from an autopsy survey of perinatal and infant deaths. Results. During 1995 there were 4 maternal deaths from 1 195 pregnancies (maternal mortality of 335/100 000; three of the deaths were related to hypertension and one to uterine perforation after an illegal abortion. During 1998 (post-intervention, there were no maternal deaths in pregnancy or childbirth. In 1993 no deliveries took place at the polyclinic, but in 1998 there were 946 deliveries at the clinic without any serious complications. The method of delivery, the incidence of prematurity, and the incidence of low birthweight did not change significantly over the study period. In the post-intervention survey, 75% of women reported receiving contraceptive advice from a doctor in the preceding year, compared to 50% in the first sample. A mortality survey carried out in 1993-1995 estimated the infant mortality rate to be 60/1 000 live births. By 1998, using data collected locally by active surveillance, the infant mortality rate was 37/1 000 live births. The causes of infant death in both those periods were dominated by respiratory infections and diarrheal disease. Over 95% of both samples initiated breast-feeding, but a higher proportion of the post-intervention sample reported breast-feeding for longer than 6 months (41% vs. 32%, P = 0.0005. No differences were apparent in the use of under-5 clinics, but immunization rates improved. Post-intervention, significant improvements were documented in the mothers' understanding of basic hygiene, their knowledge of causes of common diseases, and their management of acute respiratory infections and diarrhea in children. This was particularly true for the households visited by a community health agent. Conclusions. Inequalities in health care in poor urban populations can be reduced by integrated community-based interventions, including the use of health agents recruited from the local community.

  13. Effect of essential oil from Citrus aurantium in maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly frequency in rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo T., Volpato; Luis A.D., Francia-Farje; Débora C., Damasceno; Renata V., Oliveira; Clélia A., Hiruma-Lima; Wilma G., Kempinas.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium L., conhecida popularmente como laranja amarga, é amplamente utilizada na medicina popular, mas há poucos dados na literatura sobre seus efeitos na gestação. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influencia do óleo essencial obtido das frutas de Citrus aurantium no desempenho [...] reprodutivo materno e na incidência de anomalias fetais em ratos. Ratas Wistar prenhes foram randomizadas em quarto grupos (n mínimo = 12 animais/grupo): G1 = controle, G2 à G4 = tratados com óleo essencial de C. aurantium nas doses de 125, 250 e 500 mg/kg, respectivamente. Ratas foram tratadas oralmente, por gavage, com óleo essencial da planta ou veículo durante os períodos de pré-implantação e organogênese (dias de prenhez 0-14). No dia 20 de prenhez as ratas foram anestesiadas e o útero foi pesado com seu conteúdo e os fetos foram analisados. Resultados mostraram que o grupo tratado com 500 mg/kg apresentou diminuição do peso e índice placentário, embora o tratamento com óleo essencial de laranja amarga não mostrou nenhuma alteração no desempenho reprodutivo materno, efeito tóxico, mudanças na ossificação e nas taxas de malformações. Concluindo, o tratamento com óleo essencial de Citrus aurantium não foi teratogênico e não alterou o desempenho reprodutivo materno. Abstract in english Citrus aurantium L., commonly known as bitter orange, is widely used in folk medicine, but there is little data in the literature about the effects on pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of essential oil obtained from fruits of Citrus aurantium on the maternal repr [...] oductive outcome and fetal anomaly incidence in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n minimum = 12 animals/group): G1 = control, G2 to G4 = treated with essential oil from C. aurantium at dose 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Rats were orally treated, by gavage, with plant essential oil or vehicle during pre-implantation and organogenic period (gestational day 0-14). On gestational day 20 the rats were anaesthetized and the gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and the fetuses were analyzed. Results showed that the treated group with 500 mg/kg presented decreased placental weights and placental index, although the treatment with bitter orange essential oil did not show any alteration in maternal reproductive performance, toxicological effect, changes in ossification sites, and malformation index. In conclusion, the treatment of Citrus aurantium essential oil was not teratogenic and did not alter the maternal reproductive outcome.

  14. Nutrients and disturbance history in two Plantago species: maternal effects as a clue for observed dichotomy between resprouting and seeding strategies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Latzel, Vít; Hájek, Tomáš; Klimešová, Jitka; Gómez, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 118, ?. 11 (2009), s. 1669-1678. ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ?R GD206/08/H044; GA ?R(CZ) GA526/06/0723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : maternal effects * nutrients * disturbance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2009

  15. EFFECTS ON THE FETAL RAT INTESTINE OF MATERNAL MALNUTRITION AND EXPOSURE TO NITROFEN (2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL-P-NITROPHENYL ETHER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of maternal protein-energy malnutrition and exposure to nitrofen on selected aspects of intestinal morphology and function were studied in the fetal rat. Pregnant rats were fed, throughout gestation, diets containing 24% or 6% casein as the sole source of protein. Red...

  16. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Ornoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.

  17. No evidence for pathogenic variants or maternal effect of ZFP57 as the cause of Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonen, Susanne E; Hahnemann, Johanne M D

    2012-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome, which, in 50-60% of sporadic cases, is caused by hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1 differentially methylated region (DMR) at chromosome 11p15.5. The underlying defect of this hypomethylation is largely unknown. Recently, recessive mutations of the ZFP57 gene were reported in patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 1, showing hypomethylation at multiple imprinted loci, including KCNQ1OT1 DMR in some. The aim of our study was to determine whether ZFP57 alterations were a genetic cause of the hypomethylation at KCNQ1OT1 DMR in patients with BWS. We sequenced ZFP57 in 27 BWS probands and in 23 available mothers to test for a maternal effect. We identified three novel, presumably benign sequence variants in ZFP57; thus, we found no evidence for ZFP57 alterations as a major cause in sporadic BWS cases.

  18. Effects of maternal n-3 fatty acid supplementation on placental cytokines, pro-resolving lipid mediators and their precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Jeffrey A; Mas, Emilie; D'Vaz, Nina; Dunstan, Janet A; Li, Shaofu; Barden, Anne E; Mark, Peter J; Waddell, Brendan J; Prescott, Susan L; Mori, Trevor A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) during pregnancy modifies placental PUFA composition, the accumulation of specialised pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs, specifically resolvins (Rv), protectins (PD) and upstream precursors) and inflammatory gene expression. Placentas were collected from women (n=51) enrolled in a randomised, placebo controlled trial of n-3 PUFA supplementation from 20-week gestation. Lipids were extracted for fatty acid analysis and SPMs were quantitated by mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Using multiple regression analysis, data were correlated for placental n-3 PUFA and SPM levels with PUFA levels in maternal and cord blood erythrocytes. Supplementation with n-3 PUFAs increased placental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels (P<0.05), and increased the levels of the SPM precursors 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) by two- to threefold (P<0.0005). RvD1, 17R-RvD1, RvD2 and PD1 were detectable in all placentas, but concentrations were not significantly increased by n-3 PUFA supplementation. Placental DHA levels were positively associated with maternal and cord DHA levels (P<0.005), and with placental 17-HDHA concentrations (P<0.0001). Placental mRNA expression of PTGS2, IL1?, IL6 and IL10 was unaffected by n-3 PUFA supplementation, but TNF? expression was increased by 14-fold (P<0.05). We conclude that n-3 PUFA supplementation in pregnancy i) enhances placental accumulation of DHA and SPM precursors, ii) does not alter placental EPA levels, and iii) has no stimulatory effects on inflammatory gene expression. Further studies are required to ascertain the biological significance of SPMs in the placenta and the potential immunomodulatory effects of elevating placental SPM levels. PMID:25504868

  19. Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Jim E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.

  20. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who de...

  1. Transition and Change in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism: Longitudinal Effects on Maternal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounds, Julie; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Shattuck, Paul T.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated how change in the characteristics of 140 adolescents and young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would predict subsequent change in maternal well-being and in the quality of the mother-child relationship. Overall patterns of improvement in maternal well-being and mother-child relationship quality were observed during…

  2. Maternal obesity and late effects on offspring metabolism / Obesidade materna e efeitos tardios sobre o metabolismo da prole

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniele Sá, Vido; Mariana Bocca, Nejm; Neila Ribeiro, Silva; Sylvia Maria Affonso, Silva; Sérgio Luiz, Cravo; Jacqueline, Luz.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos tardios da obesidade materna induzida por lesão do núcleo ventromedial do hipotálamo sobre o metabolismo da prole. Trinta dias após a lesão bilateral do hipotálamo ventromedial, ratos fêmeas foram colocadas para acasalar e divididas em dois grupos de animais gestantes: Co [...] ntrole (C) – falsa lesão e Obeso (OB) – lesionados. Três meses após o nascimento, de acordo com os grupos das mães, os filhotes foram divididos em animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta normocalórica (C-N and OB-N) e animais controle e obesos que recebiam dieta hipercalórica (C-H and OB-H). Aos 120 dias de idade, os animais foram eutanasiados e as carcaças, fezes e ração foram submetidas à análise calorimétrica para determinação do balanço energético e composição corporal.Resultados Durante o período de crescimento, os filhos de mães obesas mostraram maiores valores de peso corporal e ingestão alimentar que animais controle. Os animais obesos apresentaram maiores valores de ganho de peso corporal e eficiência metabólica que os animais controle quando adultos. A dieta hipercalórica levou ao aumento da energia metabolizável, percentagem de energia absorvida e gasto energético para ambos os grupos. A composição corporal foi somente afetada pela associação da dieta hipercalórica com a obesidade materna que levou ao aumento da gordura corporal.Conclusões : A obesidade materna levou ao sobrepeso tardio na prole, sugerindo uma programação fetal. Pela tendência apresentada, acreditamos que a ingestão prolongada de dietas hipercalóricas em animais adultos possa induzir uma piora no quadro de sobrepeso induzido pela obesidade materna. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7 Abstract in english Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism.Materials and methods : Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 [...] groups of pregnant animals: Control (C) – false lesion (sham) and Obese (OB) – lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N), and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H). At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition.Results : During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat.Conclusions : Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):301-7

  3. Efeito da Idade Materna sobre os Resultados Perinatais / Effect of Maternal Age on Perinatal Outcomes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    George Dantas de, Azevedo; Reginaldo Antonio de Oliveira, Freitas Júnior; Ana Karla Monteiro Santana de Oliveira, Freitas; Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes de, Araújo; Elvira Maria Mafaldo, Soares; Técia Maria de Oliveira, Maranhão.

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar a relação entre a idade materna e a ocorrência de resultados perinatais adversos na população do Rio Grande do Norte. Métodos: foram analisados os registros oficiais de 57.088 nascidos vivos no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte no ano de 1997. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Info [...] rmação sobre Nascidos Vivos do Ministério da Saúde. A população estudada foi dividida em Grupos I, II e III, segundo a faixa etária materna: 10 a 19, 20 a 34 e 35 anos ou mais, respectivamente. As variáveis analisadas foram: duração da gestação, peso ao nascer e tipo de parto. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste chi². Resultados: observamos uma maior incidência de parto pré-termo no Grupo I (4,3 %), em comparação ao Grupo II (3,7%) (p = 0,0028). A taxa de cesariana foi menor nos Grupos I e III, em comparação ao Grupo II (p Abstract in english Purpose: to investigate the interactions between maternal age and adverse perinatal outcomes in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. Methods: we analyzed official records of 57,088 infants in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, from January 1997 to December 1997. Data were obtained from the Information S [...] ystem of the Health Ministry, Brazil. The sample was divided into three Groups I, II and III according to maternal age range: 10 to 19 years, 20 to 34, and 35 or more, respectively. The main outcome variables were: length of pregnancy, birth weight and mode of delivery. Statistical analysis was performed using chi² test. Results: preterm deliveries were 4.3% in the adolescent group vs 3.7% in Group II (p = 0.0028). The incidence of cesarean section was higher in Group II than in the other Groups (p³35 years old there was a high incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia. Results suggest that cesarean sections are more common in women aged 20-34 years than in adolescent and older mothers.

  4. Effects of maternal stress coping style on offspring characteristics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) : [plus] Corrigendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M. Åberg; Silva, P. I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal size, age, and allostatic load influence offspring size, development, and survival. Some of these effects have been attributed to the release of glucocorticoids, and individual variation in these stress hormones is related to a number of traits. Correlated traits are often clustered and used to define the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. Although stress coping styles have been identified in a number of animal groups, little is known about the coupling between stress coping style and offspring characteristics. In the present study, plasma cortisol levels in ovulated mothers and cortisol levels in non-fertilized eggs from two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains selected for high (HR) and low (LR) post-stress plasma cortisol levels were compared. Offspring characteristics such as egg size, larval growth, and energy reserves also were compared between the two strains. Maternal plasma and egg cortisol levels were correlated, but no difference between the HR and LR strains was detected in either parameter. LR females produced larger eggs, and larvae with larger yolk sacs compared to HR females, however no differences in larval body size (excluding the yolk) was detected between strains. Considering that the HR and LR strains have a number of correlated behavioral and physiological traits that resemble the reactive and proactive stress coping styles, respectively, the results suggest that proactive mothers invest more energy into their offspring, producing larvae with larger energy reserves. It is possible that larger energy reserves in proactive larvae support the energy requirement for establishing and defending territory in salmonid fish. Furthermore, in the present study we found a positive relationship between mother plasma cortisol and egg cortisol; however neither mother plasma cortisol nor egg cortisol differed between strains. These results indicate that cortisol endowment from the mother to the offspring plays a minor role in the transfer of the behavioral and physiological traits which separates these strains.

  5. Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDuring recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking water from day 2 to day 21 of lactation. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, the testis weight and volume of offspring were measured and their epididymal semen analyzed. Following tissue processing, 5 ?m sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Testicular parameters in different groups were compared by one-way ANOVA.ResultsTestis weight and volume of offspring decreased significantly in a dose-related manner in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups. Dose-dependent significant reductions were seen in seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height during neonatal, prepubertal and postpubertal periods in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in mean sperm density of offspring at puberty in moderate and high doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Testosterone levels decreased significantly in a dose-related manner at puberty in moderate and high doses groups. ConclusionPresent study showed maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation caused dose-related and long-term alterations of testicular parameters in offspring rats.

  6. Low?dose maternal alcohol consumption: effects in the hearts of offspring in early life and adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vivian B.; Probyn, Megan E.; Campbell, Fiona; Yin, Kom V.; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Zimanyi, Monika A.; Bertram, John F.; Black, Mary Jane; Moritz, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract High alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to deleterious effects on fetal cardiac structure and it also affects cardiomyocyte growth and maturation. This study aimed to determine whether low levels of maternal alcohol consumption are also detrimental to cardiomyocyte and cardiac growth in the early life of offspring and whether cardiac structure and function in adulthood is affected. Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rat dams were fed a control or 6% (volume/volume) liquid?based ethanol supplemented (isocaloric) diet throughout gestation. At embryonic day 20, the expression of genes involved in cardiac development was analyzed using Real?time PCR. At postnatal day 30, cardiomyocyte number, size, and nuclearity in the left ventricle (LV) were determined stereologically. In 8?month?old offspring, LV fibrosis and cardiac function (by echocardiography) were examined. Maternal ethanol consumption did not alter gene expression of the cardiac growth factors in the fetus or cardiomyocyte number in weanling offspring. However, at 8 months, there were significant increases in LV anterior and posterior wall thickness during diastole in ethanol?exposed offspring (P = 0.037 and P = 0.024, respectively), indicative of left ventricular hypertrophy; this was accompanied by a significant increase in fibrosis. Additionally, maximal aortic flow velocity was significantly decreased in ethanol?exposed offspring (P = 0.035). In conclusion, although there were no detectable early?life differences in cardiac and cardiomyocyte growth in animals exposed to a chronic low dose of ethanol during gestation, there were clearly deleterious outcomes by adulthood. This suggests that even relatively low doses of alcohol consumed during pregnancy can be detrimental to long?term cardiac health in the offspring. PMID:25077510

  7. Early maternal separation has mild effects on cardiac autonomic balance and heart structure in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini, M; Hulshof, H J; Graiani, G; Carnevali, L; Meerlo, P; Quaini, F; Sgoifo, A

    2012-07-01

    Early life adverse experiences have long-term physiologic and behavioral effects and enhance stress sensitivity. This study examined the effects of maternal separation (MS) on cardiac stress responsivity and structure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were separated from the dams for 3 h per day from postnatal days 2 through 15. When exposed to 5-day intermittent restraint stress (IRS) as adults, MS, and control rats showed similar acute modifications of cardiac sympathovagal balance, quantified via heart rate variability analysis. In addition, MS had no effect on cardiac pacemaker intrinsic activity (as revealed by autonomic blockade with scopolamine and atenolol) and did not affect the circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, neither before nor after IRS. However, MS differed from control rats in cardiac parasympathetic drive following IRS, which was heightened in the latter but remained unchanged in the former, both during the light and dark phases of the daily rhythm. The evaluation of adult cardiac structure indicated that stress experienced during a crucial developmental period induced only modest changes, involving cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, increased density of vascular structures, and myocardial fibrosis. The mildness of these functional-structural effects questions the validity of MS as a model for early stress-induced cardiac disease in humans. PMID:22085295

  8. Phenylketonuria and maternal phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, H

    2001-07-01

    Phenylketonuria is a genetic disease affecting 1:10,000 to 14,000 live births. In NSW there is an average of nine cases diagnosed each year (Dietitians Working Party 1996). This paper discusses the management of phenylketonuria, and in particular the value of breastfeeding, complemented with a low phenylalanine infant formula, in facilitating easier maintenance of satisfactory phenylalanine blood levels. The 'diet for life' approach to managing phenylketonuria is to avoid long-term neurological deficits and, in particular, the risk that maternal PKU, which is not under strict dietary control, will have adverse effects on infants born of mothers with the disease. There have been 31 successful pregnancies to 1997 managed by the Nutrition and Dietetics Department of The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney. The Maternal PKU diet is presented with the case of a client with phenylketonuria who has achieved two normal pregnancies and breastfed her second child for six months. PMID:11550601

  9. The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or post...

  10. The effects of food and maternal conditions in fetal growth and size in wild reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Skogland

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal growth rates and birth weights were studied in four wild reindeer areas in Southern Norway (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø, Forelhogna, representing high and low density populations, with a 5-fold difference in mean lichen winter-food availability. Fetal growth was depressed by 42% in the high-densitv Hardangervidda population, and mean birth weights were 3.7 vs. 6.2 kg, with a 10 days difference in mean birth dates. Fetal size was better correlated with maternal weight, than age. Maternal weights increased until 5 yrs. of age and then decreased in the high-density Hardangervidda population (but not so in the low density Knutshø-Forclhogna populations. 55% of the offspring died before weaning in the Hardangervidda herd, but no significant calf losses were found amont the large-sized does in the food-abundant areas.Effekter av ernæring og simlas kondisjon på vekst og størrelse av foster hos villrein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Fostervekst og fødselsvekter ble undersøkt i fire villreinområder i Sør-Norge (Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutshø og Forelhogna som representerer høg- og lågtetthetsstammer, med en 5-foldig forskjell i gjennomsnittlig lavbeite-tilgang om vinteren. Fosterveksten ble nedsatt med 42% i høgtetthetsstammen på Hardangervidda og fødselsvektene var i gjennomsnitt 3,7 kg, mot 6,2 kg i det beste området, og med en 10 dagers forsinkelse i midlere fødselsdato. Fosterets størrelse var korrelert med morens vekt, som igjen var avhengig av hennes alder. Hos de minste simlene i det dårligste området økte vektene til 5-års alder, for deretter å avta for hvert gjenlevende år. Hos simlene i det beste området økte vektene til 10-års alder, og var da dobbelt så tunge som fra det dårligste området. 55% av avkommet døde før de var avvent med diing hos Hardangervidda-simlene, mens det ikke var noen statistisk målbar dødelighet hos kalvene i Knutshø-Forelhogna.Ravinnon vaikutus ja naarasporon kunto porosikion kasvuun ja suuruuteen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Etelå-Norjan neljallå peura-alueella, jotka ovat Hardangervidda, Hallingskarvet, Knutsho ja Forelhogna, tutkittiin porosikion kasvua ja syntymåpainoja. Alueet edustavat ylintå ja alinta tiheyskantaa ja loytyy 5-kertainen eroavaisuus keskimåarin jåkålålaiduntaan talvisaikaan. Sikion kasvu aleni 42% ylemmåsså tiheyskannassa Hardangervidda-alueella ja syntymåpainot olivat keskimåarin 3,7 kg mutta 6,2 kg parhaimmalla alueella, ja 10 påivån myohastyminen keskimååråisesta syntymåpåivayksestå. Sikion suuruus oli vastaavuussuhteessa emon painoon, joka oli taas riippuvainen sen iåstå. Huonoimmalla alueella pieninpien naaraiden painot lisåantyivåt 5-ikåvuoteen asti, vahetåkseen sen jålkeen jokaista jåljellåolevaa elovuotta kohden. Parhaimmalla alueella naaraiden painot lisåantyivåt 10-ikåvuoteen asti, ja oli silloin kaksi kertaa niin raskaita kuin huonoimman alueen naarasporot. 55% jålkelåisistå kuoli ennenkuin ne olivat vierottuneet Hardangervidda-naarasporoista. Sitåvastoin ei ollut mitåån tilastollisesti mitattavissa olevaa Knutsho - Forelhogna-alueiden vasakuolevaisuudesta.

  11. Do clinical and laboratory parameters effect maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ncim Bezircio?lu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the clinical features and laboratory parameters affect maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with HELLP syndrome.Material and Methods: The medical records of pregnant patients complicated with HELLP syndrome were analyzed retrospectively between June 01, 2003 and June 01, 2010. The demographic data, medical history, admission symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings and recovery time were evaluated. The adverse maternal outcomes including eclampsia, placental abruption, disseminated intravascular coagulation, postpartum hemorrhage, pulmonary complications, cerebral edema and visual loss were recorded. Fetal growth restriction, necessity for neonatal intensive care unit admission and perinatal mortality were recorded as an adverse fetal outcome. Results: The incidence of HELLP syndrome was 0.52%. The mean age of the patients was 28.93±7.90 (range 17-45. HELLP syndrome was diagnosed on average in the 33.68±4.41th (ranged 24-40 week of gestation. Eighteen cases (40.9% were nullipara and twenty-six cases (59.1% multipara. The most common complications were eclampsia (40.9% and abruption placenta (15.9%. Pregnancy was terminated within 48 hours in all patients. The rate of cesarean section was 90.9%. Perinatal mortality rate in HELLP syndrome was 31.8%. There was no maternal mortality. Conclusion: Neither clinical characteristics nor laboratory parameters was found effective for prediction of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

  12. Maternal fructose and/or salt intake and reproductive outcome in the rat: effects on growth, fertility, sex ratio, and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clint; Long, Sophie; Green, Charlotte; Gardiner, Sheila M; Craigon, Jim; Gardner, David S

    2013-09-01

    Maternal diet can significantly skew the secondary sex ratio away from the expected value of 0.5 (proportion males), but the details of how diet may do this are unclear. Here, we altered dietary levels of salt (4% salt in the feed) and/or fructose (10% in the drinking water) of pregnant rats to model potential effects that consumption of a "Western diet" might have on maternofetal growth, development, and sex ratio. We demonstrate that excess fructose consumption before and during pregnancy lead to a marked skew in the secondary sex ratio (proportion of males, 0.60; P < 0.006). The effect was not mediated by selective developmental arrest of female embryos or influenced by fetal position in the uterine horn or sex-specific effects on sperm motility, suggesting a direct effect of glycolyzable monosaccharide on the maternal ovary and/or ovulated oocyte. Furthermore, combined excess maternal consumption of salt and fructose-sweetened beverage significantly reduced fertility, reflected as a 50% reduction in preimplantation and term litter size. In addition, we also noted birth order effects in the rat, with sequential implantation sites tending to be occupied by the same sex. PMID:23759309

  13. Maternal health and child mortality in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Manoj K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of maternal health on the under-five mortality has been examined. Third wave of micro-level National Family Health Survey 2005-06 data for rural India is used. Using various alternative measures of maternal health, the paper finds strong association between maternal health and child mortality. In particular, the effects of maternal height, weight, presence of any disease and anemia are found significant. Based on our findings, we argue that if the possible generation...

  14. Effect of maternal intake of organically or conventionally produced feed on oral tolerance development in offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Maja Melballe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher R; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2013-05-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings' response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother's milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups' anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L). PMID:23581797

  15. Effects of birth weight and maternal dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of piglet tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; Missotten, J; Vlaeminck, B; De Smet, S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects and possible interactions of birth weight and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation of the maternal diet on the fatty acid status of different tissues of newborn piglets. These effects are of interest as both parameters have been associated with pre-weaning mortality. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed, echium or fish oil from day 73 of gestation. As fish oil becomes a scarce resource, linseed and echium oil were supplemented as sustainable alternatives, adding precursor fatty acids for DHA to the diet. At birth, the lightest and heaviest male piglet per litter were killed and samples from liver, brain and muscle were taken for fatty acid analysis. Piglets that died pre-weaning had lower birth weights than piglets surviving lactation (1.27±0.04 v. 1.55±0.02 kg; Pechium or linseed oil in the sow diet increased the DHA concentration of the piglet tissues to the same extent, but the concentrations were not as high as when fish oil was fed. PMID:25322791

  16. Effect of Maternal Intake of Organically or Conventionally Produced Feed on Oral Tolerance Development in Offspring Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings’ response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother’s milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups’ anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L).

  17. Maternal exposure to the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210: effects on the endocrine and immune systems of the adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Arco, I; Muñoz, R; Rodríguez De Fonseca, F; Escudero, L; Martín-Calderón, J L; Navarro, M; Villanúa, M A

    2000-01-01

    Natural and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists have been described to exert profound effects on both the neuroendocrine integration and the functional responses of the immune system. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed to the highly potent cannabinoid agonist HU-210 (1, 5 and 25 microg/kg) during gestation and lactation and the ensuing effects on several endocrine and immune parameters of the adult male offspring were analyzed. Perinatal exposure to HU-210 partially affected the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in the spleen and peripheral blood. The major changes observed occur after maternal exposure to the 25 microg/kg dose of HU-210. There was a reduction in the T-helper subpopulation in the spleen and a dose-related decrease in the rate of T(helper)/T(cytotoxic) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Concanavalin-A and lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferation were normal in all the groups tested. In the same animals, perinatal exposure to HU-210 did not affect basal levels of growth hormone, IGF-1, prolactin, or follicle-stimulating hormone. Basal values of luteinizing hormone were elevated in animals given the 1 microg/kg dose of HU-210. Corticosterone levels were reduced in the animals exposed to the higher dose of HU-210 during gestation and lactation. These animals exhibited a decreased responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to the stimulation with a single injection of HU-210 (20 microg/kg, i.v.) at adult ages, which may reflect the onset of long-lasting tolerance to the HPA-activating properties of cannabinoids. The opposite pattern of response was found in the animals given the 1 microg/kg dose, in which a sensitization of the corticosterone response to acute HU-210 was observed. The present work reveals that maternal exposure to cannabinoids results in minor changes in the development of the immune system, but may induce long-lasting alterations in the functional status of the HPA axis. PMID:10601815

  18. Metabolismo mineral óseo durante la gestación y efectos sobre la masa ósea de la madre / Bone mineral metabolism during gestation and its effects on maternal bone mass

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Vidal; Maritza, Vidal; Santiago, Cabrera; Eduardo, Ortega; Vicente, Santiváñez; Jorge, Polo; Jorge, Barnaby; Rolando, Vargas; Angélica, del Castillo.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La gestación y lactancia son periodos de alta demanda de calcio, para el crecimiento fetal y para la producción de leche materna. Durante la gestación, la madre transfiere al feto 25 a 30 g de calcio y durante la lactancia se secretan 200 a 240 mg de calcio diario en la leche materna. Durante la ges [...] tación, los mecanismos adaptativos más importantes son el incremento en la absorción de calcio y el incremento del recambio óseo materno; durante la lactancia, hay tendencia a conservar más calcio a nivel renal, pero la desmineralización temporal del esqueleto materno parece ser el mecanismo más importante. Los estudios que emplean absorciometría dual de rayos X (DXA) son escasos, por el riesgo de radiación materna y fetal; pero, con otras técnicas, como el ultrasonido cuantitativo, se ha descrito una pérdida de masa ósea durante la gestación predominantemente dependiente del hueso trabecular. Mediante marcadores bioquímicos del remodelamiento óseo se ha demostrado que los suplementos de calcio reducen la tasa de remodelamiento durante el embarazo y parecen tener efecto benéfico sobre la pérdida ósea materna. Estudios longitudinales que emplean ultrasonido cuantitativo también han encontrado una disminución de la pérdida ósea, entre las mujeres que recibieron aporte o suplemento adecuado de calcio durante la gestación. Abstract in english Pregnancy and lactation are periods of high calcium demand for skeletal growth and maternal milk production. Approximately 25-30 g of calcium are transferred to the fetus during pregnancy, and breast-feeding mothers secrete 200-240 mg/day of calcium in breast milk every day. During pregnancy, major [...] physiologic adaptations include increased both calcium intestinal absorption and rate of maternal bone turnover; during lactation, there is a contribution of renal calcium conservation, but temporary maternal bone demineralization is the main mechanism to meet calcium requirements. Data on bone mineral density assessed by dual energy x-ray absortiometry (DXA) are sparse mainly due to concern about potential risk of radiation exposure to the fetus. Other radiation-free techniques like quantitative ultrasound have been used to assess maternal bone mass changes during pregnancy. Maternal bone loss mainly depending on trabecular areas during pregnancy has been described. Calcium supplements reduce maternal skeletal-bone turnover as evaluated by bone resorption markers during pregnancy and seem to have beneficial effects on maternal bone loss. Longitudinal studies with repeated measurements of quantitative ultrasound during pregnancy have found decrease in bone loss in pregnant women with adequate calcium intake or supplementation.

  19. Genotype effect on distribution pattern of maternally derived antibody against Newcastle disease in Nigerian local chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Matthew Adekunle; Peters, Sunday Olusola; Ogunmodede, Dare Tunde; Oni, Oluwole Oyetunde; Ajayi, Olusola Lawrence; Wheto, Mathew; Adebambo, Olufunmilayo Ayoka

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the variation in antibody from Newcastle disease (ND) vaccinated breeder birds and their progenies. The chicks were evaluated for maternally derived antibody (MDA) against ND virus and also the MDA transfer rate for each genotype. The local parent stocks were Frizzle-feathered, Normal-feathered, and Naked neck while an exotic parent stock (Anak Titan) was used for the purpose of comparison. Sera samples were collected from chicks generated at day 3 post-hatch, and sera were also collected from the parent stocks. The sera samples were stored at -20 °C until analysed. Enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) test was used for the detection and quantification of antibodies to ND in the parent stocks and the chicks using IDEXX Newcastle Disease ELISA test kit. The least squares means of antibody titers for parent stocks were 413.333?±?68.853, 426.333?±?121.949, 481.667?±?145.454, and 1148.333?±?532.843 for Frizzle-feathered, Normal-feathered, Naked Neck, and Anak Titan, and the calculated MDA transfer rate was 96.4, 93.8, 88.7, and 34.7 % for Frizzle-feathered, Normal-feathered, Naked neck, and Anak Titan, respectively. The mean antibody titers for chicks were 398.6?±?43.871, 400.0?±?53.952, 427.0?±?89.353, and 398.8?±?57.593 for Frizzle-feathered, Normal-feathered, Naked neck, and Anak Titan, respectively. The antibody titers from parent stocks were higher than those observed in chicks for all the genotypes. The values obtained in this study indicated that parent stocks with their progenies were below protective level. The local parent stocks had higher transfer rate when compared to their exotic counterpart. Hence, there is an indication from this finding that the local chickens had a better transfer rate in relation to Anak Titan which is an exotic breed. Therefore, there is the presence of genetic variability for antibody transfer in the Nigerian local chickens and can be incorporated in designing a breeding program for better adaptive potential. PMID:25547803

  20. Physiological effect of natural humic acid during pregnancy on fetuses and maternal alterations induced by irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic acid is a mixture of macromolecular heterogeneous substances which have high molecular weight. Humic acid is a soil constituent, playing an important role in forming and transferring the nutrients from the soil to the living organism to perform many physiological processes. Thus, the current study was performed to study the chemical characteristics of extracted humic acid (soil constituent in Egypt) and evaluate its physiological effects on irradiated pregnant rats and some maternal biochemical parameter humic acid extract was obtained from the fine fraction of Egyptian soil (undersize 12 mesh sieve). The chemical characters were evaluated by means of IR, ESR, elemental and chemical analyses. It was found to contain all functional groups characterize natural humic acids but it contains high concentration of free radicals (73 x 1018 spin /g). Humic acid was supplemented daily to rats at two separate doses (150 mg and 300 mg/kg) during the interval 1st to 13 th day of gestation. Irradiation (2.5 Gy) was applied one hour post the last dose of humic acid. Experimental investigations were performed on the day 21 of gestation. The results showed that supplementation of rats with humic acid at a dose of 150 mg/kg increased the number of fetuses and placental weight as well as fetal measurement. These morphological effects were paralleled with some biochemical effects in justifying the radioprotective potency of humic acid. Also, the humic acid given at the same dose im, the humic acid given at the same dose improved the radiation induced disturbances in serum progesterone, calcium, phosphorus, calcitonin, total proteins and albumin levels whereas administration of humic acid at the high dose (300 mg/kg) induced harmful effect on most of the studied parameters and did not show any protective role against gamma irradiation. It could be concluded that administration of humic acid at the dose of 150 mg/kg during pregnancy of rats exerted a beneficial radioprotective effects on the tested physiological and biochemical parameters

  1. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nampijja Margaret

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-? and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using ?2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-? responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-? > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-? responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-? responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.

  2. Metabolic maturity at birth and neonate lamb survival and growth: the effects of maternal low-dose dexamethasone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D R; Jackson, R B; Blache, D; Roche, J R

    2009-10-01

    Perinatal mortality is a major contributing factor to reproductive wastage in grazing sheep industries. Enhanced metabolic and endocrine maturity at birth may improve the behavioral competency and thermoregulatory ability of neonates, potentially improving lamb survival over the first 72 h of life. Maternal glucocorticoid treatment in late gestation was investigated as a mechanism for manipulating metabolic and endocrine maturity in the ovine neonate. Multiparous, fine-wool Merino ewes (n = 150) were divided into 3 groups to lamb on pasture. Within each group, 5 single-lamb and 5 twin-lamb bearing ewes were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 treatments. Treatments included a saline control (1 mL), or dexamethasone (2 mg/mL as the sodium phosphate) injected intramuscularly at 1 of 2 dose rates (1.5 or 3.0 mg) at d 130 or 141 of gestation. One-half of the control ewes were injected at d 130 and the remainder at d 141. Dexamethasone treatment had no effect on lamb survival to 72 h after birth, although there tended (P = 0.09) to be a smaller proportion of lambs dying due to dystocia than for control lambs. Heart girth at birth in singleton and twin lambs was reduced (P < 0.01) at the greater dose rate. Further, treatment also reduced birth weight (by about 5%) and presuckling rectal temperatures in twin lambs, but not in singleton lambs. These reductions were also dependent on the sex of the lamb. Dexamethasone treatment did not alter gestation length or lamb presuckling plasma glucose, NEFA, urea, or leptin concentrations, but treatment at d 141 increased (P < 0.05) ghrelin concentrations in singleton and male lambs. Behavioral interactions between ewes and neonatal lambs were generally unaffected, although treatment at d 130 produced lambs that took longer to bleat than lambs of untreated ewes (P < 0.05). Treatment did not affect the concentration of measured blood metabolites or hormones at weaning. Although there were interactions between litter size, lamb sex, and the dose rate and time of treatment on weaning weight, BW recorded 73 d after weaning was unaffected by treatment. Despite changes in birth weight, rectal temperature, lamb behavior, and presuckling plasma ghrelin concentrations, survival in the first 72 h of life, and lamb growth performance were unaffected by periparturient maternal glucocorticoid treatment. PMID:19542513

  3. Maternal Separation in the Rat : The Short- and Long-term effects of Early-life Experience on Neuropeptides, Monoamines and Voluntary Ethanol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oreland, Sadia

    2009-01-01

    Early-life experience has profound effects on the individual’s neurobiology and behaviour later in life. The rodent animal experimental model maternal separation (MS) was used to study this more in detail. The MS model involves short and prolonged postnatal separations simulating an emotionally safe and stressful environment, respectively. The aims of the thesis were to examine the impact of individual MS on ethanol consumption and on brain dopamine and serotonin systems in adult male rats....

  4. Islets in early life are resistant to detrimental effects of a high-fat maternal diet: a study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, V L; Richardson, C C; Jefferson, W; Taylor, P D; Christie, M R

    2010-12-01

    Offspring of rats fed high-fat diets during pregnancy and lactation develop glucose intolerance and islet dysfunction in adulthood. Because other models of developmental programming of glucose intolerance are associated with defective islet development, we investigated whether high-fat exposure during fetal or neonatal life impairs islet development and function, thereby contributing to islet dysfunction in later life. Female rats were fed control or high-fat diets and their pups cross-fostered after birth to represent 4 groups with each combination of control and high-fat diet for the natural and foster mother. In a time course study, pups were kept with the natural mother until weaning. Pancreases were analysed for insulin content, beta cell mass, and islet number. Isolated islets were studied for insulin secretory responses and susceptibility to palmitate-induced apoptosis assessed by caspases 3/9 activity. Pancreatic insulin content and beta cell mass were increased in pups exposed to maternal high-fat diets after birth, whereas glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets of high-fat offspring at 5 and 11 days of age was lower than controls. Islets from control rats of 2-14 days of age were resistant to the pro-apoptotic effects of palmitate seen in older animals. The immature beta cell is therefore insensitive to toxic effects of palmitate and may compensate for the inhibitory effects on insulin secretion by increasing beta cell mass. The data suggest that susceptibility to glucose intolerance in offspring of dams fed high-fat diets may not be a consequence of deleterious effects on beta cell mass in early life. PMID:20972941

  5. Effects of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome: a randomized controlled trial on pregnant women in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome. Methods: The case-control study was conducted between January and July, 2011. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Toyserkan Azad University, and data was collected at prenatal clinics and delivery centres located in Hamedan, Iran. It comprised 80 pregnant women between 20-26 weeks of gestation randomly assigned to two equal and matching groups of cases and controls. The intervention group did exercise continuously on a bicycle ergometre for 15 minutes, three times a week; the intensity being 50-60% of maximal heart rate. The control group did not do any exercise training. All information was obtained from the clinics, delivery centres, and from the reports of delivery room midwives. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in gestational weight gain, pregnancy length, mode of delivery, first and second stage of labour, perineal tear, and 1st and 5th min Apgar score. Mean neonatal weight was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Exercising on a bicycle ergometer during pregnancy seems to be safe for the mother and the neonate. (author)

  6. THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL EMPLOYMENT ON THE PERSONALITYAND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO AGE AND GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahjabeen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on a random sample of 90 boys and girls whose mothers were employed and another 90 boys and girls whose mothers were employed from fourth, fifth and sixth grades. For measuring the personality, junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (1965 was administered. The subjects' examination marks were taken into consideration to measure their academic achievement. The statistical test of Mean, Standard deviation, Student 't' test, ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test were used to compute the data and the results, were discussed in the light of previous research findings. The results of the present study revealed that children of employed mothers have high extroverted personality than children of unemployed mothers. No significant difference existed between 9 year old boys of employed mothers and unemployed mothers with regard to personality and academic achievement. Whereas 9 year old girls of unemployed mothers showed high neurotic behavior than the children of employed mothers, whereas significant difference was observed in the extroversion scores of 10 year old boys of employed and unemployed mothers. Lastly maternal employment had no significant effect on the personality and academic achievement of 10 year old girls.

  7. The Effect of Maternal Employment on the Elementary and Junior High School Students’ Mental Health in Maku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bakhtari Aghdam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Most experts view the childhood period as a foundation for shaping the individuals’ fundamental future characteristics and behaviors. They believe that parents’ personality and behavior quality exert a greater effect on the development of a child’s personality than other factors. Given the mothers’ role in children’s mental health and considering the fact that children are a nation’s future makers, the present study was designed to investigate the impact of maternal employment on students’ mental health in Maku. Materials and Methods: The present study is descriptive and cross-sectional, and the population of the study encompasses all students in the fifth, sixth, and seventh grades (n=583 who are studying in 2013-2014 academic year in Maku. General Heath Questionnaire was employed for gathering data, and the SPSS software was used for analyzing the data. Findings: The results of the study indicated that there was a significant difference between the mental health problems, somatic problems, social functioning, anxiety, and depression of the students with employed and non-employed mothers. In other words, the students with non-working mothers experienced greater mental disorders than those with working mothers. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that children with working mothers showed a better mental health than non-working mothers’ children.

  8. Maternal complications in diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Gillian

    2011-02-01

    Pregnant women with diabetes have to manage both the effect of pregnancy on glucose control and its effect on pre-existing diabetic complications. Most women experience hypoglycaemia as a consequence of tightened glycaemic control and this impacts on daily living. Less commonly, diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious metabolic decompensation of diabetic control and a medical emergency, can cause foetal and maternal mortality. Microvascular complications of diabetes include retinopathy and nephropathy. Retinopathy can deteriorate during pregnancy; hence, regular routine examination is required and, if indicated, ophthalmological input. Diabetic nephropathy significantly increases the risk of obstetric complications and impacts on foetal outcomes. Pregnancy outcome is closely related to pre-pregnancy renal function. Diabetic pregnancy is contraindicated if the maternal complications of ischaemic heart disease or diabetic gastropathy are known to be present before pregnancy as there is a significant maternal mortality associated with both of these conditions. PMID:21130689

  9. Maternal-fetal HLA sharing and preeclampsia: variation in effects by seminal fluid exposure in a case-control study of nulliparous women in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Harland, Karisa K; Field, Elizabeth H; Rubenstein, Linda M; Saftlas, Audrey F

    2014-03-01

    Whereas histocompatibility is critical for transplantation, HLA histoincompatibility is associated with successful pregnancy. Literature on HLA sharing and preeclampsia has been inconsistent; most studies focused on maternal-paternal rather than maternal-fetal sharing. This study examines whether maternal-fetal histocompatibility is associated with preeclampsia, and whether effects vary by semen exposure history. This case-control study of nulliparous women was designed to examine associations among HLA sharing, semen exposure, and preeclampsia. 258 preeclampsia cases and 182 normotensive controls met the eligibility criteria. HLA typing for mother and baby was performed for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1. We further restricted our study sample to 224 mother-baby pairs who had complete HLA typing for all five genes. Seminal fluid exposure indexes incorporated information on type of practice, frequency, contraceptive use (for vaginal exposure) and ingestion practices (for oral exposure). Multivariate models were adjusted for BMI and education. HLA-A matching, Class I matching, and combined Class I and II matching were associated with increased odds of preeclampsia. Among women with low semen exposure, effects of Class I matching were amplified (HLA-A matching, OR=6.27, 95%CI=1.04, 37.97; Class I matching, OR=4.49 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.89, 14.50). With moderate to high semen exposure, Class II matching effects predominated (HLA-DQB1, OR=3.22, 95%CI=1.04, 9.99; Class II, OR=1.76 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.05, 2.98; and total matches, OR=1.45 per one-match increase, 95%CI=1.02, 2.06). We found consistent evidence that maternal-fetal HLA sharing was associated with preeclampsia in a pattern influenced by prior vaginal exposure to paternal seminal fluid. PMID:23998333

  10. Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Ozturk, Mustafa; Gultekin, Fatih

    2013-08-01

    Artificial food colourings and additives (AFCAs) have long been suggested to adversely affect the learning and behaviour in children. In this study, we aimed to provide additional data to clarify the possible side effects of colouring additives on behaviour and memory. We administered acceptable daily intake values of AFCAs as a mixture (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation and then tested their effects on behaviour and on spatial working memory in their offspring. Effects on spatial learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze, behavioural effects were evaluated by open-field test and forced swim test. Our results showed that commonly used artificial food colourings have no adverse effects on spatial working memory and did not create a depressive behaviour in offspring. But they showed a few significant effects on locomotor activity as AFCAs increased some parameters of locomotor activity. PMID:22323474

  11. The maternal health outcomes of paid maternity leave: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Garrett, Cameryn C; Hewitt, Belinda; Keogh, Louise; Hocking, Jane S; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-04-01

    Paid maternity leave has become a standard benefit in many countries throughout the world. Although maternal health has been central to the rationale for paid maternity leave, no review has specifically examined the effect of paid maternity leave on maternal health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine the association between paid maternity leave and maternal health. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts) and Google Scholar. We searched websites of relevant organisations, reference lists of key papers and journals, and citation indices for additional studies including those not in refereed journals. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included if they compared paid maternity leave versus no paid maternity leave, or different lengths of paid leave. Data were extracted and an assessment of bias was performed independently by authors. Seven studies were identified, with participants from Australia, Sweden, Norway, USA, Canada, and Lebanon. All studies used quantitative methodologies, including cohort, cross-sectional, and repeated cross-sectional designs. Outcomes included mental health and wellbeing, general health, physical wellbeing, and intimate partner violence. The four studies that examined leave at an individual level showed evidence of maternal health benefits, whereas the three studies conducting policy-level comparisons reported either no association or evidence of a negative association. The synthesis of the results suggested that paid maternity leave provided maternal health benefits, although this varied depending on the length of leave. This has important implications for public health and social policy. However, all studies were subject to confounding bias and many to reverse causation. Given the small number of studies and the methodological limitations of the evidence, longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify the effects of paid maternity leave on the health of mothers in paid employment. PMID:25680101

  12. Maternal Neglect: Oxytocin, Dopamine and the Neurobiology of Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Strathearn, Lane

    2011-01-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, in order to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified which contribute to maternal caregiving behavior, focusing on the oxy...

  13. Family Structure Effects on Maternal and Paternal Parenting in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey, a birth cohort study, this study analyzes the effect of family structure on parenting for 3,402 mothers and 2,615 fathers. To address the problem of omitted variable bias, fixed effects methods are used to control for the presence of time-invariant unobserved…

  14. Exercise before and during pregnancy prevents the deleterious effects of maternal high-fat feeding on metabolic health of male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kristin I; Lee, Min-Young; Getchell, Kristen M; So, Kawai; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-02-01

    The intrauterine environment during pregnancy is a critical factor in the development of diabetes and obesity in offspring. To determine the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on the metabolic health of offspring, 6-week-old C57BL/6 virgin female mice were fed a chow (21%) or high-fat (60%) diet and divided into four subgroups: trained (housed with running wheels for 2 weeks preconception and during gestation), prepregnancy trained (housed with running wheels for 2 weeks preconception), gestation trained (housed with running wheels during gestation), or sedentary (static cages). Male offspring were chow fed, sedentary, and studied at 8, 12, 24, 36, and 52 weeks of age. Offspring from chow-fed dams that trained both before and during gestation had improved glucose tolerance beginning at 8 weeks of age and continuing throughout the 1st year of life, and at 52 weeks of age had significantly lower serum insulin concentrations and percent body fat compared with all other groups. High-fat feeding of sedentary dams resulted in impaired glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin concentrations, and increased percent body fat in offspring. Remarkably, maternal exercise before and during gestation ameliorated the detrimental effect of a maternal high-fat diet on the metabolic profile of offspring. Exercise before and during pregnancy may be a critical component for combating the increasing rates of diabetes and obesity. PMID:25204976

  15. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels (N = 98). Following Mary Ainsworth's lead, our maternal sensitivity measures were primarily based on ratings of direct observations. Six sets of measures were obtained: positive maternal style at home (a mean of four different ratings); providing a sensitive framework, limit setting, allowing autonomy, criticizing/cutting in (each a mean over two laboratory joint tasks); and tension-making (a mean of three different ratings in a fear-inducing task). Regression analyses showed firstly that maternal anxiety rather than behavioral inhibition or sex of child was the significant predictor of each maternal sensitivity measure; and secondly that these measures rather than maternal anxiety or sex were the significant predictors of security of attachment. Finally, ANOVA's indicated which sets of maternal ratings were associated with each pattern of attachment (Avoidant, Secure, Ambivalent, or Controlling). PMID:24299138

  16. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide increases maternal behavior, decreases maternal odor preference, and induces lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Penteado; Cristina de Oliveira Massoco-Salles, Gomes; Thiago, Kirsten; Thiago, Reis-Silva; Rafael César de, Melo; Michelli, Acenjo; Nicolle, Queiroz-Hazarbassanov; Maria Martha, Bernardi.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether late maternal inflammation disrupts the mother/pup interaction, resulting in long-lasting effects on pup behavior and alterations in biological pathways, thereby programming prepubertal behavior and the pups' inflammatory responses after bacterial endotoxin tre [...] atment. Female rats received 100 ?g/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or .9% saline solution on gestation day 18. Reproductive performance was observed at birth. On lactation days (LD) 5 and LD 6, respectively, maternal behavior and maternal aggressive behavior were assessed. In pups, maternal odor preference on LD 7, open field behavior on LD 21, and serum tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) levels after LPS challenge on LD 21 were investigated. The results showed that prenatal LPS exposure improved maternal care and reduced maternal aggressive behavior but did not alter maternal reproductive performance. Male offspring exhibited increased body weights at birth and reduced maternal odor preference. Lipopolysaccharide challenge increased the duration of immobility in the open field and induced a slight increase in serum TNF-? levels. Prenatal exposure to LPS during late pregnancy improved maternal care, reduced maternal olfactory preference, and induced TNF-? hyporesponsiveness to a single dose of LPS in pups.

  17. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide increases maternal behavior, decreases maternal odor preference, and induces lipopolysaccharide hyporesponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Penteado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether late maternal inflammation disrupts the mother/pup interaction, resulting in longlasting effects on pup behavior and alterations in biological pathways, thereby programming prepubertal behavior and the pups’ inflammatory responses after bacterial endotoxin treatment. Female rats received 100 ?g/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS or .9% saline solution on gestation day 18. Reproductive performance was observed at birth. On lactation days (LD 5 and LD 6, respectively, maternal behavior and maternal aggressive behavior were assessed. In pups, maternal odor preference on LD 7, open field behavior on LD 21, and serum tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? levels after LPS challenge on LD 21 were investigated. The results showed that prenatal LPS exposure improved maternal care and reduced maternal aggressive behavior but did not alter maternal reproductive performance. Male offspring exhibited increased body weights at birth and reduced maternal odor preference. Lipopolysaccharide challenge increased the duration of immobility in the open field and induced a slight increase in serum TNF-? levels. Prenatal exposure to LPS during late pregnancy improved maternal care, reduced maternal olfactory preference, and induced TNF-? hyporesponsiveness to a single dose of LPS in pups.

  18. Protective effect of maternal prenatal melatonin administration on rat pups born to mothers submitted to constant light during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Cisternas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of adverse conditions such as constant light (LL on the circadian rhythm of malate (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and lactate (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27 dehydrogenase activities of the testes of male Wistar rats on postnatal day 28 (PN28, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test at PN60 and sexual behavior at PN120. The rats were assigned to mother groups on day 10 of pregnancy: control (12-h light/dark, LL (light from day 10 to 21 of pregnancy, and LL+Mel (LL and sc injection to the mothers of a daily dose of melatonin, 1 mg/kg body weight at circadian time 12, from day 17 to 21 of pregnancy. LL offspring did not show circadian rhythms of MDH (N = 62 and LDH (N = 63 activities (cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher. They presented a 44.7% decrease in open-arm entries and a 67.9% decrease in time (plus-maze test, N = 15, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, an increase in mounting (94.4%, intromission (94.5% and ejaculation (56.6% latencies (N = 12, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test and lower numbers of these events (61, 59 and 73%, respectively; P < 0.01, N = 12 compared to controls. The offspring of the LL+Mel group presented MDH and LDH circadian rhythms (P < 0.05, N = 50, cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher, anxiety-like and sexual behaviors similar to control. These findings supported the importance of the melatonin signal and provide evidence for the protective effects of hormones on maternal programming during gestation. This protective action of melatonin is probably related to its entrainment capacity, favoring internal coupling of the fetal multioscillatory system.

  19. Enduring Effects of Prenatal and Infancy Home Visiting by Nurses on Maternal Life Course and Government Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, David L.; Kitzman, Harriet J.; Cole, Robert E.; Hanks, Carole A.; Arcoleo, Kimberly J.; Anson, Elizabeth A.; Luckey, Dennis W.; Knudtson, Michael D.; Henderson, Charles R.; Bondy, Jessica; Stevenson, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test, among an urban primarily African American sample, the effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on mothers’ fertility, partner relationships, and economic self-sufficiency and on government spending through age 12 years of their firstborn child. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Public system of obstetric and pediatric care in Memphis, Tennessee. Participants A total of 594 urban primarily African American economically disadvantaged mothers (among 743 who registered during pregnancy). Intervention Prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses. Main Outcome Measures Mothers’ cohabitation with and marriage to the child’s biological father, intimate partner violence, duration (stability) of partner relationships, role impairment due to alcohol and other drug use, use and cost of welfare benefits, arrests, mastery, child foster care placements, and cumulative subsequent births. Results By the time the firstborn child was 12 years old, nurse-visited mothers compared with control subjects reported less role impairment owing to alcohol and other drug use (0.0% vs 2.5%, P = .04), longer partner relationships (59.58 vs 52.67 months, P = .02), and greater sense of mastery (101.04 vs 99.60, P = .005). During this 12-year period, government spent less per year on food stamps, Medicaid, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families for nurse-visited than control families ($8772 vs $9797, P = .02); this represents $12 300 in discounted savings compared with a program cost of $11 511, both expressed in 2006 US dollars. No statistically significant program effects were noted on mothers’ marriage, partnership with the child’s biological father, intimate partner violence, alcohol and other drug use, arrests, incarceration, psychological distress, or reports of child foster care placements. Conclusion The program improved maternal life course and reduced government spending among children through age 12 years. PMID:20439792

  20. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; JØrgensen, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on formula-fed infants indicate a beneficial effect of dietary DHA on visual acuity. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between breast-milk DHA levels and visual acuity in breast-fed infants. The objective in this study was to evaluate the biochemical and functional effects of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00). The intervention started within a week after delivery and lasted 4 mon. Mothers with habitual high fish intake and their infants were included as a reference group. Ninety-seven infants completed the trial (44 OO-group, 53 FO-group) and 47 reference infants were followed up. The primary outcome measures were: DHA content of milk samples (0, 2, and 4 mon postnatal) and of infant red blood cell (RBC) membranes (4 mon postnatal), and infant visual acuity (measured by swept visual evoked potential at 2 and 4 mon of age). FO supplementation gave rise to a threefold increase in the DHA content of the 4-mon milk samples (P <0.001). DHA in infant RBC reflected milk contents (r = 0.564, P <0.001) and was increased by almost 50% (P <0.001). Infant visual acuity was not significantly different in the randomized groups but was positively associated at 4 mon with infant RBC-DHA (P = 0.004, multiple regression). We concluded that maternal FO supplementation during lactation did not enhance visual acuity of the infants who completed the intervention. However, the results showed that infants with higher RBC levels of n-3 LCPUFA had a better visual acuity at 4 mon of age, suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA may influence visual maturation.

  1. Anticipatory maternal effects in two different clones of Daphnia magna in response to food shortage

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Valeria; Sei, Sandra; Gorbi, Gessica; Moroni, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    The effects of food shortage on growth, fecundity, male production and offspring size and starvation tolerance in two different clones of Daphnia magna (Clone L and Clone P) were evaluated by disentangling the effects of resource depletion and crowding per se. Three experimental conditions were tested: high food - low daphnid density (the optimum), low food - low daphnid density and high food - high daphnid density. In the two first conditions, daphnids experienced the same population density...

  2. Maternal and social genetic effects on average daily gain of piglets from birth until weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwman, A. C.; Bergsma, R.; Duijvestein, N.; Bijma, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is heritable social variation in ADG from birth until weaning in piglets. Nursing and the establishment of teat order are sources of social interaction among suckling piglets nursed by the same sow. If a heritable social effect is present, but ignored, the selected animals might be the most competitive ones with negative effects on growth of their group mates, resulting in less response to selection than expected. The social interaction m...

  3. Interaction Effects between Maternal Lifetime Depressive/Anxiety Disorders and Correlates of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Genevieve; Bergeron, Lise; Cyr, Mireille; Berthiaume, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the interaction effects between mother's lifetime depressive/anxiety disorders and psychosocial correlates of 6 to 11 year-old children's self-reported externalizing symptoms in the Quebec Child Mental Health Survey. A representative subsample of 1,490 Quebec children aged 6 to 11 years was selected from the original sample. We…

  4. Mothers Caring for an Adult Child with Schizophrenia: The Effects of Subjective Burden on Maternal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jan Steven; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined long-term effects that burdens associated with coping with mental illness have on parental health. Data from 81 mothers of adult children with schizophrenia revealed that subjective burdens associated with stigma and worries were related to lower levels of physical well-being among the mothers. (Author/NB)

  5. Effects of prepartum ingestion of Ipomoea carnea on postpartum maternal and neonate behavior in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoea carnea (I. carnea) is a toxic plant that grows in tropical areas, and is readily consumed by grazing goats. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects on dams and k...

  6. Mother Knows Best: Epigenetic Inheritance, Maternal Effects, and the Evolution of Human Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary evolution biology has recognized the role of development in evolution. Evolutionarily oriented psychologists have similarly recognized the role that behavioral plasticity, particularly early in development, may have had on the evolution of species, harking back to the ideas of Baldwin (the Baldwin effect). Epigenetic theories of…

  7. Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Berg, A.H. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S.J.; Hinton, D.E. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M. [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

    1999-02-01

    PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

  8. The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil Eficacia de intervenciones en la comunidad para mejorar la salud maternoinfantil en el nordeste de Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Emond; Jon Pollock; Nilma da Costa; Técia Maranhão; Albanita Macedo

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilitie...

  9. Búsqueda intencionada y reclasificación de muertes maternas en México: el efecto en la distribución de las causas / Intentional search and reclassification of maternal deaths in Mexico: The effect on the distribution of causes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Manuel, Torres; Ana Luisa, Rhenals; Aline, Jiménez; Dolores, Ramírez-Villalobos; Rocío, Urióstegui; Miriam, Piña; Humberto, Rocha.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Corregir la mala clasificación y mejorar la calidad de la información sobre la mortalidad materna en México. Material y métodos. A través de los registros clínicos y autopsias verbales, se estudiaron todas las defunciones certificadas como maternas y una selección de defunciones de mujeres [...] en edad fértil, cuyas causas fueron consideradas como sospechosas de encubrir una muerte materna; todas ocurridas durante 2011 en México. Resultados. La búsqueda intencionada y reclasificación de muertes maternas permitió rescatar más de 100 muertes que no habían sido registradas ni codificadas inicialmente como maternas y se ratificaron o rectificaron las causas anotadas en los certificados de defunción. Este procedimiento también permitió reclasificar como muertes maternas 297 defunciones de la base preliminar del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. Conclusiones. La Búsqueda Intencionada y Reclasificación de Muertes Maternas es un procedimiento muy útil para mejorar la calidad de la información sobre la mortalidad materna. Abstract in english Objective. To correct the misclassification and improve the quality of information on maternal mortality in Mexico. Materials and methods. Using clinical records and verbal autopsies, we studied all deaths certified as maternal deaths as well as a selection of deaths of women of childbearing age who [...] se causes were considered as suspected of hiding a maternal death, all of which occurred during 2011 within Mexico. Results. The deliberate search of maternal deaths and reclassification allowed the rescue of just over 100 deaths that were not originally registered or coded as maternal and confirmed or corrected the causes of death recorded on death certificates as confirmed maternal deaths. This procedure also allowed the reclassification of 297 maternal deaths of women in the groundwork of the National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Conclusions. International Search and Reclassification of Maternal Deaths is a very useful procedure for improving the classification of cases that were not classified as maternal deaths and the effect was greater with the coding of indirect obstetric deaths.

  10. Maternal influences on cord blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, S J; Karchmer, S; Schnaas, L; Perroni, E; Zea, F; Salinas, V; Fernández Alba, J

    1996-01-01

    We constructed models of umbilical cord blood lead (PbB), with and without the addition of maternal PbB at delivery and earlier in pregnancy, to determine which factors explaining cord PbB depended upon maternal PbB and which did not. We prospectively studied women of low-to-middle socioeconomic status who lived in the Valley of Mexico from 12 weeks of pregnancy to delivery. We measured maternal venous PbB during pregnancy and at delivery, and umbilical cord PbB (1-38 micrograms/dl, 0.05-1.83 mumol/l). We used multiple regression analyses to model cord PbB and a logit analysis to model the maternal-cord PbB relationship. Older mothers using lead-glazed pottery and canned foods delivered babies with increased cord PbB, while those with occasional alcohol use during pregnancy, high milk intake, and more spontaneous abortions delivered babies with lower cord PbB. Maternal PbB at 36 weeks of pregnancy and at delivery independently explained additional variance in cord PbB, but maternal PbB earlier in pregnancy did not. Some of the effects of lead-glazed pottery, maternal abortions, alcohol use, and canned food use on cord PbB were mediated through maternal PbB. The effects of maternal age and milk intake on cord PbB were independent of their influence on maternal PbB near delivery. Cord PbBs were higher than maternal PbBs at delivery in 33% of the cases, and were predominant in mothers over 30 and those drinking milk less than once per day. Measurable influence of maternal PbB on delivery cord PbB is limited to the four to eight weeks prior to delivery. Many factors suspected of influencing bone lead also control cord PbB, some of them independently of their effect on maternal delivery PbB. Minimizing fetal exposure near the end of pregnancy may require long-term control of maternal lead exposure and good management of pregnancy and diet. PMID:8792298

  11. Effect of Maternal Morphine Sulfate Exposure on Neuronal Plasticity of Dentate Gyrus in Balb/c Mice Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaboli Kafshgiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effects of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation period on the neuronal cells of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days Balb/c mice offspring. In this experimental study 10 female mice were randomly allocated into cases and controls. In experimental group, animals were received morphine sulfate 10 mg/kg/body weight intraperitoneally during 7 days before mating, gestational period (GD0-21, 18 and 32 days after delivery. The control animals were received an equivalent volume normal saline. Cerebrum of six infant for each group were removed and stained with cresyl violet and monoclonal anti-neuronal nuclei (NeuN antibody. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on dentate gyrus of hippocampus. In the P18 mice , the numbers of granular cells in dentate gyrus medial blade and dentate gyrus lateral blade significantly reduced from 171.45±4.2 and 174.51±3.1 cells in control group to 153.32±2.8 and 151.23±3.2 cells in 10000 ?m2 area of granular layer in treated group (p<0.001. In P32 mice the numbers of granular cells in mb and lb of dentate gyrus significantly decreased from 155.31±4.1 and 153.77±3.4 in control group to 138.33±4.5 and 135.13±4.3 in treated group, respectively (p<0.001. The granular layer thickness in mb and lb area of dentate gyrus significantly reduced in treated mice in compared to controls in P18 and P32 mice (p<0.05. This study revealed that morphine administration before, during pregnancy and lactation period causes neuronal cells loss of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days old infant mice.

  12. Longitudinal Effects of Adaptability on Behavior Problems and Maternal Depression in Families of Adolescents with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Research on families of individuals with autism has tended to focus on child-driven effects utilizing models of stress and coping. The current study used a family-systems perspective to examine whether family-level adaptability promoted beneficial outcomes for mothers and their adolescents with autism over time. Participants were 149 families of children diagnosed with autism who were between the ages of 10 and 22 years during the three-year period examined. Mothers reported on family adaptab...

  13. Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen Guilherme O; Filho Plínio VM; de B Machado Julia; Chatkin José M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the levels of urinary cot...

  14. Developmental Programming Resulting from Maternal Obesity: Effects on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Calvert; Lefer, David J.; Gundewar, Susheel; Poston, Lucilla; Coetzee, William A.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive number of epidemiological and animal studies suggest that prenatal and early life events are important determinants for disorders later in life. Among them, prenatal stress (i.e. stress experienced by the pregnant mother with impact on the fetal ontogeny) has clear programming effects on the cardiovascular system. A fetus developing under adverse conditions becomes an adult who is susceptible to disease, which may include hypertension, insulin resistance, altered blood lipid l...

  15. It's not your mother's marijuana: effects on maternal-fetal health and the developing child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tamara D; Roussos-Ross, Dikea; Behnke, Marylou

    2014-12-01

    Pro-marijuana advocacy efforts exemplified by the "medical" marijuana movement, coupled with the absence of conspicuous public health messages about the potential dangers of marijuana use during pregnancy, could lead to greater use of today's more potent marijuana, which could have significant short- and long-term consequences. This article reviews the current literature regarding the effects of prenatal marijuana use on the pregnant woman and her offspring. PMID:25459779

  16. Prenatal enrichment and recovery from perinatal cortical damage: effects of maternal complex housing

    OpenAIRE

    Robbin Gibb; Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group) for 12 hours per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their ho...

  17. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and effects on neonatal anthropometry: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    BOLAT, Fatih; Eren, Özge; BOLAT, Güher; CAN, Emrah; Cömert, Serdar; USLU, Hasan Sinan; NUHO?LU, Asiye

    2012-01-01

    To identify risk factors associated with cigarette smoking during pregnancy and to evaluate the effect of smoking on anthropometric measurements. Materials and methods: This study was carried out prospectively in selected women who gave birth to a healthy, term infant at ?i?li Etfal Education and Research Hospital from January 2009 to January 2010. Smoking status during pregnancy was categorized into 3 groups: nonsmoker; smoker; passive smoker. Regression analysis was performed to compare ...

  18. Effect of Maternal Smoking on Breast Milk Interleukin-1?, ?-Endorphin, and Leptin Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Nicolussi, Silvia; Cavallin, Stefania; Trevisanuto, Daniele; BARBATO, ANGELO; Faggian, Diego; Favaro, Flaviano; Plebani, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is immunotoxic, but the effect of smoking on the immunologic function of the mammary gland of mothers who smoke cigarettes (“smoker mothers”) has not been studied. Our objective was to test, in smoker mothers, the colostral and transitional milk concentrations of interleukin-(IL)1?. The immunomodulators ?-endorphin and leptin were also tested. Pregnant women who self-identified as smokers (? 5 cigarettes per day through pregnancy) or nonsmokers were recruited for study p...

  19. Comparison of the effects of perinatal and neonatal administration of sodium ferulate on repair following excitotoxic neuronal damages induced by maternal oral administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our previous studies have revealed that ferulic acid (FA and sodium ferulate (SF show significant protective effect on excitotoxicity, the present study was conducted to compare its potential favorable effects of maternal?newborn?and both maternal and newborn intraperitoneal (ip injection of SF on repair following excitotoxic neuronal damages induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG. Methods: The maternal mice were assigned randomly into seven groups (n = 10 animals in each group: control, 3SF, 20SF, 23SF, MSG, MSG + 3SF, MSG + 20SF, MSG + 23SF groups. The mice at 17 days of pregnancy were treated with or without MSG (2.0 g/kg body weight, ig, once or/and SF (40 mg/kg body weight, ip, and their offerings treated with or without SF. And then their filial behaviors and hippocampal histopathology were studied. Results: The results showed that maternal, newborn, and both maternal and newborn administration of SF facilitated their filial brain repair, and attenuated the behavioral disorders and histopathological damages of their filial mice in MSG + 3SF, MSG + 20SF, and MSG + 23SF groups in varying degrees. However, the best effects were detected in the filial mice in MSG + 23SF group. Conclusion: Both maternal and newborn administration of SF is conducive to the filial neuronal repair following excitotoxic damages induced by glutamate.

  20. Modelagem do efeito materno e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos para pesos corporais de caprinos Anglo Nubiano / Modeling the maternal effect and estimation of genetic parameters for body weights of Anglo Nubian goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gleyson Vieira dos, Santos; José Ernandes Rufino de, Sousa; José Lindenberg Rocha, Sarmento; Severino Cavalcante de, Sousa Júnior; Wandrick Hauss de, Sousa; Daniel, Biagiotti; Natanael Pereira da Silva, Santos; Aurino de Araujo, Rêgo Neto.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o modelo mais adequado, bem como estimar os parâmetros genéticos do peso ao nascimento até os 196 dias de idade de caprinos da raça Anglo-nubiana. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML), utilizando o pro [...] grama WOMBAT. Doze diferentes modelos animais foram ajustados por meio da inclusão ou exclusão do efeito genético materno, ambiente permanente materno, ambiente temporário materno e a covariância genética entre os efeitos direto e materno. Com base no critério de informação Bayesiano de Schwarz (BIC), o modelo II, que incluiu os efeitos genético direto e de ambiente temporário da mãe, foi o mais apropriado para todas as características. O efeito de ambiente temporário materno foi a mais importante fonte de variação. Este efeito contribuiu com 33% a 44% da variação fenotípica de acordo com o peso analisado. Estes resultados indicam que a seleção para efeitos direto e/ou materno em caprinos da raça Anglo-nubiana podem gerar progresso genético em características de crescimento. Abstract in english The aim of the study were to determine the most appropriate model, and to estimate genetic parameters of birth weight to the 196 day-old Anglo-Nubian breed goat. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML procedure using WOMBAT program. Twelve different animal models were fitted by including or exclu [...] ding maternal genetic effect, maternal permanent environmental effect, maternal temporary environmental effect and covariance between direct-maternal genetic effects. On the basis of Bayesian information criterion results, model II, which included direct genetic and maternal temporary environmental effects, was determined to be the most appropriate model for both traits. The maternal temporary environmental effect was the most important source of variation for both traits. This effect contributed about 33% at 44% to the phenotypic variance for weight analized. These results indicate that selecting for improved maternal and/or direct effects in Anglo-nubian goats would generate genetic progress in growth traits.

  1. The Effect of Maternity Leave on Women's Pay in Germany 1984-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Ondrich, Jan I.; Spieß, Christa Katharina; Yang, Qing

    2002-01-01

    In 1986 German federal parental leave and benefit policy was expanded in several ways, extending the potential duration of leave from six to ten months and paying child-rearing benefits to all new mothers regardless of their employment status before childbirth. The potential duration has increased four times since 1986 and stood at 18 months in 1991 and three years starting in 1992. This study uses log-wage difference regressions to examine the effect of leave taken by the mother on wage grow...

  2. Maternal health care amid political unrest: the effect of armed conflict on antenatal care utilization in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James I; Bohara, Alok K

    2013-05-01

    Armed conflicts, which primarily occur in low- and middle-income countries, have profound consequences for the health of affected populations, among them a decrease in the utilization of maternal health care services. The quantitative relationship between armed conflict and maternal health care utilization has received limited attention in the public health literature. We evaluate this relationship for a particular type of health care service, antenatal care, in Nepal. Using count regression techniques, household survey data and sub-national conflict data, we find a negative correlation between the number of antenatal care visits and incidents of conflict-related violence within a respondent's village development committee. Specifically, we find that under high-intensity conflict conditions women receive between 0.3 and 1.5 fewer antenatal care check-ups. These findings imply that maternal health care utilization is partially determined by characteristics of the social environment (e.g. political instability) and suggest health care providers need to revise maternal health strategies in conflict-affected areas. Strategies may include decentralization of services, maintaining neutrality among factions, strengthening community-based health services and developing mobile clinics. PMID:22773608

  3. Effects of inadequate maternal dietary protein:carbohydrate ratios during pregnancy on offspring immunity in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuchscherer Margret

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate nutrition in utero may retard foetal growth and alter physiological development of offspring. This study investigated the effects of low and high protein diets fed to primiparous German Landrace sows throughout pregnancy on the immune function of their offspring at different ages. Sows were fed diets with adequate (AP, 12.1%; n?=?13, low (LP, 6.5%; n?=?15, or high (HP, 30%; n?=?14 protein content, made isoenergetic by varying carbohydrate levels. Cortisol, total protein and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA concentrations were measured in the blood of sows over the course of pregnancy. Cortisol, total protein, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation, immune cell counts, and cytokines were assessed in the blood of offspring at baseline and under challenging conditions (weaning; lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration. Results In sows, the LP diet increased cortisol (P?P?P?P?+ cell percentage and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio increased after weaning (P?P?=?0.09 and HP (P?P? Conclusions Our results indicate that both low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant sows can induce short-term as well as long-lasting effects on immune competence in piglets that may have serious consequences for host defence against bacterial pathogens.

  4. Effects of maternally administered sulphur-35 on the pre- and postnatal mortality and development in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was taken up to screen the effects of 35S on the prenatal development of mouse. Pregnant mice of CBA strain were injected intraperitoneally with a doze of 20 ?Ci of 35S on 10.5 days of gestation and allowed to go to term. No mortality was observed in treated animals. However, a slight reduction in the number of fertile matings was noted in 35S group. But the reduction was statistically insignificant. A significant decrease in litter size was noted in 35S -treated group. While the litter size was 7.5/female in the control, it was 5.9/female in 35S group. The reduced litter size might be due to 35S-induced prenatal mortality. A further reduction in litter size was noted at weaning. This reduction was due to a significant increase in the neo- and postnatal mortality of F1 progeny in the treated group. There was no effect of 35S on the sex ratio and body weights of F1 progeny. (auth.)

  5. Prenatal Enrichment And Recovery From Perinatal Cortical Damage: Effects Of Maternal Complex Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbin Gibb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group for 12 hours per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their home (standard cages with their pups. Four dams were housed in standard cages (cagemom group throughout pregnancy and with their pups until weaning. At postnatal day 3 (P3 infants of both groups received frontal cortex removals or sham surgery. Behavioural testing began on P60 and included the Morris water task and a skilled reaching task. Brains were processed for Golgi analyses. Complex housing of the mother had a significant effect on the behaviour of their pups. Control animals from the condomom group outperformed those of the cagemom group in the water task. Condomom animals with lesions performed better than their cagemom cohorts in both the water task and in skilled reaching. Condomom animals showed an increase in cortical thickness at anterior planes and thalamic area at both anterior and posterior regions. Golgi analyses revealed an increase in spine density. These results suggest that prenatal enrichment alters brain organization in manner that is prophylactic for perinatal brain injury. This result could have significant implications for the prenatal management of infants expected to be at risk for difficult birth.

  6. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jongh Beatriz E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

  7. Effects of induced maternal hypothyroidism on the ovarian development of offspring rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanovi? Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of propylthyouracil (PTU induced hypothyroidism of rats during pregnancy and lactation on offspring ovarian development and maturation were studied. Thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations were determined using the radioimmunoassay method in order to verify the hypothyroid status of treated mothers and their two months old pups. The ovaries of the offspring were processed for light microscopy analysis on the day of the first estrus after the 60th day of age. Histological analysis including follicle count was performed on serial sections stained with haematoxyline/eosin and on semithin sections stained with methylene blue. A significant increase of serum TSH and decrease in T3 and T4 levels was observed in treated mothers compared to controls. The levels of measured hormones in the control and PTU-treated two months old rats were not significantly different. Ten percent of 60-dayold treated females did not reach estrus and they were sacrificed in diestrus. The secondary interstitial cells were the dominant structures in the ovaries. The number of healthy growing and early antral follicles was markedly decreased. Ovaries of treated rats contained relatively few antral follicles, significantly more atretic antral follicles and a decreased number of corpora lutea, compared to controls. These results indicate that lack of thyroid hormones during prenatal and early postnatal development impair ovarian development in rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  8. Effect of maternal age on endometrial morphology among Ghanaian infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaidoo, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more women choose to delay childbearing, increasing numbers of them face age-related fertility problems. Normal endometrial receptivity is essential for the establishment of any pregnancy and its evaluation is thus considered a basic goal in the assessment of female infertility. It is unclear as to whether women who present to infertility clinics at older age have age-related endometrial retar-dation or luteal phase defect. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of luteal phase defect (LPD among infertile women and its relationship with age. Mid-luteal endometrial biopsies were taken from eighty (80 infertile women attending fertility clinics of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Magazine Clinic and the Bomso Specialist Hospital in Kumasi metropolis and ten fertile women as control using dilatation and curettage and then processed for light microscopy. The re-sults show that 65.0% of the biopsies of the infertile women were normal in development hence their infertility could be due to other factors. In 35.0% of the biopsies the endometrial development was out-of-phase and therefore suggestive of a defective luteal phase which may lead to a non-receptive endometrium during the implantation window. There was no significant difference when LPD was analyzed according to age suggesting that ageing has no significant effect on endometri-al retardation from this study.

  9. Immunomodulatory effects of maternal atrazine exposure on male Balb/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide applied to corn, sugar and other crops as a broad leaf weed inhibitor. Using the Balb/c mouse model, we have determined that prenatal/lactational exposure to atrazine alters adult immune function. Pregnant Balb/c dams were exposed subcutaneously for 21 days via time release pellets to 700 ?g per day of atrazine beginning between days 10 and 12 of pregnancy. Prenatal/Lactational exposure caused no overt physical malformations in the offspring and had no effect on the number of litters carried to term or the litter size. Upon reaching early adulthood (approximately 3 months of age), the state of their immune system was evaluated. There were no changes in body weight or in the organ to body weight ratio of the spleen. Additionally, no changes were observed in the number of CD8+ T cell, CD4+ T cell, or B220+ B cell subpopulations in the spleen. T cell function was assessed by measuring proliferation and cytolytic activity after in vitro allogeneic stimulation. Male mice which had been prenatally/lactationally exposed to atrazine had an increase in both T cell proliferation and cytolytic activity. The humoral immune response was assessed after immunization with heat killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (HKSP). There was a significant increase in the number of HKSP-specific IgM secreting B cells in the spleen of prenatal/lactational exposed male mice. Inasmuch as atrazine is a widespread environmental contaminne is a widespread environmental contaminant, this immunopotentiation raises concerns that it may potentiate clinical diseases, such as autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity, and needs to be carefully monitored and studied

  10. Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Guilherme O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the levels of urinary cotinine and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex of both smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. We also looked for a relationship between those findings and fetal growth and birth weight. Methods In a prospective design, thirty pregnant smokers and thirty-four pregnant non-smokers were studied. The volunteers signed consent forms, completed a self-applied questionnaire and were subjected to Doppler velocimetry. Tobacco smoking exposure was quantified by subject provided information and confirmed by the measurement of urinary cotinine levels and by the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex. The weight of newborns was evaluated immediately after birth. Results Comparing smoking to non-smoking pregnant women, a significant increase in the resistance index was observed in the uterine arteries (P = 0.001 and umbilical artery (P = 0.001, and a decrease in the middle cerebral artery (P = 0.450. These findings were associated with progressively higher concentrations of COex and urinary cotinine. A decrease in the birth weight was also detected (P Conclusions In pregnant women who smoke, higher arterial resistance indices and lower birth weights were observed, and these findings were associated with increasing levels of tobacco smoking exposure. The values were significantly different when compared to those found in non-smoking pregnant women. This study contributes to the findings that smoking damage during pregnancy is dose-dependent, as demonstrated by the objective methods for measuring tobacco smoking exposure.

  11. The effects of mothers' singing on full-term and preterm infants and maternal emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of mothers' singing on their adjustment to and bonding with their new infants as well as use of music in the home environment in the first 2 weeks after their infants' birth. Preterm mothers were assessed for coping with their infants' NICU stay, and premature infants' length of hospitalization was evaluated. Fifty-four full-term infants and mothers and 20 premature infants and 16 mothers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Mothers in both experimental groups were recorded singing songs of their choice for use at home. Recordings of each preterm mother's voice were played 20 minutes per day, 3 to 5 times per week, at a time when she was not able to visit her infant in the NICU. All full-term and preterm mothers in experimental and control groups completed a posttest survey 2 weeks after infants were discharged. Comparisons revealed that experimental preterm and full-term mothers indicated less adjustment to their baby and lifestyle changes and less bonding compared to control mothers, though this difference was not significant. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers reported the greatest number of postpartum medical complications, which might explain their poor adjustment and bonding scores. There was a significant difference between mothers' value of music, with preterm experimental valuing music more. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers used music with and sang to infants more compared to preterm and full-term control mothers, but not to a significant degree. Preterm mothers reported a mean score of 4.75 (with a 5 indicating that they strongly agreed) for the following item: knowing my infant listened to my singing helped me to cope with my infant's stay in the NICU. Furthermore, preterm infants who listened to the CD recording of their mothers' singing left the hospital an average of 2 days sooner than those in the control group, though this difference was not significant. PMID:18959452

  12. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave of 32 days. We find limited evidence that the increase in the length of maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effcts on children's later developmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any benecial effects of increasing the length of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families.

  13. Mobilising financial resources for maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Jo; Ensor, Tim; Somanathan, Aparnaa; Lissner, Craig; Mills, Anne

    2006-10-21

    Coverage of cost-effective maternal health services remains poor due to insufficient supply and inadequate demand for these services among the poorest groups. Households pay too great a share of the costs of maternal health services, or do not seek care because they cannot afford the costs. Available evidence creates a strong case for removal of user fees and provision of universal coverage for pregnant women, particularly for delivery care. To be successful, governments must also replenish the income lost through the abolition of user fees. Where insurance schemes exist, maternal health care needs to be included in the benefits package, and careful design is needed to ensure uptake by the poorest people. Voucher schemes should be tested in low-income settings, and their costs and relative cost-effectiveness assessed. Further research is needed on methods to target financial assistance for transport and time costs. Current investment in maternal health is insufficient to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG), and much greater resources are needed to scale up coverage of maternal health services and create demand. Existing global estimates are too crude to be of use for domestic planning, since resource requirements will vary; budgets need first to be developed at country-level. Donors need to increase financial contributions for maternal health in low-income countries to help fill the resource gap. Resource tracking at country and donor levels will help hold countries and donors to account for their commitments to achieving the maternal health MDG. PMID:17055948

  14. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    OpenAIRE

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship be...

  15. The effect of hospital volume on maternal outcomes in women with prior cesarean delivery undergoing trial of labor

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jen Jen; Stamilio, David M; Macones, George A

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the association between hospital volume of vaginal delivery after cesarean (VBAC) and VBAC failure, uterine rupture, and maternal morbidity. This study was a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study from 1995 to 2000. Trained nurses extracted medical records of more than 25,000 women with a prior cesarean delivery from 17 community and tertiary care hospitals. Detailed Information was obtained for each patient. The study sample included 12,844 women with prior c...

  16. Effect of maternal alcohol consumption on gestational diabetes detection and mother-infant’s outcomes in Kinshasa, DR Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Tandu-Umba Barthélémy; Mbangama Muela Andy; Mbungu Mwimba Roger

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Since it has been suggested that moderate alcohol drinking would increase insulin sensitivity, which could benefit Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), the study aimed at evaluating alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and seeing whether this consumption influences GDM detection and maternal/perinatal outcomes. Study design: Women with already known diabetes and those with multiple pregnancy were excluded. All other pregnant women attending antenatal care unit of the university c...

  17. Effect of Passive Immunization or Maternally Transferred Immunity on the Antibody Response to a Genetic Vaccine to Rabies Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yijie; Xiang, Zhiquan; Pasquini, Susanna; Ertl, Hildegund C. J.

    1998-01-01

    A plasmid vector, termed pSG5rab.gp, expressing the glycoprotein of rabies virus was tested in young adult or neonatal mice in the presence of maternally transferred immunity or passively administered antibodies to rabies virus for induction of an antibody response. Mice born to rabies virus-immune dams developed an impaired antibody response to genetic immunization at 6 weeks of age, as had been previously observed upon vaccination with an inactivated viral vaccine. Similarly, mice passively...

  18. Some of the experimental and clinical aspects of the effects of the maternal diabetes on developing hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hami, Javad; Shojae, Fatemeh; Vafaee-Nezhad, Saeed; Lotfi, Nasim; Kheradmand, Hamed; Haghir, Hossein

    2015-04-15

    Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of multiple congenital anomalies in progeny. There are sufficient evidence suggesting that the children of diabetic women exhibit intellectual and behavioral abnormalities accompanied by modification of hippocampus structure and function. Although, the exact mechanism by which maternal diabetes affects the developing hippocampus remains to be defined. Multiple biological alterations, including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and iron deficiency occur in pregnancies with diabetes and affect the development of central nervous system (CNS) of the fetus. The conclusion from several studies is that disturbance in glucose and insulin homeostasis in mothers and infants are major teratogenic factor in the development of CNS. Insulin and Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are two key regulators of CNS function and development. Insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR and IGF1R, respectively) are distributed in a highly specific pattern with the high density in some brain regions such as hippocampus. Recent researches have clearly established that maternal diabetes disrupts the regulation of both IR and IGF1R in the hippocampus of rat newborn. Dissecting out the mechanisms responsible for maternal diabetes-related changes in the development of hippocampus is helping to prevent from impaired cognitive and memory functions in offspring. PMID:25897352

  19. Direct and Indirect Effects of Maternal and Peer Influences on Sexual Intention among Urban African American and Hispanic Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Cederbaum, Julie; Sathoff, Chelsea; Toro, Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Peer and family influences are interconnected in complex ways. These influences shape adolescent decision-making regarding engagement in sexual behaviors. Evidence indicates the more proximal (and direct) a process is to an individual, the more likely it is to affect his/her development and behavior. Therefore, family factors (e.g., parenting practices) and peer influence (e.g., peer norms) tend to be more strongly associated with adolescent behavior than distal factors (e.g., media or the economy). Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored how maternal influence variables interact with perceptions of peer influence to affect daughters' intentions to have sex. A nonprobability sample of 176 mother-daughter dyads was recruited in clinics and service organizations in the northeastern United States. Results from path analysis revealed that maternal influence variables had a significant indirect relationship with daughters' intentions to have sex through daughters' perceptions of peer influence. Maternal processes can act as protective factors for adolescent girls who perceive their peers are engaged in sexual behaviors. Therefore, risk reduction interventions with adolescents should include opportunities for parents to learn about sex-related issues and develop skills that will allow them to buffer negative peer influence. PMID:25422533

  20. Climate change and the potential effects on maternal and pregnancy outcomes: an assessment of the most vulnerable--the mother, fetus, and newborn child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Charlotta; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented a large amount of evidence about global warming and the impact of human activities on global climate change. The Lancet Commission have identified a number of ways in which climate change can influence human health: lack of food and safe drinking water, poor sanitation, population migration, changing disease patterns and morbidity, more frequent extreme weather events, and lack of shelter. Pregnant women, the developing fetus, and young children are considered the most vulnerable members of our species and are already marginalized in many countries. Therefore, they may have increased sensitivity to the effects of climate change. Published literature in the fields of climate change, human health, tropical diseases, and direct heat exposure were assessed through the regular search engines. This article demonstrates that climate change will increase the risk of infant and maternal mortality, birth complications, and poorer reproductive health, especially in tropical, developing countries. Thus, climate change will have a substantial impact on the health and survival of the next generation among already challenged populations. There is limited knowledge regarding which regions will be most heavily affected. Research efforts are therefore required to identify the most vulnerable populations, fill knowledge gaps, and coordinate efforts to reduce negative health consequences. The effects of malnutrition, infectious diseases, environmental problems, and direct heat exposure on maternal health outcomes will lead to severe health risks for mothers and children. Increased focus on antenatal care is recommended to prevent worsening maternal health and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Interventions to reduce the negative health impacts caused by climate change are also crucial. Every effort should be made to develop and maintain good antenatal care during extreme life conditions as a result of climate change. PMID:23481091

  1. Climate change and the potential effects on maternal and pregnancy outcomes: an assessment of the most vulnerable – the mother, fetus, and newborn child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Rylander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC presented a large amount of evidence about global warming and the impact of human activities on global climate change. The Lancet Commission have identified a number of ways in which climate change can influence human health: lack of food and safe drinking water, poor sanitation, population migration, changing disease patterns and morbidity, more frequent extreme weather events, and lack of shelter. Pregnant women, the developing fetus, and young children are considered the most vulnerable members of our species and are already marginalized in many countries. Therefore, they may have increased sensitivity to the effects of climate change. Published literature in the fields of climate change, human health, tropical diseases, and direct heat exposure were assessed through the regular search engines. This article demonstrates that climate change will increase the risk of infant and maternal mortality, birth complications, and poorer reproductive health, especially in tropical, developing countries. Thus, climate change will have a substantial impact on the health and survival of the next generation among already challenged populations. There is limited knowledge regarding which regions will be most heavily affected. Research efforts are therefore required to identify the most vulnerable populations, fill knowledge gaps, and coordinate efforts to reduce negative health consequences. The effects of malnutrition, infectious diseases, environmental problems, and direct heat exposure on maternal health outcomes will lead to severe health risks for mothers and children. Increased focus on antenatal care is recommended to prevent worsening maternal health and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Interventions to reduce the negative health impacts caused by climate change are also crucial. Every effort should be made to develop and maintain good antenatal care during extreme life conditions as a result of climate change.

  2. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Per

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased risk of maternal worry was found if the mother herself had type 1 diabetes (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.2-4.78. Conclusions This study did not find evidence supporting the notion that genetic risk information about newborns has a negative impact on the mental health of Norwegian mothers.

  3. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  4. Maternal self-esteem, exposure to lead, and child neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O

    2008-03-01

    The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers' self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance. PMID:18261800

  5. EL CAFÉ Y SUS EFECTOS EN LA SALUD CARDIOVASCULAR Y EN LA SALUD MATERNA / COFFEE, CAFFEINE, AND ITS EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND MATERNAL HEALTH

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso, Valenzuela B.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La cafeína es el principal componente activo del café y los efectos del consumo de café se asocian mayoritariamente a la cafeína, una metilxantina que actúa como antagonista de los receptores de adenina en el sistema nervioso. Son numerosos los efectos en la salud atribuidos a la cafeína, siendo alg [...] unos benéficos y otros deletéreos: en la salud cardiovascular, diabetes tipo 2, tolerancia a la glucosa y sensibilidad a la insulina, en la cinosis hepática y el carcinoma hepatocelular, entre otros efectos. Este artículo realiza una revisión de dos aspectos de preocupación en la salud pública relacionados con el consumo de café y la cafeína: su efecto en la salud cardiovascular y en la salud maternal (período perinatal). La conclusión general es que el consumo de cafeína, hasta 300 mg/día, no constituye un mayor riesgo de infarto al miocardio, de hipertensión, o de modificación de los niveles plasmáticos de indicadores de riesgo cardiovascular, como la proteína C reactiva y la homocisteína. En relación a la salud maternal, las conclusiones son similares, un consumo moderado de cafeína (300 mg/día o menos) no constituye un riesgo de menor concepción, de diabetes gestacional, de menor crecimiento fetal, o de defectos congénitos. La ausencia de riesgo, sin embargo, no constituye un estímulo al consumo de café durante el embarazo. Si el consumo de café por parte de la futura madre es moderado, puede considerarse la continuación del consumo durante el embarazo bajo supervisión médica. Abstract in english Caffeine is the principal active component of coffee and the effects of coffee consumption are mainly associated to this component. Caffeine is a methylxanthine, which acts as antagonist of adenine receptors at the nervous system. A great number of health effects, both beneficial and detrimental, ha [...] ve been associated to caffeine consumption: such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, hepatic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, are included as the main targets. The present work reviews two of the main concerns about coffee and caffeine consumption: cardiovascular disease and maternal health (perinatal period). The general conclusion is that caffeine consumption up to 300 mg/day does not constitute a risk of myocardial infarction, hypertension, or modification of cardiovascular risk markers such as reactive C protein or homocysteine plasmatic levels. Similar conclusions are reached about the maternal health. Moderate caffeine consumption (300 mg/day or less) does not constitute a major risk of less conception, increased gestational diabetes, decrease fetal growth, or congenital defects. However, absence frisk may not be interpreted as a signal to stimulate coffee consumption during pregnancy. Future mothers, which are moderated coffee consumers, may be suggested to continue this consumption during pregnancy, but under medical supervision.

  6. EL CAFÉ Y SUS EFECTOS EN LA SALUD CARDIOVASCULAR Y EN LA SALUD MATERNA COFFEE, CAFFEINE, AND ITS EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND MATERNAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Valenzuela B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La cafeína es el principal componente activo del café y los efectos del consumo de café se asocian mayoritariamente a la cafeína, una metilxantina que actúa como antagonista de los receptores de adenina en el sistema nervioso. Son numerosos los efectos en la salud atribuidos a la cafeína, siendo algunos benéficos y otros deletéreos: en la salud cardiovascular, diabetes tipo 2, tolerancia a la glucosa y sensibilidad a la insulina, en la cinosis hepática y el carcinoma hepatocelular, entre otros efectos. Este artículo realiza una revisión de dos aspectos de preocupación en la salud pública relacionados con el consumo de café y la cafeína: su efecto en la salud cardiovascular y en la salud maternal (período perinatal. La conclusión general es que el consumo de cafeína, hasta 300 mg/día, no constituye un mayor riesgo de infarto al miocardio, de hipertensión, o de modificación de los niveles plasmáticos de indicadores de riesgo cardiovascular, como la proteína C reactiva y la homocisteína. En relación a la salud maternal, las conclusiones son similares, un consumo moderado de cafeína (300 mg/día o menos no constituye un riesgo de menor concepción, de diabetes gestacional, de menor crecimiento fetal, o de defectos congénitos. La ausencia de riesgo, sin embargo, no constituye un estímulo al consumo de café durante el embarazo. Si el consumo de café por parte de la futura madre es moderado, puede considerarse la continuación del consumo durante el embarazo bajo supervisión médica.Caffeine is the principal active component of coffee and the effects of coffee consumption are mainly associated to this component. Caffeine is a methylxanthine, which acts as antagonist of adenine receptors at the nervous system. A great number of health effects, both beneficial and detrimental, have been associated to caffeine consumption: such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, hepatic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, are included as the main targets. The present work reviews two of the main concerns about coffee and caffeine consumption: cardiovascular disease and maternal health (perinatal period. The general conclusion is that caffeine consumption up to 300 mg/day does not constitute a risk of myocardial infarction, hypertension, or modification of cardiovascular risk markers such as reactive C protein or homocysteine plasmatic levels. Similar conclusions are reached about the maternal health. Moderate caffeine consumption (300 mg/day or less does not constitute a major risk of less conception, increased gestational diabetes, decrease fetal growth, or congenital defects. However, absence frisk may not be interpreted as a signal to stimulate coffee consumption during pregnancy. Future mothers, which are moderated coffee consumers, may be suggested to continue this consumption during pregnancy, but under medical supervision.

  7. Effects of diesel engine exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols on novel object recognition ability and maternal behavior in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujitani, Yuji; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Furuyama, Akiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE) in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs) produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control), DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week) and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-?, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively. PMID:25361045

  8. A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girón Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. Methods and design 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. Control group: usual prenatal care (PC and placebo (maltodextrine. 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg, selenium (70 ?g, vitamin A (400 ?g, alphatocopherol (30 mg, vitamin C (200 mg, and niacin (100 mg. 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Discussion Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. Trial registration NCT00872365.

  9. The effect of acetaminophen on the expression of BCRP in trophoblast cells impairs the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Alba G; Briz, Oscar; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ester; Perez, Maria J; Ghanem, Carolina I; Marin, Jose J G

    2014-05-15

    Acetaminophen is used as first-choice drug for pain relief during pregnancy. Here we have investigated the effect of acetaminophen at subtoxic doses on the expression of ABC export pumps in trophoblast cells and its functional repercussion on the placental barrier during maternal cholestasis. The incubation of human choriocarcinoma cells (JAr, JEG-3 and BeWo) with acetaminophen for 48h resulted in no significant changes in the expression and/or activity of MDR1 and MRPs. In contrast, in JEG-3 cells, BCRP mRNA, protein, and transport activity were reduced. In rat placenta, collected at term, acetaminophen administration for the last three days of pregnancy resulted in enhanced mRNA, but not protein, levels of Mrp1 and Bcrp. In fact, a decrease in Bcrp protein was found. Using in situ perfused rat placenta, a reduction in the Bcrp-dependent fetal-to-maternal bile acid transport after treating the dams with acetaminophen was found. Complete biliary obstruction in pregnant rats induced a significant bile acid accumulation in fetal serum and tissues, which was further enhanced when the mothers were treated with acetaminophen. This drug induced increased ROS production in JEG-3 cells and decreased the total glutathione content in rat placenta. Moreover, the NRF2 pathway was activated in JEG-3 cells as shown by an increase in nuclear NRF2 levels and an up-regulation of NRF2 target genes, NQO1 and HMOX-1, which was not observed in rat placenta. In conclusion, acetaminophen induces in placenta oxidative stress and a down-regulation of BCRP/Bcrp, which may impair the placental barrier to bile acids during maternal cholestasis. PMID:24631341

  10. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development. PMID:23512648

  11. Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levelure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

  12. Maternal Near Miss: An Indicator for Maternal Health and Maternal Care

    OpenAIRE

    Chhabra, Pragti

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and cr...

  13. Asma na gestação: efeitos na vitalidade fetal, complicações maternas e perinatais / Asthma during pregnancy: effects on fetal well-being, and maternal and perinatal complications

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Franco Pimentel, Mendes; Roseli Mieko Yamamoto, Nomura; Cristiane, Ortigosa; Rossana Pulcineli Vieira, Francisco; Marcelo, Zugaib.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da asma materna sobre a gravidez, analisando as repercussões da gravidade da doença no comprometimento do bem-estar fetal, bem como as complicações maternas e perinatais associadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de 117 gestações complicadas pela asma matern [...] a e sem outras comorbidades, no período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2010. Os critérios de inclusão foram: gestação única; diagnóstico de asma prévio à gestação; início do pré-natal antes da 28ª semana de gravidez; parto realizado na instituição; peso do recém-nascido acima de 500g e idade gestacional no parto acima de 22 semanas; ausência de malformações fetais ou anomalias cromossômicas; ausência de comorbidades maternas. A gravidade da asma foi classificada em intermitente, persistente leve, persistente moderada, persistente grave. Foram analisados os resultados do perfil biofísico fetal e da dopplervelocimetria de artéria umbilical realizados até 14 dias antes do parto. RESULTADOS: Do total de 117 gestantes asmáticas analisadas: 41 (35,0%) eram intermitentes, 33 (28,2%) persistentes leves, 21 (17,9%) persistentes moderadas e 22 (18,8%) persistentes graves. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto ao tipo de parto: a cesárea foi realizada em 65,8% dos casos, a corticoterapia materna no momento do parto em 20,5%, a idade gestacional no parto apresentou média de 38,6 semanas (DP 1,9 semanas) e o peso ao nascimento apresentou média de 3056 g (DP 581 g). O perfil biofísico fetal realizado no período anteparto (n = 90, 76,9%) apresentou resultado normal (8 ou 10) em 99% dos casos. A dopplervelocimetria de artéria umbilical foi avaliada em 23,9% (n = 28) das gestantes, e apresentou-se normal em 100% dos casos. O uso de corticoterapia sistêmica foi significativamente (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of maternal asthma on pregnancy, analyzing the consequences of the severity of the disease in the impairment of fetal well-being, as well as the related maternal and perinatal complications. METHODS: A retrospective study with 117 pregnancies complicated by maternal [...] asthma and with no other comorbidities, in the period from January, 2005 to December, 2010. Inclusion criteriawere as follows: singleton pregnancy; pregnantwomen diagnosed with asthma prior to pregnancy; initiation of prenatal care before the 28th week of pregnancy; birth at this institution; newborn weighing over 500 g and gestational age at delivery of 22 weeks or more; absence of fetal malformations or chromosomal abnormalities; absence of maternal comorbidities. Asthma was classified as intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, or severe persistent. The results of fetal biophysical profile and of Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery performed 14 days prior to birth were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the total of 117 pregnant women with asthma, 41 (35.0%) had intermittent, 33 (28.2%) mild persistent, 21 (17.9%) moderate persistent, and 22 (18.8%) severe persistent asthma. There was no significant difference among the groups as to the type of birth: cesarean section was performed in 65.8% of the cases, maternal corticosteroid therapy was used at the moment of birth in 20.5%, the gestational age at birth averaged 38.6 weeks (SD 1.9 weeks), and birth weight averaged 3,056 g (SD 581 g). The fetal biophysical profile performed during the antepartum period (n = 90, 76.9%) showed a normal result (8 or 10) in 99% of the cases. Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery was assessed in 23.9% (n = 28) of the pregnant women, and delivered normal results in 100% of the cases. The use of systemic corticosteroid therapy was significantly (p

  14. Repeated gestational exposure of mice to chlorpyrifos oxon is associated with paraoxonase 1 (PON1) modulated effects in maternal and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Toby B; Li, Wan-Fen; Co, Aila L; Hay, Ariel M; MacDonald, James W; Bammler, Theo K; Farin, Federico M; Costa, Lucio G; Furlong, Clement E

    2014-10-01

    Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), the toxic metabolite of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos, causes developmental neurotoxicity in humans and rodents. CPO is hydrolyzed by paraoxonase-1 (PON1), with protection determined by PON1 levels and the human Q192R polymorphism. To examine how the Q192R polymorphism influences fetal toxicity associated with gestational CPO exposure, we measured enzyme inhibition and fetal-brain gene expression in wild-type (PON1(+/+)), PON1-knockout (PON1(-/-)), and tgHuPON1R192 and tgHuPON1Q192 transgenic mice. Pregnant mice exposed dermally to 0, 0.50, 0.75, or 0.85 mg/kg/d CPO from gestational day (GD) 6 through 17 were sacrificed on GD18. Biomarkers of CPO exposure inhibited in maternal tissues included brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), red blood cell acylpeptide hydrolase (APH), and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CES). Fetal plasma BChE was inhibited in PON1(-/-) and tgHuPON1Q192, but not PON1(+/+) or tgHuPON1R192 mice. Fetal brain AChE and plasma CES were inhibited in PON1(-/-) mice, but not in other genotypes. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified five gene modules based on clustering of the correlations among their fetal-brain expression values, allowing for correlation of module membership with the phenotypic data on enzyme inhibition. One module that correlated highly with maternal brain AChE activity had a large representation of homeobox genes. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed multiple gene sets affected by gestational CPO exposure in tgHuPON1Q192 but not tgHuPON1R192 mice, including gene sets involved in protein export, lipid metabolism, and neurotransmission. These data indicate that maternal PON1 status modulates the effects of repeated gestational CPO exposure on fetal-brain gene expression and on inhibition of both maternal and fetal biomarker enzymes. PMID:25070982

  15. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  16. Prenatal programming of skeletal development in the offspring: effects of maternal treatment with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on femur properties in pigs at slaughter age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Sliwa, Ewa; Krupski, Witold

    2007-06-01

    Alteration in fetal growth and development in response to prenatal environmental conditions such as nutrition has long-term or permanent effects during postnatal life. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) treatment of sows during the last 2 weeks of pregnancy on programming of skeletal development in the offspring. The study was performed on 141 pigs born by 12 sows of Polish Landrace breed. Two weeks before delivery, pregnant sows were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of control sows (N=6) that were treated with placebo. Sows that were orally treated with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (N=6) at the dosage of 0.05 g/kg of body weight per day belonged to the second group. Newborn piglets were weighed and subjected to blood collection for determination of serum levels of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, leptin, glucose and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity and lipid profile. At the age of 6 months, the piglets were slaughtered, their femur was isolated for analysis and assessment of lean meat content of carcasses was performed. The effects of maternal administration with HMB on skeletal properties in the offspring were evaluated in relation to bone mineral density and geometrical and mechanical properties. Maternal treatment with HMB increased serum levels of GH, IGF-1 and BAP activity in the newborns by 38.0%, 20.0% and 26.0%, respectively (Psecond moment of inertia, mean relative wall thickness and cortical index were significantly increased after HMB treatment (P<0.05). HMB induced higher values of maximum elastic strength and ultimate strength of femur (P<0.01). Furthermore, lean meat content of carcass was significantly increased in the females born by HMB-treated sows (P<0.05). The obtained results showed that maternal administration with HMB has positive long-term effects on bone tissue and improves volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical and mechanical properties of femur in the offspring. These effects were connected with increased level of GH and IGF-1 in the newborns indicating involvement of improved somatotrophic axis function in prenatal programming of skeletal development in pigs. PMID:17433802

  17. Effects of Maternal Nicotine Exposure on Expression of Collagen Type IV and its Roles on Pulmonary Bronchogenesis and Alveolarization in Newborn Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine is one the chemical substance with high level of toxically. It crosses the placenta and accumulates in the developing organs of fetus. Our previous investigations indicated that collagen type IV plays a key role in basement membrane of various embryonic organs. In this study we evaluated the effect of maternal nicotine exposure pre and postnatal period on collagen IV expression during bronchogenesis and alveolarization in the lungs of newborn mice. Female Balb/C mice were mated and Sperm positive in vaginal smear was designated as embryonic day zero. Pregnant mice were divided into 2 experimental and 2 control groups. Experimental group 1, received 3 mg/kg nicotine intrapritoneally from day 5 of gestation to last day of pregnancy. Experimental group 2 received the same amount of nicotine during the same gestational days as well as 2 first week after birth (lactation. The control groups received the same volume of normal saline during the same periods. At the end of exposure times, all of newborns were anesthetized and their lungs were removed for immunohistochemical method.Our finding indicated that collagen reaction in the bronchial basement membrane and extra cellular matrix of lung parenchyma in experimental groups increased significantly compared to control groups. Our results also showed alveolar remodeling and abnormal bronchogenesis were observed in experimental group especially group 2. These data indicate that maternal nicotine exposure may induce abnormal collagen IV expression and cause defects in bronchopulmonary development.

  18. Effects of maternal exposure to cow´s milk high or low in isoflavones on carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis among rat offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Purup, Stig

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal exposure during pregnancy to cow's milk containing endogenous estrogens and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and either high or low levels of isoflavones from dietary legumes (HIM and LIM, respectively) affected carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given HIM, LIM or tap water (control) from gestational day (GD) 11 until birth; hereafter all rats received tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administrating 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) on postnatal day (PND) 50. No differences in maternal serum estradiol (P = 0.19) and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.15) at GD 19 or birth weight among the milk and water groups were seen, but estradiol, and IGF-1 levels and birth weight were numerically higher in the LIM than in the HIM group. Puberty onset occurred earlier in the LIM offspring than in controls (P = 0.03). Although the high isoflavone content seemed to prevent the effect on circulating estradiol and IGF-1levels and advanced puberty onset seen in the LIM group, HIM increased DMBA-DNA adducts in the mammary gland and tended to increase mammary tumorigenesis. In contrast, offspring exposed to LIM in utero, did not exhibit increased breast cancer risk, despite having higher estradiol and IGF-1 environment and consequently earlier puberty onset. These results indicate that the phytochemical content in the cow's milk, consumed by a pregnant dam, determines how milk affects the offspring.

  19. Maternal dexamethasone and GLP-2 have early effects on intestinal sugar transport in their suckling rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowski, Laurie A; Iordache, Claudiu; Clandinin, M Tom; Todd, Zoe; Gonnet, Maud; Wild, Gary; Uwiera, Richard R E; Thomson, Alan B R

    2009-10-01

    Both glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucocorticosteroids enhance intestinal uptake in mature animals. Maternal stimuli may cause intestinal adaptation in the offspring. We hypothesized that administering GLP-2, dexamethasone (DEX) or a combination of GLP-2+DEX to rat dams during pregnancy and lactation would enhance intestinal sugar uptake in their offspring. Rat dams were treated with GLP-2 (0.1 microg/g/day), DEX (0.128 microg/g/day), a combination of GLP-2+DEX or placebo. Glucose and fructose uptake was assessed in their suckling offspring using an in vitro intestinal ring uptake technique. The protein abundance of SGLT1, GLUT5, GLUT2, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and selected signals was determined by immunohistochemistry; GLP-2 caused hypertrophy of the jejunal enterocytes and increased ileal villous height. Jejunal fructose uptake was reduced by GLP-2, DEX and GLP-2+DEX. V(max) for jejunal glucose uptake was reduced with DEX and GLP-2+DEX. These declines were not explained by alterations in transporter abundance. Decreases in Akt and mTOR abundance were associated with declines in transporter activity. We speculate that the intrinsic activity of the sugar transporters was modified via the P13K pathway. In conclusion, maternal GLP-2 and DEX reduced intestinal sugar uptake in their offspring. This may have nutritional implications for the offspring of mothers treated with GLP-2 or steroids. PMID:18993047

  20. Maternal Behavior Their Adjustments and Implicated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Pérez-Torrero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The maternal behavior in mammals is one of the most stable and highly conserved motivated species-specific behaviors and crucial for reproductive functions. During maternal behavior nursing and feeding are associated factors with survival of mammalian offspring, mammals nurse their newborn in a wide diversity in the behavioral. In the mother relationship the suckling is the behavioral patterns that identified and unified mammals and showed several selected evolutionary conserved behavior. The milk is an important reward for the pups, it ensure the surviving. The quality of maternal behavior is transmitted between generations; the inadequate maternal care has harmful effects in the adulthood individual. The specific maternal pattern modalities differ greatly between species; the human bonding has underlying biological mechanisms similar in mammals. Maternal brain is modified in order to prepare the mother-pup relationship, being crucial for the adequate behavioral display in the mother-pup relationship. A bulk of surrounding factor such as sensorial stimulus, temperature, ultrasonic communication, and reinforcing stimulus determines the quality of the nursing and care of the progeny. Mother care and nursing quality have long lasting effects in adulthood, determining cognitive and behavioral development and some specific psychiatric and psychological condition in human populations.

  1. Maternal exposure to low doses of bisphenol a has no effects on development of female reproductive tract and uterine carcinogenesis in Donryu rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Midori; Shimomoto, Takasumi; Katashima, Sayumi; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Maekawa, Akihiko

    2004-06-01

    Effects of maternal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A (BPA), including those comparable with human exposure levels, on growth and development of the female reproductive system and uterine carcinogenesis in Donryu rats were investigated. Dams were administered BPA (0, 0.006 and 6 mg/kg/day) daily by gavage from gestation day 2 up to the day before weaning (postnatal day 21 at offspring). The serum levels of BPA were significantly elevated in the dams receiving 6 mg/kg/day, however, BPA levels in the milk of dams, and those in the serum and liver of offspring were similar between control and treated groups. The treatment did not exert any influences on uterine development including weight, gland genesis and estrogen receptor alpha expression, vaginal opening and gonadotropin secretion in the female offspring up to puberty. After maturation, no effects were evident with regard to estrous cyclicity in female offspring treated with BPA. In addition, the treatment had no effects on age-related morphological changes of the reproductive and endocrine organs and uterine carcinogenesis until 15 months of age. The results demonstrate that maternal exposure to BPA at levels comparable to human exposure did not have any effects on the female reproductive system of offspring in rats. In addition, BPA was also found in the serum, milk and liver of control dams and pups, and low levels of BPA were detected in drinking water and pellet diet. The present study showed that the experimental animals were also exposed to environmental BPA in the animal room. PMID:15226600

  2. Efectos Genéticos Directo y Materno sobre el Crecimiento de Ovinos de la Raza Junín / Direct and maternal genetic effects on the growth of Junín sheep breed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diógenes, Valerio; Gustavo, Gutiérrez; Juan, Chávez.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar los efectos genéticos - directo y materno - vinculados a la expresión de características de crecimiento en corderos de la raza Junín, se aplicaron cuatro modelos mixtos en el estudio de sus pesos de nacimiento (PN), destete (PD), primera esquila (PE) y ganancia diaria del [...] nacimiento al destete (GPND), a través de análisis univariado y bivariado. Los modelos usados en análisis univariado incluyeron como efectos fijos el año de nacimiento y sexo, y como covariables el peso de la madre al empadre (para PN y PD), la edad del cordero al destete (para PD y GPND) y la edad a la primera esquila (para PE). El Modelo 1 incluyó los efectos fijos y el efecto genético aditivo directo (a); el Modelo 2, similar al 1, adicionó el efecto genético aditivo materno (m), considerando la Cov am= 0; en el Modelo 3, igual al 2, se asumió la Cov = A? ; y el Modelo 4, igual al 3, se adicionó el efecto del ambiente permanente materno (c). Los modelos para el análisis bivariado fueron extensiones del univariado, empleándose en todos los análisis el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida (REML), instrumentado en el programa ASReml. En el análisis univariado, el Modelo 2, y en el bivariado el Modelo 3, estimaron mejor los parámetros genéticos, incluidas las correlaciones entre los efectos aditivos directos y maternos para las características. Los valores estimados de heredabilidad variaron entre bajos y moderados, indicando la posibilidad de ser aplicados en planes de mejora genética del ovino Junín, los mismos que incrementarían su eficiencia al adicionarse a ellos los valores, entre moderados y altos, de las correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas estimadas. Abstract in english In order to estimate the genetic effects - direct and maternal - linked to the expression of growth traits in lambs of Junín breed, four mixed models were applied in the study of the birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), first shearing weight (PE) and daily body weight gain from birth to weaning ( [...] GPND), through univariate and bivariate analysis. The models used in univariate analysis included as fixed effects year of birth and sex, and as covariates the mother’s weight at mating (for PN and PD), age of lamb at weaning (for PD and GPND), and age at first shearing (for PE). Model 1 included the fixed effects and the direct additive genetic effect (a); Model 2, similar to 1, added additive maternal genetic effect (m), considering Cov am=0; Model 3, similar to 2, assumed Cov=A? ; and Model 4, equal to 3, added the maternal permanent environmental effect (c). All bivariate models were extensions of the univariate ones. In all the analyses, the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method, implemented in the ASReml program was applied. Univariate Model 2 and bivariate Model 3 estimated the best genetic parameters, including correlations between direct and maternal additive effects for the traits. The estimated heritability values ranged from low to moderate, indicating the possibility of its application in genetic improvement plans for Junín sheep, which would increase its efficiency when the estimated, moderate to high genetic and phenotypic correlations are also included.

  3. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  4. Pilot study of a program delivered within the regular service system in Germany: effect of a short-term attachment-based intervention on maternal sensitivity in mothers at risk for child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Bovenschen, Ina; Kuenster, Anne K; Gabler, Sandra; Fallon, Barbara; Fegert, Joerg M; Ziegenhain, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a short-term attachment-based intervention, the Ulm Model, in a German population at risk for child abuse and neglect. The intervention used home visits and video feedback to promote maternal sensitivity, and was implemented by trained staff within the health care and youth welfare systems. Mothers in the control group (n=33) received standard services only, while those in the intervention group (n=63) additionally the Ulm Model intervention. The outcomes measured were maternal sensitivity, as assessed by the CARE-Index at pre-intervention, after the last session, and at about 6 and 12 months of age; and infant socio-emotional development, as assessed by the ET6-6 development test at about 6 and 12 months of age. The moderating effects on treatment outcomes of two variables were examined: risk for child abuse (moderate vs. high) and type of maternal attachment representation (secure vs. insecure). Among participants at moderate risk for child abuse, no differences were found between the intervention group and control group in either maternal sensitivity or infant development. Among those considered high risk, mothers in the intervention group showed a significant increase in maternal sensitivity from pre- to post-intervention; however, no group differences were seen at follow-up. There were some indications that infants of mothers in the intervention group showed better emotional development. The variable of maternal attachment representation was not a significant moderator for the intervention effect, but post hoc analysis indicated that the mean sensitivity of secure mothers was significant higher at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:25066526

  5. Investigating Financial Incentives for Maternal Health: An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-01-01

    Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance th...

  6. Maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in early pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, N J; Cuckle, H S; Densem, J W; Nanchahal, K.; Royston, P; Chard, T.; Haddow, J E; Knight, G J; Palomaki, G E; Canick, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of improving the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in maternal serum during the second trimester to select women for diagnostic amniocentesis was examined. The median maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was twice the median concentration in 385 unaffected pregnancies matched for maternal age, gestational age, and duration of ...

  7. Efectos genéticos directos y maternos del peso al destete en una población de ganado Cebú de Cuba / Direct and maternal genetic effects for weaning weight in a Zebu beef cattle population in Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Palacios-Espinosa; José Luis, Espinoza-Villavicencio; Danilo, Guerra-Iglesias; Dianelys, González-Peña Fundora; Rafael, de Luna de la Peña.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar los parámetros genéticos para peso al destete en ganado Cebú. Se utilizaron datos de 20,151 terneros nacidos entre 1988 y 2006 en la provincia de Camagüey, Cuba. Se aplicaron seis modelos estadísticos que tuvieron como efecto fijo en común al grupo de contempo [...] ráneas (año-hato-época-sexo) y como covariables la edad al destete lineal y la edad de la madre al parto lineal y cuadrática. El efecto aleatorio del animal fue común a todos los modelos y se alternaron los efectos genético materno, del ambiente permanente y la covarianza genética entre los efectos directo y materno. De acuerdo con la prueba del logaritmo de la verosimilitud, el mejor modelo fue el que incluyó los efectos aleatorios del animal, maternos y del ambiente permanente, además, la covarianza entre los efectos directos y maternos. La heredabilidad de los efectos genéticos directo (0.06 a 0.34) y materno (0.06 a 0.19) varió entre los modelos. La correlación entre el efecto directo y materno varió entre -0.12 ± 0.13 y -0.19 ± 0.15. El efecto materno ambiental determinó un 13 % de la variabilidad total. Se concluyó que la heredabilidad del peso al destete en el ganado Cebú de la población estudiada puede ser sobre estimada cuando el modelo animal no incluye los efectos maternos; y no obstante que los valores de heredabilidad encontrados fueron bajos para los efectos directos y maternos, la ausencia relativa de antagonismo genético entre ellos podría permitir un mejoramiento genético moderado por selección. Abstract in english Genetic parameters for weaning weight were estimated in a Zebu beef cattle population in Camagüey province, Cuba. Data for 20,151 calves born between 1988 and 2006 were used in six variants of the statistical animal model. Contemporary groups (yearherd-season-sex) were used as a common fixed effect, [...] and a weaning age linear regression and dam age linear and quadratic regressions as covariables. Animal random effect was common to all models, and models 2 to 6 had different combinations of genetic maternal effects, maternal permanent environmental effect and covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects. A log likelihood test showed the best model to be that which included animal random effects, maternal effects, covariance between direct and maternal effects and permanent environment. Heritability for direct (0.06 to 0.34) and maternal genetic effects (0.06 to 0.19) varied between models. Correlation between direct and maternal genetic effects varied from -0.12 ± 0.13 to -0.19 ± 0.15. The maternal permanent environmental effect explained 13 % of total variability. Heritability of weaning weight in the studied population can be overestimated when the animal model does not include maternal effects. The direct and maternal effects heritability values were low, but the relative absence of genetic antagonism between these effects indicates the possibility of moderate genetic improvement by selection.

  8. Influencia de la inclusión del efecto materno en la estimación de parámetros genéticos del peso al destete en un hato de ganado de carne / Influence of maternal effect in estimating genetic parameters for weaning weight in a beef cattle herd

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan C, Quintero; Juan G, Triana; Jorge H, Quijano; Elkin, Arboleda.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estimaron componentes de (co)varianza y parámetros genéticos para la característica peso al destete en animales de las razas brahman y cebú comercial. El objetivo general fue estimar y comparar los parámetros genéticos incluyendo o no el efecto genético materno por medio de [...] l Modelo Animal, usando el programa MTDFREML. Se consideraron cinco modelos que incluyeron como efectos fijos el grupo genético materno, el número de partos y el grupo contemporáneo, y como aleatorios los efectos genéticos directos y maternos y los efectos del ambiente permanente materno, además del efecto del error residual. Los coeficientes de heredabilidad directa fueron de medios a bajos (h² a, 0.10 a 0.29) en todos los modelos. Los modelos que incluyeron el efecto genético materno presentaron valores de heredabilidad materna bajos (h² m, 0.07 a 0.17). Las correlaciones genéticas entre los efectos directo y materno fueron de baja magnitud y negativas (-0.18 y -0.29). Se compararon los modelos entre sí realizando la prueba de máxima verosimilitud (-2LogL) a través de la prueba de ji cuadrado, obteniéndose como resultado que el mejor modelo fue el número 5 (Y = X? + Z1a + Z3m + Z2ep + e), el cual tuvo en cuenta todos los efectos. Abstract in english The component of (co)variance and genetic parameters for weaning weight trait in animals of pure (Brahman) or crossbreed (Zebu cattle) breeds were estimated, with the aim to estimate and to compare the genetic parameters and genetic value with or without including the maternal genetic effects by mea [...] n of Animal model, using MTDFREML program. Five models were considered including 1) the maternal genetic group, 2) calving, and 3) contemporary group as fixed effects, 4) direct and maternal genetic effects and 5) maternal permanent environmental effects, as random effects, and finally the residual error effect. Direct heritability coefficients varied form median to low (h² a, 0.10 to 0.29) in all models. Models that included the maternal genetic effect presented the lowest values of maternal heritability (h² m, 0.07 to 0.17). The genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects were negative and with low magnitude (-0.18 and -0.29). The models were compared between each other using the Maximum Likelihood method (- 2 log L) based on a X2 test, and it gave as result that the best model was the five one (Y = Xb + Z1a + Z3m + Z2ep + e) which included all effects.

  9. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level : results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( < 10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (? = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (? = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI - 0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (? = - 1·7 E%, 95 % CI - 3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (? = - 0·9, 95 % CI - 2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (? = - 0·8, 95 % CI - 1·5, - 0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

  10. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( <10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (? = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (? = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI ? 0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (? = ? 1·7 E%, 95 % CI ? 3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (? = ? 0·9, 95 % CI ? 2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (? = ? 0·8, 95 % CI ? 1·5, ? 0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

  11. The effect of maternal thyroxine injection on growth, survival and development of the digestive system of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha A. Khalil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effect of exogenous treatment of O. niloticus females with L-thyroxine (T4 on the development of the digestive system during larval rearing, and its subsequent effect on larval growth and survival. The development of the digestive tract and accessory glands was investigated histologically and histochemically in the developing O. niloticus larvae, from control and T4-treated spawners. During yolk-sac absorption, the digestive system of the fish underwent further differentiation and the rudimentary alimentary canal became segmented into four different histological regions: the buccopharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestine. The injection of females O. niloticus with thyroxine (1 or 10 ?g T4/g BW greatly enhanced the development of the digestive tract and accessory glands of larvae as indicated by the quantitative and qualitative changes of the mucus composition from predominantly neutral to a mixture of neutral and acid mucosubstances, or acid mucosubstances occurred during the rearing period for the larvae produced from T4-treated females. This may be due to the direct effect of exogenous thyroxine, which might have been transferred from maternal circulation into the oocytes and larvae, on the synthesis of proteins, which increased with larval development. Thus, thyroxine directly or indirectly improved O. niloticus larval growth, since a marked increase in both, length and weight of larvae occurred during the experimental period. In addition, larvae from treated females also gave a significantly higher survival rate than that of control. It could be concluded that exogenous T4 in maternal circulation might have been transferred into oocytes and larvae. The transferred thyroid hormone appears to play some role in the early development of larvae and may confer a distinct advantage for the growth of the offspring of the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

  12. Efectos mnemónicos maternos prenatales sobre el sexo psíquico humano. Insuficiencia del mecanismo inmunitario: Nueva propuesta desde la tolerancia-rechazo materno-fetal Prenatal maternal mnemonic effects on the human neuro-psychic sex: A new proposition from fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Y Valenzuela

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In approximately 15% of homosexual men, their phenotype is associated to the fraternal birth order. Older biological brothers induce in their mothers anti-male factors (antibodies that interfere the brain maleness development ofyounger fetuses. This effect is seldom seen in non-right-handed men and is not seen in women. The influence of older siblings is seen in their sex ratio (SR. In contradiction with previous hypothesis, significant heterogeneities of SR have been found among older siblings of males or females, right or non-right-handed and homo or heterosexual individuáis. This can only be understood as if the ñndings found among homosexuals were part of a general mechanism of fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection processes of placental mammals. We found, in relation to ABO and Rh systems and sex, that embryos with genes different from those of their mothers, induced better pregnancies and maternal tolerance than embryos similar to their mothers. Assuming that homo or heterosexuality and right or non-right-handedness behave similar to ABO or Rh alíeles, the author provides a speculative interpretation ofthese results. Homosexual women (¡esbians and especially if they are non-right-handed, are preceded by siblings with a high SR (maternal environment with anti-female or pro-male factors; then lesbianism or non-right-handedness may induce tolerance to be a woman in such anti-female environment. Non-right-handedness could induce tolerance for anti-male factors of mothers, thus preventing the production ofgays in a pro-male maternal environment, but leading to the production of non-right-handed gays in anti-male maternal environments. Several new hypotheses and interpretations merge from this newproposition. Also, complete sexual orientation could be acquired after birth.

  13. Efectos mnemónicos maternos prenatales sobre el sexo psíquico humano. Insuficiencia del mecanismo inmunitario: Nueva propuesta desde la tolerancia-rechazo materno-fetal / Prenatal maternal mnemonic effects on the human neuro-psychic sex: A new proposition from fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Y, Valenzuela.

    1552-15-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english In approximately 15% of homosexual men, their phenotype is associated to the fraternal birth order. Older biological brothers induce in their mothers anti-male factors (antibodies) that interfere the brain maleness development ofyounger fetuses. This effect is seldom seen in non-right-handed men and [...] is not seen in women. The influence of older siblings is seen in their sex ratio (SR). In contradiction with previous hypothesis, significant heterogeneities of SR have been found among older siblings of males or females, right or non-right-handed and homo or heterosexual individuáis. This can only be understood as if the ñndings found among homosexuals were part of a general mechanism of fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection processes of placental mammals. We found, in relation to ABO and Rh systems and sex, that embryos with genes different from those of their mothers, induced better pregnancies and maternal tolerance than embryos similar to their mothers. Assuming that homo or heterosexuality and right or non-right-handedness behave similar to ABO or Rh alíeles, the author provides a speculative interpretation ofthese results. Homosexual women (¡esbians) and especially if they are non-right-handed, are preceded by siblings with a high SR (maternal environment with anti-female or pro-male factors); then lesbianism or non-right-handedness may induce tolerance to be a woman in such anti-female environment. Non-right-handedness could induce tolerance for anti-male factors of mothers, thus preventing the production ofgays in a pro-male maternal environment, but leading to the production of non-right-handed gays in anti-male maternal environments. Several new hypotheses and interpretations merge from this newproposition. Also, complete sexual orientation could be acquired after birth.

  14. The Effect of Ephedrine on Fetal Outcome in Treatment of Maternal Hypotension Caused by Spinal Anesthesia During Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Yousefshahi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare maternal complications and labor outcome in obese and non-obese women. Materials and methods: It is a retrospective comparative study conducted at the Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Unit 1, Civil Hospital, Karachi from December 2008 to December 2009. A sample size of 220 gravid women is selected by Non Probability Convenience sampling technique. In these 110 obese women as cases was compared with 110 non-obese women as controls, booked at <20 weeks of gestation. Data were collected regarding maternal complication, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome by trained medical officers. Data were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 11.0 through descriptive analysis, chi-square test and independent sample t test. The p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Pregnancy induced hypertension was present in 9 (8.2% women in control group and 21 (19.1% in cases (p=0.01. Gestational diabetes was seen in one (0.9% in control compared to 8 (7.3% in obese women (p=0.01. Obese women were found to be at increased risk of caesarean section [17 (15.5% "nVs. 39 (35.4%, p=0.002]. Apgar score at 1 and 10 minute were lower in cases compared to controls (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Obese women are at increased risk of pregnancy induced obesity and associated with an increased risk of hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolic disease and urinary tract infection.    

  15. Maternal aggression in Wistar rats: effect of 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist and antagonist microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter and medial septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida R.M.M. de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the role of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor at two specific brain sites, i.e., the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG and the medial septal (MS area, in maternal aggressive behavior after the microinjection of either a 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist or antagonist. Female Wistar rats were microinjected on the 7th postpartum day with the selective agonist alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine maleate (5-HT2A/2C or the antagonist 5-HT2A/2C, ketanserin. The agonist was injected into the DPAG at 0.2 (N = 9, 0.5 (N = 10, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 9, and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 9. The agonist was injected into the medial septal area (MS at 0.2 (N = 9, 0.5 (N = 7, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 6 and the antagonist was injected at 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (N = 5. For the control, saline was injected into the DPAG (N = 7 and the MS (N = 12. Both areas are related to aggressive behavior and contain a high density of 5-HT receptors. Non-aggressive behaviors such as horizontal locomotion (walking and social investigation and aggressive behaviors such as lateral threat (aggressive posture, attacks (frontal and lateral, and biting the intruder were analyzed when a male intruder was placed into the female resident's cage. For each brain area studied, the frequency of the behaviors was compared among the various treatments by analysis of variance. The results showed a decrease in maternal aggressive behavior (number of bites directed at the intruder after microinjection of the agonist at 0.2 and 1.0 µg/0.2 µl (1.6 ± 0.7 and 0.9 ± 0.3 into the DPAG compared to the saline group (5.5 ± 1.1. There was no dose-response relationship with the agonist. The present findings suggest that the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist has an inhibitory effect on maternal aggressive behavior when microinjected into the DPAG and no effect when microinjected into the MS. Ketanserin (1.0 µg/0.2 µl decreased locomotion when microinjected into the DPAG and MS, but did not affect aggressive behavior. We interpret these findings as evidence for a specific role of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the DPAG in the inhibition of female aggressive behavior, dissociated from those on motor activity.

  16. Levels of maternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, M Kathryn; Kilpatrick, Sarah; Saade, George; Hollier, Lisa M; Joseph, Gerald F; Barfield, Wanda; Callaghan, William; Jennings, John; Conry, Jeanne

    2015-03-01

    In the 1970s, studies demonstrated that timely access to risk-appropriate neonatal and obstetric care could reduce perinatal mortality. Since the publication of the Toward Improving the Outcome of Pregnancy report, more than 3 decades ago, the conceptual framework of regionalization of care of the woman and the newborn has been gradually separated with recent focus almost entirely on the newborn. In this current document, maternal care refers to all aspects of antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum care of the pregnant woman. The proposed classification system for levels of maternal care pertains to birth centers, basic care (level I), specialty care (level II), subspecialty care (level III), and regional perinatal health care centers (level IV). The goal of regionalized maternal care is for pregnant women at high risk to receive care in facilities that are prepared to provide the required level of specialized care, thereby reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States. PMID:25620372

  17. The Effects of Maternal Natural (RRR Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate) or Synthetic (All-Rac Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on Suckling Calf Performance, Colostrum IgG, and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternally supplemented natural- or synthetic-source vitamin E on suckling calf performance and immune response. In a two-year study, 152 two- and three-year old spring-calving Angus-cross beef cows were blocked by age, BW, and BCS into on...

  18. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Citrulline Supplementation on Renal Transcriptome Prevention of Nitric Oxide Depletion-Related Programmed Hypertension: The Impact of Gene-Nutrient Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal malnutrition can elicit gene expression leading to fetal programming. l-citrulline (CIT can be converted to l-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO. We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor-induced programmed hypertension and examined their effects on the renal transcriptome in male offspring using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received l-NAME administration at 60mg/kg/day subcutaneously via osmotic minipump during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% l-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to three groups: control, l-NAME, and l-NAME + CIT. l-NAME exposure induced hypertension in the 12-week-old offspring, which CIT therapy prevented. Identified differentially expressed genes in l-NAME and CIT-treated offspring kidneys, including Guca2b, Hmox1, Hba2, Hba-a2, Dusp1, and Serpine1 are related to regulation of blood pressure (BP and oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggests that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to alterations in expression levels of genes related to BP control and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that early nutritional intervention by CIT has long-term impact on the renal transcriptome to prevent NO depletion-related programmed hypertension. However, our RNA-Seq results might be a secondary phenomenon. The implications of epigenetic regulation at an early stage of programming deserve further clarification.

  19. Maternal Relationship Security as a Moderator of Home Visiting Impacts on Maternal Psychosocial Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Mcfarlane, Elizabeth; Burrell, Lori; Crowne, Sarah; Cluxton-keller, Fallon; Fuddy, Loretta; Leaf, Philip J.; Duggan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    There is variability in home visiting program impacts on the outcomes achieved by high risk families. An understanding of how effects vary among families is important for refining service targeting and content. The current study assessed whether and how maternal attributes, including relationship security, moderate short- and long-term home visiting impacts on maternal psychosocial functioning. In this multisite RCT of home visiting in a population-based, ethnically-diverse sample of families...

  20. Maternity or catastrophe: A study of household expenditure on maternal health care in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saradiya Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using data from 60th round of the National Sample Survey, this study attempts to measure the incidence and intensity of ‘catastrophic’ maternal health care expenditure and examines its socio-economic correlates in urban and rural areas separately. Additionally, it measures the effect of maternal health care expenditure on poverty incidence and examines the factors associated with such impoverishment due to maternal health care payments. We found that maternal health care expenditure in urban households was almost twice that of rural households. A little more than one third households suffered catastrophic payments in both urban and rural areas. Rural women from scheduled tribes (ST had more catastrophic head counts than ST women from urban areas. On the other hand, the catastrophic head count was greater among illiterate women living in urban areas compared to those living in rural areas. After adjusting for out-of-pocket maternal health care expenditure, the poverty in urban and rural areas increased by almost equal percentage points (20% in urban areas versus 19% in rural areas. Increasing education level, higher consumption expenditure quintile and higher caste of women was associated with increasing odds of impoverishment due to maternal health care expenditure. To reduce maternal health care expenditure induced poverty, the demand-side maternal health care financing programs and policies in future should take into consideration all the costs incurred during prenatal, delivery and postnatal periods and focus not only on those women who suffered catastrophic expenditure and plunged into poverty but also those who forgo maternal health care due to their inability to pay. 

  1. The Socio-Emotional Effects of Non-Maternal Childcare on Children in the USA: A Critical Review of Recent Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jenet I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of studies published between 1998 and 2006 that have evaluated the relationship between non-maternal childcare and children's social-behavioral adjustment. Recent studies have focused on how the factors of non-maternal childcare quantity, quality, type and timing interact with factors of family background and child…

  2. ROLE OF METALLOTHIONEIN INDUCTION AND ALTERED ZINC STATUS AS MATERNAL MEDIATORS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY IN RATS: COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF URETHANE AND STYRENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesize that maternal metallothionein (MT) induction by toxic dosages of chemicals may contribute to or cause developmental toxicity by the following chain of events: ) maternal hepatic MT induction; 2) redistribution of Zn to the newly synthesized MT; 3) decreased circula...

  3. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who delivered at Emam Hospital, Sari Iran during 2008–2009 werestudied A control group with two hundred fifty nine women of normal body mass index matched for ageand parity were selected and incidence of preeclampsia were compared between groups. ?2 and Oddsratioand 95% confidence were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.Results: There was a significant relation between obesity and preeclampsia (20.8 vs. 5.8%, P<0.0001compared to non-obese women.Conclusion: Obesity in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes.

  4. Effect of maternal alcohol consumption on gestational diabetes detection and mother-infant’s outcomes in Kinshasa, DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandu-Umba Barthélémy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Since it has been suggested that moderate alcohol drinking would increase insulin sensitivity, which could benefit Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM, the study aimed at evaluating alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and seeing whether this consumption influences GDM detection and maternal/perinatal outcomes. Study design: Women with already known diabetes and those with multiple pregnancy were excluded. All other pregnant women attending antenatal care unit of the university clinics, Kinshasa, DR Congo during the period from 1 March throughout 31 October 2010, were invited at 24-week gestation to enroll in O’Sullivan blood glucose testing and if eligible in 100-gram oral glucose tolerance test. Alcohol consumption, risk factors for GDM, and general characteristics such as age, parity, gestity, BMI, fat mass were registered. Diagnosed GDM was first treated with diet and exercise, thereafter with Metformin, and if necessary with insulin. For other (normal women data remained blinded until confinement. Maternal and infant’s adverse outcomes such as maternal urinary infection, preeclampsia, cesarean section, intrauterine growth retardation, birth weight < 2500 g, birth weight ? 3800 g (as stated > percentile 90 in our milieu, Apgar score at the first minute < 7, shoulder dystocia or other birth injury, neonatal hypoglycemia and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS were compared and analyzed according to GDM diagnosis as well to alcohol status. Results: Up to 240 pregnant women accepted to enroll into the study. Alcohol consumption concerned 78 (32.5% of the women, most of them (61 = 25.42% being heavy consumers. Risk factors for GDM and Physical and blood glucose characteristics were alike (p not significant in both consumers and non consumers, except for history of HTA in the family that was significantly more frequent (p = 0.02 among drinkers. GDM’s prevalence was 9%. No adverse outcome was more prominent in any subgroup, except Apgar score < 7 at the first minute that was more frequent (p = 0.038 among neonates of GDM mothers. No FAS, neither shoulder dystocia nor neonatal hypoglycemia were diagnosed. When alcohol status was considered, Birthweight ? 3800 g was found more frequent (p = 0.0284 in alcohol consumers than in abstainers. Risk of this outcome was three times higher when history of family hypertension was present (odds ratio 2.694; CI: 0.536 - 13.544. Conclusions: The prevalence of alcohol consumption by pregnant women of our series (32.5% seems not to impact the detection of GDM (9%. FAS was not diagnosed. Lack of significant differences in adverse outcomes between GDM and non GDM could be attributed to huge follow-up of GDM women. Influence of alcohol consumption on birth weight mostly in setting of familial history of hypertension remains to be addressed.

  5. Potential effects of maternal contribution on egg and larva population dynamics of striped bass: Integrated individual-based model and directed field sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, J.H., Jr. (Maryland Univ., Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.); Rose, K.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    We have used a bioenergetically-driven, individual-based model (IBM) of striped bass as a framework for synthesizing available information on population biology and quantifying, in a relative sense, factors that potentially affect year class success. The IBM has been configured to simulate environmental conditions experienced by several striped bass populations; i.e., in the Potomac River, MD; in Hudson River, NY; in the Santee-Cooper River System, SC, and; in the San Joaquin-Sacramento River System CA. These sites represent extremes in the geographic distribution and thus, environmental variability of striped bass spawning. At each location, data describing the physio-chemical and biological characteristics of the spawning population and nursery area are being collected and synthesized by means of a prioritized, directed field sampling program that is organized by the individual-based recruitment model. Here, we employ the striped bass IBM configured for the Potomac River, MD from spawning into the larval period to evaluate the potential for maternal contribution to affect larva survival and growth. Model simulations in which the size distribution and spawning day of females are altered indicate that larva survival is enhanced (3.3-fold increase) when a high fraction of females in the spawning population are large. Larva stage duration also is less ({bar X} = 18.4 d and 22.2 d) when large and small females, respectively, are mothers in simulations. Although inconclusive, these preliminary results for Potomac River striped bass suggest that the effects of female size, timing of spawning nad maternal contribution on recruitment dynamics potentially are important and illustrate our approach to the study of recruitment in striped bass. We hope to use the model, field collections and management alternatives that vary from site to site, in an iterative manner for some time to come. 54 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Critical maternal health knowledge gaps in low- and middle-income countries for the post-2015 era

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Tamil; Langer, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Effective interventions to promote maternal health and address obstetric complications exist, however 800 women die every day during pregnancy and childbirth from largely preventable causes and more than 90 % of these deaths occur in low and middle income countries (LMIC). In 2014, the Maternal Health Task Force consulted 26 global maternal health researchers to identify persistent and critical knowledge gaps to be filled to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality and improve maternal health....

  7. Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal / Analyse des décès maternels dans les établissements de soins: effets sur la mortalité maternelle dans un hôpital de district au Sénégal / Análisis de las defunciones maternas basados en centros de salud: efectos en la mortalidad materna en un hospital de distrito del Senegal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre, Dumont; Alioune, Gaye; Luc de, Bernis; Nils, Chaillet; Anne, Landry; Joanne, Delage; Marie-Hélène, Bouvier-Colle.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: La mejora de los servicios obstétricos es un componente clave del Programa Maternidad sin Riesgo. El análisis de las defunciones maternas y de las complicaciones asociadas es un método para reducir los riesgos del embarazo, pero no hay indicios sobre la eficacia de esa estrategia. El objet [...] ivo de nuestro estudio comparativo antes-después consistió en evaluar el efecto de los análisis de las defunciones maternas (ADM) en centros de salud sobre las tasas de mortalidad materna en un hospital de distrito del Senegal que ofrece servicios de maternidad primarios y de derivación. MÉTODOS: Incluimos a todas las mujeres ingresadas en el servicio de maternidad para dar a luz o en las primeras 24 horas tras el parto. Registramos la mortalidad materna durante un periodo basal de un año, de enero a diciembre de 1997, y luego durante tres años, de enero de 1998 a diciembre de 2000, tras aplicar los ADM. Los efectos de estos análisis en la organización de la atención fueron evaluados cualitativamente. RESULTADOS: La estrategia basada en los ADM provocó en la estructura orgánica una serie de cambios que mejoraron diversas intervenciones salvavidas, con una contribución financiera relativamente importante de la comunidad. La mortalidad general disminuyó significativamente, de 0,83 (IC (intervalo de confianza) del 95% = 0,60-1,06) en el periodo basal a 0,41 (IC95% = 0,25-0,56) por 100 mujeres 3 años más tarde. CONCLUSIÓN: Los ADM tuvieron un efecto marcado en los recursos, la gestión y los resultados maternos en el centro estudiado. Sin embargo, dado el diseño de nuestro estudio y el contexto específico local, habrá que llevar a cabo nuevas investigaciones para confirmar la viabilidad de los ADM en otros entornos, así como las ventajas de este sistema para la salud materna en los países en desarrollo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and [...] after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR) on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity services. METHODS: We included all women who were admitted to the maternity unit for childbirth, or within 24 hours of delivery. We recorded maternal mortality during a 1-year baseline period from January to December 1997, and during a 3-year period from January 1998 to December 2000 after MDR had been implemented. Effects of MDR on organization of care were qualitatively evaluated. FINDINGS: The MDR strategy led to changes in organizational structure that improved life-saving interventions with a relatively large financial contribution from the community. Overall mortality significantly decreased from 0.83 (95% CI (confidence interval) = 0.60 -1.06) in baseline period to 0.41 (95% CI = 0.25 -0.56) per 100 women 3 years later. CONCLUSION: MDR had a marked effect on resources, management and maternal outcomes in this facility. However, given the design of our study and the local specific context, further research is needed to confirm the feasibility of MDR in other settings and to confirm the benefits of this approach for maternal health in developing countries.

  8. Maternal Care and Attachment Security in Ordinary and Emergency Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, German; Jacobs, Amanda; Carbonell, Olga A.; Alzate, Gloria; Bustamante, Maria R.; Arenas, Angela

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal sensitivity and infant security of attachment in home and hospital contexts. Results are discussed in terms of links between methodology and effect sizes, the generality of links between maternal care and child security, need for research on caregiving in ordinary and emergency situations, and…

  9. Mitigating or exacerbating effects of maternal-fetal programming of female mice through the food choice environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenseke, Bonnie; Bahamonde, Javiera; Talanian, Michael; Kornfeind, Ellie; Daly, Jacquiline; Cobb, Grayson; Zhang, Jinhua; Prater, M Renee; Davis, George C; Good, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Humans live, eat, and become overweight/obese in complex surroundings where there are many available food choices. Prenatal exposure to poor food choices predisposes offspring to increased negative health risks, including obesity. Many animal experiments have analyzed intergenerational body weight parameters in an environment without food choices, which may not be directly translatable to the human food environment. In this study, offspring from mothers with a defined high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) were arbitrarily assigned to either an exclusively LFD or HFD or to a diet where they have a choice between LFD and HFD (choice diet). Offspring displayed negative outcomes of increased body weight, body fat, serum leptin, and blood glucose levels when given the choice diet compared with offspring on the LFD. Conversely, improved energy expenditure was found for offspring given the choice diet compared with offspring from HFD dams given LFD. In addition, maternal diet-specific influences on offspring metabolic parameters were identified, especially in offspring from HFD dams, including positive outcomes of reduced leptin in LFD offspring, reduced corticosterone and cholesterol levels in HFD offspring, and increased exercise levels in choice offspring, as well as the negative outcome of increased calorie intake in LFD offspring from HFD dams. This defined model can now be used as the basis for future studies to characterize the cycle of inter- and intragenerational obesity and whether more realistic diet environments, especially those including choice, can mitigate phenotype. PMID:25386832

  10. [Effects of maternal food intake on the total protein, fat, lactose and calcium concentrations in human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, K; Goto, I; Nagata, H; Ikeda, J

    1994-06-01

    The concentrations of total protein, fat, lactose and calcium (Ca) in human milk were measured in 68 lactating women who were 14-425 days postpartum. Relationships of those concentrations in human breast milk with maternal food intake frequency, and the amount of dairy milk intake were investigated. Quantification theory III statistical analysis was applied to analyze food intake patterns. The concentrations of total protein at 2-5 months postpartum, fat and Ca at 1-5 months postpartum were low in milk obtained from mothers with low frequency of consumption of meat, egg, dairy products and food prepared with oil, while having a high frequency of consumption of rice, vegetables, beans and seaweed. The concentration of Ca in milk from mothers who habitually had no dairy milk intake was significantly lower compared to that from mothers who had more than 300 ml intake of dairy milk per day. Lower frequency or no intake of animal food and dairy milk appeared to affect the quality of mother's milk. PMID:8068964

  11. Effects of maternal ageing on ICSI outcomes and embryo development in relation to oocytes morphological characteristics of birefringent structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Cem; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Sakinci, Mehmet; Ercan, Cihangir Mutlu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphological characteristics of the older reproductive aged women's oocytes and to reveal the influence of these characteristics on intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. The oocytes of women older than 35 years of age were evaluated retrospectively. Non-invasive polarization microscopy (PolScope) examinations of mature oocytes were performed by measurement of meiotic spindles' length, area and retardance and zona pellucida thickness and retardance. Fertilization and conception competence and the correlation with the birefringent structures were assessed. Two hundred and thirteen mature oocytes from 54 women were evaluated with a PolScope. Length of the meiotic spindle was shown to be related to fertilization success of women with advanced maternal age. In conclusion, the PolScope is a useful device used to identify the oocyte quality. Quantitative measurements of meiotic spindle parameters may be valuable for the selection of high-quality oocytes that have the potential for embryo development in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) laboratory of women older than 35 years of age who are mostly poor responders. PMID:24869767

  12. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an intera...

  13. Sex differences in the effects of maternal vitamin supplements on mortality and morbidity among children born to HIV-infected women in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Msamanga, Gernard; Manji, Karim; Villamor, Eduardo; Bosch, Ronald J; Hertzmark, Ellen; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether there are sex differences in the effect of vitamin supplements on birth outcomes, mortality and morbidity by 2 years of age among children born to HIV-infected women in Tanzania. A randomised placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 959 mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected pregnant women were randomly assigned to receive a daily oral dose of one of four regimens: multivitamins (vitamins B-complex, C and E), vitamin A plus beta-carotene, multivitamins including vitamin A plus beta-carotene or placebo. Supplements were administered during pregnancy and continued after delivery. The beneficial effect of multivitamins on decreasing the risk of low birth weight was stronger among girls (relative risks (RR) = 0.39, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.67) than among boys (RR = 0.81, 95 % CI 0.44, 1.49; P for interaction = 0.08). Maternal multivitamin supplements resulted in 32 % reduction in mortality among girls (RR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.47, 0.97), whereas no effect was found among boys (RR = 1.20, 95 % CI 0.80, 1.78; P for interaction = 0.04). Multivitamins had beneficial effects on the overall risks of diarrhoea that did not differ by sex. Vitamin A plus beta-carotene alone increased the risk of HIV transmission, but had no effects on mortality, and we found no sex differences in these effects. Sex differential effects of multivitamins on mortality may be due to sex-related differences in the immunological or genetic factors. More research is warranted to examine the effect of vitamins by sex and better understand biological mechanisms mediating such effects. PMID:20211040

  14. The Relation of Maternal Sensitivity to Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems within the Context of Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Emily Priscilla; Forehand, Rex L.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Reeslund, Kristen; Potts, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been linked to deficits in parenting that contribute to youth's development of externalizing and/or internalizing problems. Maternal sensitivity has been implicated within the infant literature as a foundational aspect of parenting contributing to a child's adjustment. This study examines the main and moderating effects of…

  15. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, S; Ekelund, C

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate gestational age-dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. METHODS: This was an analysis of data from prospective first-trimester combined screening for aneuploidies in singleton pregnancies, with ?-hCG and PAPP-A measured at 7?+?1 to 14?+?3 weeks' gestation. We included 27,908 pregnancies from three centers in the U.K. and 125,461 pregnancies from 22 centers in Denmark, all with known normal fetal karyotype or resulting in the birth of a phenotypically normal neonate. Multiple regression modelling of log10 -transformed marker concentrations was used to produce log10 multiple of the median (MoM) values for free ?-hCG and PAPP-A and to examine pregnancy characteristics that have significant effects on marker concentrations. RESULTS: Serum free ?-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations were significantly affected by gestational age, maternal weight, racial origin, parity, smoking and mode of conception. There were significant gestational age-dependent effects attributed to Afro-Caribbean race, smoking and conception through in-vitro fertilization (IVF) on PAPP-A and free ?-hCG levels. In women of Afro-Caribbean race there was a weekly increase in PAPP-A of 5.3% and in free ?-hCG of 1.8%. In smokers there was a weekly decrease in PAPP-A of 2.4% and in free ?-hCG of 1.6%. In cases of IVF conceptions there was a weekly increase in PAPP-A of 4.5% and in free ?-hCG of 4.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Serum free ?-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations at 7-14 weeks' gestation are affected by several pregnancy characteristics. The effects of Afro-Caribbean race, smoking and IVF conception change with gestational age.

  16. Temporal effects of maternal and pregnancy characteristics on serum PAPP-A and free ?-hCG at 7-14 weeks' gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Susan; Ekelund, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Investigate gestational age dependent effects of racial origin, smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) at 7-14 weeks' gestation. Methods: Data arise from prospective first-trimester combined screening for aneuploidies in singleton pregnancies, with serum free ß-hCG and PAPP-A measured at 7(+1) -14(+3) weeks' gestation. We include 27,908 pregnancies from three centres in the UK and 125,461 pregnancies from 22 centres in Denmark with normal fetal karyotype or birth of a phenotypically normal neonate. Multiple regression modelling of log(10) -transformed marker concentrations was used to produce log(10) multiple of the median (MoM) values for free ?-hCG and PAPP-A and to examine pregnancy characteristics that have significant effects on marker concentrations. Results: Serum free ß-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations were significantly affected by gestational age, maternal weight, racial origin, parity, smoking and mode of conception. There were significant gestational age dependent effects of Afro-Caribbean race, smoking and IVF conception on PAPP-A and free ß-hCG levels. In women of Afro-Caribbean race there was a weekly increase in PAPP-A of 5.3% and in free ß-hCG of 1.8%. In smokers there was a weekly decrease in PAPP-A of 2.4% and in free ?-hCG of 1.6%. In IVF conceptions there was a weekly increase in PAPP-A of 4.5% and in free ß-hCG of 4.6%. Conclusions: Serum free ß-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations at 7-14 weeks are affected by several pregnancy characteristics. The effects of Afro-Caribbean race, smoking and IVF conception change with gestational age. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Associations between infant temperament, maternal stress, and infants' sleep across the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorondo, Barbara M; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C

    2015-05-01

    Effects of temperament and maternal stress on infant sleep behaviors were explored longitudinally. Negative temperament was associated with sleep problems, and with longer sleep latency and night wakefulness, whereas maternal stress was associated with day sleep duration, suggesting infant and maternal characteristics affect sleep differentially. PMID:25837288

  18. Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Joseph; Cooper, Peter J; Anselmi, Luciana; Aluísio J. D. Barros; Fernando C Barros; Santos, Iná S.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal postnatal depressive symptomatology was modeled using group-based approach.•5 maternal trajectories were identified from 3 months through 6 years postpartum.•Offspring psychiatric disorders were assessed at age 6 years.•Psychiatric disorders increased from the “low” to the “high-chronic” trajectory.•We revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time.

  19. Maternal Sensitivity: Within-Person Variability and the Utility of Multiple Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhiem, Oliver; BERNARD, KRISTIN; Dozier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined within-person variability in maternal sensitivity among a culturally diverse sample of high-risk mother–infant dyads (N = 25). We also examined incremental increases in effect sizes between maternal sensitivity and two related variables, attachment state of mind and child removal from the home, as a function of increasing observations of maternal sensitivity. The dyads were videotaped during 10 1-hour-long home visits and maternal sensitivity was coded using the a...

  20. EFFECT OF MATERNAL DEPRIVATION ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ORPHANAGE AND URBAN SLUM CHILDREN IN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourajit Routray*, Nijwm Mahilary and Rajkumar Paul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the development of children living in orphanage with that of the children living in slum with their biological parents. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: 3 orphanages of Bhubaneswar, one orphanage of Cuttack and two slum area in Bhubaneswar. Subject and methods: Total 146 children were included in our study, 73 from orphanage and 73 from urban slum. The total number of homes visited in slum were 217, out of which 201 gave consent for the study, 89 met our inclusion criteria. 73 children were selected by simple random method. Each children were examined, height, weight was recorded and physical examination was done. Each caretaker in the orphanage and mothers in the slum were questioned thoroughly by interview using a predesigned pretested proforma. Development was assessed by DDST-II. Results: 73 Children 0-60 months were taken for the study from four different orphanages. Out of 73 children, total developmental delay was found in 37% of orphan children, 26% had global delay & 11% had isolated delay and 13.7% delay among the urban slum children, 4.1% had global delay and 9.6% had isolated delay. The caregiver to child ratio is 1:5 to 1:7 in orphanages. Conclusion: Developmental delay among children residing in orphanages are observed to be high as compared to children living in urban slum with their parents. Despite the availability of good health facilities, and adequate nutrition to the children living in orphanages, they suffer from developmental delay due to maternal care deprivation. The Government should open up more number of orphanages with more caregivers for better care of the individual orphan children.

  1. Relationships between sex hormones assessed in amniotic fluid, and maternal and umbilical cord serum: what is the best source of information to investigate the effects of fetal hormonal exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Beek, Cornelieke; Thijssen, Jos H H; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2004-12-01

    Levels of testosterone (T) (total and free), androstenedione (A4), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 156 normal pregnancies (77 male and 79 female fetuses). Samples were obtained from amniotic fluid, 2nd and 3rd trimester maternal serum, and umbilical cord serum at birth. During the critical period of brain differentiation, at the beginning of the second trimester of pregnancy, sex differences in T and A4 were found in amniotic fluid and not in maternal serum. This finding adds to the fact that mostly low and nonsignificant correlations were found for the different androgenic hormones between levels assessed in amniotic fluid and maternal plasma at this particular and very sensitive period of fetal brain development. On the other hand, high correlations were found for the same hormones between the samples of maternal serum in the 2nd and the 3rd trimester. Our data show that, of all available sources, amniotic fluid seems to be the best candidate to investigate the effects of early fetal androgen exposure. PMID:15555509

  2. A flying start or no effect? :long term consequences of maternal time investments in children during their first year of life

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Pedro; Løken, Katrine Vellesen; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of increasing the time that the mother spends with her child in the first year of her life. In particular, we examine a reform that increased paid and unpaid maternity leave entitlements in Norway. In response to this reform, maternal leave increased on average by 4 months and family income was unaffected. We find that this increase in maternal time with the child led to a 2.7 percentage points decline in high school dropout rates, going up to 5.2 percentage points for tho...

  3. Maternal Mortality ? A Challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital G. Sonone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The current maternal mortality rate (MMR in Maharashtra is 104/100000 live births, ranking 3rd in India. There is scope for reducing it as majority of the causes of MMR are preventable and curable. Aims and Objectives: To study the sociodemographic profile and causes of maternal deaths at Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur. Material and Methods: The study population included all deliveries i.e. women admitted in the hospital during pregnancy, child-birth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated due to pregnancy during the period of 2 years from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. IPD case records and autopsy reports of all maternal deaths were taken and various variables were studied. The present study is prospective study of maternal mortality conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. V. M. Medical College Solapur. Cases were distributed ac-cording to their age, literacy rate, residence,socioeconomic status, ante-natal care, gestational age, gravida/parity, place of referral, pregnancy outcome, and place of delivery, perinatal outcome and etiological factors. This study also suggests the measures to reduce maternal mortality. Results: The total number of live births during the study period were 13,188 and total number of maternal deaths were 63 and MMR was 477 per 1, 00,000 live births. In the maternal deaths studied, 1/3rd of the women were illiterate, half of the women belonged to urban slum areas and of lower socioeconomic class.1/3rd of the deaths occurred in primigravida,within 24 hrs from admission, 58.73% of the patients were referred from outside. Out of that 86.49% of women were sent from private hospital and died in post partum period, having poor perinatal outcome. Haemorrhage (28.57% and hypertension (12.69% are two direct causes and severe anemia (33.33% is most common in direct cause of maternal death in our study.

  4. Maternal Mortality ? A Challenge?

    OpenAIRE

    Shital G. Sonone; Varsha N. Patil; Meenakshi Surve; M. A. Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Background : The current maternal mortality rate (MMR) in Maharashtra is 104/100000 live births, ranking 3rd in India. There is scope for reducing it as majority of the causes of MMR are preventable and curable. Aims and Objectives: To study the sociodemographic profile and causes of maternal deaths at Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur. Material and Methods: The study population included all deliveries i.e. women admitted in the hospital during pregnancy, child-birth or within 42 days ...

  5. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-01

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( < 10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (? = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (? = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI - 0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (? = - 1·7 E%, 95 % CI - 3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (? = - 0·9, 95 % CI - 2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (? = - 0·8, 95 % CI - 1·5, - 0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging. PMID:25744160

  6. Efeito materno e paterno sobre as taxas de fertilização e eclosão em curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) / Maternal and paternal effect on fertilization and haching rate in curimba (Prochilodus lineatus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.B., Allaman; R.T.F., Freitas; A.T.M., Viveiros; A.F., Nascimento; G.R., Oliveira; R.V., Reis Neto.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o quanto fêmeas e machos contribuem para a variação total das taxas de fertilização e de eclosão em curimba (Prochilodus lineatus). Utilizou-se sêmen criopreservado proveniente de cinco machos para fertilizar ovócitos de seis fêmeas em um esquema fatorial cruzado 5x6, totalizando 30 famíl [...] ias. Além das características reprodutivas dos machos e fêmeas, foram avaliadas as taxas de fertilização e eclosão para cômputo dos efeitos materno e paterno. Os componentes da variância foram estimados por meio da máxima verossimilhança restrita, sendo construídos intervalos Highest Posterior Density (HPD) para cada componente. Verificou-se que as fêmeas contribuíram muito mais para a variação total em relação aos machos para as taxas de fertilização e eclosão. Para a taxa de fertilização, as fêmeas contribuíram com 26,3% da variação total e os machos com 8,9%. Em relação à taxa de eclosão, as fêmeas contribuíram com 11,9% e os machos com 1,6%. Concluiu-se que houve efeito materno sobre as taxas de fertilização e eclosão e que o efeito paterno avaliado individualmente foi pouco expressivo ou até mesmo insignificante. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate how much females and males contribute to the total variation of reproductive traits such as fertilization and hatching rate in curimba Prochilodus lineatus. Cryopreserved semen from five males was used to fertilize eggs from six females in a cross-factorial 5x6, [...] totaling 30 families. In addition to the reproductive characteristics of males and females, fertilization and hatching rates were evaluated for computation of maternal and paternal effects. The variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, and the Highest Posterior Density (HPD) intervals were estimated for each component. The female contributed more to the total variation than males for the fertilization and hatching rates. The female contributed 26.3% of the total variation in the fertilization rate against 8.9% of males. Regarding the hatching rate, the female contributed 11.9% versus 1.6% of males. Thus, there is maternal effect on rates of fertilization and hatching, and the paternal effect assessed individually was lackluster or even negligible.

  7. Efeito materno e paterno sobre as taxas de fertilização e eclosão em curimba (Prochilodus lineatus Maternal and paternal effect on fertilization and haching rate in curimba (Prochilodus lineatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Allaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o quanto fêmeas e machos contribuem para a variação total das taxas de fertilização e de eclosão em curimba (Prochilodus lineatus. Utilizou-se sêmen criopreservado proveniente de cinco machos para fertilizar ovócitos de seis fêmeas em um esquema fatorial cruzado 5x6, totalizando 30 famílias. Além das características reprodutivas dos machos e fêmeas, foram avaliadas as taxas de fertilização e eclosão para cômputo dos efeitos materno e paterno. Os componentes da variância foram estimados por meio da máxima verossimilhança restrita, sendo construídos intervalos Highest Posterior Density (HPD para cada componente. Verificou-se que as fêmeas contribuíram muito mais para a variação total em relação aos machos para as taxas de fertilização e eclosão. Para a taxa de fertilização, as fêmeas contribuíram com 26,3% da variação total e os machos com 8,9%. Em relação à taxa de eclosão, as fêmeas contribuíram com 11,9% e os machos com 1,6%. Concluiu-se que houve efeito materno sobre as taxas de fertilização e eclosão e que o efeito paterno avaliado individualmente foi pouco expressivo ou até mesmo insignificante.The aim of this study was to evaluate how much females and males contribute to the total variation of reproductive traits such as fertilization and hatching rate in curimba Prochilodus lineatus. Cryopreserved semen from five males was used to fertilize eggs from six females in a cross-factorial 5x6, totaling 30 families. In addition to the reproductive characteristics of males and females, fertilization and hatching rates were evaluated for computation of maternal and paternal effects. The variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, and the Highest Posterior Density (HPD intervals were estimated for each component. The female contributed more to the total variation than males for the fertilization and hatching rates. The female contributed 26.3% of the total variation in the fertilization rate against 8.9% of males. Regarding the hatching rate, the female contributed 11.9% versus 1.6% of males. Thus, there is maternal effect on rates of fertilization and hatching, and the paternal effect assessed individually was lackluster or even negligible.

  8. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: AFP Maternal; Maternal Serum AFP; MSAFP; msAFP; Triple Screen; Triple Test; Quad Screen; Quadruple Marker Test; 4-marker Screen; ...

  9. Promise and challenges of maternal health collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Judette M

    2015-06-01

    Quality-improvement collaboratives are just one of many tools used by health care delivery systems to address quality and safety gaps. These initiatives usually encompass specific aims, multidisciplinary teams, and information sharing. In the recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of maternal health collaboratives with 31 states having a State Perinatal Quality Collaborative. These programs have shown promise with significant gains in the reduction of early elective deliveries. Further investments by stakeholders can help contribute the resources needed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost savings of maternal health collaboratives. PMID:25851849

  10. Trends in adverse maternal outcomes during childbirth: a population-based study of severe maternal morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algert Charles S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is too rare in high income countries to be used as a marker of the quality of maternity care. Consequently severe maternal morbidity has been suggested as a better indicator. Using the maternal morbidity outcome indicator (MMOI developed and validated for use in routinely collected population health data, we aimed to determine trends in severe adverse maternal outcomes during the birth admission and in particular to examine the contribution of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH. Methods We applied the MMOI to the linked birth-hospital discharge records for all women who gave birth in New South Wales, Australia from 1999 to 2004 and determined rates of severe adverse maternal outcomes. We used frequency distributions and contingency table analyses to examine the association between adverse outcomes and maternal, pregnancy and birth characteristics, among all women and among only those with PPH. Using logistic regression, we modelled the effects of these characteristics on adverse maternal outcomes. The impact of adverse outcomes on duration of hospital admission was also examined. Results Of 500,603 women with linked birth and hospital records, 6242 (12.5 per 1,000 suffered an adverse outcome, including 22 who died. The rate of adverse maternal outcomes increased from 11.5 in 1999 to 13.8 per 1000 deliveries in 2004, an annual increase of 3.8% (95%CI 2.3–5.3%. This increase occurred almost entirely among women with a PPH. Changes in pregnancy and birth factors during the study period did not account for increases in adverse outcomes either overall, or among the subgroup of women with PPH. Among women with severe adverse outcomes there was a 12% decrease in hospital days over the study period, whereas women with no severe adverse outcome occupied 23% fewer hospital days in 2004 than in 1999. Conclusion Severe adverse maternal outcomes associated with childbirth have increased in Australia and the increase was entirely among women who experienced a PPH. Reducing or stabilising PPH rates would halt the increase in adverse maternal outcomes.

  11. Efeito materno na expressão dos teores de aminoácidos sulfurados em grãos de feijão / Maternal effect in sulfur amino acids content expression in common bean grains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Medianeira Grigoletto, Londero; Nerinéia Dalfollo, Ribeiro; Taiguer, Cerutti; Sandra Maria, Maziero; Daniele Piano, Rosa; Simone Saydelles da, Rosa.

    1884-18-01

    Full Text Available A genética do teor de aminoácidos sulfurados em feijão não tem sido suficientemente avaliada, por isso o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se ocorre efeito materno na expressão dos teores de aminoácidos sulfurados (metionina e cisteína) em grãos de feijão. Para isso, foram realizados cruzamentos [...] controlados entre as cultivares 'BRS Valente' x 'IAPAR 44' e 'TPS Nobre' x 'Minuano', e as gerações F1, F1 recíproco, F2 e F2 recíproco foram obtidas para cada combinação híbrida. Os aminoácidos sulfurados foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC-UV). O teor de metionina variou de 0,79g por 16g de N da matéria seca - MS ('BRS Valente') a 1,09g por 16g de N da MS (geração F2), e o teor de cisteína variou de 0,76g por 16g de N da MS (geração F2) a 1,43g por 16g de N da MS ('Minuano'). Variabilidade genética foi observada entre os genitores, porém não ocorre efeito materno na expressão dos teores de metionina e de cisteína em feijão. A seleção para maior teor de aminoácidos sulfurados em grãos de feijão deve ser realizada em sementes F2, pois a geração do embrião é F2. Abstract in english The genetic of the sulfur amino acids content has not been sufficiently evaluated in common bean. The objective of this research was to investigate the existence of maternal effect in sulfur amino acids content (methionine and cystein) of common bean grains. The controlled crossings were performed a [...] mong the cultivars 'BRS Valente' x 'IAPAR 44' and 'TPS Nobre' x 'Minuano'. The F1, F1 reciprocal, F2 and F2 reciprocal generations were obtained for each hybrid combination. The amino acid content was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). The methione content varied from 0.79g for 16g N MS ('BRS Valente') to 1.09g for 16g N MS (F2 generation) and the cystein content varied from 0.76g for 16g N MS (F2 generation) to 1.43g for 16g N MS ('Minuano'). Genetic variability was observed between the parents, but was there was no maternal effect in the methione and cystein content. The selection for higher sulfur amino acids content can be performed in F2 seeds, because the generation of the embryo is F2.

  12. Efeito materno na expressão dos teores de aminoácidos sulfurados em grãos de feijão Maternal effect in sulfur amino acids content expression in common bean grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Medianeira Grigoletto Londero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A genética do teor de aminoácidos sulfurados em feijão não tem sido suficientemente avaliada, por isso o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se ocorre efeito materno na expressão dos teores de aminoácidos sulfurados (metionina e cisteína em grãos de feijão. Para isso, foram realizados cruzamentos controlados entre as cultivares 'BRS Valente' x 'IAPAR 44' e 'TPS Nobre' x 'Minuano', e as gerações F1, F1 recíproco, F2 e F2 recíproco foram obtidas para cada combinação híbrida. Os aminoácidos sulfurados foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC-UV. O teor de metionina variou de 0,79g por 16g de N da matéria seca - MS ('BRS Valente' a 1,09g por 16g de N da MS (geração F2, e o teor de cisteína variou de 0,76g por 16g de N da MS (geração F2 a 1,43g por 16g de N da MS ('Minuano'. Variabilidade genética foi observada entre os genitores, porém não ocorre efeito materno na expressão dos teores de metionina e de cisteína em feijão. A seleção para maior teor de aminoácidos sulfurados em grãos de feijão deve ser realizada em sementes F2, pois a geração do embrião é F2.The genetic of the sulfur amino acids content has not been sufficiently evaluated in common bean. The objective of this research was to investigate the existence of maternal effect in sulfur amino acids content (methionine and cystein of common bean grains. The controlled crossings were performed among the cultivars 'BRS Valente' x 'IAPAR 44' and 'TPS Nobre' x 'Minuano'. The F1, F1 reciprocal, F2 and F2 reciprocal generations were obtained for each hybrid combination. The amino acid content was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV. The methione content varied from 0.79g for 16g N MS ('BRS Valente' to 1.09g for 16g N MS (F2 generation and the cystein content varied from 0.76g for 16g N MS (F2 generation to 1.43g for 16g N MS ('Minuano'. Genetic variability was observed between the parents, but was there was no maternal effect in the methione and cystein content. The selection for higher sulfur amino acids content can be performed in F2 seeds, because the generation of the embryo is F2.

  13. The long-term programming effect of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnancy on allergic airway disease and lung function in offspring after 20 to 25 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Maslova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High prenatal vitamin D status has been linked to decreased risk of atopic diseases in early childhood, but whether such relations persist until adulthood has not been explored. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the association between maternal 25-hydryxovitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations and outcomes of allergic airway disease and lung function in offspring with 20 to 25 years of follow-up. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort with 965 pregnant women enrolled in 1988-1989, maternal 25(OH)D concentrations were quantified in serum from gestational week 30 (n = 850 [88%]). Offspring were followed in nationwide registries with complete follow-up to the age of 25 years (n = 850 [100%]). Additionally, at age 20 years, outcomes of allergic airway disease and lung function were assessed in a subset of offspring by using blood samples and spirometry (n = 410 [45%]) and a questionnaire (n = 641 [70%]). RESULTS: Exposure to a high maternal 25(OH)D concentration (?125 nmol/L) was associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalizations in offspring (hazard ratio [HR], 1.81; 95% CI, 0.78-4.16) during 25 years of follow-up compared with the reference group (75-<125 nmol/L). Furthermore, there were lower risks of asthma hospitalizations (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.08-1.02) and asthma medication use (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.95) in those exposed to a low maternal 25(OH)D concentration (<50 nmol/L). In a reduced set of participants, we found no associations between maternal 25(OH)D concentrations and offspring allergen-specific IgE, total IgE, and eosinophil cationic protein levels; self-reported doctor's diagnosis of asthma or hay fever; or lung function at 20 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not provide support for a protective effect of a high maternal 25(OH)D concentration on outcomes of allergic airway disease and lung function at 20 to 25 years of age. In contrast, a high maternal 25(OH)D concentration might be associated with an increased risk of allergic diseases in offspring.

  14. Influência das Alterações Hemodinâmicas Maternas sobre o Desenvolvimento Fetal Effect of Maternal Hemodynamic Alterations on the Product of Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Therezinha Medeiros Borges

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar as alterações hemodinâmicas e estruturais cardíacas maternas nos três trimestres da gestação e relacioná-las com a classificação do recém-nascido, de acordo com o peso/idade gestacional. Métodos: foi realizada avaliação ecocardiográfica em 22 gestantes, sem patologias, para estudo do débito cardíaco, pressão arterial média, diâmetro do átrio esquerdo e resistência periférica, em três períodos da gestação: antes da 12ª , na 26ª e na 36ª semanas de gestação. Dezessete gestantes deram à luz recém-nascidos com peso adequado, quatro, recém-nascidos pequenos, e uma gestante, recém-nascido grande para a idade gestacional. Resultados: nas mães que deram à luz recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional, o débito cardíaco e o diâmetro do átrio esquerdo mantiveram-se inalterados, com tendência de elevação da pressão arterial média e aumento de 28% da resistência periférica, durante a gestação. As mães que deram à luz recém-nascidos adequados para idade gestacional tiveram aumento médio do débito cardíaco de 19% entre o primeiro e segundo trimestres e de 8% entre o segundo e terceiro trimestres da gestação. O diâmetro do átrio esquerdo elevou-se próximo de 9% durante a gestação, com manutenção da pressão arterial média e tendência de queda da resistência periférica. Conclusões: os resultados obtidos nesse trabalho suportam a associação entre adaptação hemodinâmica e peso do RNPurpose: to evaluate maternal hemodynamic and cardiac structural changes during the three trimesters of pregnancy and to relate them to the weight/gestational age of the newborn. Methods: twenty-two healthy pregnant women were submitted to echocardiography for the study of cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, left atrium diameter, and peripheral resistance during three periods of pregnancy, i.e., before the 12th week and at the 26thand 36th weeks of pregnancy. Seventeen pregnant women gave birth to infants with adequate weight for gestational age, four gave birth to small for gestational age newborns and one gave birth to a large for gestational age infant. Results: among mothers of low weight newborns, cardiac output and left atrium diameter remained constant, mean arterial pressure showed a tendency to increase and peripheral resistance was significantly increased (28%, during the gestation. Among the mothers of adequate weight newborns there was an increase in cardiac output of 19% in the second trimester and 8% in the third. The left atrial diameter increased approximately 9% during the gestation, with maintenance of mean arterial pressure and a tendency to a decrease in peripheral resistance. Conclusion: the present results support an association between hemodynamic adaptation and weight newborn.

  15. Influência das Alterações Hemodinâmicas Maternas sobre o Desenvolvimento Fetal / Effect of Maternal Hemodynamic Alterations on the Product of Conception

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vera Therezinha Medeiros, Borges; Beatriz B., Matsubara; José Carlos, Peraçoli; Iracema Mattos Paranhos, Calderon; Joélcio Francisco, Abbade; Marilza Vieira Cunha, Rudge.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar as alterações hemodinâmicas e estruturais cardíacas maternas nos três trimestres da gestação e relacioná-las com a classificação do recém-nascido, de acordo com o peso/idade gestacional. Métodos: foi realizada avaliação ecocardiográfica em 22 gestantes, sem patologias, para estudo [...] do débito cardíaco, pressão arterial média, diâmetro do átrio esquerdo e resistência periférica, em três períodos da gestação: antes da 12ª , na 26ª e na 36ª semanas de gestação. Dezessete gestantes deram à luz recém-nascidos com peso adequado, quatro, recém-nascidos pequenos, e uma gestante, recém-nascido grande para a idade gestacional. Resultados: nas mães que deram à luz recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional, o débito cardíaco e o diâmetro do átrio esquerdo mantiveram-se inalterados, com tendência de elevação da pressão arterial média e aumento de 28% da resistência periférica, durante a gestação. As mães que deram à luz recém-nascidos adequados para idade gestacional tiveram aumento médio do débito cardíaco de 19% entre o primeiro e segundo trimestres e de 8% entre o segundo e terceiro trimestres da gestação. O diâmetro do átrio esquerdo elevou-se próximo de 9% durante a gestação, com manutenção da pressão arterial média e tendência de queda da resistência periférica. Conclusões: os resultados obtidos nesse trabalho suportam a associação entre adaptação hemodinâmica e peso do RN Abstract in english Purpose: to evaluate maternal hemodynamic and cardiac structural changes during the three trimesters of pregnancy and to relate them to the weight/gestational age of the newborn. Methods: twenty-two healthy pregnant women were submitted to echocardiography for the study of cardiac output, mean arter [...] ial pressure, left atrium diameter, and peripheral resistance during three periods of pregnancy, i.e., before the 12th week and at the 26thand 36th weeks of pregnancy. Seventeen pregnant women gave birth to infants with adequate weight for gestational age, four gave birth to small for gestational age newborns and one gave birth to a large for gestational age infant. Results: among mothers of low weight newborns, cardiac output and left atrium diameter remained constant, mean arterial pressure showed a tendency to increase and peripheral resistance was significantly increased (28%), during the gestation. Among the mothers of adequate weight newborns there was an increase in cardiac output of 19% in the second trimester and 8% in the third. The left atrial diameter increased approximately 9% during the gestation, with maintenance of mean arterial pressure and a tendency to a decrease in peripheral resistance. Conclusion: the present results support an association between hemodynamic adaptation and weight newborn.

  16. A cluster randomised controlled trial of the community effectiveness of two interventions in rural Malawi to improve health care and to reduce maternal, newborn and infant mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnano Stefania; Malamba Florida; Chapota Hilda; Rosato Mikey; Mganga Andrew; Phiri Tambosi; Kazembe Peter; Mwansambo Charles; Lewycka Sonia; Newell Marie-Louise; Osrin David; Costello Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The UN Millennium Development Goals call for substantial reductions in maternal and child mortality, to be achieved through reductions in morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery, postpartum and early childhood. The MaiMwana Project aims to test community-based interventions that tackle maternal and child health problems through increasing awareness and local action. Methods/Design This study uses a two-by-two factorial cluster-randomised controlled trial design ...

  17. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-reported Partner Child Care Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner characteristics that related to this involvement. Results suggested that maternal depressive symptoms related to child internalizing and externalizing...

  18. Effects of low birth weight, maternal smoking in pregnancy and social class on the phenotypic manifestation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and associated antisocial behaviour: investigation in a clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a genetically influenced condition although indicators of environmental risk including maternal smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight and low social class have also been found to be associated with the disorder. ADHD is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder in terms of the predominant symptom types (inattention, hyperactive-impulsivity, their severity and comorbidity, notably Conduct Disorder. It is possible that these different clinical manifestations of the disorder may arise because of the differing effects of the environmental indicators of environmental risk. We set out to test this hypothesis. Methods In a sample of 356 children diagnosed with ADHD, we sought to investigate possible effects of three indicators of environmental risk – maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and social class – on comorbid Conduct Disorder, conduct disorder symptoms and inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for significant covariates, greater hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity was significantly associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.11, t = 1.96, p = 0.05 and social class (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.12, t = 2.19, p = 0.03 whilst none of the environmental risk indicators significantly predicted number of inattentive symptoms. Conduct Disorder symptoms were positively predicted by maternal smoking in pregnancy (r2 = 0.04, Beta = 0.18, t = 3.34, p = 0.001 whilst both maternal smoking during pregnancy and social class significantly predicted a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.54, 6.41, Wald = 9.95, p = 0.002 and (OR = 1.95 95% CI: 1.18, 3.23 Wald = 6.78, p = 0.009 respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that indicators of environmental risk, in this instance maternal smoking in pregnancy and environmental adversity indexed by lower social class, independently influence the clinical presentation of the ADHD phenotype. Other types of study design are needed to investigate whether these associations between indicators of environmental risk factors and ADHD clinical heterogeneity are attributable to causal risk effects and to further establish the magnitude of these effects. These findings have implications, not only for our understanding of the aetiology of ADHD, but may also be of clinical value, enabling the identification of individuals who are at higher risk of problematic behaviours in ADHD, notably conduct disorder, to enable earlier, targeted risk reduction strategies.

  19. Asma na gestação: efeitos na vitalidade fetal, complicações maternas e perinatais Asthma during pregnancy: effects on fetal well-being, and maternal and perinatal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Franco Pimentel Mendes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da asma materna sobre a gravidez, analisando as repercussões da gravidade da doença no comprometimento do bem-estar fetal, bem como as complicações maternas e perinatais associadas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de 117 gestações complicadas pela asma materna e sem outras comorbidades, no período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2010. Os critérios de inclusão foram: gestação única; diagnóstico de asma prévio à gestação; início do pré-natal antes da 28ª semana de gravidez; parto realizado na instituição; peso do recém-nascido acima de 500g e idade gestacional no parto acima de 22 semanas; ausência de malformações fetais ou anomalias cromossômicas; ausência de comorbidades maternas. A gravidade da asma foi classificada em intermitente, persistente leve, persistente moderada, persistente grave. Foram analisados os resultados do perfil biofísico fetal e da dopplervelocimetria de artéria umbilical realizados até 14 dias antes do parto. RESULTADOS: Do total de 117 gestantes asmáticas analisadas: 41 (35,0% eram intermitentes, 33 (28,2% persistentes leves, 21 (17,9% persistentes moderadas e 22 (18,8% persistentes graves. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quanto ao tipo de parto: a cesárea foi realizada em 65,8% dos casos, a corticoterapia materna no momento do parto em 20,5%, a idade gestacional no parto apresentou média de 38,6 semanas (DP 1,9 semanas e o peso ao nascimento apresentou média de 3056 g (DP 581 g. O perfil biofísico fetal realizado no período anteparto (n = 90, 76,9% apresentou resultado normal (8 ou 10 em 99% dos casos. A dopplervelocimetria de artéria umbilical foi avaliada em 23,9% (n = 28 das gestantes, e apresentou-se normal em 100% dos casos. O uso de corticoterapia sistêmica foi significativamente (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of maternal asthma on pregnancy, analyzing the consequences of the severity of the disease in the impairment of fetal well-being, as well as the related maternal and perinatal complications. METHODS: A retrospective study with 117 pregnancies complicated by maternal asthma and with no other comorbidities, in the period from January, 2005 to December, 2010. Inclusion criteriawere as follows: singleton pregnancy; pregnantwomen diagnosed with asthma prior to pregnancy; initiation of prenatal care before the 28th week of pregnancy; birth at this institution; newborn weighing over 500 g and gestational age at delivery of 22 weeks or more; absence of fetal malformations or chromosomal abnormalities; absence of maternal comorbidities. Asthma was classified as intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, or severe persistent. The results of fetal biophysical profile and of Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery performed 14 days prior to birth were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the total of 117 pregnant women with asthma, 41 (35.0% had intermittent, 33 (28.2% mild persistent, 21 (17.9% moderate persistent, and 22 (18.8% severe persistent asthma. There was no significant difference among the groups as to the type of birth: cesarean section was performed in 65.8% of the cases, maternal corticosteroid therapy was used at the moment of birth in 20.5%, the gestational age at birth averaged 38.6 weeks (SD 1.9 weeks, and birth weight averaged 3,056 g (SD 581 g. The fetal biophysical profile performed during the antepartum period (n = 90, 76.9% showed a normal result (8 or 10 in 99% of the cases. Doppler velocimetry of the umbilical artery was assessed in 23.9% (n = 28 of the pregnant women, and delivered normal results in 100% of the cases. The use of systemic corticosteroid therapy was significantly (p < 0.001 different among the intermittent (4.9%, mild persistent (9.1%, moderate persistent (28.6%, and severe persistent (45.5% groups. Regarding the beginning of birth, there was a higher proportion of elective cesarean section in the groups with moderate persistent asthma (52.5% and severe persistent (54.6% when compared to the intermittent (21.9% and mild persistent (24.

  20. Effect of feeding maternal colostrum or plasma-derived or colostrum-derived colostrum replacer on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance of preweaning heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, D; Bittar, J H; Ibarbia, L; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maternal colostrum (MC), a plasma-derived (PDCR) or colostrum-derived colostrum replacer (CDCR) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance of preweaning heifer calves. Preplanned contrasts were performed for MC versus CR (PDCR combined with CDCR) and PDCR versus CDCR. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: MC (n=49), 3.8L of maternal colostrum; PDCR (n=49), 550 g (1 dose; 150 g of IgG) of a PDCR; or CDCR (n=49), 470 g (1 dose; 100g IgG) of a CDCR. The best total protein cutoff for determining passive transfer was >5.2, 5.6, and 5.1g/dL for MC, PDCR, and CDCR, respectively. Serum total protein was greater for calves fed MC (mean ± SE; 6.14 ± 0.11 g/dL) than for calves fed PDCR (5.29 ± 0.11 g/dL) and CDCR (5.27 ± 0.11 g/dL). Serum IgG concentrations were greater for calves fed MC (2,098 ± 108 g/dL) than for calves fed PDCR (927 ± 107 g/dL) or CDCR (1,139 ± 108 g/dL). Apparent efficiency of absorption was greater for CDCR than PDCR (38.8 ± 3.0 vs. 21.6 ± 3.0%). Adequate passive transfer was greatest for MC (91.8%), followed by CDCR (49%) and PDCR (28.6%). Calves fed MC had greater weaning weights and body weight gain than calves fed CR. Morbidity was lower for calves fed MC (46.9%) than for calves fed PDCR (71.4%) or CDCR (67.3%). Calves fed MC tended to have lower mortality than calves fed CR. Given the conditions of this trial, feeding 3.8L of MC was superior to feeding one dose of CR. Further research is needed to evaluate calf performance when a higher dose of CR is fed. PMID:23497992

  1. Effects of combined maternal administration with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG and ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB on prenatal programming of skeletal properties in the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatara Marcin R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional manipulations during fetal growth may induce long-term metabolic effects in postnatal life. The aim of the study was to test whether combined treatment of pregnant sows with alpha-ketoglutarate and ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate induces additive long-term effects on skeletal system properties in the offspring. Methods The study was performed on 290 pigs obtained from 24 sows divided into 4 equal groups and subjected to experimental treatment during two weeks before delivery. The first group consisted of control sows, while the second group received alpha-ketoglutarate. The third group was treated with ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate and the fourth group underwent combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate. Piglets obtained from sows were reared until slaughter age to perform morphometric, densitometric and mechanical analyses of femur. Serum evaluations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were performed in newborns and 90-day old piglets; additionally, plasma amino acid concentration was measured in newborns. Results Maternal treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate and ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate significantly reduced fattening time and increased birth body weight, daily body weight gain, bone weight, volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical parameters and mechanical endurance of femur. These effects were associated with increased serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Furthermore, alpha-ketoglutarate and ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate administered solely or in combination significantly increased plasma level of 19 amino acids. Conclusions Hormonal and amino acid evaluations in pigs indicate additive effects of AKG and HMB on systemic growth and development; however, determination of bone properties has not shown such phenomenon.

  2. The Effects of Maternal Postnatal Depression and Child Sex on Academic Performance at Age 16 Years: A Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Croudace, Tim; Cooper, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postnatal depression (PND) is associated with poor cognitive functioning in infancy and the early school years; long-term effects on academic outcome are not known. Method: Children of postnatally depressed (N = 50) and non-depressed mothers (N = 39), studied from infancy, were followed up at 16 years. We examined the effects on…

  3. Severe maternal morbidity associated with maternal birthplace in three high-immigration settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality and morbidity vary substantially worldwide. It is unknown if these geographic differences translate into disparities in severe maternal morbidity among immigrants from various world regions. We assessed disparities in severe maternal morbidity between immigrant women from various world regions giving birth in three high-immigration countries. METHODS: We used population-based delivery data from Victoria; Australia and Ontario, Canada and national data from Denmark, in the most recent 10-year period ending in 2010 available to each participating centre. Each centre provided aggregate data according to standardized definitions of the outcome, maternal regions of birth and covariates for pooled analyses. We used random effects and stratified logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for maternal age, parity and comparability scores. RESULTS: We retrieved 2,322,907 deliveries in all three receiving countries, of which 479,986(21%) were to immigrant women. Compared with non-immigrants, only Sub-Saharan African women were consistently at higher risk of severe maternal morbidity in all three receiving countries (pooled adjusted OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.43, 1.95). In contrast, both Western and Eastern European immigrants had lower odds (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.96 and OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.83, respectively). The most common diagnosis was severe pre-eclampsia followed by uterine rupture, which was more common among Sub-Saharan Africans in all three settings. CONCLUSIONS: Immigrant women from Sub-Saharan Africa have higher rates of severe maternal morbidity. Other immigrant groups had similar or lower rates than the majority locally born populations.

  4. Birth order and child outcomes: Does maternal quality time matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Monfardini, Chiara; See, Sarah Grace

    2012-01-01

    Higher birth order positions are often associated with poorer outcomes, possibly due to fewer resources received within the household. Using a sample of PSID-CDS children, we investigate whether the birth order effects in their outcomes are due to unequal allocation of the particular resource represented by maternal quality time. OLS regressions show that the negative birth order effects on various test scores are only slightly diminished when maternal time is included among the regressors. T...

  5. Maternal-fetal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-03-01

    Advances in prenatal care have brought about a greater understanding as to the special status of the fetus to the point that it is considered a patient in its own regard. Pregnant women generally follow the medical recommendations of their physicians that are intended for the benefit of their baby. Any situation where maternal well-being or wishes contradict fetal benefit constitutes a maternal-fetal conflict. Such situations include a broad range of possible interventions, non-interventions, and coercive influences. In such cases, the attending physician is expected to attain an attitude that involves either the respect of the woman's autonomy and right to privacy, which precludes any approach other than to accept her decision, or to modify this absolute for the beneficence of the fetus. Current ethical viewpoints range from absolute respect for maternal autonomy with no persuasion allowed, to gentle persuasion and to others which permit intervention and overriding of the woman's autonomy. Court-ordered decisions enforcing the pregnant woman to undergo a procedure in order to improve fetal outcome have been criticized as an invasion of a woman's privacy, limitation of her autonomy, and taking away of her right to informed consent. PMID:10733034

  6. The Effects of Maternal Separation on Adult Methamphetamine Self-Administration, Extinction, Reinstatement, and MeCP2 Immunoreactivity in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CandaceR.Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The maternal separation (MS paradigm is an animal model of early life stress. Animals subjected to MS during the first two weeks of life display altered behavioral and neuroendocrinological stress responses as adults. MS also produces altered responsiveness to and self-administration (SA of various drugs of abuse including cocaine, ethanol, opioids, and amphetamine. Methamphetamine (METH causes great harm to both the individual user and to society; yet, no studies have examined the effects of MS on METH SA. This study was performed to examine the effects of MS on the acquisition of METH SA, extinction, and reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior in adulthood. Given the known influence of early life stress and drug exposure on epigenetic processes, group differences in levels of the epigenetic marker methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc core were also investigated. Long-Evans pups and dams were separated on postnatal days (PND 2-14 for either 180 (MS180 or 15 min (MS15. Male offspring were allowed to acquire METH SA (0.05 mg/kg/infusion in 15 2-hr daily sessions starting at PND67, followed by extinction training and cue-induced reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior. Rats were then assessed for MeCP2 levels in the NAc core by immunohistochemistry. The MS180 group self-administered significantly more METH and acquired SA earlier than the MS15 group. No group differences in extinction or cue-induced reinstatement were observed. MS15 rats had significantly elevated MeCP2-immunoreactive cells in the NAc core as compared to MS180 rats. Together, these data suggest that MS has lasting influences on METH SA as well as epigenetic processes in the brain reward circuitry.

  7. INVESTIGATING ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF VITAMINS E, C ON THE INCIDENCE RATE OF PREECLAMPSIA AND MATERNAL AND FETAL PROGNOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH INCREASED RISK OF PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghomeishi and Mahin Najafian*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of hypertension in pregnancy are a component of the triple causes related to the morbidity and mortality of mother and baby. In the investigations, the role of oxidative stress has been proven in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and the effect of free radicals in endothelial dysfunction. Essential nutrients such as vitamins C and E are able to eliminate free radicals that lead to cellular damage. Due to the cases above, this study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamins E&C on the incidence of Preeclampsia in pregnant women with high risk in terms of the incidence of this disease. The present study is a clinical trial. The statistical population includes 700 at risk women in terms of preeclampsia (nuliparas women. Subjects were in the age range of 20 to more than 35 years, with insulin-dependent diabetes, multiple pregnancies, overweight, previous preeclampsia history, chronic hypertension, vascular disease, collagen disease and renal disease. Patients were divided into two groups of 350 persons including the control group that just received Iron and folic acid and treatment group that received the antioxidant (E & C in addition to iron and folic acid, afterwards the incidence rate of preeclampsia and its intensity was investigated in the two groups. Analysis was conducted by the chi-square method. The incidence rate of preeclampsia had no significant difference in the two groups of control and treatment but the incidence severity was less in the treatment than control group (P< 0.001 and also weight less than 2500 grams and gestational age less than 37 weeks was more in the control than treatment group. This difference was statistically significant (P< 0.001. According to the above-mentioned cases, consumption of antioxidants in patients with high risk in terms of preeclampsia can decrease severity of illness, reduce and improve neonatal and maternal outcome. Therefore, the use of these antioxidants is recommended during pregnancy in patients with preeclampsia.

  8. Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: a clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a Gender Identity Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Garzon, Luisa C; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    This study tested predictions regarding two hypothesized maternal immune responses influencing sexual orientation: one affecting homosexual males with high fraternal birth order and another affecting firstborn homosexual individuals whose mothers experience repeated miscarriage after the birth of the first child. Low birth weight was treated as a marker of possible exposure to a maternal immune response during gestation. Birth weight was examined relative to sibship characteristics in a clinical sample of youth (N = 1,722) classified as heterosexual or homosexual based on self-reported or probable sexual orientation. No female sexual orientation differences in birth weight were found. Homosexual, compared to heterosexual, males showed lower birth weight if they had one or more older brothers--and especially two or more older brothers--or if they were an only-child. These findings support the existence of two maternal immune responses influencing male sexual orientation and possibly also cross-gender behavior and identity. PMID:25345970

  9. Links between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms, maternal distress, infant gender and sensitivity in a high-risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eickhorst Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal postpartum depression has an impact on mother-infant interaction. Mothers with depression display less positive affect and sensitivity in interaction with their infants compared to non-depressed mothers. Depressed women also show more signs of distress and difficulties adjusting to their role as mothers than non-depressed women. In addition, depressive mothers are reported to be affectively more negative with their sons than with daughters. Methods A non-clinical sample of 106 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk (poverty, alcohol or drug abuse, lack of social support, teenage mothers and maternal psychic disorder was investigated with EPDS (maternal postpartum depressive symptoms, the CARE-Index (maternal sensitivity in a dyadic context and PSI-SF (maternal distress. The baseline data were collected when the babies had reached 19 weeks of age. Results A hierarchical regression analysis yielded a highly significant relation between the PSI-SF subscale "parental distress" and the EPDS total score, accounting for 55% of the variance in the EPDS. The other variables did not significantly predict the severity of depressive symptoms. A two-way ANOVA with "infant gender" and "maternal postpartum depressive symptoms" showed no interaction effect on maternal sensitivity. Conclusions Depressive symptoms and maternal sensitivity were not linked. It is likely that we could not find any relation between both variables due to different measuring methods (self-reporting and observation. Maternal distress was strongly related to maternal depressive symptoms, probably due to the generally increased burden in the sample, and contributed to 55% of the variance of postpartum depressive symptoms.

  10. Genomic imprinting and the maternal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keverne, E B

    2001-01-01

    Those parts of the genome that contain imprinted genes are relatively small (between 100 and 150 genes predicted) but their impact on mammalian development and evolution is substantial. Most of the imprinted genes that have been studied are regulatory: transcription factors, alternative splicers, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, growth factors, or are involved in complex signalling pathways such as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and ubiquitin pathways. This review considers the effects of imprinted genes on brain development by examining the distribution of androgenetic and parthenogenetic cells in the brains of chimeric mice using in situ markers. At birth, cells that are disomic for the paternal genome (androgenetic) contribute substantially to the hypothalamus, septum, preoptic area and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis and fail to survive in the developing neocortex and striatum. In contrast, cells that are disomic for the maternal genome (parthenogenetic) proliferate in the cortex and striatum but are excluded from the diencephalic structures. Growth of the brain is enhanced by the presence of parthenogenetic cells and hence increased maternal gene dosage, whereas the brains of androgenetic chimeras are smaller. Mest and Peg3, two imprinted genes that are paternally expressed, have been disrupted by gene targeting and show high levels of expression in regions where androgenetic cells accumulated, namely the hypothalamus, preoptic area and septum. Although of different structural classes and located on different chromosomes, both of these paternally expressed genes influence placental growth and maternal behavior. The implications of these findings for brain evolution and maternal behavior are discussed. PMID:11589137

  11. Maternal and Neonatal Urinary Iodine Status and its Effect on Neonatal TSH Levels in a Mildly Iodine-Deficient Area

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlu Yaman, Arzu; Demirel, Fatma; Ermis?, Bahri; Pis?kin, I. Etem

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Iodine deficiency and excess are the most important factors that affect screening and recall rates of congenital hypothyroidism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the urinary iodine status in newborns and their mothers and its effects on neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in a mildly iodine-deficient area.

  12. Misoprostol to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of maternal deaths and dose-related effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Novikova, Natalia; Linder, Verena; Ferreira, Sandra; Piaggio, Gilda

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review maternal deaths and the dose-related effects of misoprostol on blood loss and pyrexia in randomized trials of misoprostol use for the prevention or treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. Methods We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and Pubmed, without language restrictions, for “(misoprostol AND postpartum) OR (misoprostol AND haemorrhage) OR (misoprostol AND hemorrhage)”, and we evaluated reports identified through the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group search strategy. Randomized trials comparing misoprostol with either placebo or another uterotonic to prevent or treat postpartum haemorrhage were checked for eligibility. Data were extracted, tabulated and analysed with Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 4.3 software. Findings We included 46 trials with more than 40 000 participants in the final analysis. Of 11 deaths reported in 5 trials, 8 occurred in women receiving ? 600 µg of misoprostol (Peto odds ratio, OR: 2.49; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.76–8.13). Severe morbidity, defined as the need for major surgery, admission to intensive care, organ failure or body temperature ? 40 °C, was relatively infrequent. In prevention trials, severe morbidity was experienced by 16 of 10 281 women on misoprostol and by 16 of 10 292 women on conventional uterotonics; in treatment trials, it was experienced by 1 of 32 women on misoprostol and by 1 of 32 women on conventional uterotonics. Misoprostol recipients experienced more adverse events than placebo recipients: 8 of 2070 versus 5 of 2032, respectively, in prevention trials, and 5 of 196 versus 2 of 202, respectively, in treatment trials. Meta-analysis of direct and adjusted indirect comparisons of the results of randomized trials showed no evidence that 600 µg are more effective than 400 µg for preventing blood loss ? 1000 ml (relative risk, RR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.71–1.48). Pyrexia was more than twice as common among women who received ??600 µg rather than 400 µg of misoprostol (RR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.78–3.60). Conclusion Further research is needed to more accurately assess the potential beneficial and harmful effects of misoprostol and to determine the smallest dose that is effective and safe. In this review, 400 µg of misoprostol were found to be safer than ? 600 µg and just as effective. PMID:19784446

  13. Using natural disasters to study prenatal maternal stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Suzanne; Laplante, David P

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies of prenatal maternal stress permit random assignment of pregnant animals to stress and no-stress groups, and allow total control of the type, severity, and timing of the stressor in utero. Human studies have obvious constraints that make the use of experimental methods nearly impossible. Studying pregnant women who experience natural disasters during pregnancy, however, approximates the random assignment to groups enjoyed by animal studies, and can characterize the timing of the stressor in utero with great precision. In this chapter, we briefly describe our three ongoing prospective longitudinal studies of children exposed to prenatal maternal stress from natural disasters. We present results from Project Ice Storm in detail, showing effects of prenatal maternal stress on cognitive and neurodevelopment. We contrast these results with preliminary findings from the Iowa Flood Study and introduce the QF2011 Queensland Flood Project. In the "Discussion" section, we present conclusions to date and discuss the relative effects of the severity of maternal objective disaster exposure and maternal subjective distress levels, the moderating effects of fetal sex and the timing of the stressor in utero, and the longevity of the effects. Finally, we discuss some possible mechanisms that may mediate the effects of prenatal maternal stress on the neurodevelopment of children. PMID:25287546

  14. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy : a new delivery system and its effect on maternal health and pregnancy outcomes in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A.K.; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive-health workers, or adolescent peer mobilizers could administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women. METHODS: A non-randomized community trial was implemented in 21 community clusters (intervention) and four clusters where health units provided routine IPTp (control). The primary outcome measures were access and adherence to IPTp, number of malaria episodes, prevalence of anaemia, and birth weight. Numbers of live births, abortions, still births, and maternal and child deaths were secondary endpoints. FINDINGS: 1404 (67.5%) of 2081 with the new delivery system received two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine versus 281 (39.9%) of 704 with health units (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of malaria episodes decreased from 906 (49.5%) of 1830 to 160 (17.6%) of 909 (P < 0.001) with the new delivery system and from 161 (39.1%) of 412 to 13 (13.1%) of 99 (P <0.001) with health units. Anaemia was significantly less prevalent in both arms. There was a lower proportion of low birth weight 6.0% with the new delivery system versus 8.3% with health units (P < 0.03). Few abortions and stillbirths were recorded in either arm. Fewer children and women who accessed IPTp with health units died than in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The new approaches were associated with early access and increased adherence to IPTp. Health units were, however, more effective in reducing parasitaemia and malaria episodes. We recommend further studies to assess programming modalities linking the new approaches and health units.

  15. Effects of Maternal Inflammation and Exposure to Cigarette Smoke on Birth Weight and Delivery of Preterm Babies in a Cohort of Indigenous Australian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kirsty G.; Rae, Kym; Weatherall, Loretta; Hall, Sharron; Burns, Christine; Smith, Roger; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Blackwell, C. Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), neonatal deaths, and deaths from infection are higher among Indigenous Australians. This study aimed to determine the effects of inflammatory responses and exposure to cigarette smoke, two important factors associated with sudden death in infancy, on preterm birth, and birth weight in a cohort of Indigenous mothers. Indigenous Australian women (n?=?131) were recruited as part of a longitudinal study while attending antenatal care clinics during pregnancy; blood samples were collected up to three times in pregnancy. Serum cotinine, indicating exposure to cigarette smoke, was detected in 50.4% of mothers. Compared with non-Indigenous women, the cohort had 10 times the prevalence of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori (33 vs. 3%). Levels of immunoglobulin G, antibodies to H. pylori, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were all inversely correlated with gestational age (P?cotinine) and inflammation (CRP) were assessed in relation to risk factors for SIDS: gestational age at delivery and birth weight. Serum cotinine levels were negatively associated with birth weight (??=??0.37, P?Cotinine was negatively associated with gestational age at delivery (??=??0.199, P?=?0.023). When assessed by fetal sex, this was significant only for males (??=??0.327, P?=?0.011). CRP was negatively associated with gestational age at delivery for female infants (??=??0.46, P?maternal BMI was significantly correlated with birth weight. These data highlight the importance of putting programs in place to reduce cigarette smoke exposure in pregnancy and to treat women with chronic infections such as H. pylori to improve pregnancy outcomes and decrease risk factors for sudden death in infancy. PMID:25806032

  16. Efecto de la ganancia de peso gestacional en la madre y el neonato The effect of gestational weight gain on maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Zonana-Nacach

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la ganancia de peso gestacional (GPG en la madre y el neonato. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 1 000 mujeres en puerperio inmediato atendidas en el Hospital de Ginecología del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, en Tijuana, Baja California, México. Se consideró una GPG óptima si en las mujeres con bajo peso, peso normal, sobrepeso u obesidad previo al embarazo, la GPG fue OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG on maternal and neonatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 2009, women in the immediate puerperium were assessed at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. GWG was considered optimal when < 18 kg, < 16 kg, < 11.5 kg and <9 kg for women who, before pregnancy, were underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 38% of women gained more than the recommended weight during pregnancy Women with normal weight previous to pregnancy who exceeded gestational weight-gain recommendations had a risk of oligo/polyhydramnios (OR 2.1, CI 95% 1.04-4.2 and cesarean delivery; overweight women previous to pregnancy had an increased risk of preeclampsia (OR 2.2 CI 95% I.I-4.6 and newborn macrosomia (OR 2.5, CI 95% 1.1-5.6; and obese women had a risk of newborn macrosomía (OR 6.6 IC 95% I.8-23. Pre-pregnancy weight was more greatly associated with gestational diabetes than gestational weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Women whose weight gain during pregnancy is outside of the recommended ranges had an increased risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

  17. The effect of social support around pregnancy on postpartum depression among Canadian teen mothers and adult mothers in the maternity experiences survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mood disorder that affects 10–20 percent of women, and can begin any time during first year after delivery lasting for months. Social support may decrease risk of depression during pregnancy for women. However, literature shows that the amount of social support received during and after pregnancy is different for teen mothers and adult mothers. This study examined the effects of social support received during and after pregnancy on PPD among Canadian women and identified if the relationship was different for teen mothers compared to adult mothers. Methods The study was based on secondary analysis of the Maternity Experiences Survey. A total of 6,421 women with singleton live births, aged 15 years and older were analyzed. Teen mothers were identified as 15–19 years old and adult mothers were identified as 20 years and older. The main outcome of the study was PPD, which was evaluated using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale. The main independent variable was social support received during pregnancy and after birth. Logistic regression was computed to assess the relationship between social support and PPD after adjusting for confounding variables and age as an interaction term. Adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were reported. Results PPD was experienced by 14.0% among teen mothers and 7.2% among adult mothers (p?

  18. Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducro Bart J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the estimation of genetic parameters that control body weight, body composition, meat quality traits and parameters that shape the growth curve in turkey birds. Results The average heritability estimate for body weight traits was 0.38, except for early weights that were strongly affected by maternal effects. This study showed that body weight traits, upper asymptote (a growth curve trait, percent breast meat and redness of meat had high heritability whereas heritabilities of breast length, breast width, percent drip loss, ultimate pH, lightness and yellowness of meat were medium to low. We found high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weight, upper asymptote, most breast meat yield traits and percent drip loss but percent drip loss was found strongly negatively correlated with ultimate pH. Percent breast meat, however, showed genetic correlations close to zero with body weight traits and upper asymptote. Conclusion The results of this analysis and the growth curve from the studied population of turkey birds suggest that the turkey birds could be selected for breeding between 60 and 80 days of age in order to improve overall production and the production of desirable cuts of meat. The continuous selection of birds within this age range could promote high growth rates but specific attention to meat quality would be needed to avoid a negative impact on the quality of meat.

  19. The Effects of Maternally Administered Methadone, Buprenorphine and Naltrexone on Offspring: Review of Human and Animal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, W.O; Dunlop, S A; R. J. Tait; Hulse, G.K

    2008-01-01

    Most women using heroin are of reproductive age with major risks for their infants. We review clinical and experimental data on fetal, neonatal and postnatal complications associated with methadone, the current “gold standard”, and compare these with more recent, but limited, data on developmental effects of buprenorphine, and naltrexone. Methadone is a µ-opioid receptor agonist and is commonly recommended for treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. However, it has undesired outcomes...

  20. Effects of gestational weight gain on the outcome of labor at the Yaounde central hospital maternity, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mbu, Robinson E.; Fouedjio, Hortence J.; Mpey Tabot; Fouelifack, Fluorbert Y.; Tumasang, Florence N.; Tonye, Rebecca N.; Leke, Robert J. I.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity rates are increasing in Cameroon. Obstetric literature has recently focused on the rising incidence of complications with increases in weight gain in pregnancy. Some of these complications include gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, operative deliveries, genital tract lacerations and fetal birth trauma. Examining the effects of excess weight gain during the course of pregnancy could help identify weight gain limits. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) was recommended by the...

  1. Maternal employment and happiness: the effect of non-participation and part-time employment on mothers' life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Eva M.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to unemployment, the effect of non-participation and parttime employment on subjective well-being has much less frequently been the subject of economists' investigations. In Germany, many women with dependent children are involuntarily out of the labor force or in part-time employment because of family constraints (e.g., due to lack of available and appropriate childcare). Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) Study, this paper analyzes the impact of involuntary f...

  2. Envenoming after carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) bite during pregnancy: timely use of effective antivenom improves maternal and foetal outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, AG; Abubakar, SB; Abubakar, IS; Larnyang, S.; Durfa, N.; Nasidi, A; Yusuf, PO; Garnvwa, J; Theakston, RD; Salako, L; Warrell, DA

    2008-01-01

    The report describes successful management of 10 women in 2nd and 3rd pregnancy trimesters with EchiTab IgG antivenom after carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) envenoming. All women survived but foetal loss in a victim with delayed presentation and a case of mild hypersensitivity reaction were recorded. Excellent outcomes can be achieved in rural and semi-nomadic populations without specialized care and immediate access and provision of effective antivenoms is paramount in curtailing snakebite mat...

  3. Maternal Serum Leptin During Pregnancy and Infant Birth Weight: the Influence of Maternal Overweight and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, V. K.; Straughen, J. K.; Trudeau, S.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether the distinct metabolic patterns found in obese and non-obese pregnant women may have different effects on the growing fetus. Our objective was to estimate the influence of longitudinal variation in maternal serum leptin levels on variation in infant birth weight in overweight/obese versus normal weight women. In a prospective cohort of 286 gravidas, we measured maternal weight and serum leptin levels at 6–10,10–14,16–20, 22–26, and 32–36 weeks gesta...

  4. Combining ability and maternal effects for some agronomic and oil quality traits in safflower ( Carthamus Tinctorius, L. )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining ability and reciprocal effects for some agronomic and oil quality traits of safflower were studied in a diallel set of 4 parents. The used parents were local cultivar (Giza 1), exotic cultivar (A2sK1) and two induced gamma ray mutants (Mut. 1 and 2). General and specific combining ability and specific combining ability and reciprocal effects showed highly significant variances for most studied characters. Additive genetic variance was more important than non active for flowering date, first branch high, no.of capitula / plant, seed yield/plant, oil content and stearic acid. However, no.of branches/plant, 100-seed weight, palmitic acid, oleic and linoleic acids appeared to be under the control of epi static gene effect. Giza 1 (P 1) was the best general combiner for no.of branches and palmitic acid. Exotic cultivar 'A2sK1' (P 2) was the highest combiner for no.of capitula/plant and stearic acid. Mut.1 (P 3) was the best combiner for early flowering date, 100-seed weight and seed yield/plant. Mut.2 (P 4) was the highest combiner for oil content. 4 tab

  5. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

  6. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  7. Poor maternal outcomes: a factor of poor professional systems design

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M G, Schoon; M W A, Motlolometsi.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is struggling to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes, resulting in failure to achieve the Millennium Goal for maternal health. Staff attitudes and skills have been identified as a factor affecting deaths and adverse outcomes in mothers. Huge training efforts are required from health [...] departments to ensure that staff have the required skills to provide the services. The integrated approach to training of nurse professionals, which includes midwifery as a part of undergraduate training, has a devastating effect on the quality of midwifery. Training of midwifery is unfocused and forced upon those who have no interest in improving maternal outcomes. Maternal care is provided in professional silos by professionals who are not equipped with appropriate skills. Unless this systems design error is corrected, and a single-output training model introduced to professionals providing maternal care, we are unlikely to see a a major change in our maternal outcomes. New models based on inter-professional training and task sharing need to be developed for the country, including redefining of professional accountability for maternal care.

  8. Effect of Maternal Age on the Ratio of Cleavage and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Early Developmental Stage Bovine Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo, Shun; Goto, Hiroya; Kuwayama, Takehito; Monji, Yasunori; Iwata, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Age-associated deterioration in both the quality and quantity of mitochondria occurs in older women. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of age on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA number) in early developmental stage bovine embryos as well as the dynamics of mtDNA number during early embryo development. Real-time PCR was used to determine mtDNA number. In vitro-produced embryos 48 h after insemination derived from Japanese black cows, ranging in age from 25...

  9. Ethanol exposure during late gestation and nursing in the rat: Effects upon maternal care, ethanol metabolism and infantile milk intake

    OpenAIRE

    Pueta, Mariana; Abate, Paula; Haymal, Olga B.; Spear, Norman E; Juan C. Molina

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol experiences, during late gestation as well as during nursing, modify the behavioral dynamics of the dam/pup dyad, and leads to heightened ethanol intake in the offspring. This study focuses on: a) behavioral and metabolic changes in intoxicated dams with previous exposure to ethanol during pregnancy and b) infantile consumption of milk when the dam is either under the effects of ethanol or sober. Pregnant rats received water, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol, and were administered with water o...

  10. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Presumptive Group B Streptococcal Infection in Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes: Effect on Neonatal and Maternal Infectious Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Wayne B.; Saade, George R.; Belfort, Michael; Samora-mata, Joanne; Wen, Tony; Moise, Kenneth J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the prevalence of neonatal and maternal infectious morbidity in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) who received ampicillin prophylaxis for presemptive group B streptococcal colonization is increased compared to those who received no prophylaxis.

  11. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Behavior Problems among Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Buffering Effect of Mother-Reported Partner Child Care Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin N.; Grau, Josefina M.; Duran, Petra A.; Castellanos, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relations between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of 125 adolescent Latina mothers (primarily Puerto Rican) and their toddlers. We also tested the influence of mother-reported partner child care involvement on child behavior problems and explored mother-reported partner…

  12. Effect of self-hypnosis on duration of labor and maternal and neonatal outcomes : a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a brief course in self-hypnosis for childbirth on duration of the labor and other birth outcomes. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 1222 healthy nulliparous women. METHODS: A hypnosis group receiving three 1-h lessons in self-hypnosis with additional audio-recordings to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-h lessons in various relaxation methods and mindfulness with audio-recordings for additional training, and a usual-care group receiving only the usual antenatal care were compared. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of labor, birth complications, lactation success, caring for the child, and preferred future mode of delivery. RESULTS: No differences were found across the three groups on duration from arriving at the birth department until the expulsive phase of second stage of labor, the duration of the expulsive phase, or other birth outcomes. Fewer emergency and more elective cesarean sections occurred in the hypnosis group. No difference was seen across the groups for lactation success or caring for the child but fewer women in the hypnosis group preferred a cesarean section in future pregnancies because of fear of childbirth and negative birth experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Learning self-hypnosis to ease childbirth taught as a brief course failed to show any effects on duration of childbirth and other birth outcomes.

  13. Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Kulac, Esin

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) has been implicated in the induction and severity of some childhood behavioral and learning disabilities. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACHRs) are thought to be effective in the learning and memory-generating process. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrauterine exposure to AFCAs on subunit concentrations of NMDARs and nAChRs isoforms in rats. We administered a mixture of AFCAs (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation. The concentration of NR2A and NR2B subunits and nAChR ?7, ?4?2 isoforms in their offspring's hippocampi were measured by Western Blotting. Expressions of NR2B and nAChR ?2 were significantly increased (17% and 6.70%, respectively), whereas expression of nAChR ?4 was significantly decreased (5.67%) in male experimental group compared to the male control group (p<0.05). In the female experimental group, AFCAs caused a 14% decrease in NR2B expression when compared to the female control group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that exposure to AFCAs during the fetal period may lead to alterations in expressions of NMDARs and nAChRs in adulthood. These alterations were different between male and female genders. PMID:23429044

  14. Maternal Employment, Family Functioning, and Preterm Infant Development at 9 and 12 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Youngblut, JoAnne M.; LOVELAND-CHERRY, CAROL J.; Horan, Mary

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal employment on child development and family functioning for families with preterm infants. Data were collected in the family’s home (N = 67) when the infant was 3, 9, and 12 months of age. Maternal employment at 3 months had little effect on 9- and 12-month child mental or psychomotor development or on family cohesion, adaptability, or satisfaction. Maternal employment attitude/behavior consistency was a significant predict...

  15. Maternal prenatal smoking, parental antisocial behavior, and early childhood physical aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Séguin, Jean. R.; ZOCCOLILLO, MARK; BOIVIN, MICHEL; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother’s history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children’s probability to display high and ...

  16. Evaluation and interpretation of maternal toxicity in Segment II studies: Issues, some answers, and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biologically rational regulatory policies with regards to developmental toxicity are often based on the extrapolation of standard laboratory rodent bioassay results to the human population. Significantly contributing to the difficulty of this task is the possibility that general toxic effects on the maternal organism may affect the developing conceptus. This review examines maternal factors which may bear directly or indirectly upon developmental outcome, with emphasis on those of greatest relevance to the hazard assessment process. Standard teratology testing protocols call for top dosage levels that induce overt maternal toxicity, and the developmental effects of this toxicity (both alone, and with concurrent embryo/fetal insult) continue to present regulators with considerable interpretive difficulties. In response to these problems, there have been both research and literature review efforts dealing with the relationship of maternal and developmental toxicity. Maternally mediated developmental toxicity occurs with a number of agents, and toxicant-induced alterations in maternal physiology may affect the conceptus at dosages not causing overt maternal toxicity. Relevant studies are reviewed here, and suggestions for avenues of future research are offered including the identification of any syndromes of developmental effects occurring at maternally toxic levels irrespective of the causative agent, and experimental approaches for the characterization of maternal toxi for the characterization of maternal toxicity

  17. Early prevention of childhood caries with maternal xylitol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Azza G. Hanno; Abdullah S. Almushayt; Mohammad I. Masoud; Eman A. El Ashiry; El Derwi, Douaa A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of maternal xylitol consumption on children’s salivary mutans streptococci (MS) level, caries activity, and plaque accumulation in contrast with maternal fluoride varnish in a group of mother-child pairs. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, the study subjects were 60 mother-child pairs recruited from the pediatric dentistry clinic and the hospital well baby clinic at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The sample was recr...

  18. Maternally invested carotenoids compensate costly ectoparasitism in the hihi

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen, John G.; Thorogood, Rose; Brekke, Patricia; Cassey, Phillip; Karadas, Filiz; Armstrong, Doug P.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary ingested carotenoid biomolecules have been linked to both improved health and immunity in nestling birds. Here, we test whether maternally invested egg carotenoids can offset the cost of parasitism in developing nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta) from the bloodsucking mite (Ornithonyssus bursa). Our results reveal clear negative effects of parasitism on nestlings, and that maternally derived carotenoids compensate this cost, resulting in growth parameters and ultimate mass achieved be...

  19. Maternal Influences on Youth Responses to Peer Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Abaied, Jamie L.; RUDOLPH, KAREN D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how youth develop particular styles of responding to stress is critical for promoting effective coping. This research examined the prospective, interactive contribution of maternal socialization of coping and peer stress to youth responses to peer stress. A sample of 144 early adolescents (M age = 12.44, SD = 1.22) and their maternal caregivers completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in two waves over a one-year period. Results revealed that mothers’ disengagem...

  20. Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site. Skip Navigation Health Resources and Services Administration Maternal and Child Health Search Search Option This Site All HRSA Sites ... and families across the U.S. benefit from the Maternal and Child Health Block Grant and we are working to make ...

  1. Effects of Nurse Home Visiting on Maternal and Child Functioning: Age-9 Follow-up of a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, David L.; Kitzman, Harriet; Hanks, Carole; Cole, Robert; Anson, Elizabeth; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; Luckey, Dennis W.; Henderson, Charles R.; Holmberg, John; Tutt, Robin A.; Stevenson, Amanda J.; Bondy, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our goal was to test the effect of prenatal and infancy home visits by nurses on mothers’ fertility and children’s functioning 7 years after the program ended at child age 2. METHODS We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in a public system of obstetric and pediatric care. A total of 743 primarily black women <29 weeks’ gestation, with previous live births and at least 2 sociodemographic risk characteristics (unmarried, <12 years of education, unemployed), were randomly assigned to receive nurse home visits or comparison services. Primary outcomes consisted of intervals between births of first and second children and number of children born per year; mothers’ stability of relationships with partners and relationships with the biological father of the child; mothers’ use of welfare, food stamps, and Medicaid; mothers’ use of substances; mothers’ arrests and incarcerations; and children’s academic achievement, school conduct, and mental disorders. Secondary outcomes were the sequelae of subsequent pregnancies, women’s employment, experience of domestic violence, and children’s mortality. RESULTS Nurse-visited women had longer intervals between births of first and second children, fewer cumulative subsequent births per year, and longer relationships with current partners. From birth through child age 9, nurse-visited women used welfare and food stamps for fewer months. Nurse-visited children born to mothers with low psychological resources, compared with control-group counterparts, had better grade-point averages and achievement test scores in math and reading in grades 1 through 3. Nurse-visited children, as a trend, were less likely to die from birth through age 9, an effect accounted for by deaths that were attributable to potentially preventable causes. CONCLUSIONS By child age 9, the program reduced women’s rates of subsequent births, increased the intervals between the births of first and second children, increased the stability of their relationships with partners, facilitated children’s academic adjustment to elementary school, and seems to have reduced childhood mortality from preventable causes. PMID:17908740

  2. Protective effect of maternal prenatal melatonin administration on rat pups born to mothers submitted to constant light during gestation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.D., Cisternas; M.V., Compagnucci; N.R., Conti; R.H., Ponce; N.T., Vermouth.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of adverse conditions such as constant light (LL) on the circadian rhythm of malate (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) and lactate (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) dehydrogenase activities of the testes of male Wistar rats on postnatal day 28 (PN28), anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test) at PN60 [...] and sexual behavior at PN120. The rats were assigned to mother groups on day 10 of pregnancy: control (12-h light/dark), LL (light from day 10 to 21 of pregnancy), and LL+Mel (LL and sc injection to the mothers of a daily dose of melatonin, 1 mg/kg body weight at circadian time 12, from day 17 to 21 of pregnancy). LL offspring did not show circadian rhythms of MDH (N = 62) and LDH (N = 63) activities (cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher). They presented a 44.7% decrease in open-arm entries and a 67.9% decrease in time (plus-maze test, N = 15, P

  3. Effect of maternal age on the ratio of cleavage and mitochondrial DNA copy number in early developmental stage bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Shun; Goto, Hiroya; Kuwayama, Takehito; Monji, Yasunori; Iwata, Hisataka

    2013-01-01

    Age-associated deterioration in both the quality and quantity of mitochondria occurs in older women. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of age on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA number) in early developmental stage bovine embryos as well as the dynamics of mtDNA number during early embryo development. Real-time PCR was used to determine mtDNA number. In vitro-produced embryos 48 h after insemination derived from Japanese black cows, ranging in age from 25 to 209 months were categorized based on their cleavage status. There was an overall negative relationship between the age of the cow and cleavage status, to the extent that the ratio of embryos cleaved over the 4-cell stage was greater in younger cows. The mtDNA number did not differ among the cleaved status of embryos. In the next experiment, oocytes collected from each donor cow were divided into 2 groups containing 10 oocytes each, in order to compare the mtDNA number of mature oocytes and early developmental stage embryos within individuals. Upon comparing the mtDNA number between oocytes at the M2 stage and early developmental stage 48 h post insemination, mtDNA number was found to decrease in most cows, but was found to increase in some cows. In conclusion, age affects the cleaving ability of oocytes, and very old cows (> 180 months) tend to have lower mtDNA numbers in their oocytes. The change in mtDNA number during early development varied among individual cows, although overall, it showed a tendency to decrease. PMID:23269452

  4. Contextual factors as a key to understanding the heterogeneity of effects of a maternal health policy in Burkina Faso?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaid, Loubna; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-04-01

    Burkina Faso implemented a national subsidy for emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) covering 80% of the cost of normal childbirth in public health facilities. The objective was to increase coverage of facility-based deliveries. After implementation of the EmONC policy, coverage increased across the country, but disparities were observed between districts and between primary healthcare centres (PHC). To understand the variation in coverage, we assessed the contextual factors and the implementation of EmONC in six PHCs in a district. We conducted a contrasted multiple case study. We interviewed women (n = 71), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), clinic management committees (n = 11), and health workers and district health managers (n = 26). Focus groups (n = 62) were conducted within communities. Observations were carried out in the six PHCs. Implementation was nearly homogeneous in the six PHCs but the contexts and human factors appeared to explain the variations observed on the coverage of facility-based deliveries. In the PHCs of Nogo and Tara, the immediate increase in coverage was attributed to health workers' leadership in creatively promoting facility-based deliveries and strengthening relationships of trust with communities, users' positive perceptions of quality of care and the arrival of female professional staff. The change of healthcare team at Iata's PHC and a penalty fee imposed for home births in Belem may have caused the delayed effects there. Finally, the unchanged coverage in the PHCs of Fati and Mata was likely due to lack of promotion of facility-based deliveries, users' negative perceptions of quality of care, and conflicts between health workers and users. Before implementation, decision-makers should perform pilot studies to adapt policies according to contexts and human factors. PMID:24633914

  5. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  6. Effects of maternal nicotine on breastfeeding infants / Efeitos da nicotina materna na crianca em amamentacao / Efecto de la nicotina en el nino en amamantacion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Candida Canicali, Primo; Priscilla Boa F., Ruela; Leia Damasceno de A., Brotto; Telma Ribeiro, Garcia; Eliane de Fatima, Lima.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar as evidências científicas sobre efeitos da nicotina materna na criança em amamentação, a partir de uma revisão integrativa. FONTES DE DADOS Artigos publicados em português, inglês e espanhol, de 1990 a 2009, com resumos disponíveis nas bases Literatura Latino-Americana em Ciên [...] cias da Saúde (Lilacs) e Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (Medline). Utilizaram-se os descritores: "aleitamento materno", "lactação" e "tabagismo". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS Os principais efeitos da nicotina encontrados para a criança foram alterações nos padrões de sono e vigília; redução da oferta de iodo; danos histopatológicos no fígado e no pulmão; danos oxidativos intracelulares; redução de células β do pâncreas; e diminuição da tolerância à glicose. CONCLUSÕES Recomenda-se que as mães sejam informadas sobre os produtos químicos prejudiciais contidos no cigarro, os quais passam para o bebê por meio do leite materno, devendo ser fortemente encorajadas a não fumar durante a lactação. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO Evaluar las evidencias científicas sobre efectos de la nicotina materna en el niño en amamantación, a partir de una revisión integrativa. FUENTES DE DATOS Artículos publicados en portugués, inglés y español, de 1990 a 2009, con resúmenes disponibles en las bases Literatura Latinoameri [...] cana en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs) y Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (Medline). Se utilizaron los descriptores: "lactancia materna", "lactancia" y "tabaquismo". SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS Los principales efectos de la nicotina encontrados fueron alteraciones en los estándares de sueño y vigilia; reducción de la oferta de yodo; daños histopatológicos en el hígado y en los pulmones; daños oxidativos intracelulares; reducción de células ß del páncreas y reducción de la tolerancia a la glucosa. CONCLUSIONES Se recomienda que las madres sean informadas sobre los productos químicos perjudiciales contenidos en los cigarrillos, que pasan para el bebé mediante la lactancia materna, debiendo ser fuertemente motivadas a no fumar durante la gestación y lactancia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To assess scientific evidence about the effects of maternal nicotine on infant by an integrative review. DATA SOURCES Studies published in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from 1990 to 2009, with abstracts available in the Latin American Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs) and Medica [...] l Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (Medline) databases. The descriptors were: "breastfeeding", "lactation" and "smoking". DATA SYNTHESIS The main identified effects of nicotine on infants were: changes in sleep and wakefulness patterns; reduction of iodine supply; hystopathological damage on liver and lung; intracellular oxidative damage; reduction of pancreatic ß cells; and decreased glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS It is recommended to inform mothers about harmful chemicals contained in cigarettes that can be secreted into breast milk. They should be strongly encouraged to stop smoking during lactation.

  7. Prenatal and Postnatal Maternal Stress and Wheeze in Urban Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Coull, Brent A.; Cohen, Sheldon; Wooley, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Critical periods for programming early wheeze risk may include pregnancy and infancy. Effects of timing remain poorly understood. Objectives: Associations among prenatal and postnatal maternal stress and children’s wheeze were prospectively examined in 653 families. Effect modification by maternal sensitization was also examined. Methods: Stress was indexed by a maternal negative life events (NLEs) score (range, 0–9) ascertained during pregnancy and between 1 and 2 years postpartum. Mothers reported child wheeze every 3 months up to age 2 years. Relationships of prenatal and postnatal maternal NLEs with repeated wheeze (?2 episodes) were examined using logistic regression adjusting for covariates. Penalized splines were implemented to explore possible nonlinear associations. We also examined the interaction between prenatal stress and maternal sensitization indexed by allergen-specific IgE from maternal prenatal serum. Measurements and Main Results: Adjusted models considering prenatal or postnatal NLEs alone both showed an exposure-response relationship between higher stress and child wheeze. When considering prenatal and postnatal stress concurrently, only children of mothers with high stress in both periods were significantly more likely to wheeze (adjusted odds ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–5.53) than children of mothers reporting low stress in both periods. Associations between high prenatal stress and wheeze were significant in children born to nonsensitized mothers (any IgE <0.35 kU/L) but not in the sensitized group (P for interaction = 0.03). Conclusions: Although children have heightened sensitivity to maternal stress in utero and in early childhood, those with higher stress in both periods were particularly at risk for wheeze. The prenatal maternal immune milieu modified effects. PMID:22582161

  8. Maternal care through mainstreaming Ayurvedic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jayashree, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Reviving and re establishing the practices which were prevalent in India along with some orientation towards Ayurvedic approaches shall be a suitable answer to the burning issues of women’ health. Mainstreaming the Ayurvedic practices in women health care appears to be the most effective remedial measure to lower MMR and promote maternal health. The present paper is a narrative of exemplary practices in the management of the most important phases like puberty, pregnancy and post natal care ...

  9. Effects of gestational weight gain on the outcome of labor at the Yaounde central hospital maternity, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson E. Mbu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity rates are increasing in Cameroon. Obstetric literature has recently focused on the rising incidence of complications with increases in weight gain in pregnancy. Some of these complications include gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, operative deliveries, genital tract lacerations and fetal birth trauma. Examining the effects of excess weight gain during the course of pregnancy could help identify weight gain limits. The Institute of Medicine (IOM was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO to develop guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy and we designed this study in order to determine delivery outcomes when weight is gained above these guidelines. We also sought to know if these guidelines are applicable in our environment. In this cross-sectional analytic design, pre-pregnancy and intra-partum BMIs were calculated for all the parturients who consented. They were classified into normal weight gain and excessive weight gain based on IOM recommendations. Those in the normal weight gain group were women with BMIs that ranged between 18.5 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2 and who gained 9 - 16 kgs. Those who gained weight above these range were considered as having gained excessive weight during pregnancy. They were all follow-up in labor using the partogram. We compared prepartum, intra-partum and post-partum outcomes in the two groups by calculating odds ratios (ORs, 95% confidence intervals and p values. One hundred and ten (110 overweight women were matched against the same number of women who had normal weight gain. There was no significant difference between social status, marital status as well as level of educational and weight gain in the two groups. Underweight (BMI p = 0.048. Women who gained weight above the recommended range suffered from preeclampsia 18.2% vs. 6.4% (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3 - 8.0, p = 0.014, higher cesarean section rates 27.3% vs. 10% (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5 - 7.1, p = 0.002, higher rates of induced labor 19.1% vs. 9.0% (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0 - 5.2, p = 0.05, prolonged labor 43.6% vs. 16.4% (OR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1 - 7.4, p = 0.000, postpartum hemorrhage 10% vs. 1.8% (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.3 - 9.2, p = 0.002. There were also higher rates of fetal mal-presentation, 11.8% vs. 3.6% (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.31 - 11.9, p = 0.004, macrosomia 30.9% vs. 6.4% (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.7 - 15.6, p p = 0.0045 and birth trauma 10% vs. 1.8%. (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.3 - 9.2, p = 0.023. Women who gained weight during pregnancy above the recommended range had increased risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

  10. Maternal uniparental disomy 22 has no impact on the phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinzel, A.A.; Bernasconi, F.; Robinson, W.P. (Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)); Basaran, S.; Karaman, B.; Yueksel-Apak, M.

    1994-01-01

    A 25-year-old normal healthy male was karyotyped because five of his wife's pregnancies terminated in spontaneous abortions at 6-14 wk of gestation. Cytogenetic investigation disclosed a de novo balanced Robertsonian t(22q;22q) translocation. Molecular studies revealed maternal only inheritance for chromosome 22 markers. Reduction to homozygosity for all informative markers indicates that the rearranged chromosome is an isochromosome derived from one of the maternal chromosomes 22. Except for the possibility of homozygosity for recessive mutations, maternal uniparental disomy 22 does not seem to have an adverse impact on the phenotype, apart from causing reproductive failure. It can be concluded that no maternally imprinted genes with major effect map to chromosome 22. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Maternal Infection and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism have been attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. Whether and how maternal infection as an environmental factor contributes to the development of neurological abnormalities in the offspring remains to be clearly defined. Approach: The literature was reviewed to examine the relationship between maternal infection and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Results: Both epidemiological and experimental animal studies had found strong support for maternal infection as a significant risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders. There was also accumulating evidence that inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids might be important mediators of maternal infection-induced effects on the offspring. Other factors such as oxidative stress and hypoxia might also aggravate neurodevelopmental damages. Conclusion: Studies are accumulating to support the link between maternal infection and neurodevelopmental disorders. Mechanisms underlying the link are also unfolding. Future studies examining how maternal infection contributes to the development of different neurodevelopmental disorders can help in developing effective intervention strategies.

  12. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum / Efeito da suplementação materna com vitamina A sobre a concentração de retinol no colostro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evellyn C., Grilo; Mayara S.R., Lima; Lahyana R.F., Cunha; Cristiane S.S., Gurgel; Heleni A., Clemente; Roberto, Dimenstein.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da suplementação com vitamina A sobre a concentração de retinol no leite colostro em condições de jejum e pós-prandial. MÉTODOS: Estudo quase-experimental, do tipo antes e depois, realizado com 33 parturientes atendidas em uma maternidade pública, das quais foram colet [...] adas, em jejum, amostras de sangue e leite colostro, no pós-parto imediato. Uma segunda coleta de colostro ocorreu duas horas após a primeira refeição do dia, momento em que uma megadose de 200.000 UI de palmitato de retinila foi administrada. No dia seguinte, uma nova coleta de colostro foi realizada em condições de jejum e pós-prandial. As concentrações de retinol no soro e no colostro foram determinadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: A concentração de retinol sérico foi de 37,3 (16,8-62,2) µg/dL, evidenciando um estado nutricional adequado. No colostro, a concentração de retinol antes da suplementação foi de 46,8 (29,7-158,9) µg/dL em jejum e 67,3 (31,1-148,7) µg/dL em condições pós-prandiais (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. [...] Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2) µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9) µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7) µg/dL in postprandial condition (p

  13. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Cynthia W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW across different racial groups. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789. We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. Results Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. Conclusions The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  14. Maternal exposure to bisphenol A and genistein has minimal effect on Avy/a offspring coat color but favors birth of agouti over nonagouti mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Sieli, Paizlee T.; Warzak, Denise A.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Pennington, Kathleen A.; Roberts, R Michael

    2012-01-01

    Reports that maternal diet influences coat color in mouse offspring carrying the agouti Avy allele have received considerable attention because the range, from pseudoagouti (brown) to yellow, predicts adult health outcomes, especially disposition toward obesity and diabetes, in yellower mice. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting compound with estrogenic properties, fed to a/a dams harboring Avy/a conceptuses has been reported to induce a significant shift toward yellower mice, whereas c...

  15. Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in Second Hemoglobin Measurement in Nonanemic Women at First Booking: Effect of Altitude of Residence in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Fort, Alfredo L.; Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Vilma Tapia

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine changes in hemoglobin concentration at second measurements after a normal hemoglobin concentration was detected at first booking during pregnancy at low and at high altitudes. Methods. This is a secondary analysis of a large database obtained from the Perinatal Information System in Peru which includes 379,816 pregnant women and their babies from 43 maternity units in Peru. Results. Most women remained with normal hemoglobin values at second measurement (75.1%). Howeve...

  16. Maternal depression effects on infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lowenstein, Marcy K.; Field, Tiffany

    1992-01-01

    ABSTRACT: As criancas slo extremamente vulneraveis e susceptiveis de aprender comportamentos desajustados por influencia das mles. Uma vez que a influencia da mle sobre o desenvolvimento social e o estilo de interacclo do bebC se inicia ti nascenqa, C importante investigar o efeito que a depress50 p6sparto transitbria, e a depress80 cr6nica tCm sobre esse desenvolvimento. Esta revislo exaustiva da pouca investigaGlo que existe sobre o problema, apoia a teoria de que...

  17. Fetal programming by maternal thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, JØrn

    2015-01-01

    Fetal programming is an emerging concept that links a wide range of exposures during fetal life to later development of disease. Thyroid disorders are common in women of reproductive age and careful management of pregnant women suffering from thyroid disease is important considering the crucial role of thyroid hormones during early brain development. It is possible that maternal thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy may lead to structural and/or functional changes during fetal brain development. Such an effect could later predispose the offspring to an increased risk of neurologic or psychiatric disease. We recently observed that children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction had an increased risk of developing seizure disorders, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and psychiatric disease in adolescence and young adulthood. In the review we discuss the concept of potential fetal programming by maternal thyroid disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal Germinal Trisomy 21 in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj A. Hultén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has now been over 50 years since it was discovered that Down syndrome is caused by an extra chromosome 21, i.e., trisomy 21. In the interim, it has become clear that in the majority of cases, the extra chromosome is inherited from the mother, and there is, in this respect, a strong maternal age effect. Numerous investigations have been devoted to clarifying the underlying mechanism, most recently suggesting that this situation is exceedingly complex, involving both biological and environmental factors. On the other hand, it has also been proposed that germinal trisomy 21 mosaicism, arising during the very early stages of maternal oogenesis with accumulation of trisomy 21 germ cells during subsequent development, may be the main predisposing factor. We present data here on the incidence of trisomy 21 mosaicism in a cohort of normal fetal ovarian samples, indicating that an accumulation of trisomy 21 germ cells does indeed take place during fetal oogenesis, i.e., from the first to the second trimester of pregnancy. We presume that this accumulation of trisomy 21 (T21 cells is caused by their delay in maturation and lagging behind the normal cells. We further presume that this trend continues during the third trimester of pregnancy and postnatally, up until ovulation, thereby explaining the maternal age effect in Down syndrome.

  19. The timing of maternal depressive symptoms and child cognitive development: a longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, J; Melotti, R; Heron, J; Ramchandani, P.; Wiles, N; Murray, L; Stein, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of maternal depression the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, completed on 6 occasions up to 3 years of age, and IQ of the index child (WISC) measured at ...

  20. Maternal and Cord Serum Cytokine Changes with Continuous and Intermittent Labor Epidural Analgesia: A Randomized Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mantha, Venkat R.; Vallejo, Manuel C.; Ramesh, Vimala; Jones, Bobby L.; Ramanathan, Sivam

    2012-01-01

    Background. Maternal fever during labor epidural analgesia (LEA) may cause increased maternal and cord serum inflammatory cytokines. We report the effects of intermittent and continuous LEA on these cytokines. Methods. Ninety-two women were randomly assigned to continuous (CLEA) or intermittent (ILEA) groups, 46 in each. Maternal temperature was checked and blood drawn at epidural insertion (baseline) and four-hourly until 4?h postpartum (4?PP). Cord blood was drawn after placental delive...

  1. Stability of maternal discipline practices and the quality of mother–child interaction during toddlerhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; LEE, LI-CHING; Miller, Therese; Genevro, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the stability of maternal punitive/high-power discipline (PD) and inductive/authoritative discipline (ID) over the second and third years of life and the effect of maternal discipline on quality of mother–child interactions. Data from a longitudinal sample with 179 mother–toddler dyads were analyzed, and selected factors (i.e., child sex, temperament) that might moderate the association between maternal discipline and quality of mother–child interactions were also examined...

  2. Cortisol Reactivity, Maternal Sensitivity, and Learning In Three-Month-Old Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Laura A.; Trevathan, Wenda R.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of adrenocortical functioning on infant learning during an emotionally challenging event (brief separation from mother). We also explored possible relationships between maternal sensitivity and both infant and maternal cortisol reactivity during the learning/maternal separation episode. 63 three-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped for a 10-min normal interaction period, and mother-infant behavioral synchrony was measured using Isabella and Belsky's...

  3. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  4. [Comparison of immunosuppressive effects between human placental MSCs derived from fetal and maternal origins on the rejection of allogenic skin grafts in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guiliang; Wang, Libin; Chen, Dongmei; Liang, Xueyun; Wang, Qiong; Zhu, Yongzhao; Ma, Xiaona; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Yukui

    2015-05-01

    Objective To compare the immunosuppressive effects of maternal and fetal placental mesenchymal stem cells (mPMSCs and fPMSCs, respectively) on the rejection of allogenic skin transplants in mice, and further to investigate the mechanism underlying this suppression. Methods The mPMSCs and fPMSCs were isolated from human term placentas. The expressions of cell surface markers were detected by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation capacity was characterized by MTT colorimetric assay. CD200 protein expressed on fPMSCs was neutralized with streaming monoclonal antibodies, and mPMSCs were infected with adenovirus expression vector carrying CD200 cDNA. For skin transplantation, 60 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 6 groups as skin transplant recipients, and ICR mice served as skin donors. After establishment of the allogenic skin transplants, recipient mice of the 6 groups were intravenous injected respectively with PBS, mPMSCs, fPMSCs, fPMSCs combined with anti-CD200 antibodies, mPMSCs with CD200 expressing vectors, and mPMSCs with empty vectors. The conditions and survival time of the skin grafts were inspected daily, and the expressions of interleukin 17 (IL-17), interferon ? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) in blood and spleen were measured at the end of the study by ELISA and reverse transcription PCR. Results The majority (>70%) of fPMSCs were detected CD200 positive, while only a minor fraction (about 2%) of CD-200 positive cells were seen in mPMSCs. In the allogenic skin graft mice, the graft survival time in both mPMSCs- and fPMSCs-treated groups were significantly longer than that in PBS group [(5.6±1.17) days], while the fPMSCs group [(10.6±1.43) days] was more dominant than mPMSCs group [(7.7±1.42) days]. Neutralizing anti-CD200 antibody reduced the graft survival [(8.2±1.14) days] of the fPMSCs group to the level of that in mPMSCs group, while enforced expression of CD200 increased the graft survival [(10.7±1.34) days] of the mPMSCs group to the level of the fPMSCs group. The empty vector-transfected mPMSCs showed a similar effect on graft survival [(7.8±1.32) days] as that in mPMSCs group, longer than PBS