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1

Effects of early maternal employment on maternal health and well-being.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall health. However, maternal employment is not associated with quality of parenting at 6 months, based on trained assessors' observations of maternal sensitivity.

Chatterji P; Markowitz S; Brooks-Gunn J

2013-01-01

2

Effects of Maternal Age on Pregnancy and Fetal Prognosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maternal age has important effects on maternal and fetal/neonatal health. Maternal age groups in which these effects are especially important are adolescent and advanced age groups. While adolescent pregnancies include below 20 ages, advanced age pregnancies include 35 and over. In this review, effects of maternal age on pregnancy and fetal health in adolescent and advenced age gropus are discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000): 90-98

Hakan Kiran; Gurkan Kiran; Melih Atahan Guven

2003-01-01

3

Maternal effects on the genetic evaluation of Tabapuã beef cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of maternal effects on the genetic evaluation of sire production in Tabapuã beef cattle. Single and multiple trait analyses were done with adjusted animal weights at 120, 240 and 420 days of age. Antagonism was observed between additive direct and maternal genetic effects, with the maternal effect being higher until weaning. The inclusion of maternal effects in the models removed part of the additive variance only in single trait analyses and resulted in smaller means and standard deviations for the sire breeding values. The use of maternal effect associated with single or multiple traits may affect sire ranking. The contradictory results of the single and multiple trait analyses for additive direct and maternal effects indicate that caution is needed when considering recommendations about the importance of maternal effects in Tabapuã beef cattle.

José Elivalto Guimarães Campêlo; Paulo Sávio Lopes; Robledo de Almeida Torres; Luiz Otávio Campos da Silva; Ricardo Frederico Euclydes; Cláudio Vieira de Araújo; Carmen Silva Pereira

2004-01-01

4

Hormonally mediated maternal effects in birds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of environmental conditions, particularly unpredictable or potentially negative ones, on the maternal transmission of the primary avian stress hormone, corticosterone, to developing embryos. We currently lack information on the extent to which conditions in the maternal environment are transmitted to the offspring in birds via egg compositional changes. It is possible that maternally derived hormonal signals communicate information about the external environment to developing embryos and directly influence the fitness of their offspring in a negative or positive way. I found, using captive zebra finches, that the experimental stressor of unpredictable food availability (as these birds are used to ad libitum food) experienced by mothers can elevate yolk CORT concentrations, but only when combined with the additional demand of laying a replacement clutch (potentially a buffering system to prevent mild stressors impacting on CORT transmission to the embryo). I then looked at yolk CORT concentrations in two populations of gulls (herring and lesser black-backed gulls) in which the population trajectories differed depending on environmental conditions (potentially a reflection of different exposures to stressful stimuli). The results however did not support this hypothesis, as there were no differences according to habitat type or between species (where they coexist). This would suggest that the different environmental circumstances (harsher for the herring gull) experienced by these two species are not reflected in differences in their eggs (at least in terms of CORT). This could be the result of the eggs being buffered from the maternal CORT environment or it may be that the difficult environmental conditions are not occurring during the breeding season. We also identified that experimental human disturbance during the laying period does not appear to elevate yolk CORT concentrations, although there was a trend for concentrations to be higher following the loss of the first clutch in the herring gull (as seen in the zebra finches). I also measured yolk CORT concentrations in Common Eider eggs and looked for differences according to the degree of nest shelter. I found no relationship between shelter and yolk CORT, but birds that laid in more sheltered sites had, on average, smaller eggs. This may indicate lesser quality birds are nesting in the sheltered sites and that yolk CORT is not affected by maternal condition. Finally, I looked at another mechanism through which information relating to the maternal environment could be transferred to the embryo. I investigated whether there were any links between maternally derived immunity and CORT by comparing the anti-microbial lysozyme and CORT concentrations in the albumen. I found no correlation between CORT and lysozyme, suggesting that CORT may not affect lysozyme production. It may be that other factors such as colony density and ‘cleanliness’ are more important in determining the concentrations of lysozyme deposited in the egg or that lysozyme production is not sufficiently costly to be influenced by the maternal stress state. The overall theme of my findings is that CORT concentrations in eggs do not appear to vary much with maternal environments. I will discuss these findings in their broader ecological and evolutionary context and discuss if stress hormones are indeed being used as adaptive signals for preparing the embryo for its postnatal environment.

Robertson AJ

5

The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well-documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs), animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate) effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

Olivier JD; Akerud H; Kaihola H; Pawluski JL; Skalkidou A; Högberg U; Sundström-Poromaa I

2013-01-01

6

Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR) on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity services. METHODS: We included all women who were admitted to the maternity unit for childbirth, or within 24 hours of delivery. We recorded maternal mortality during a 1-year baseline period from January to December 1997, and during a 3-year period from January 1998 to December 2000 after MDR had been implemented. Effects of MDR on organization of care were qualitatively evaluated. FINDINGS: The MDR strategy led to changes in organizational structure that improved life-saving interventions with a relatively large financial contribution from the community. Overall mortality significantly decreased from 0.83 (95% CI (confidence interval) = 0.60 -1.06) in baseline period to 0.41 (95% CI = 0.25 -0.56) per 100 women 3 years later. CONCLUSION: MDR had a marked effect on resources, management and maternal outcomes in this facility. However, given the design of our study and the local specific context, further research is needed to confirm the feasibility of MDR in other settings and to confirm the benefits of this approach for maternal health in developing countries.

Dumont Alexandre; Gaye Alioune; Bernis Luc de; Chaillet Nils; Landry Anne; Delage Joanne; Bouvier-Colle Marie-Hélène

2006-01-01

7

Maternal effects in cooperative breeders: from hymenopterans to humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The environment that an offspring experiences during its development can have lifelong consequences for its morphology, anatomy, physiology and behaviour that are strong enough to span generations. One aspect of an offspring's environment that can have particularly pronounced and long-lasting effects is that provided by its parent(s) (maternal effects). Some disciplines in biology have been quicker to appreciate maternal effects than others, and some organisms provide better model systems for understanding the causes and consequences of the maternal environment for ecology and evolution than others. One field in which maternal effects has been poorly represented, and yet is likely to represent a particularly fruitful area for research, is the field of cooperative breeding (i.e. systems where offspring are reared by carers in addition to parent(s)). Here, we attempt to illustrate the scope of cooperative breeding systems for maternal effects research and, conversely, highlight the importance of maternal effects research for understanding cooperative breeding systems. To this end, we first outline why mothers will commonly benefit from affecting the phenotype of their offspring in cooperative breeding systems, present potential strategies that mothers could employ in order to do so and offer predictions regarding the circumstances under which different types of maternal effects might be expected. Second, we highlight why a neglect of maternal strategies and the effects that they have on their offspring could lead to miscalculations of helper/worker fitness gains and a misunderstanding of the factors selecting for the evolution and maintenance of cooperative breeding. Finally, we introduce the possibility that maternal effects could have significant consequences for our understanding of both the evolutionary origins of cooperative breeding and the rise of social complexity in cooperative systems.

Russell AF; Lummaa V

2009-04-01

8

Effect of maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of nanotechnology is widely recognized in both biomedical and industrial applications, so the search for new nano materials with improved physical and chemical characteristics is rapidly growing, causing a consequent increase in the risk of exposure by the population.Engineered nanoparticles, defined as particles having a different shape, but at least one dimension less than 100 nm, are constituents of many everyday products, including for example, sunscreens, cosmetics and some food packaging. This implies that an increasing number of people can come into contact with these nanoparticles in occupational settings, and the environment. It then becomes mandatory to assess what potential effects nanoparticles may have on biological systems. Although many nanoparticles may not be a problem for the general population, may instead be a problem for subgroups of susceptible individuals. In this context, we aimed to study the effect that maternal exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) may have on the health of pregnant individuals, with particular attention to the possible harmful effects on the development of the placenta and fetus. To this end we have produced silica nanoparticles of three different sizes: small, medium and large. Each nanoparticle was in turn modified in two different ways, through the introduction of NH2 or COOH functional groups, in order to make their surface positively or negatively charged.SiO2 NPs were intravenously administered to pregnant mice, through the injection into the venous retro-bulbar eye plexus. Administration was performed at two different gestational stages. A group of females received the material 5.5 days after conception, when the placenta is still poorly formed, while a second group was exposed at 12.5 day of pregnancy, a time at which the placenta has completed development. The difference in the administration timing allowed us to evaluate the possible differences in susceptibility of the fetus depending at different stages of placental development. Our results have shown that the smallest SiO2 NP have a high biocompatibility and do not interfere with the development of the embryo, or with placental development. In contrast, the NPs of medium and large size have demonstrated interference with the development of the fetus, leading to the onset of mild structural alterations and the appearance of a large number of identical twins, an extremely rare phenomenon in rodents, generally secondary to a mild teratogenic stimulus. Such effect became apparent only after administration of high doses of nano particles, showing also a relationship with the surface charge.In conclusion, these results suggest caution in the exposure to SiO2 NP of medium and large size during pregnancy.

Pietroiusti A; Massimiani M; Aru C; Malvindi MA; Bergamaschi A; Sifrani L; Camaioni A; Sabella S; Magrini A; Pompa PP; Campagnolo L

2013-01-01

9

Maternal effects on offspring mortality in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genetics of primate life histories are poorly understood, but quantitative genetic patterns in other mammals suggest phenotypic differences among individuals early in life can be strongly affected by interactions with mothers or other caretakers. I used generalized linear mixed model extensions of complex pedigree quantitative genetic techniques to explore regression coefficients and variance components for infant and juvenile mortality rates across prereproductive age classes in the semifree ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Using a large set of records (maximum n = 977 mothers, 6,240 offspring), strong maternal effects can be identified early in development but they rapidly "burn off" as offspring age and mothers become less consistent buffers from increasingly prominent environmental variation. The different ways behavioral ecologists and animal breeders have defined and studied maternal effects can be subsumed, and even blended, within the quantitative genetic framework. Regression coefficients identify loss of the mother, maternal age, and offspring age within their birth cohort as having significant maternal effects on offspring mortality, while variance components for maternal identity record significant maternal influence in the first month of life.

Blomquist GE

2013-03-01

10

Effect of maternal education on the rate of childhood handicap.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine the relation between maternal education and various maternal risk factors, identify the impact of maternal education on the risk of childhood handicap and estimate the proportion of childhood handicap that can be prevented by maternal education. METHODS: Data was collected from all married women attending the two major maternity and child hospitals in Jeddah during April 1999. Women with at least one living child were interviewed for sociodemographic factors and having at least one handicapped child. The risk of having a handicapped child and the population attributable risk percent were calculated. RESULTS: Some potential risk factors are dominant in our society as approximately 30% of women did not attend school and 84% did not work. Consanguineous marriages accounted for about 43%. Pre-marriage counseling was limited as only 10% of women counseled before marriage. The proportion of unemployment and consanguineous marriages decreased significantly by increase in maternal education level. Conversely, the proportion of women reporting pre-marriage counseling increased significantly by increase in maternal education level. Approximately, 7% of women reported having at least one handicapped child. The risk of having a handicapped child showed a significant sharp decline with increase in maternal education level. At least 25% of childhood handicap can be prevented by achieving female primary education and up to half of cases can be prevented if mothers finish their intermediate education. CONCLUSION: Female education plays a major role in child health. The results of this study suggest investment in female education, which would have substantial positive effects in reducing incidence of childhood handicap in Jeddah.

Shawky S; Milaat WM; Abalkhail BA; Soliman NK

2001-01-01

11

The population dynamics of maternal-effect selfish genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We use population genetic methods to describe the expected population dynamics of the selfish-gene chromosomal factor, Medea (maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest), recently discovered in flour beetles, genus Tribolium. In the absence of deleterious effects on gross fecundity, Medea factors spread to fixation for all degrees of maternal-effect lethality greater than zero and the rate of spread is proportional to the strength of the maternal-effect. The rate of spread when rare is very slow, on the order of the frequency squared p2, but this can be accelerated to order p when there is density regulation at the level of families as is known to occur for some genetic strains of flour beetles. When there are general deleterious effects of Medea on fecundity, affecting all offspring genotypes in addition to the genotype-specific maternal effect, then a stable interior polymorphism is possible. The location of the interior equilibrium and the probability of loss or fixation are sensitive to the degree of dominance of these fecundity effects.

Wade MJ; Beeman RW

1994-12-01

12

DIBUTYL PHTHALATE: MATERNAL EFFECTS VERSUS FETOTOXICITY (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

Dibutyl phthalate, a plasticizer, is a teratogen in mice and rabbits but produces fetal loss in the rat. Long-term dosing studies indicating reduced fertility in the rat suggested a maternal effect of the compound. The decidual cell response (DCR) and pregnant rats were used to e...

13

Maternal depression and children's antisocial behavior: nature and nurture effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Children of depressed mothers have elevated conduct problems, presumably because maternal depression disrupts the caregiving environment. Alternatively, the association between maternal depression and children's antisocial behavior (ASB) may come about because (1) depressed women are likely to have comorbid antisocial personality traits, (2) depressed women are likely to mate and bear children with antisocial men, or (3) children of depressed mothers inherit a genetic liability for psychopathology. METHOD: We used data from the E-Risk Study, a representative British cohort of 1116 twin pairs assessed at 5 and 7 years of age. We tested for environmental mediation of the association between maternal depression during the children's first 5 years of life and children's ASB at age 7 years, free from familial liability for ASB. RESULTS: Maternal depression occurring after, but not before, the twins' birth was associated with child ASB and showed a significant dose-response relationship with child ASB at 7 years of age. Parental history of ASPD symptoms accounted for approximately one third of the observed association between maternal depression and children's ASB, but maternal depression continued to significantly predict children's ASB. Intraindividual change analyses indicated that children exposed to their mother's depression between ages 5 and 7 years showed a subsequent increase in ASB by age 7 years. The combination of depression and ASPD symptoms in mothers posed the greatest risk for children's ASB. CONCLUSIONS: Studies ignoring genetic transmission overestimate social transmission effects because both genetic and environmental processes are involved in creating risk for ASB in children of depressed mothers. Interventions for depressed mothers aiming to reduce conduct problems in their children should address parents' antisocial personality, as well as mothers' depression.

Kim-Cohen J; Moffitt TE; Taylor A; Pawlby SJ; Caspi A

2005-02-01

14

The effects of maternal labour analgesia on the fetus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal labour pain and stress are associated with progressive fetal metabolic acidosis. Systemic opioid analgesia does little to mitigate this stress, but opioids readily cross the placenta and cause fetal-neonatal depression and impair breast feeding. Pethidine remains the most widely used, but alternatives, with the possible exception of remifentanil, have little more to offer. Inhalational analgesia using Entonox is more effective and, being rapidly exhaled by the newborn, is less likely to produce lasting depression. Neuraxial analgesia has maternal physiological and biochemical effects, some of which are potentially detrimental and some favourable to the fetus. Actual neonatal outcome, however, suggests that benefits outweigh detrimental influences. Meta-analysis demonstrates that Apgar score is better after epidural than systemic opioid analgesia, while neonatal acid-base balance is improved by epidural compared to systemic analgesia and even compared to no analgesia. Successful breast feeding is dependent on many factors, therefore randomized trials are required to elucidate the effect of labour analgesia.

Reynolds F

2010-06-01

15

Maternal effects in quail and zebra finches: Behavior and hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal effects are influences of parents on offspring phenotype occurring through pathways other than inherited DNA. In birds, two important routes for such transmission are parental behavior and non-DNA egg constituents such as yolk hormones. Offspring traits subject to parental effects include behavior and endocrine function. Research from the Adkins-Regan lab has used three avian species to investigate maternal effects related to hormones and behavior. Experiments with chickens and Japanese quail have shown that maternal sex steroids can influence sex determination to produce biased offspring sex ratios. Because all birds have a ZZ/ZW chromosomal sex determining system in which the female parent determines the sex of the offspring, these results raise the possibility that maternal steroids can influence the outcome of sex chromosome meiosis. Learning has been shown to influence egg investment by female quail in ways that are likely to alter offspring phenotype. In quail, embryonic and exogenous sex steroids have well established and long-lasting effects on sexual differentiation of behavior during a critical period in ovo, but elevated yolk testosterone has long-term effects on behavior that do not seem to be occurring through an alteration in sexual differentiation. In biparental zebra finches, removal of mothers alters not only later behavior, but also the adult response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to an environmental stressor, as indicated by plasma corticosterone. Birds raised only by fathers have lower levels of mRNA for both glucocorticoid receptors in several brain regions as adults. These studies add to the evidence that one generation influences the behavioral or endocrine phenotype of the next through routes other than transmission of DNA. Additional research will be required to understand the adaptive significance of these effects. PMID:23499787

Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Sunayana B; Correa, Stephanie M; Schweitzer, Cécile

2013-03-15

16

Effects of Litter Size on Maternal – Offspring Interactions in Sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the current research was to evaluate the effects that litter size (single vs. twin born lambs) has on maternal – offspring interactions in Turcana mountain sheep breed during the first 4 weeks after lambing. Behavioural patterns such as dam – lamb(s) contact, suckling (duration and periods) and vocalization frequency were studied. During first 24 hours after lambing, ewes spend on average 40.9±3.15 minutes in close contact with their lambs, while the following weeks they have spent significantly (p?0.05) less time in contact with the lambs i.e. 20.6±3.17 in day 7, 16.8±2.15 in day 14 and 14.5±1.26 minutes in day 21. Litter size had no significant effect (p?0.05) on the frequency of vocalizations or the time spent in contact with their lamb(s) in Turcana ewes. Results of the current research shown that litter size in multiparous Turcana mountain sheep breed had limited effects on the ewe-lamb interactions. The experienced ewes, based on the excellent mothering ability and strong maternal instincts, can rear with minimal stress twin litters when winter lambing occurs indoors and under proper management. Further comparative studies are planned in order to study the effects of triplet births and parity on maternal-offspring interactions in Turcana ewes.

Dinu Gavojdian

2013-01-01

17

Sedation and disruption of maternal motivation underlie the disruptive effects of antipsychotic treatment on rat maternal behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The behavioral mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced maternal behavior deficits were examined in the present study. Different groups of postpartum rats were treated with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), clozapine (10.0 mg/kg), chlordiazepoxide (5.0 mg/kg, an anxiolytic) or vehicle (0.9% saline) on Days 4 and 6 postpartum and their maternal behaviors were tested under either pup-separation (e.g. pups were removed from their mothers for 4 h before testing) or no-pup-separation condition. Maternal behavior and drug-induced sedation were further tested for 3 days from Day 8 to 12 postpartum. Results show that pup-separation, which putatively increases maternal motivation, did significantly shorten clozapine-elongated pup approach latency, increase pup licking and nursing but fail to reverse the deficits in pup retrieval and nest building in the lactating rats treated with haloperidol and clozapine. Repeated haloperidol treatment produced a progressively enhanced disruption on pup retrieval and nest building and an attenuated sedation. In contrast, clozapine showed a progressively diminished disruption on pup retrieval and a concomitantly diminished sedative effect. Based on these findings, we suggest that antipsychotic drugs disrupt active maternal responses at least in part by suppressing maternal motivation, and drug-induced sedation also contributes to this disruptive effect, especially with clozapine.

Zhao C; Li M

2009-03-01

18

Sedation and disruption of maternal motivation underlie the disruptive effects of antipsychotic treatment on rat maternal behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

The behavioral mechanisms underlying antipsychotic-induced maternal behavior deficits were examined in the present study. Different groups of postpartum rats were treated with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), clozapine (10.0 mg/kg), chlordiazepoxide (5.0 mg/kg, an anxiolytic) or vehicle (0.9% saline) on Days 4 and 6 postpartum and their maternal behaviors were tested under either pup-separation (e.g. pups were removed from their mothers for 4 h before testing) or no-pup-separation condition. Maternal behavior and drug-induced sedation were further tested for 3 days from Day 8 to 12 postpartum. Results show that pup-separation, which putatively increases maternal motivation, did significantly shorten clozapine-elongated pup approach latency, increase pup licking and nursing but fail to reverse the deficits in pup retrieval and nest building in the lactating rats treated with haloperidol and clozapine. Repeated haloperidol treatment produced a progressively enhanced disruption on pup retrieval and nest building and an attenuated sedation. In contrast, clozapine showed a progressively diminished disruption on pup retrieval and a concomitantly diminished sedative effect. Based on these findings, we suggest that antipsychotic drugs disrupt active maternal responses at least in part by suppressing maternal motivation, and drug-induced sedation also contributes to this disruptive effect, especially with clozapine. PMID:19041338

Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

2008-11-17

19

Effective intervention programming: improving maternal adjustment through parent education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study assessed the secondary effects of a parent training intervention program on maternal adjustment, with a focus on understanding ways in which program efficacy differed for participants as a function of whether or not their children had behavior problems. Mothers (N = 99) of toddlers (2-3 years of age) were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of intervention: (1) informational booklet (2) booklet + face-to-face parent training sessions, or (3) booklet + web-based parent training sessions. Findings indicated that all levels of intervention were associated with increases in maternal well-being for participants with typically developing children. Mothers of toddlers with behavior problems, however, did not benefit from receiving only the booklet but significantly benefitted from receiving either the face-to-face or web-based interventions. Findings are discussed in terms of efficient and efficacious program dissemination and the resulting implications for public policy.

Farris JR; Bert SS; Nicholson JS; Glass K; Borkowski JG

2013-05-01

20

Effect of maternal depression on child behavior: a sensitive period?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. METHOD: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) and completed the child behavior checklist (CBCL) for their first child at some point during the child's first 12 years (mean = 4.91 years). RESULTS: Regression analyses indicated that MDD in the sensitive period was a significant predictor of internalizing and total behavior problems on the CBCL while controlling for several demographic variables (e.g., child and mother age, child gender). Maternal depression before pregnancy and during the prenatal period did not significantly predict later child behavior problems, suggesting that the effect was not driven by the presence of previous MDD and was specific to the first year of life. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of maternal MDD during a child's first year of life represents a sensitive period and increases the risk of adverse child outcome. The findings suggest the importance of identification, prevention, and early intervention. Future studies should examine these findings in more diverse, heterogeneous samples.

Bagner DM; Pettit JW; Lewinsohn PM; Seeley JR

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Persistent effects of maternal parasitic infection on offspring fitness: implications for adaptive reproductive strategies when parasitized  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Maternal effects on offspring phenotype may represent adaptive strategies to optimize maternal or offspring fitness given the maternal environment. The effect of maternal parasitic infection on offspring phenotype has been largely ignored, despite the potential for such effects to be components of a maternal reproductive strategy. In addition, the persistence and fitness consequences of maternal effects are understudied, particularly with respect to research on maternal parasitic infection. 2. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) increase reproductive output by weaning heavier offspring when infected with a schistosome parasite (Schistosomatium douthitti). Here, I examine the persistence of maternal effects on offspring phenotype and evaluate potential consequences of maternal parasitic infection for offspring lifetime fitness. 3. Offspring of parasitized females are born heavier, and this mass advantage persists in sons until adulthood. Because adult body mass is known to influence adult reproductive success in deer mice, parasitized mothers would have produced sons of higher reproductive success. 4. Neither maternal infection nor offspring mass influenced adult son aggression. Survival was enhanced for heavier offspring post-weaning. 5. The production of heavier offspring by parasitized females, therefore, led to increased offspring fitness through enhanced survival and potentially reproductive success. The resultant increase in current maternal reproductive success in response to possible infection-induced decreases in future reproductive opportunities supports the hypothesis that infected females trade-off between current and future reproduction.

Schwanz LE

2008-08-01

22

The effects of maternal labour analgesia on the fetus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal labour pain and stress are associated with progressive fetal metabolic acidosis. Systemic opioid analgesia does little to mitigate this stress, but opioids readily cross the placenta and cause fetal-neonatal depression and impair breast feeding. Pethidine remains the most widely used, but alternatives, with the possible exception of remifentanil, have little more to offer. Inhalational analgesia using Entonox is more effective and, being rapidly exhaled by the newborn, is less likely to produce lasting depression. Neuraxial analgesia has maternal physiological and biochemical effects, some of which are potentially detrimental and some favourable to the fetus. Actual neonatal outcome, however, suggests that benefits outweigh detrimental influences. Meta-analysis demonstrates that Apgar score is better after epidural than systemic opioid analgesia, while neonatal acid-base balance is improved by epidural compared to systemic analgesia and even compared to no analgesia. Successful breast feeding is dependent on many factors, therefore randomized trials are required to elucidate the effect of labour analgesia. PMID:20005180

Reynolds, Felicity

2009-12-11

23

Effects of HIV/AIDS on maternity care providers in Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of HIV/AIDS on maternity care providers in labor and delivery in a high HIV-prevalence setting in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Qualitative one-on-one in-depth interviews with maternity care providers. SETTING: Four health facilities providing labor and delivery services (2 public hospitals, a public health center, and a small private maternity hospital) in Kisumu, Nyanza Province, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen maternity care providers, including 14 nurse/midwives, 2 physician assistants, and 2 physicians (ob/gyn specialists). RESULTS: The HIV/AIDS epidemic has had numerous adverse effects and a few positive effects on maternity care providers in this setting. Adverse effects include reductions in the number of health care providers, increased workload, burnout, reduced availability of services in small health facilities when workers are absent due to attending HIV/AIDS training programs, difficulties with confidentiality and unwanted disclosure, and maternity care providers' fears of becoming HIV infected and the resulting stigma and discrimination. Positive effects include improved infection control procedures on maternity wards and enhanced maternity care provider knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: A multifaceted package including policy, infrastructure, and training interventions is needed to support maternity care providers in these settings and ensure that they are able to perform their critical roles in maternal healthcare and prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission.

Turan JM; Bukusi EA; Cohen CR; Sande J; Miller S

2008-09-01

24

Effects of Maternal Hypothyroidism on Offspring Hippocampus and Memory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Rodents with gestational thyroid-hormone deficiencies and children with congenital hypothyroidism show abnormal hippocampal development. Given the human hippocampus starts to develop early in gestation, we asked if children born to women with hypothyroidism during pregnancy (HYPO) also show hippocampal abnormalities and if this is related to the severity of maternal TH insufficiency and current memory functioning. We additionally sought to determine whether effects were more prominent in anterior or posterior hippocampal subsections given these support different memory functions and have different developmental trajectories. We hypothesized that HYPO have smaller than normal hippocampal volumes than controls and show memory deficits on both standardized tests and indices of 'everyday' memory functioning. Methods: Studied were 54 9 to 12 year olds, 30 controls and 24 HYPO from women diagnosed with hypothyroidism prior to or during pregnancy and treated with L-thyroxine. All children received a thorough assessment of memory functions and an MRI scan. For each child, right and left hippocampi were manually traced and volumes of right and left hippocampi and anterior and posterior segments were determined. Results: HYPO showed significantly smaller right and left hippocampal volumes than controls, particularly in right posterior and left anterior segments. In HYPO, hippocampal volumes were negatively correlated with maternal third-trimester TSH levels and positively correlated with third-trimester fT4. HYPO scored significantly below controls on one objective and several subjective memory indices and these were correlated with hippocampal volumes. Conclusion: Early TH insufficiency from maternal hypothyroidism affects offspring hippocampal development and memory.

Willoughby KA; McAndrews MP; Rovet J

2013-09-01

25

Bigger mothers are better mothers: disentangling size-related prenatal and postnatal maternal effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite a vast literature on the factors controlling adult size, few studies have investigated how maternal size affects offspring size independent of direct genetic effects, thereby separating prenatal from postnatal influences. I used a novel experimental design that combined a cross-fostering approach with phenotypic manipulation of maternal body size that allowed me to disentangle prenatal and postnatal maternal effects. Using the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides as model organism, I found that a mother's body size affected egg size as well as the quality of postnatal maternal care, with larger mothers producing larger eggs and raising larger offspring than smaller females. However, with respect to the relative importance of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects on offspring growth, only the postnatal effects were important in determining offspring body size. Thus, prenatal effects can be offset by the quality of postnatal maternal care. This finding has implications for the coevolution of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects as they arise as a consequence of maternal body size. In general, my study provides evidence that there can be transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, with maternal size determining offspring size leading to a resemblance between mothers and their offspring above and beyond any direct genetic effects.

Steiger S

2013-09-01

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Pregnancy outcome and the effect of maternal nutritional status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To assess the prevalence of malnutrition among Egyptian pregnant women and its effect on the pregnancy outcome, a comparative cohort study in which a total of 206 normal pregnant and 197 babies born to the pregnant subjects were enrolled. The study was conducted in El Sahel Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Maternal anthropometry, blood parameters including hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum albumin were assessed. Patients were classified into 3 groups based on hemoglobin concentration. Pregnancy outcome was assessed by means of birth weight, length and Apgar score at birth. The mean Hb serum iron concentration, total iron binding capacity, and serum albumin were 10.332, 73.84, 382.74, & 3.846g/dl respectively; and 46% of the subjects were anemic. When subjects were classified into 3 groups based on the Hb levels, 16% fell into severe anemia category, while 30% of the subjects fell into mild anemia category. Statistically significant differences were found between each of maternal age & pre pregnancy BMI on one hand and the degree of anemia on the other hand. Comparisons between pregnancy outcomes in the three groups showed a statistically significant difference between gestational age, birth weight, birth length and Apgar score on one hand and the degree of anemia on the other hand. The incidence of preterm labor was much higher (65.6%) in the group of severe anemia than the other two groups.

Abdel-Raoufabdel-Aziz Afifi R; Ali DK; Talkhan HM

2013-04-01

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Effects of Repeated Maternal Separation On Oxidative Stress In Adolescent Male and Female Rat Brains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a previous study we demonstrated that repeated maternal separation impaired spatial memory performance in both male and female adolescent rats. The mechanisms of these cognitive alterations are unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated maternal separation on oxidative stress in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum regions of the brain of the adolescent male and female rats. The results showed that repeated maternal separation increased antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in adolescent male rat brains; however, maternal separation did not effects antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in adolescent female rat brains. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused damage in repeated maternal separated adolescent male rat brains, also a strong role of gender in the response of adolescent subjects to maternal separation.

Nazan UYSAL; Ali Riza SISMAN; Sevil GONENC; Osman ACIKGOZ; Berkant Muammer KAYATEKIN; Giray YALAZ

2008-01-01

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Effect of maternal weight on accuracy of maternal and physician estimate of fetal weight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To test if maternal and physician clinical fetal weight estimates differ significantly from actual birth weight and if it is affected by maternal weight. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 112 term gravidas who presented for induction or elective cesarean were prospectively observed. Prior to physician evaluation, each subject estimated the weight of her baby. Prepregnancy weight, date of most recent ultrasound that estimated fetal weight, and physician clinical estimation of fetal weight were recorded. Birth weight was recorded and compared to estimates. RESULTS: Maternal and physician mean absolute error (MAE) values did not differ significantly within any body mass index category. Physician MAE values trended higher in class III obese women (477.1 +/- 292.0 g vs. 356.3 +/- 226.8, p = 0.08). Maternal-predicted and birth weight table-predicted MAE did not differ significantly, although table-predicted 50th percentile MAE values trended higher in class II obese women (462.2 +/- 322.4 g vs. 330.8 +/- 275.7, p = 0.07) and in class III obese women (471.5 +/- 363.7 g vs. 356.3 +/- 226.8, p = 0.12). Physician mean percent error trended higher than maternal values in class III obese women (13.6% +/- 9.3 vs. 9.9% +/- 6.4, p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: There was a strong trend showing that women with class III obesity were more accurate than their physician in predicting the actual birth weight of their baby.

Nguyen T; Hawkins CJ; Amon E; Gavard J

2013-05-01

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The Effect of Maternal Age on Pregnancy Outcome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to estimate the effect of m aternal age on obstetric outcomes. This isa prospective descriptive investigation of subjects referring to Bandar Abbass Shariaty M aternity Hospital.Subjects were selected and divided into 3 age groups: 1) #18 years, 2) 19-34 years, and 3) $35. The frequenciesof preterm labor, placenta previa, low birth weight, abortion, pregnancy-induced hypertension, abruption,macrosomia and gestational diabetes were compared. 2940 women with complete data were available: Sixpercent were 18 or less than 18 years of age; 79.7% were19-34 years; and 14.3% were 35 years or older.Preterm labor and placenta previa were significantly higher in less-than 18 yrs group. In our study maternal agein the two extremes affected pregnancy outcome. Yet, age was not independently associated with specificadverse pregnancy outcomes.

Mitra Ahmad Soltani

2010-01-01

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Maternal Labeling of Gifted Children: Effects on the Sibling Relationship.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the impact of maternal labeling of children as gifted on the sibling relationship in 144 pairs of firstborn and secondborn siblings classified as both gifted, firstborn gifted, secondborn gifted, or neither gifted. Five aspects of the sibling relationship were examined: warmth/closeness, status/power, conflict, maternal

Tuttle, Diane Hoekstra; Cornell, Dewey G.

1993-01-01

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Effect of maternal oral hydration therapy in oligohydramnios.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This was a randomized controlled trial on 64 pregnant women from 32 to 35 weeks gestation, in one year period to determine the effect of maternal hydration by oral water in oligohydramnios amniotic fluid index (AFI) ? 5. Studied women were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (intervention group) women were instructed to drink 2 liters of water within 2 hours and from the next day extra 2 liters of water daily for 7 days. Group B (control group) women were allowed for routine water intake. AFI was done after 2 hours, 24 hours and 7 days of oral hydration therapy in both the groups. P values less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Pre-treatment mean AFI was 4.77 ± 0.42 (mean ± SD) vs. 4.80 ± 0.43 (mean ± SD) and post treatment AFI after 2 hours was 6.35 ± 0.65 vs. 4.81 ± 0.42; after 7 days was 7.08 ± 0.21 vs. 5.0 ± 0.20 in oral hydration group and control group respectively. Delivery at 37-40 weeks was 53.1% vs. 12.4%, normal vaginal delivery in 71% vs. 21.8%, caesarean section in 29% vs. 78.2% and low birth weight babies were 12.5% vs. 81.25% in intervention and control group respectively. Foetal outcome was healthy in 87.1% vs. 59.4%, asphyxiated in 12.9% vs. 50% and perinatal death was 3.22% vs. 21.8% between intervention and control group. Still born were 6.3% cases in control group. Maternal oral hydration therapy significantly increases the AFI, reduces the caesarean section rate and improves the foetal outcome.

Akter MD; Kabir N; Shah MS; Islam F; Tasnim S

2012-10-01

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The effects of weathering demonstrated by maternal age on low birth weight outcome in babies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Increasing age has been hypothesized with wear and tear (weathering) in mothers, which may result to low birthweight of their babies. The prevalence of low birthweight could be heightened if maternal weathering is associated with poor maternal socioeconomic variables. In this current study, we analyzed the effects of maternal weathering on babies' birthweights. METHODS: One hundred and twenty four mother-baby pairs were selected using systematic random sampling method. Maternal age formed part of the demographic data that was obtained from the mothers' case notes and from interviews held with them. Maternal socioeconomic variables were assessed using Oyedeji's parameters and birthweights of babies were determined using bassinet weighing scale. Associations between maternal socioeconomic variables and birthweight of babies were assessed using univariate analysis. Differences in mean birthweight of babies according to their maternal age were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA. RESULTS: Among the 124 babies, 66(53.2%) were males and 58(46.8%) females of whom the majority 104(83.9%, had normal birthweight. The mean birthweight of babies was 3.05±0.57 (95% CI, 2.95-3.15) kg, while the mean maternal age was 23.60 (5.2) 95% CI, (22.68-24.52) years. The difference between mean birthweight of babies and mean maternal age was not significant (F=1.35, p=0.255). Similarly, the association between birthweight, maternal education and occupation computed using univariate analysis was not significant (F=2.163, p=0.120) for education and (F=1.825, p=0.166) for occupation. CONCLUSION: In this study, maternal weathering was not found to be associated with LBW outcome. This implies that an increase in maternal age may not be significantly associated with LBW. However, there is need for further research on this subject from different centers using larger sample size in order to enhance the precision of the study.

Ahmadu BU; Mustapha B; Bappariya JI; Alfred N; Joel Z

2013-03-01

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MATERNAL HEPATIC AND EMBRYONIC EFFECTS OF 1,2,4- TRICHLOROBENZENE IN THE RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible maternal hepatic and reproductive effects of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) were assessed in rats given 0, 36, 120, 360, and 1200 mg/kg/day of TCB on Days 9-13 of gestation. The animals were sacrificed on Day 14 of pregnancy. Maternal deaths (2/9 rats 6/6 rats) were re...

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Escape from Genomic Imprinting at the Mouse T-Associated Maternal Effect (Tme) Locus  

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Genomic imprinting occurs at the paternally inherited allele of the mouse T-associated maternal effect (Tme) locus. As a consequence, maternal transmission of a functional Tme gene is normally required for viability and individuals that receive a Tme-deleted chromosome (T(hp) or t(lub2)) from their ...

Tsai, J. Y.; Silver, L. M.

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MATERNAL FOLATE DEFICIENCY AMPLIFIES THE CELLULAR AND TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF TOMUDEX  

Science.gov (United States)

Lau, C., J.E. Andrews, B.E. Grey*, R.G. Hanson*, J.R. Thibodeaux* and J.M. Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, ORD, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Maternal folate deficiency amplifies the cellular and teratologic effects of Tomudex. Maternal fo...

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Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom  

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Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg). The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10). The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

A. A. S. Barão; A. L. A. Nencioni; V. A. C. Dorce

2008-01-01

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Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg). The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10). The maternal repro (more) ductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

Barão, A. A. S.; Nencioni, A. L. A.; Dorce, V. A. C.

2008-01-01

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Environmental maternal effects mediate the resistance of maritime pine to biotic stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The resistance to abiotic stress is increasingly recognised as being impacted by maternal effects, given that environmental conditions experienced by parent (mother) trees affect stress tolerance in offspring. We hypothesised that abiotic environmental maternal effects may also mediate the resistance of trees to biotic stress. The influence of maternal environment and maternal genotype and the interaction of these two factors on early resistance of Pinus pinaster half-sibs to the Fusarium circinatum pathogen was studied using 10 mother genotypes clonally replicated in two contrasting environments. Necrosis length of infected seedlings was 16% shorter in seedlings grown from favourable maternal environment seeds than in seedlings grown from unfavourable maternal environment seeds. Damage caused by F. circinatum was mediated by maternal environment and maternal genotype, but not by seed mass. Mechanisms unrelated to seed provisioning, perhaps of epigenetic nature, were probably involved in the transgenerational plasticity of P. pinaster, mediating its resistance to biotic stress. Our findings suggest that the transgenerational resistance of pines due to an abiotic stress may interact with the defensive response of pines to a biotic stress.

Vivas M; Zas R; Sampedro L; Solla A

2013-01-01

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Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens: Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn) were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo.

Henriksen, Rie

2011-01-01

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The hemodynamic effects of maternal hypo- and hyperoxygenation in healthy term pregnancies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of maternal hypo- and hyperoxygenation in normal term pregnancy. METHODS: Ten healthy women between 35-41 weeks' gestation were exposed to 10% oxygen in inspired air for 10 minutes and, after a 5-minute recovery period, to a stepwise increase in oxygenation with 50 and 100% oxygen for 10 minutes. Maternal ventilation, hemodynamics, and oxygenation were assessed noninvasively, and maternal and fetal vascular responses were assessed with pulsed-wave color Doppler velocimetry. Computerized cardiotocography was used for fetal heart rate (FHR) analysis. RESULTS: Substantial maternal hypoxia was achieved and accompanied by a statistically significant rise in the maternal heart rate (from 89 +/- 11 to 104 +/- 16 beats per minute) and systolic blood pressure (from 123 +/- 13 to 131 +/- 13 mmHg). Doppler measurements demonstrated a statistically significant decline in the pulsatility index (PI) of the maternal internal carotid artery (from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 1.5 +/- 0.4) and an increase in the uterine artery PI (from 0.60 +/- 0.12 to 0.72 +/- 0.13). Baseline FHR, heart rate variability, and Doppler velocimetry in the umbilical artery and the middle cerebral artery showed no statistically significant changes. Hyperoxia did not cause changes in the maternal circulation, but the FHR decreased significantly (from 142 +/- 12 to 133 +/- 11 beats per minute). CONCLUSION: Acute short-term hypoxia modifies the maternal circulation, suggesting redistribution of maternal blood flow, but exerts no detectable effects on the healthy fetus. Maternal hyperoxygenation induces no apparent adverse effects.

Polvi HJ; Pirhonen JP; Erkkola RU

1995-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Long-lasting effects of maternal condition in free-ranging cervids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Causes of phenotypic variation are fundamental to evolutionary ecology because they influence the traits acted upon by natural selection. One such cause of phenotypic variation is a maternal effect, which is the influence of the environment experienced by a female (and her corresponding phenotype) on the phenotype of her offspring (independent of the offspring's genotype). While maternal effects are well documented, the longevity and fitness impact of these effects remains unclear because it is difficult to follow free-living individuals through their reproductive lifetimes. For long-lived species, it has been suggested that maternal effects are masked by environmental variables acting on offspring in years following the period of dependence. Our objective was to use indirect measures of maternal condition to determine if maternal effects have long-lasting influences on male offspring in two species of cervid. Because antlers are sexually selected, we used measures of antler size at time of death, 1.5-21.5 years after gestation to investigate maternal effects. We quantified antler size of 11,000 male elk and mule deer born throughout the intermountain western US (6 states) over nearly 30 years. Maternal condition during development was estimated indirectly using a suite of abiotic variables known to influence condition of cervids (i.e., winter severity, spring and summer temperature, and spring and summer precipitation). Antler size of male cervids was significantly associated with our indirect measure of maternal condition during gestation and lactation. Assuming the correctness of our indirect measure, our findings demonstrate that antler size is a sexually selected trait that is influenced-into adulthood-by maternal condition. This link emphasizes the importance of considering inherited environmental effects when interpreting population dynamics or examining reproductive success of long-lived organisms.

Freeman ED; Larsen RT; Clegg K; McMillan BR

2013-01-01

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Multigenerational hybridisation and its consequences for maternal effects in Atlantic salmon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Outbreeding between segregating populations can be important from an evolutionary, conservation and economical-agricultural perspective. Whether and how outbreeding influences maternal effects in wild populations has rarely been studied, despite both the prominent maternal influence on early offspring survival and the known presence of fitness effects resulting from outbreeding in many taxa. We studied several traits during the yolk-feeding stage in multigenerational crosses between a wild and a domesticated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population up to their third-generation hybrid in a common laboratory environment. Using cross-means analysis, we inferred that maternal additive outbreeding effects underlie most offspring traits but that yolk mass also underlies maternal dominant effects. As a consequence of the interplay between additive and dominant maternally controlled traits, offspring from first-generation hybrid mothers expressed an excessive proportion of residual yolk mass, relative to total mass, at the time of first feeding. Their residual yolk mass was 23-97% greater than those of other crosses and 31% more than that predicted by a purely additive model. Offspring additive, epistatic and epistatic offspring-by-maternal outbreeding effects appeared to further modify this largely maternally controlled cross-means pattern, resulting in an increase in offspring size with the percentage of domesticated alleles. Fitness implications remain elusive because of unknown phenotype-by-environment interactions. However, these results suggest how mechanistically co-adapted genetic maternal control on early offspring development can be disrupted by the effects of combining alleles from divergent populations. Complex outbreeding effects at both the maternal and offspring levels make the prediction of hybrid phenotypes difficult.

Debes PV; Fraser DJ; McBride MC; Hutchings JA

2013-09-01

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The effect of women's decision-making power on maternal health services uptake: evidence from Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A large body of research has explored the links between women's decision making and their uptake of maternal health services, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of maternal health services. We find that women's decision-making power has a significant positive correlation with maternal health services uptake and that influential males' decision-making power has the opposite effect, after controlling for socio-economic indicators and supply-side conditions. Our findings suggest that empowering women and increasing their ability to make decisions may increase their uptake of maternal health services. They also suggest that policies directed toward improving women's utilization of maternal health services in Pakistan must target men as well as women.

Hou X; Ma N

2013-03-01

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The effect of stress and anxiety associated with maternal prenatal diagnosis on feto-maternal attachment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A couple's decision to undergo an invasive test based on a screening test result is a process associated with anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine whether anxiety and prenatal attachment were affected by undergoing an invasive test compared to women in early pregnancy and after a reassuring anomaly scan. Methods 200 women were recruited at booking, 14 women and 20 partners after an invasive test and 81 women following an anomaly scan. A questionnaire was completed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Maternal or Paternal Antenatal Attachment Scales. Results Women who have had an invasive test have higher levels of anxiety compared to women at booking (P Conclusions Women undergoing prenatal diagnostic procedures experience more psychological distress, which may be currently underestimated. Establishment of interdisciplinary treatment settings where access to psychological support is facilitated may be beneficial.

Allison Sara J; Stafford Julie; Anumba Dilly OC

2011-01-01

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Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. RESULTS: First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. CONCLUSION: Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

Ghaemmaghami SJ; Nikniaz L; Mahdavi R; Nikniaz Z; Razmifard F; Afsharnia F

2013-09-01

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Neonatal effects of maternal hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the neurobehavioral profile of neonates who are born to women with hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. METHODS: Examined were 108 neonates who were born to mothers with low maternal free thyroid hormone (fT4 concentrations; <10th percentile) at 12 weeks' gestation (case patients) and 96 neonates who were born to women whose fT4 values were between the 50th and 90th percentiles, matched for parity and gravidity (control subjects). Newborn development was assessed at 3 weeks of age using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Maternal thyroid function (fT4 and thyrotropin hormone) was assessed at 12, 24, and 32 weeks' gestation. RESULTS: Infants of women with hypothyroxinemia at 12 weeks' gestation had significantly lower scores on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale orientation index compared with subjects. Regression analysis showed that first-trimester maternal fT4 but not maternal TSH or fT4 later in gestation was a significant predictor of orientation scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that maternal hypothyroxinemia constitutes a serious risk factor for neurodevelopmental difficulties that can be identified in neonates as young as 3 weeks of age.

Kooistra L; Crawford S; van Baar AL; Brouwers EP; Pop VJ

2006-01-01

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Externalizing Disorders in Adolescence Mediate the Effects of Maternal Depression on Substance Use Disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal depression has been linked to increased risk of substance use disorders (SUDs) in offspring. Cross-sectional studies have identified relationships among maternal depression, externalizing disorders and SUDs, but no longitudinal examination of causality has been undertaken. In order to address this gap in the literature, depression and externalizing disorders at or prior to age 15 were tested as mediators of the relationship between maternal depression and SUDs diagnosed between ages 16 and 20 in a sample of 702 Australian youth (363 women) using path models. Mothers' and fathers' substance diagnoses and earlier onset of substance abuse in youth were controlled for in all analyses. Consistent with previous work, maternal depression predicted SUDs between ages 16 and 20. An indirect effect of maternal depression through youth externalizing disorders diagnosed by age 16 was detected for alcohol and cannabis use disorders, but not drug disorders. Early adolescent depression was not a mediator of the relationship between maternal depression and any of the substance outcomes measured. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine depression and externalizing disorders in early adolescence as mediators of the effect of maternal depression on psychopathology in later adolescence. Further work is needed to understand how family environment and genetic factors may explain the mediation by externalizing disorders.

Tartter M; Hammen C; Brennan P

2013-08-01

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The Effect of Maternal Thrombophilia on Placental Abruption: Histologic Correlates  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine if the histology of placental abruption differs by maternal thrombophilia status. Study design This was a multicenter, case-control study of women with abruption and delivering at ?20 weeks’ gestation, collected as part of the ongoing New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study. Women were identified by clinical criteria of abruption. Maternal blood was collected postpartum and tested for anticardiolipin antibodies, and mutations in the Factor V Leiden and prothrombin genes. Cases were comprised of women with an abruption and a positive thrombophilia screen. Controls were comprised of women with an abruption and a negative thrombophilia screen. All placental histology was systematically reviewed by two perinatal pathologists, blinded to the abruption status. Results A total of 135 women with placental abruption were identified, of which 63.0% (n=85) had at least one diagnosed maternal thrombophilia. There were increases in the rates of meconium-stained membranes (7.9% versus 2.1%, P=0.015) and decidual necrosis (4.5% versus 2.1%, P=0.023) when a maternal thrombophilia was diagnosed. Although there was no difference in the overall presence of infarcts between the 2 groups (27.0% versus 38.3%, P=0.064), the presence of an old infarct was more common among women with a positive thrombophilia screen (83.3% versus 44.4%, P=0.003). Conclusion Placental abruption with a positive maternal thrombophilia screen is associated with higher rates of old placental infarcts and decidual necrosis compared with abruption when thrombophilia is not diagnosed. These lesions suggest a chronic etiology of placental abruption in the presence of a maternal thrombophilia.

Kinzler, Wendy L.; Prasad, Vinay; Ananth, Cande V.

2011-01-01

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Effects of Timing of Episiotomy Repair on Maternal Blood Values  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effects of episiotomy repair performed before or after placental expulsion on the maternal blood values.Patients and Methods: A total of 172 pregnant women were investigated retrospectively who delivered at term (37-41 gestational weeks). The patients were divided into two groups as Group 1 who had episiotomy repair after the plasental expulsion and Group 2 who had episiotomy repair before the plasental expulsion. The hematocrit and hemoglobin values of all the pregnant women in both groups before labor and at the 12th hour in the postpartum period were compared.Results: There were no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, duration of labor, gestational weeks, episiotomy repair time, birth weight, and body mass index. The absolute hemoglobin difference between pre-delivery and postpartum 12th hour was 1.17±0.09 g/dl in Group 1 and 1.17±0.11 g/dl in Group 2. There were no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to the mean episiotomy repair time and absolute hemoglobin and hematocrit differences (p=0.624, p=0.987, p=0.779).Conclusion: Timing and the type of episiotomy must be evaluated according to the conditions at the time of labor. If there are no risk factors the episiotomy repair must be done immediately to prevent the leakage bleeding, and if it is thought that the episiotomy repair can minimize the exposure it will be better to wait for the placental expulsion.

Özgür DÜNDAR; Tolga Ç?FTPINAR; P?nar YÖRÜK; Levent TÜTÜNCÜ; Ercüment MÜNGEN; Yusuf Ziya YERGÖK

2009-01-01

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Attachment disorganization moderates the effect of maternal postnatal depressive symptoms on infant autonomic functioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined associations of disorganized attachment and maternal depressive symptoms with infant autonomic functioning in 450 infant-mother dyads enrolled in the Generation R study. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured 2 months postpartum with the Brief Symptom Inventory. At 14 months, we assessed infant attachment with a slightly shortened Strange Situation and measured infant resting heart rate. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated using spectral analysis. Higher levels of maternal postnatal depressive symptoms predicted lower resting RSA in disorganized infants (B?=?-0.31, SE?=?0.15, p?=?.04, R(2) ?=?.05) but not in nondisorganized infants (B?=?0.05, SE?=?0.06, p?=?.36). This effect was buffered in disorganized infants with a secondary secure attachment classification. Disorganized infants were more vulnerable to the effect of maternal postnatal depressive symptoms on the physiological stress systems.

Tharner A; Dierckx B; Luijk MP; van Ijzendoorn MH; Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ; van Ginkel JR; Moll HA; Jaddoe VW; Hofman A; Hudziak JJ; Verhulst FC; Tiemeier H

2013-02-01

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Effect of maternal education and ethnic background on infant development.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined the influence of maternal education and ethnic background on the four main areas of development (as measured by the Brunet-Lezine adaptation of Gesell's developmental schedule) of their infants. 173 babies were examined at the ages 0f 3, 6, 9, and 12 months in the Kiryat Yovel area of Je...

Ivanans, T

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The observed association between maternal anxiety and adolescent asthma: children of twin design suggest familial effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that maternal anxiety is associated with asthma in the adolescent child, but mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal anxiety and maternal, self- and register-based report of asthma in the adolescent child, and whether the association remains after control of familial confounding (shared environmental and genetic factors). METHOD: From the Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden, 1691 mothers (1058 twins) and their adolescent child were included. The association between maternal self-reported anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) somatic or psychic anxiety) and asthma based on subjective (maternal or child report) or objective (register-based diagnosis and medication) measures were analysed using logistic regression. The children-of-twins design was used to explore whether genes or environment contribute to the association. RESULTS: Maternal BAI anxiety (OR 2.02, CI 1.15-3.55) was significantly associated with adolescent asthma reported by the mother. Maternal KSP somatic anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.04-2.91) and psychic anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.05-2.86) was significantly associated with breathlessness reported by the adolescent child. In contrast, maternal anxiety was not associated with increased risk for the register-based outcomes of asthma diagnosis or medication. The results remained also after adjusting for covariates and the children-of-twins analyses which indicate that the association was due to familial confounding. CONCLUSIONS: We found some associations between maternal anxiety and subjectively reported offspring asthma or breathlessness which may be due to familial effects. A likely candidate for explaining this familial confounding is heritable personality traits associated with both anxiety and subjective measures of asthma.

Havland I; Lundholm C; Lichtenstein P; Neiderhiser JM; Ganiban JM; Spotts EL; Walum H; Reiss D; Almqvist C

2013-01-01

53

Exploration of cytoplasmic inheritance as a contributor to maternal effects in Welsh Mountain sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Cytoplasmic effects were investigated using a dataset comprising three breeding groups of Welsh Mountain sheep. The influences of cytoplasmic effects were investigated by comparing animal models with and without a random term representing cytoplasmic effects. The models were applied to the eight-week weight, scan weight (mean 152 days) and ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth. The animal model included the random effects of animals and the maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and maternal common environmental effects. In total there were 24 569, 10 509, 8389, 8369 records for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth respectively. Four subsets were further analysed containing maternal lines with at least five, ten, fifteen and twenty animals/line. There was no evidence of cytoplasmic effects on eight-week weight and muscle depth. Cytoplasmic effects contributed 1–2% of phenotypic variance for scan-weight and fat depth, but the effect was generally non-significant (P > 0.05). As the number of animals per maternal line increased, the magnitude of cytoplasmic effects also increased for these traits. Direct heritability estimates for the eight-week weight, scan weight, muscle depth and fat depth using the full dataset were 0.18, 0.25, 0.24, and 0.21 respectively.

Pritchard Tracey; Cahalan Christine; Dewi Ioan

2008-01-01

54

Demographic consequences of maternal-leave programs in industrial countries: evidence from fixed-effects models.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors measure the effects of paid maternity leave upon infant mortality, the labor force participation of women during their prime childbearing years, and fertility rates. To reach their conclusions, they constructed a simultaneous-equations model using the individual fixed-effects method and a data set comprising 17 OECD countries and four time periods. The extension of maternal leave programs, measured in terms of duration of paid leave, is shown to reduce infant mortality, to raise rates of labor force participation for women in the prime childbearing ages, and to increase birth rates. The direct plus indirect impacts of extending maternity leave programs, as revealed by the reduced-form parameters of the authors' models, however, produce a different picture. The total impacts upon both infant mortality and female labor force participation conform closely to the structural estimates, but the impact upon birth rates almost disappears. It seems that the indirect effects of the maternal leave variable, via infant mortality and women's labor force participation, offset the directly pronatal influence. From a policy perspective, the benefits of paid maternal leave programs would seem to be unconditionally positive with respect to lowering infant mortality, and also positive with respect to raising female labor force participation. One should not, however, expect higher birth rates from such programs. The findings also suggest that maternal leave programs can facilitate some increases in women's labor force participation without incurring the reductions in fertility which would otherwise be experienced. PMID:12346953

Winegarden, C R; Bracy, P M

1995-04-01

55

Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The distribution of 14C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed

1981-01-01

56

Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distribution of /sup 14/C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed.

Lin, G.W.

1981-01-01

57

Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions. PMID:23906132

Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

2013-06-20

58

Influence of reporting effects on the association between maternal depression and child autism spectrum disorder behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Maximizing measurement accuracy is an important aim in child development assessment and research. Parents are essential informants in the diagnostic process, and past research suggests that certain parental characteristics may influence how they report information about their children. This has not been studied in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to date. We aimed, therefore, to investigate the possible effect that maternal depression might have on a mother's reports of her child's ASD behaviors. Using structural equation modeling, we disaggregated shared from unique variation in the association between latent variable measures of maternal depression and ASD behaviors. METHODS: Data were obtained from a study of preschoolers aged 2-4 newly diagnosed with ASD (n = 214). Information from a parent questionnaire, a semi-structured parent interview, and a semi-structured observational assessment was used to develop a latent variable measure of child ASD behaviors. Mothers reported on their own depression symptoms. We first modeled the covariance between maternal depression and child ASD behavior. Then, to quantify unique variation, we added covariance terms between maternal depression and the residual variation associated with the individual measures of child ASD behaviors. RESULTS: The model demonstrated excellent fit to the underlying data. Maternal self-report of depression symptoms exhibited a significant association with the unique variance of the questionnaire report but not with the latent variable measure of child ASD behavior. A gradient pattern of association was demonstrated between maternal depression and the unique variance of the ASD measures: most strongly for the maternal questionnaire report, more weakly for the maternal semi-structured interview, and to a trivial extent for the observational interview. CONCLUSIONS: Parental depression may influence reporting of ASD behaviors in preschoolers. Shared method effects may also contribute to bias. This finding highlights the importance of obtaining multimethod reports of child ASD symptoms.

Bennett T; Boyle M; Georgiades K; Georgiades S; Thompson A; Duku E; Bryson S; Fombonne E; Vaillancourt T; Zwaigenbaum L; Smith I; Mirenda P; Roberts W; Volden J; Waddell C; Szatmari P

2012-01-01

59

Family occurrence of schistosomal hepatosplenomegaly and maternal effect  

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Full Text Available In this paper we present a study of members of 265 nuclear families, aged six or more. This study is based of family heredograms, and takes into account the clinical form ofschistosomiasis observed before treatment with oxamniquine. The probability of occurrence of two or more cases ofhepatosplenomegaly is low, notwithstanding the fact that it was observed in 38 families. Even less frequent is the occurrence of three or more cases observed in 17 families (P=0.002). The concentration of the hepatosplenic form was higher among siblings than it was among mothers and children, or fathers and children. It was found to be not significant between husband (father) and wife (mother). These observations reinforce the evidence for the presence of a genetic component in susceptibility to the hepatosplenic form of the disease. In cases in which the mother was hepatosplenic there was a higher incidence of hepatosplenic children; the relative risk was a least five times higher than in those in which the father was the affected member (the maternal effect). In cases where both members were affected by the hepatointestinal form, the risk to the filial generation was similar to that of the population in general. Thus, in the process towards severe forms of Schistosomiasis mansoni, pre and post natal factors might be involved.As formas clínicas da esquistossomose mansônica, anteriores ao tratamento com oxamniquine, foram estudadas nos membros de 265famílias, com seis anos ou mais de idade. A probabilidade da ocorrência de dois ou mais casos, na mesma família, da hepatosplenomegalia esquistossomótica (HE) é baixa, no entanto foi observada em 38 famílias; menor probabilidade (P = 0,002) devia ocorrer três ou mais casos, porém dezessete famílias estavam nesta situação. A concentração da forma HE foi alta entre irmãos, comparativamente à observada entre mães e filhos epais e filhos. Não sendo significante a concentração encontrada no casal entre marido e mulher. Estas observações reforçam a evidência do efeito do componente genético da' susceptibilidade para a forma HE. Também, quando a mãe era hepatosplênica (HE) a prevalência desta forma nos filhos foi maior; o risco relativo foi cinco vezes superior (efeito materno), comparado ao encontrado quando era o pai hepatosplênico. Quando ambos os genitores eram hepatointestinal os riscos relativos da forma HE, nos filhos, foi semelhante ao da população geral. Assim, provavelmente fatores pré e pós- natais também estarão envolvidos na predisposição da forma hepatosplênica.

José Tavares-Neto; Aluizio Prata

1989-01-01

60

Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes according to maternal age range in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002, and to evaluate the association between maternal age range and adverse birth outcomes using additive interaction to determine whether adequate prenatal care can attenuate the harmful effect of young age on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed in women up to 24 years of age who gave birth to live children in 2002 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To evaluate adverse outcomes, the exposure variable was maternal age range, and the outcome variables were very preterm birth, low birth weight, prematurity, and low 5-minute Apgar score. The presence of interaction was investigated with the composite variable maternal age plus prenatal care. The proportions and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for adequate schooling, delivery in a public maternity hospital, and adequate prenatal care, and the outcomes according to maternal age range. The chi-square test was used. The association between age range and birth outcomes was evaluated with logistic models adjusted for schooling and type of hospital for each prenatal stratum and outcome. Attributable proportion was calculated in order to measure additive interaction. RESULTS: Of the 40,111 live births in the sample, 1.9% corresponded to children of mothers from 10-14 years of age, 38% from 15-19 years, and 59.9% from 20-24 years. An association between maternal age and adverse outcomes was observed only in adolescent mothers with inadequate prenatal care, and significant additive interaction was observed between prenatal care and maternal age for all the outcomes. CONCLUSION: Adolescent mothers and their newborns are exposed to greater risk of adverse outcomes when prenatal care fails to comply with current guidelines.

Vieira CL; Coeli CM; Pinheiro RS; Brandão ER; Camargo KR Jr; Aguiar FP

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Congenital cataract screening in maternity wards is effective: evaluation of the Paediatric Cataract Register of Sweden.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To study which eye-screening protocol prevails in Swedish maternity/neonatal wards, evaluate efficacy in a prospective study and compare results with earlier Swedish retrospective results. METHODS: Surveys were sent in 2006 to maternity/neonatal and women's health departments regarding screening policy. Response frequency was 96% (122/127). Data were derived from the Paediatric Cataract Register (PECARE), Sweden. All Swedish children diagnosed with congenital cataract and operated on before 1 year of age between January 2007 and December 2009 were included. Statistical comparison with earlier retrospective results was performed. RESULTS: Eye screening is a routine protocol at a rate of 90% of Swedish maternity wards. Sixty-one children were included in the study. An increase was shown in case referrals from maternity wards compared to 10 years ago (64% vs. 50%). Detection was performed within 6 weeks of age in 75% of the cases. A significant difference between the probabilities of early referral (0.38; p < 0.001, < 6 weeks of age) and early surgery (0.36; p < 0.001) (PECARE) was found in comparison with the historical data of no maternity-ward screening. Well-baby clinics were instrumental in early detection, as well. CONCLUSION: Eye screening in maternity wards is effective. Clear Swedish directives are to be preferred.

Magnusson G; Bizjajeva S; Haargaard B; Lundström M; Nyström A; Tornqvist K

2013-03-01

62

Cord blood chemerin: differential effects of gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: Chemerin is a novel adipokine implicated in inflammation and obesity. We hypothesized that foetal chemerin would be elevated in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and correlate with foetal and maternal adiposity. DESIGN: Observational, longitudinal study. SUBJECTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Foetal chemerin was measured separately in arterial and venous cord blood of 30 infants born to mothers with (n = 15) and without GDM (n = 15), in their mothers in early third trimester and at delivery and in amniotic fluid (week 32) of women with GDM. Expression of chemerin and its receptor in human foetal tissues commercially available and in placental cells was measured by quantitative PCR. Associations between foetal and maternal anthropometric and metabolic variables were assessed in multivariate regression models. RESULTS: In GDM, foetal arterial but not venous cord blood chemerin levels were elevated by about 60% (P chemerin was higher in infants of obese women (P chemerin levels correlated with birth weight or ponderal index. Both arterial and venous chemerin levels were related to maternal chemerin at birth, and arterial chemerin was associated with GDM status in addition. Maternal levels were unaltered in GDM, but higher in maternal obesity. Foetal liver produces fourfold more chemerin mRNA than other foetal tissues, whereas its receptor prevails in spleen. CONCLUSIONS: Based on multivariate analyses, foetal growth appears unrelated to foetal chemerin. Maternal obesity and GDM have differential effects on foetal chemerin levels. Site of major production (liver) and action (spleen) differ in human foetal tissues. PMID:23286837

van Poppel, Mireille N M; Zeck, Willibald; Ulrich, Daniela; Schest, Eva-Christina; Hirschmugl, Birgit; Lang, Uwe; Wadsack, Christian; Desoye, Gernot

2013-01-01

63

Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males), changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

Carlin J; George R; Reyes TM

2013-01-01

64

Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams  

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Full Text Available Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP) as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3) and mid (day 10) lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing). AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress.

Alexander J. Coverdill; Megan McCarthy; Robert S. Bridges; Benjamin C. Nephew

2012-01-01

65

Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure.

Blumstein DT; Nguyen KT; Martin JG

2013-05-01

66

Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure. PMID:23466987

Blumstein, Daniel T; Nguyen, Kathy T; Martin, Julien G A

2013-03-06

67

Effects on fetal and maternal temperatures of paracetamol administration during labour: a case-control study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on maternal and fetal temperatures in labour. STUDY DESIGN: From a cohort of 185 women with continuous maternal axillary and fetal scalp temperature recordings in labour, 18 women treated with 1000mg paracetamol orally for pyrexia and 36 untreated controls matched for parity, cervical dilatation, and epidural analgesia were selected. Electronically stored temperature data were analysed offline post hoc. The dual temperatures recorded every 30min from 60min before (T-60) paracetamol administration (T0) until delivery, were noted. Longitudinal data were compared with Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test and cross-sectional data with Mann-Whitney U test. Shapes of the temperature curves were compared with mixed-effect models statistics for repeated measurements. The main outcome measures were temperature changes after paracetamol. A two-tailed P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Prior to T0 maternal and fetal temperatures increased in the paracetamol group, but after T0 no significant changes (P?0.1) were seen when compared with Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. In the control group, both temperatures increased from T-60 and onwards. Delta-temperatures (fetal minus maternal temperature) remained unchanged in both groups. Analyses of the mixed-effect models showed a significant difference (P=0.01) in the shape of fetal temperature curves between the paracetamol and control groups, but no significant difference (P=0.4) in maternal temperature curve shapes. CONCLUSION: In febrile parturients, neither maternal nor fetal temperatures dropped after paracetamol, but paracetamol halted an increasing trend and stabilised the fetal temperature. The effect of paracetamol on maternal temperature was inconclusive.

Lavesson T; Åkerman F; Källén K; Olofsson P

2013-06-01

68

Live maternal speech and singing have beneficial effects on hospitalized preterm infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To study the effects of live maternal speaking and singing on physiological parameters of preterm infants in the NICU and to test the hypothesis that vocal stimulation can have differential effects on preterm infants at a behavioural level. METHODS: Eighteen mothers spoke and sang to their medically stable preterm infants in their incubators over 6 days, between 1 and 2 pm. Heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (OxSat), number of critical events (hypoxemia, bradycardia and apnoea) and change in behavioural state were measured. RESULTS: Comparisons of periods with and without maternal vocal stimulation revealed significantly greater oxygen saturation level and heart rate and significantly fewer negative critical events (p < 0.0001) when the mother was speaking and singing. Unexpected findings were the comparable effects of maternal talk and singing on infant physiological parameters and the differential ones on infant behavioural state. CONCLUSION: A renewed connection to the mother's voice can be an important and significant experience for preterm infants. Exposure to maternal speech and singing shows significant early beneficial effects on physiological state, such as oxygen saturation levels, number of critical events and prevalence of calm alert state. These findings have implications for NICU interventions, encouraging maternal interaction with their medically stable preterm infants.

Filippa M; Devouche E; Arioni C; Imberty M; Gratier M

2013-10-01

69

Impact of maternal characteristics on the effect of maternal influenza vaccination on fetal outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccination during pregnancy was significantly associated with reduced odds of small for gestational age and preterm births during the widespread influenza activity period. Vaccination effects varied by socio-demographic characteristics.

Adedinsewo DA; Noory L; Bednarczyk RA; Steinhoff MC; Davis R; Ogbuanu C; Omer SB

2013-10-01

70

Evidence of genetic and maternal effects on secondary sex ratio in cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a paucity of estimates of genetic variation for secondary sex ratio (i.e., sex ratio at birth) in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and maternal genetic variance as well as maternal permanent environmental variance for offspring sex in dairy herds. The data consisted of 77,508 births from 61,963 dams and 2,859 sires in 1,369 Irish dairy herds across the years 2003 to 2008, inclusive. Mixed models were used to estimate all parameters. Significant genetic variation in sex ratio existed, with a heritability for secondary sex ratio estimated at 0.02; the genetic standard deviation was 0.07 percentage units. No maternal genetic effects on secondary sex ratio were identified but the proportion of phenotypic variance in secondary sex ratio attributable to maternal permanent environmental effects was similar to that attributable to the additive genetic variance (i.e., 0.02). These results, therefore, suggest that the paternal (genetic) influence on secondary sex ratio is just as large as the maternal (non-genetic) influence, both of which are biologically substantial. The results from this study will be useful in generating a sample population of divergent animals for inclusion in a controlled experiment to elucidate the physiological mechanism underpinning differences in secondary sex ratio.

Berry DP; Kearney JF; Roche JR

2011-04-01

71

The impact of maternal age on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on attention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to alcohol has a variety of morphologic and neurobehavioral consequences, yet more than 10% of women continue to drink during pregnancy, placing their offspring at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Identification of at-risk pregnancies has been difficult, in part, because the presence and severity of FASD are influenced by factors beyond the pattern of alcohol consumption. Establishing maternal characteristics, such as maternal age, that increase the risk of FASD is critical for targeted pregnancy intervention. METHODS: We examined the moderating effect of maternal age on measures of attention in 462 children from a longitudinal cohort born to women with known alcohol consumption levels (absolute ounces of alcohol per day at conception) who were recruited during pregnancy. Analyses examined the impact of binge drinking, as average ounces of absolute alcohol per drinking day. Smoking and use of cocaine, marijuana, and opiates were also assessed. At 7 years of age, the children completed the Continuous Performance Test, and their teachers completed the Achenbach Teacher Report Form. RESULTS: After controlling for covariates, stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed a negative relation between levels of prenatal binge drinking and several measures of attention. The interaction between alcohol consumption and maternal age was also significant, indicating that the impact of maternal binge drinking during pregnancy on attention was greater among children born to older drinking mothers. CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with previous findings that children born to older alcohol-using women have more deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on other neurobehavioral outcomes.

Chiodo LM; da Costa DE; Hannigan JH; Covington CY; Sokol RJ; Janisse J; Greenwald M; Ager J; Delaney-Black V

2010-10-01

72

Maternal sex effects and inbreeding depression under varied environmental conditions in gynodioecious Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gynodioecy (coexistence of females and hermaphrodites) is a sexual system that occurs in numerous flowering plant lineages. Thus, understanding the features that affect its maintenance has wide importance. Models predict that females must have a seed fitness advantage over hermaphrodites, and this may be achieved via seed quality or quantity. Females in a population of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata, a long-lived gynodioecious perennial, do not demonstrate a seed quantity advantage, so this study explored whether females produced better quality seed via maternal sex effects or avoidance of inbreeding depression (IBD). METHODS: Families of selfed and outcrossed seed were created using hermaphrodite mothers and families of outcrossed seed were created using female mothers. The effects of these pollination treatments were assessed under benign conditions early in life and under varied conditions later in life. To test for an effect of maternal sex, fitness components and traits associated with acclimation to variable environments of progeny of outbred hermaphrodites and females were compared. To test for expression of IBD, fitness parameters between inbred and outbred progeny of hermaphrodites were compared. KEY RESULTS: Offspring of females were more likely to germinate in benign conditions and survive in harsh resource environments than outbred progeny of hermaphrodites. IBD was low across most life stages, and both the effect of maternal sex on progeny quality and the expression of IBD depended on both maternal family and resource condition of the progeny. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of maternal sex and IBD on progeny quality depended on resource conditions, maternal lineage and progeny life stage. In conjunction with known lack of differences in seed quantity, the quality advantages and IBD observed here are still unlikely to be sufficient for maintenance of gynodioecy under nuclear inheritance of male sterility.

Dalton RM; Koski MH; Ashman TL

2013-08-01

73

Maternal work and child-care strategies in peri-urban Guatemala: nutritional effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Associations of 293 mothers' work for earnings and child-care arrangements with the anthropometric status of their children were examined in urban Guatemala. It was hypothesized that during the period of life in which growth often falters (8 through 35 months), maternal employment could be beneficial for children. Informal workers tended to be poorer, less educated, and have more undernourished children than formal workers or nonworkers. When poverty and mother's education were controlled for, no effects of maternal employment on children's anthropometric growth patterns were seen. However, the percent of the family income the mother earned was positively associated with all anthropometric indicators, controlling for confounds. Children taken care of by preteen siblings had significantly lower weight for height than those in other situations, even controlling for SES and maternal employment status. These effects were not found in a 36-48-month-old sample.

Engle PL

1991-10-01

74

Mother-infant interaction: effects of a home intervention and ongoing maternal drug use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the effects of a home-based intervention on mother-infant interaction among drug-using women and their infants. At 2 weeks postpartum, mothers and infants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 84) or a control (n = 87) group. Control families received brief monthly tracking visits, and intervention families received weekly visits by trained lay visitors. Mother-infant interaction was evaluated at 6 months through observation of feeding. Although there were no direct effects of the intervention, in the control group, mothers who continued to use drugs were less responsive to their babies than mothers who were drug free. In the intervention group, drug use was not associated with maternal responsiveness. Weekly home-based intervention may be a protective strategy for children of drug-using women because it disrupts the relation between ongoing maternal drug use and low maternal responsiveness. PMID:10969426

Schuler, M E; Nair, P; Black, M M; Kettinger, L

2000-09-01

75

The effect of advanced maternal age upon human milk fat content.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of maternal age on human milk (HM) composition. This study was designed to study fat content, estimated by creamatocrit (CMT), in HM collected in the first 2 weeks of life in older (? 35 years) compared with younger (<35 years) mothers. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Ninety lactating mothers (48 older, 42 younger) of newborns were recruited within the first 3 days of delivery. CMTs were measured at 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days after delivery for HM in a capillary tube after centrifugation at 5,366 g for 5 minutes. RESULTS: The groups did not differ in terms of maternal height and diet, infant birth weight, gestational age (GA), or pregnancy weight gain. They differed significantly in terms of maternal age and parity. Mean colostrum CMT was significantly higher in the group of older mothers. Colostrum CMT correlated positively with maternal age (R(2)=0.11, p=0.006) and inversely with GA (R(2)=0.1, p=0.03) but did not relate with either maternal weight or body mass index. CMT at age 7 days and 2 weeks was not affected by maternal age or GA. In multivariate regression analysis colostrum CMT correlated significantly only with maternal age and GA (R(2)=0.3, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Colostrum fat content of older mothers is much higher than that of younger mothers and inversely related with GA at delivery. This increase in colostrum fat content obtained from mothers with advanced age may be due to increased fat synthesis and excretion in milk, reduced water content of milk, or a combination of both.

Hausman Kedem M; Mandel D; Domani KA; Mimouni FB; Shay V; Marom R; Dollberg S; Herman L; Lubetzky R

2013-02-01

76

Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

Scalone F

2013-10-01

77

Effects of early life social stress on maternal behavior and neuroendocrinology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal mood disorders such as depression and chronic anxiety can negatively affect the lives of both mothers and their adult offspring. An active focus of maternal depression and anxiety research has been the role of chronic social stress in the development of these disorders. Chronic exposure to social stress is common in humans, especially in lactating mothers, and postpartum mood disorders have been correlated with high levels of social conflict and low levels of social support. Recent studies have described an effective and ethologically relevant chronic social stress (CSS) based rodent model for postpartum depression and anxiety. Since CSS attenuates maternal behavior and impairs both dam and offspring growth, it was hypothesized that CSS is an ethologically relevant form of early life stress for the developing female offspring and may have effects on subsequent adult maternal behavior and neuroendocrinology. Dams exposed to early life CSS as infants display substantial increases in pup retrieval and nursing behavior that are specifically associated with attenuated oxytocin, prolactin, and vasopressin gene expression in brain nuclei involved in the control of maternal behavior. Since the growth patterns of both groups were similar despite substantial increases in nursing duration, the early life CSS dams exhibited an attenuated nursing efficiency. It is concluded that early life CSS has long term effects on the neuroendocrinology of maternal care (oxytocin and prolactin) which results in decreased nursing efficiency in the adult dams. The data support the use of early life CSS as an effective model for stress-induced impairments in nursing, such as those associated with postpartum depression and anxiety.

Murgatroyd CA; Nephew BC

2013-02-01

78

The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Africa low birth weight (LBW) ( Methods In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference) and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002) with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p 12 years of education. Conclusion Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

Elshibly Eltahir M; Schmalisch Gerd

2008-01-01

79

Effect of maternal hydration on the amniotic fluid volume during maternal rest in the left lateral decubitus position: a randomized prospective study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal hydration on amniotic fluid volume during maternal rest in the left lateral decubitus position. METHODS: Pregnant women (n = 79) with an amniotic fluid index between 6 and 24 cm and a singleton uncomplicated pregnancy at 35 to 40 weeks' gestation were randomized into hydration and control groups. Starting 30 minutes before the measurements, the hydration group drank 250 mL of water at 15-minute intervals (1000 mL/h). After the initial amniotic fluid index measurements, the women in both groups were instructed to rest in the left lateral decubitus position, and the measurements were repeated at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes. RESULTS: The amniotic fluid index increased at each interval in both groups. Although each amniotic fluid index value was higher than the preceding one, only the 15- and 30-minute values in the left lateral decubitus position alone and the 15-, 30-, and 45-minute values in the left lateral decubitus position with maternal hydration were significantly higher than the preceding measurements (P < .05). A similar increase in the amniotic fluid volume was present 15 minutes after assuming the left lateral decubitus position in both groups. However, after 30 minutes, the women in the left lateral decubitus position without maternal hydration needed another 60 minutes for a significant amniotic fluid index increase, whereas the women with maternal hydration needed only another 45 minutes for a significant increase. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal rest in the left lateral decubitus position with hydration and maternal rest in the left lateral decubitus osition alone caused similar increases in the estimated amniotic fluid volume at 15 minutes. However, after 30 minutes, the amniotic fluid volume increased more rapidly in the group with hydration.

Ülker K; Çiçek M

2013-06-01

80

Effect of prepregnancy maternal overweight and obesity on pregnancy outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between maternal overweight and obesity on complications during pregnancy and delivery in Denmark. METHODS: A population-based study on a cohort consisting of all Danish women giving birth to a singleton from 2004 through June 30, 2010 (N = 403,092) was undertaken. Women were identified from the Danish Medical Birth Registry, which contains data on 99.8% of all deliveries in Denmark. Maternal complications during pregnancy and delivery and fetal complications were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. RESULTS: The final study population consisted of 369,347 women, 20.9% being overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25-29.9), 7.7% obese (BMI 30-35), and 4% severely obese (BMI higher than 35). Overweight, obese, and severely obese women had more complications than did normal weight women. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were significantly increased as follows: for gestational diabetes mellitus, 3.5, 7.7, and 11.0 for each BMI category; for preeclampsia 1.9, 3, and 4.4. Planned and especially emergency cesarean delivery was significantly increased with increasing BMI (OR ranging from 1.2 to 2.1). The risk of giving birth to a macrosomic neonate (greater than 4,500 g) increased significantly with increasing BMI (1.6, 2.2, and 2.7), as did the risks of having a neonate with a low Apgar score (1.3, 1.4, and 1.9) and having a stillborn fetus (1.4, 1.6, and 1.9). For shoulder dystocia the risk was significantly increased in the unadjusted analysis, but the significance disappeared in the adjusted analysis. No statistically significance was seen for hemorrhage and thrombosis. CONCLUSION: This study shows a significant increased risk of a wide variety of pregnancy, birth, and neonatal complications in overweight, obese, and severely obese women. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

Ovesen P; Rasmussen S; Kesmodel U

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

The influence of maternal age on very preterm birth of twins: differential effects by parity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For singleton births, parity can modify the effect of maternal age on birth outcomes such as low birthweight and preterm birth; however, it is unknown whether this relationship exists for twin births. As the rate of twin births increases among older women, it is important to understand how parity may influence the relationship between maternal age and adverse birth outcomes. The NCHS Matched Multiple Birth Data Set, which contains all twin births in the USA from 1995 to 1998, was analysed. Parity was grouped into two levels (primiparous--no prior live births, and multiparous--at least one prior live birth), and maternal age was divided into the following groups: 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and 40 years or more. Very preterm birth was defined as births occurring before 33 weeks. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (OR) to estimate the risk of very preterm birth, and to determine the relationships between parity, maternal age, and very preterm birth. Among primiparae, women 40 years and older had a reduced risk of very preterm birth compared with women of 25-29 years (OR 0.74 [95% CI=0.66, 0.84]). Among multiparae, women 40 years and older had the same risk of very preterm birth compared with women of 25-29 years (OR 1.00 [95% CI=0.90, 1.12]). However, stratification by education revealed that the age gradient was limited to women with >12 years education among primiparae. The effect of maternal age on very preterm birth of twins differs according to parity. To some extent, that effect is further modified by education. Therefore, future analyses of maternal age and twin birth outcomes should account for measures of obstetric history and other factors, which may influence these results.

Branum AM; Schoendorf KC

2005-09-01

82

Neurobiological effects of neonatal maternal separation and post-weaning environmental enrichment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Throughout the lifespan, the brain has a considerable degree of plasticity and can be strongly influenced by sensory input from the outside environment. Given the importance of the environment in the regulation of the brain structure, behavior and physiology, the aim of the present work was to analyze the effects of different environmental qualities during two critical ontogenic periods (early life and peripuberty) on behavior and hippocampal physiology. Male Wistar rats were separated from their mothers for 4.5h daily during the first 3 weeks of life. They were weaned on day 21 and housed under either standard or enriched conditions. At 60 d of age, all animals were then housed in same-treatment groups, two per cage, until testing began on day 74. Emotional and cognitive responses were tested using the open field, novel object recognition test and step-down inhibitory avoidance learning. In the dorsal hippocampus, glucocorticoid receptor expression and neuronal activity were examined by immunoreactivity. Grooming behavior in the open field was found to be significantly lower in maternally separated animals, but post-weaning environmental enrichment completely reversed this tendency. Inhibitory avoidance but not object recognition memory was impaired in maternally separated animals, suggesting that early maternal separation alters learning and memory in a task-specific manner. Again, environmental enrichment reversed the effects of maternal separation on the inhibitory avoidance task. Even though maternal separation did not significantly affect Fos and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, environmental enrichment increased both Fos expression in the total hippocampal area and also the overall number of GR positive cells per hippocampal area, mainly due to the changes in CA1. These findings suggest that differential rearing is a useful procedure to study behavioral and physiological plasticity in response to early experience and that, although the effects of adverse experience early in life such as maternal separation can persist until adulthood, some of them can be compensated by early favorable environments, possibly through nervous system plasticity.

Vivinetto AL; Suárez MM; Rivarola MA

2013-03-01

83

The effects of intrauterine malnutrition on maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and fetal lipid synthesis in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intrauterine malnutrition is associated with increased susceptibility to chronic diseases in adulthood. Growth-restricted infants display a less favorable lipid profile already shortly postnatal. Maternal low protein diet (LPD) during gestation is a well-defined model of fetal programming in rodents and affects lipid metabolism of the offspring. Effects of LPD throughout gestation on physiologic relevant parameters of lipid metabolism are unclear. We aimed to determine effects of LPD on maternal-fetal cholesterol fluxes and fetal lipid synthesis in mice. Pregnant mice (dams) were fed with a control (18% casein) or an LPD (9% casein) from E0.5 onward. We quantified maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and maternal cholesterol absorption at E19.5 using stable isotopes. We determined fetal lipid biosynthesis at E19.5, after administration of (1-C)-acetate from E17.5 onward. LPD did not change fetal and maternal plasma and hepatic concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides. LPD affected neither the magnitudes of maternal-fetal cholesterol flux, maternal cholesterol absorption, nor fetal synthesis of cholesterol and palmitate (both groups, approximately 14% and approximately 13%, respectively). We conclude that LPD throughout gestation in mice does not affect maternal-fetal cholesterol transport, fetal cholesterol or fatty acid synthesis, indicating that programming effects of LPD are not mediated by short-term changes in maternal-fetal lipid metabolism.

van Meer H; van Straten EM; Baller JF; van Dijk TH; Plösch T; Kuipers F; Verkade HJ

2010-07-01

84

The effects of intrauterine malnutrition on maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and fetal lipid synthesis in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intrauterine malnutrition is associated with increased susceptibility to chronic diseases in adulthood. Growth-restricted infants display a less favorable lipid profile already shortly postnatal. Maternal low protein diet (LPD) during gestation is a well-defined model of fetal programming in rodents and affects lipid metabolism of the offspring. Effects of LPD throughout gestation on physiologic relevant parameters of lipid metabolism are unclear. We aimed to determine effects of LPD on maternal-fetal cholesterol fluxes and fetal lipid synthesis in mice. Pregnant mice (dams) were fed with a control (18% casein) or an LPD (9% casein) from E0.5 onward. We quantified maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and maternal cholesterol absorption at E19.5 using stable isotopes. We determined fetal lipid biosynthesis at E19.5, after administration of (1-C)-acetate from E17.5 onward. LPD did not change fetal and maternal plasma and hepatic concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides. LPD affected neither the magnitudes of maternal-fetal cholesterol flux, maternal cholesterol absorption, nor fetal synthesis of cholesterol and palmitate (both groups, approximately 14% and approximately 13%, respectively). We conclude that LPD throughout gestation in mice does not affect maternal-fetal cholesterol transport, fetal cholesterol or fatty acid synthesis, indicating that programming effects of LPD are not mediated by short-term changes in maternal-fetal lipid metabolism. PMID:20386142

van Meer, Hester; van Straten, Esther M E; Baller, Julius F W; van Dijk, Theo H; Plösch, Torsten; Kuipers, Folkert; Verkade, Henkjan J

2010-07-01

85

The maternal-effect, selfish genetic element Medea is associated with a composite Tc1 transposon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal-Effect Dominant Embryonic Arrest ("Medea") factors are selfish nuclear elements that combine maternal-lethal and zygotic-rescue activities to gain a postzygotic survival advantage. We show that Medea(1) activity in Tribolium castaneum is associated with a composite Tc1 transposon inserted just downstream of the neurotransmitter reuptake symporter bloated tubules (blot), whose Drosophila ortholog has both maternal and zygotic functions. The 21.5-kb insertion contains defective copies of elongation initiation factor-3, ATP synthase subunit C, and an RNaseD-related gene, as well as a potentially intact copy of a prokaryotic DUF1703 gene. Sequence comparisons suggest that the current distribution of Medea(1) reflects global emanation after a single transpositional event in recent evolutionary time. The Medea system in Tribolium represents an unusual type of intragenomic conflict and could provide a useful vehicle for driving desirable genes into populations. PMID:18621706

Lorenzen, Marcé D; Gnirke, Andreas; Margolis, Jonathan; Garnes, Jeffrey; Campbell, Margie; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Aggarwal, Rajat; Richards, Stephen; Park, Yoonseong; Beeman, Richard W

2008-07-11

86

Distortion of Mendelian recovery ratio for a mouse HSR is caused by maternal and zygotic effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An HSR in chromosome 1 which is found in many feral populations of Mus musculus domesticus was shown in previous studies to consist of a high-copy long-range repeat cluster. One such cluster, MUT, showed distorted transmission ratios when introduced by female parents. MUT/+ offspring were preferentially recovered at the expense of +/+ embryos in the progeny of male MUT/+ x female +/+ but were found at the expected 1:1 ratio in reciprocal crosses. Preferential recovery of maternal MUT was due to lethality of postimplantation +/+ embryos. There was no distortion of the recovery ratio in MUT/+ x MUT/MUT progeny: maternal MUT and + clusters were present among live implants at a 1:1 ratio. Maternal and zygotic effects therefore contribute to the phenomenon. The mechanism of their interaction is unknown.

Weichenhan D; Traut W; Kunze B; Winking H

1996-10-01

87

Effect of Source and Level of Maternal Vitamin D on Carryover to Newly Hatched Chicks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the carryover effect of maternal vitamin D level and source on performance and bone development of the progeny. Breeder hens were fed a vitamin D deficient diet for two months to deplete stores. After this period, experimental diets in a factorial arrangement were fed to the hens with five levels of cholecalciferol (0, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 IU/kg) and two levels of 25OHD3 (HyD) (0 and 68 ?g/kg) for a total of 10 treatments. At the end of two months on the experimental diets two sets of eggs were hatched. The progeny obtained were placed in battery brooders to 21 days by maternal diet and received a common diet. The first hatch received a diet with no vitamin D supplement whereas the second hatch received a diet with the same nutrient composition but containing 5500 IU/kg of cholecalciferol. The first set of birds responded to the maternal diet supplementation of vitamin D mostly during the first week post hatch with no clear pattern in later stages. The progeny receiving 5500 IU/kg of vitamin D in the diet responded to the maternal vitamin D supplementation even at 21 days and in a clearer trend. Feed conversion and body weight improved as the cholecalciferol level increased and with the inclusion of HyD in the maternal diet. The response when HyD was added was more noticeable at low levels of cholecalciferol supplementation with no difference at higher levels in the hen’s diet. Bone development of the progeny was improved with the addition of HyD in the maternal diet; this response was not influenced by increasing levels of cholecalciferol in the breeder diet. This study confirms the importance of the maternal vitamin D carryover for an adequate development of the progeny. Certainly, the vitamin D carryover effect did not overcome the effect of supplementing vitamin D directly in the progeny’s diet but it was capable of improving the performance of the progeny even three weeks post-hatch when a high level of cholecalciferol (5500 IU/kg) was present in the diet of the progeny. A carryover effect of HyD when added to the maternal diet was observed in this study, thus the feasibility of using the metabolite to supply vitamin D to the developing embryo was confirmed.

Cesar Coto; S. Cerate; Z. Wang; F. Yan; P.W. Waldroup

2010-01-01

88

Intergenerational effects of maternal birth season on offspring size in rural Gambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Environmental conditions experienced in early life can influence an individual's growth and long-term health, and potentially also that of their offspring. However, such developmental effects on intergenerational outcomes have rarely been studied. Here we investigate intergenerational effects of early environment in humans using survey- and clinic-based data from rural Gambia, a population experiencing substantial seasonal stress that influences foetal growth and has long-term effects on first-generation survival. Using Fourier regression to model seasonality, we test whether (i) parental birth season has intergenerational consequences for offspring in utero growth (1982 neonates, born 1976-2009) and (ii) whether such effects have been reduced by improvements to population health in recent decades. Contrary to our predictions, we show effects of maternal birth season on offspring birth weight and head circumference only in recent maternal cohorts born after 1975. Offspring birth weight varied according to maternal birth season from 2.85 to 3.03 kg among women born during 1975-1984 and from 2.84 to 3.41 kg among those born after 1984, but the seasonality effect reversed between these cohorts. These results were not mediated by differences in maternal age or parity. Equivalent patterns were observed for offspring head circumference (statistically significant) and length (not significant), but not for ponderal index. No relationships were found between paternal birth season and offspring neonatal anthropometrics. Our results indicate that even in rural populations living under conditions of relative affluence, brief variation in environmental conditions during maternal early life may exert long-term intergenerational effects on offspring.

Rickard IJ; Courtiol A; Prentice AM; Fulford AJ; Clutton-Brock TH; Lummaa V

2012-10-01

89

Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption.

Müller Wendt; Vergauwen Jonas; Eens Marcel; Blount Jonathan D

2012-01-01

90

Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: INTRODUCTION: Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. RESULTS: There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. CONCLUSIONS: The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption.

Müller W; Vergauwen J; Eens M; Blount JD

2012-01-01

91

Effects of social support during parturition on maternal and infant morbidity.  

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Because continuous social support during labour is a component of care in many societies but inconsistent in our own, the clinical effect of support during labour on maternal and neonatal morbidity were studied. Social support was provided by female companions. Four hundred and sixty five healthy pr...

Klaus, M H; Kennell, J H; Robertson, S S; Sosa, R

92

MATERNAL HEPATIC AND EMBRYONIC EFFECTS OF 1,2,3,4-TETRACHLOROBENZENE IN THE RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess possible maternal hepatic and reproductive effects of this uncharged, low molecular weight, lipophilic chlorinated bezene 0,100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day of 1,2,3,4,-tetrachlorobenzene (TCB) was orally administered to pregnant rats on days 9 -13 of gestation and the anima...

93

MATERNAL HEPATIC EFFECTS OF 1,2,4,5-TETRACHLOROBENZENE IN THE RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene (TCB) is an industrial intermediate used in the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. This herbicide contains trace quantities of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Because of possible maternal hepatic or reproductive effects of this...

94

Maternal parity and its effect on adipose tissue deposition and endocrine sensitivity in the postnatal sheep  

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Maternal parity influences size at birth, postnatal growth and body composition with firstborn infants being more likely to be smaller with increased fat mass, suggesting that adiposity is set in early life. The precise effect of parity on fat mass and its endocrine sensitivity remains unclear and w...

Hyatt, M A; Keisler, D H; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

95

The effects of maternal caffeine and chocolate intake on fetal heart rate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of caffeine and chocolate (70% cocoa) on fetal heart rate (FHR). STUDY DESIGN: Fifty pregnant women with uncomplicated gestation, matched for age and parity, underwent computerized FHR recording before and after the consumption of caffeine and then, after one week, before and after 70% cocoa chocolate intake. Computerized cardiotocography (cCTG) parameters were expressed as mean and SD. The differences were tested for statistical significance using the paired t-test, with significance at p?maternal coffee intake. The number of large accelerations, the duration of episodes of high variation and the short-term FHR variation were significantly higher (p?maternal consumption of chocolate, whilst no effect of cocoa was found during contractions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that maternal intake of both caffeine and 70% cocoa have a stimulating action on fetal reactivity. This finding is likely due to the pharmacological action of theobromine, a methilxanthine present in coffee and in chocolate. The correlation between maternal caffeine intake and increased uterine contraction peaks is likely due to the effect of caffeine on the uterine muscle.

Buscicchio G; Piemontese M; Gentilucci L; Ferretti F; Tranquilli AL

2012-05-01

96

Cord blood chemerin:Differential effects of gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Chemerin is a novel adipokine implicated in inflammation and obesity. We hypothesized that fetal chemerin would be elevated in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and correlate with fetal and maternal adiposity. DESIGN: Observational, longitudinal study SUBJECTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Fetal chemerin was measured separately in arterial and venous cord blood of 30 infants born to mothers with (n=15) and without GDM (n=15), in their mothers in early 3rd trimester and at delivery and in amniotic fluid (week 32) of women with GDM. Expression of chemerin and its receptor in human fetal tissues commercially available and in placental cells was measured by quantitative PCR. Associations between fetal and maternal anthropometric and metabolic variables were assessed in multivariate regression models. RESULTS: In GDM, fetal arterial, but not venous cord blood chemerin levels were elevated by about 60% (p <0.05). Venous cord blood chemerin was higher in infants of obese women (p<0.01). In multivariate analyses, neither amniotic fluid nor cord blood chemerin levels correlated with birth weight or ponderal index. Both arterial and venous chemerin levels were related to maternal chemerin at birth, and arterial chemerin was associated with GDM status in addition. Maternal levels were unaltered in GDM, but higher in maternal obesity. Fetal liver produces 4-fold more chemerin mRNA than other fetal tissues, whereas its receptor prevails in spleen. CONCLUSIONS: Based on multivariate analyses, fetal growth appears unrelated to fetal chemerin. Maternal obesity and GDM have differential effects on fetal chemerin levels. Site of major production (liver) and action (spleen) differ in human fetal tissues. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

van Poppel MN; Zeck W; Ulrich D; Schest EC; Hirschmugl B; Lang U; Wadsack C; Desoye G

2013-01-01

97

The effects of a childbirth psychoeducation program on learned resourcefulness, maternal role competence and perinatal depression: A quasi-experiment  

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Background: Learned resourcefulness plays a significant role in facilitating maternal coping during the transition to motherhood. Given the growing evidence of perinatal depression and the frequent feeling of incompetence in the maternal role, the implementation of an effective intervention to promo...

Ngai, FW; Chan, SWC; Ip, WY

98

Maternity Leave in Turbulent Times: Effects on Labor Market Transitions and Fertility in Russia, 1985-2000  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternity leave policies are designed to ease the tension between women's employment and fertility, but whether they actually play such a role remains unclear. We analyze the individual-level effects of maternity leave on employment outcomes and on second conception rates among Russian first-time mothers from 1985-2000 using retrospective job and…

Gerber, Theodore P.; Perelli-Harris, Brienna

2012-01-01

99

Analysis of embryo, endosperm, cytoplasmic and maternal effects for amylose content trait in Indica rice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It was indicated by the results that the genetic main effects for AC trait were more important than the environment interaction effects. The main effect was endosperm effect in genetic main effects, but the cytoplasmic and maternal effects could also significantly affect the performance of AC trait in indica rice. In the environment interaction effects, embryo genetic by environment interaction effect was more important. The common narrow heritability and narow interaction heritability of AC trait were 33.50% and 16.16%, respectively. Predicted genetic effects for parents indicated that 26175 and 1391 were better than other parents for improving the AC trait of rice.

Shi Chunhai; Chen Guolin; Zhu Jun; Zang Rongchun; Wu Jianguo; Chen Shuangyan

2000-01-01

100

Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on breast milk composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of varying maternal intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22 : 6n-3), in the absence of other dietary polyunsaturates, on breast milk fatty acids. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: Lactating mothers were randomised on day 5 post-partum to groups consuming equal numbers of capsules but containing either placebo or an oil containing DHA (43%) as its only polyunsaturate to receive 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.9, 1.3 g DHA/day. Breast milk fatty acids as well as maternal plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed at 12 weeks post partum by capillary gas chromatography. RESULTS: Breast milk DHA levels ranged from 0.2 to 1.7% of total fatty acids and increased in a dose dependent manner (r2 = 0.89, P < 0.01). Maternal plasma (r2 = 0.71, P < 0.01) and erythrocyte (r2 = 0.77, P < 0.01) phospholipid DHA levels increased and were also strongly associated with dietary dose of DHA. Increasing maternal dietary doses of DHA did not affect breast milk arachidonic acid (AA, 20 : 4n-6) levels or antioxidant status as measured by plasma vitamin A or E levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results have demonstrated that DHA in the diet has a strong, specific and dose-dependent effect on breast milk DHA.

Makrides M; Neumann MA; Gibson RA

1996-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject’s group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios.

V.T.M. Borges; J. Rososchansky; J.F. Abbade; A. Dias; J.C. Peraçoli; M.V.C. Rudge

2011-01-01

102

Effect of maternal chronic disease on obstetric complications in twin pregnancies in a United States cohort.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of maternal chronic disease on obstetric complications among twin pregnancies. DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Clinical centers (19 hospitals). PATIENT(S): Twin pregnancies (n = 4,821) delivered ? 23 weeks of gestation and classified by maternal chronic disease (either none or any of the following: asthma, depression, hypertension, diabetes, and heart, thyroid, gastrointestinal or renal disease). INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Gestational age at delivery, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption, placenta previa, hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, maternal postpartum fever, premature rupture of membranes, labor onset (spontaneous vs. nonspontaneous), route of delivery, and maternal admission to intensive care unit. RESULT(S): Women with chronic disease delivered earlier (mean gestational length, 34.1 vs. 34.6 weeks) and were less likely to have term birth (risk ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.90). Cesarean delivery after spontaneous labor (risk ratio 1.20; 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.37) was also increased with chronic disease. No statistically significant effects were observed for other complications studied. Women who used assisted reproductive technology were more likely to hemorrhage, independent of chronic disease, but other findings were generally similar to the non-assisted reproductive technology sample. CONCLUSION(S): Chronic disease was associated with additional risk of earlier delivery and cesarean section after spontaneous labor in a nationwide sample of US twin pregnancies.

Werder E; Mendola P; Männistö T; O'Loughlin J; Laughon SK

2013-07-01

103

Effect of maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy on neonatal kidney size.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In animal studies, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with a decrease in nephron number and kidney weight of the offspring. At present, it is unclear whether these observations are pertinent to humans. Thus, this study was performed to assess the vitamin A status of a cohort of Egyptian pregnant women and their newborns and to determine the potential effect of maternal VAD during pregnancy on the neonatal kidney size. METHODS: The maternal and cord blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum retinol concentration.Within the first 3 days after delivery, an abdominal ultrasound was performed in all newborns to determine the renal dimensions and volume. RESULTS: Sixteen (20%) mothers had VAD. The newborns delivered to VAD mothers had significantly lower mean values of cord retinol concentrations and dimensions of both kidneys than the newborns delivered to mothers with vitamin A sufficiency. The maternal serum retinol concentrations were positively correlated with the cord retinol concentrations, the dimensions of both kidneys, and the combined renal volume of their respective newborns. CONCLUSION: Maternal VAD during pregnancy may decrease renal size in the infant at birth. The functional implications of this effect warrant further study.

El-Khashab EK; Hamdy AM; Maher KM; Fouad MA; Abbas GZ

2013-03-01

104

Sperm competition and maternal effects differentially influence testis and sperm size in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The evolutionary factors affecting testis size are well documented, with sperm competition being of major importance. However, the factors affecting sperm length are not well understood; there are no clear theoretical predictions and the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Recently, maternal effects have been implicated in sperm length variation, a finding that may offer insights into its evolution. We investigated potential proximate and microevolutionary factors influencing testis and sperm size in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus using a combined approach of an artificial evolution experiment over 90 generations and an environmental effects study. We found that while polyandry seems to select for larger testes, it had no detectable effect on sperm length. Furthermore, population density, a proximate indicator of sperm competition risk, was not significantly associated with sperm length or testis size variation. However, there were strong maternal effects influencing sperm length.

Gay L; Hosken DJ; Vasudev R; Tregenza T; Eady PE

2009-05-01

105

Sperm competition and maternal effects differentially influence testis and sperm size in Callosobruchus maculatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary factors affecting testis size are well documented, with sperm competition being of major importance. However, the factors affecting sperm length are not well understood; there are no clear theoretical predictions and the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Recently, maternal effects have been implicated in sperm length variation, a finding that may offer insights into its evolution. We investigated potential proximate and microevolutionary factors influencing testis and sperm size in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus using a combined approach of an artificial evolution experiment over 90 generations and an environmental effects study. We found that while polyandry seems to select for larger testes, it had no detectable effect on sperm length. Furthermore, population density, a proximate indicator of sperm competition risk, was not significantly associated with sperm length or testis size variation. However, there were strong maternal effects influencing sperm length. PMID:19309491

Gay, L; Hosken, D J; Vasudev, R; Tregenza, T; Eady, P E

2009-03-20

106

Hormonally mediated maternal effects shape offspring survival potential in stressful environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

In most egg-laying vertebrates, maternal responses to stressful conditions are translated into the release of glucocorticoid hormones such as cortisol, which are then transmitted to their developing embryos. Although such maternally transmitted hormonal resources have been shown to influence or even interfere with the optimal developmental trajectories of offspring in many taxa, their influence on the dynamics of wild fish populations remains largely unexplored. Here, we examined the extent to which simulated hormonally mediated maternal effects influence the development and early survival of the coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Concentrations of cortisol in the eggs were manipulated within naturally occurring limits by immersion. We found that the proportion of embryos that delayed hatching when exposed to high levels of cortisol was considerably lower than in the other two treatments (low cortisol dose and control). High cortisol levels in P. amboinensis eggs resulted in increased egg mortality and greater asymmetry in hatchlings. For embryos that successfully hatched, individuals from the elevated cortisol treatments (especially low dose) survived longer after hatching. Although individuals that originated from eggs with elevated cortisol levels survived longer after hatching, they may not gain an overall survival advantage. Our results suggest that subtle increases in the allocation of maternally derived hormones, such as cortisol, to offspring are a direct way for stressed mothers to endow their young with an immediate survival advantage. We propose that this immediate benefit outweighs the developmental costs which may be expressed as reduced fitness at later life stages. PMID:19352712

Gagliano, Monica; McCormick, Mark I

2009-04-08

107

Hormonally mediated maternal effects shape offspring survival potential in stressful environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In most egg-laying vertebrates, maternal responses to stressful conditions are translated into the release of glucocorticoid hormones such as cortisol, which are then transmitted to their developing embryos. Although such maternally transmitted hormonal resources have been shown to influence or even interfere with the optimal developmental trajectories of offspring in many taxa, their influence on the dynamics of wild fish populations remains largely unexplored. Here, we examined the extent to which simulated hormonally mediated maternal effects influence the development and early survival of the coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Concentrations of cortisol in the eggs were manipulated within naturally occurring limits by immersion. We found that the proportion of embryos that delayed hatching when exposed to high levels of cortisol was considerably lower than in the other two treatments (low cortisol dose and control). High cortisol levels in P. amboinensis eggs resulted in increased egg mortality and greater asymmetry in hatchlings. For embryos that successfully hatched, individuals from the elevated cortisol treatments (especially low dose) survived longer after hatching. Although individuals that originated from eggs with elevated cortisol levels survived longer after hatching, they may not gain an overall survival advantage. Our results suggest that subtle increases in the allocation of maternally derived hormones, such as cortisol, to offspring are a direct way for stressed mothers to endow their young with an immediate survival advantage. We propose that this immediate benefit outweighs the developmental costs which may be expressed as reduced fitness at later life stages.

Gagliano M; McCormick MI

2009-07-01

108

Maternal stress and effects of prenatal air pollution on offspring mental health outcomes in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Low socioeconomic status is consistently associated with reduced physical and mental health, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Increased levels of urban air pollutants interacting with parental stress have been proposed to explain health disparities in respiratory disease, but the impact of such interactions on mental health is unknown.Objectives: We aimed to determine whether prenatal air pollution exposure and stress during pregnancy act synergistically on offspring to induce a neuroinflammatory response and subsequent neurocognitive disorders in adulthood.Methods: Mouse dams were intermittently exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 50 ?g × 6 doses) or vehicle throughout gestation. This exposure was combined with standard housing or nest material restriction (NR; a novel model of maternal stress) during the last third of gestation.Results: Adult (postnatal day 60) offspring of dams that experienced both stressors (DEP and NR) displayed increased anxiety, but only male offspring of this group had impaired cognition. Furthermore, maternal DEP exposure increased proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-1? levels within the brains of adult males but not females, and maternal DEP and NR both decreased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in male, but not female, brains. Similarly, only DEP/NR males showed increased expression of the innate immune recognition gene toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) and its downstream effector, caspase-1.Conclusions: These results show that maternal stress during late gestation increases the susceptibility of offspring-particularly males-to the deleterious effects of prenatal air pollutant exposure, which may be due to a synergism of these factors acting on innate immune recognition genes and downstream neuroinflammatory cascades within the developing brain.Citation: Bolton JL, Huff NC, Smith SH, Mason SN, Foster WM, Auten RL, Bilbo SD. 2013. Maternal stress and effects of prenatal air pollution on offspring mental health outcomes in mice. Environ Health Perspect 121:1075-1082;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306560. PMID:23823752

Bolton, Jessica L; Huff, Nicole C; Smith, Susan H; Mason, S Nicholas; Foster, W Michael; Auten, Richard L; Bilbo, Staci D

2013-07-01

109

Maternal stress and effects of prenatal air pollution on offspring mental health outcomes in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Low socioeconomic status is consistently associated with reduced physical and mental health, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Increased levels of urban air pollutants interacting with parental stress have been proposed to explain health disparities in respiratory disease, but the impact of such interactions on mental health is unknown.Objectives: We aimed to determine whether prenatal air pollution exposure and stress during pregnancy act synergistically on offspring to induce a neuroinflammatory response and subsequent neurocognitive disorders in adulthood.Methods: Mouse dams were intermittently exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 50 ?g × 6 doses) or vehicle throughout gestation. This exposure was combined with standard housing or nest material restriction (NR; a novel model of maternal stress) during the last third of gestation.Results: Adult (postnatal day 60) offspring of dams that experienced both stressors (DEP and NR) displayed increased anxiety, but only male offspring of this group had impaired cognition. Furthermore, maternal DEP exposure increased proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-1? levels within the brains of adult males but not females, and maternal DEP and NR both decreased anti-inflammatory IL-10 in male, but not female, brains. Similarly, only DEP/NR males showed increased expression of the innate immune recognition gene toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) and its downstream effector, caspase-1.Conclusions: These results show that maternal stress during late gestation increases the susceptibility of offspring-particularly males-to the deleterious effects of prenatal air pollutant exposure, which may be due to a synergism of these factors acting on innate immune recognition genes and downstream neuroinflammatory cascades within the developing brain.Citation: Bolton JL, Huff NC, Smith SH, Mason SN, Foster WM, Auten RL, Bilbo SD. 2013. Maternal stress and effects of prenatal air pollution on offspring mental health outcomes in mice. Environ Health Perspect 121:1075-1082;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306560.

Bolton JL; Huff NC; Smith SH; Mason SN; Foster WM; Auten RL; Bilbo SD

2013-09-01

110

Characterization of a recombinant mouse T haplotype that expresses a dominant lethal maternal effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The twLub2 chromosome was generated by rare recombination between a complete t haplotype and a wild-type form of mouse chromosome 17. This recombinant chromosome expresses a dominant lethal effect in all embryos that inherit the mutant chromosome from their mothers. The phenotype of this maternal effect is indistinguishable from that expressed by the previously described Thp deletion chromosome. It appears likely that the crossing over event that gave rise to twLub2 was unequal and resulted in the alteration or deletion of a gene (which is named the T-associated maternal effect locus, Tme) that must be inherited from the mother in order for normal development to proceed through late stages of gestation. The results presented here allow a mapping of the Tme locus between the quaking and tufted loci which are 3 cM apart within the proximal region of chromosome 17.

Winking H; Silver LM

1984-12-01

111

Effect of different maternal metabolic characteristics on fetal growth in women with gestational diabetes mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth in diabetic pregnancies is a complex process and probably abnormalities in other metabolic pathways such as protein and lipid, as well as carbohydrate are responsible for delivering of macrosomic newborn. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fetal growth and different maternal metabolic parameters in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in comparison to control group. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted between March 2011 and May 2012, on 112 pregnant women with GDM and 159 healthy pregnant women. In order to determine of lipids or lipoproteins changes during pregnancy and to investigate any possible effects on fetal growth, lipid components, glucose and insulin levels were obtained in maternal serum three times in third trimester. Results: Maternal serum glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low and high density lipoprotein (LDL-c, HDL-c) levels did not show any significant difference between two groups. While insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride (TG) values were detected to be significantly higher in the GDM cases especially after 32 weeks of gestation (p<0.001). After adjustment for confounding variables, maternal hypertriglyceridemia remained as a significant risk factor for delivering large for gestational age (LGA) newborns (p=0.04); and according to spearman test the increase of TG level was correlated with increase of insulin resistance and HOMA-IR (p<0.001, CI: 0.312). Conclusion: Due to positive correlation of hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia with newborn weight, it is possible to assume that elevated TGs levels in GDM cases is a reflection of variation in maternal insulin levels.

Laleh Eslamian; Soheila Akbari; Vajihe Marsoosi; Ashraf Jamal

2013-01-01

112

The effect of maternity leave length and time of return to work on breastfeeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of maternity leave length and time of first return to work on breastfeeding. METHODS: Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Restricting our sample to singletons whose biological mothers were the respondents at the 9-month interview and worked in the 12 months before delivery (N = 6150), we classified the length of total maternity leave (weeks) as 1 to 6, 7 to 12, ? 13, and did not take; paid maternity leave (weeks) as 0, 1 to 6, ? 7, and did not take; and time of return to work postpartum (weeks) as 1 to 6, 7 to 12, ? 13, and not yet returned. Analyses included ?(2) tests and multiple logistic regressions. RESULTS: In our study population, 69.4% initiated breastfeeding with positive variation by both total and paid maternity leave length, and time of return to work. In adjusted analyses, neither total nor paid maternity leave length had any impact on breastfeeding initiation or duration. Compared with those returning to work within 1 to 6 weeks, women who had not yet returned to work had a greater odds of initiating breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR]: 1.46 [1.08-1.97]; risk ratios [RR]: 1.13 [1.03-1.22]), continuing any breastfeeding beyond 6 months (OR: 1.41 [0.87-2.27]; RR: 1.25 [0.91-1.61]), and predominant breastfeeding beyond 3 months (OR: 2.01 [1.06-3.80]; RR: 1.70 [1.05-2.53]). Women who returned to work at or after 13 weeks postpartum had higher odds of predominantly breastfeeding beyond 3 months (OR: 2.54 [1.51-4.27]; RR: 1.99 [1.38-2.69]). CONCLUSION: If new mothers delay their time of return to work, then duration of breastfeeding among US mothers may lengthen.

Ogbuanu C; Glover S; Probst J; Liu J; Hussey J

2011-06-01

113

Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved.

Zas R; Cendán C; Sampedro L

2013-09-01

114

Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).  

Science.gov (United States)

Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved. PMID:23652562

Zas, R; Cendán, C; Sampedro, L

2013-05-08

115

Effect of Maternal use of Labetalol on the Cerebral Autoregulation in Premature Infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are normally treated to avoid maternal complications. In this study we aimed to investigate if there was an effect of maternal HDP treatment on the cerebral autoregulation of the neonates by analysing measurements of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and rScO2 by means of correlation, coherence, and transfer function analysis. We found that these infants presented higher values of transfer function gain, which indicates impaired cerebral autoregulation, with a decreasing trend towards normality. We hypothesised that this trend was due to a vasodilation effect of the maternal use of labetalol due to accumulation, which disappeared by the third day after birth. Therefore, we investigated the values of pulse pressure in order to find evidence for a vasodilatory effect. We found that lower values of pulse pressure were present in these infants when compared with a control population, which, together with increased transfer function gain values, suggests an effect of the drug on the cerebral autoregulation. PMID:23852483

Caicedo, Alexander; Thewissen, Liesbeth; Naulaers, Gunnar; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank; Van Huffel, Sabine

2013-01-01

116

[Prenatal maternal mnemonic effects on the human neuro-psychic sex: a new proposition from fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection].  

Science.gov (United States)

In approximately 15% of homosexual men, their phenotype is associated to the fraternal birth order. Older biological brothers induce in their mothers anti-male factors (antibodies) that interfere the brain maleness development of younger fetuses. This effect is seldom seen in non-right-handed men and is not seen in women. The influence of older siblings is seen in their sex ratio (SR). In contradiction with previous hypothesis, significant heterogeneities of SR have been found among older siblings of males or females, right or non-right-handed and homo or heterosexual individuals. This can only be understood as if the findings among homosexuals were part of a general mechanism of fetus-maternal tolerance-rejection processes of placental mammals. We found, in relation to ABO and Rh systems and sex, that embryos with genes different from those of their mothers, induced better pregnancies and maternal tolerance than embryos similar to their mothers. Assuming that homo or heterosexuality and right or non-right-handedness behave similar to ABO or Rh alleles, the author provides a speculative interpretation of these results. Homosexual women and especially if they are non-right-handed, are preceded by siblings with a high SR (maternal environment with anti-female or pro-male factors); then lesbianism or non-right-handedness may induce tolerance to be a woman in such anti-female environment. Non-right-handedness could induce tolerance for anti-male factors of mothers, thus preventing the production of gays in a pro-male maternal environment, but leading to the production of non-right-handed gays in anti-male maternal environments. Several new hypotheses and interpretations merge from this new proposition. Also, complete sexual orientation could be acquired after birth. PMID:19350172

Valenzuela, Carlos Y

2009-03-23

117

Multigenerational study of gold nanoparticles in Caenorhabditis elegans: transgenerational effect of maternal exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the generational transfer and multigenerational effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated by observing the parental generation (F0) to the fourth offspring generation (F4) using food-exposure approaches. There were no significant changes on survival rate under all generations by AuNP maternal exposure to the F0 generation. However, reproduction rate was clearly affected in the F2 generation but then gradually recovered in the F3 and F4 generations. The abnormalities of the reproductive system showed a close relationship with reproduction rates. These phenomenons may be due to the germ-line transfer. The germ line of F0 generation such as gonad and embryo germ cell may be affected during their development by maternal exposure of AuNPs, and this generation caused transgeneration effect on future generations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to provide the evidence of transgenerational effects by maternal exposure of nanoparticles to the next generations.

Kim SW; Kwak JI; An YJ

2013-05-01

118

Human rights and maternal health: exploring the effectiveness of the Alyne decision.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article explores the effectiveness of the decision of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in the case of Alyne da Silva Pimentel Teixeira (deceased) v. Brazil, concerning a poor, Afro-Brazilian woman. This is the first decision of an international human rights treaty body to hold a state accountable for its failure to prevent an avoidable death in childbirth. Assessing the future effectiveness of this decision might be undertaken concretely by determining the degree of Brazil's actual compliance with the Committee's recommendations, and how this decision influences pending domestic litigation arising from the maternal death. Alternative approaches include: determining whether, over time, the decision leads to the elimination of discrimination against women of poor, minority racial status in the health sector, and if it narrows the wide gap between rates of maternal mortality of poor, Afro-Brazilian women and the country's general female population. Determining the effectiveness of this decision will guide whether to pursue a more general strategy of judicializing maternal mortality.

Cook RJ

2013-01-01

119

Effect of maternal hypothyroxinaemia in the rat on brain biochemistry in adult progeny.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of maternal hypothyroxinaemia during pregnancy on subsequent brain biochemistry in progeny was studied. Normal and partially thyroidectomized rat dams were mated and progeny allowed to grow to adulthood. Brain regions (cerebellum, medulla, midbrain, cerebral cortex and paleocortex) were dissected out and the activities of various cell marker enzymes were determined, along with cholesterol contents. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia was without effect on body weight, brain weight or thyroid status of adult progeny. Oligodendroglial marker enzyme activities were altered in progeny from thyroidectomized dams. 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase was decreased in the medulla (by 37%) and midbrain (by 32%). 5'-Nucleotidase was also diminished in the same brain regions, by 33% in the medulla and by 35% in the midbrain. In contrast, oleate esterase was increased (by 39%) in the paleocortex. Although these enzymes are putatively involved in myelin metabolism, no changes were observed in the concentration of a major myelin lipid (cholesterol). The activity of beta-D-glucuronidase (a general neuronal marker) was decreased (by 30%) in the paleocortex, whereas N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminidase (a general glial marker) was unchanged in all brain regions. In summary, maternal hypothyroxinaemia has irreversible effects on brain biochemistry in adult progeny. The damage is parameter-selective and brain region-specific, analogous to the pattern of neurological damage seen in offspring born to hypothyroxinaemic women in iodine-deficient endemias.

Hadjzadeh M; Sinha AK; Pickard MR; Ekins RP

1990-03-01

120

Estimates of direct, maternal and grandmaternal genetic effects for growth traits in Gobra cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram obtidas as estimativas dos pesos ao nascimento (N = 3909), ao desmame (N = 3425), com 1 ano de idade (N = 2764) e final (N = 2144) a partir dos registros de gado Gobra coletados no Centro de Pesquisas em Zootecnia de Dahra, Senegal. Três modelos animais foram adaptados para obter estimativas por REML usando uma abordagem de informação média (AI). O modelo 1 considerou os efeitos ambientais aleatórios direto, genético maternal e maternal permanente. No modelo 2 (more) , um efeito geral relativo às avós foi adicionado aos efeitos aleatórios considerados no modelo 1, e no modelo 3 o efeito geral relativo às avós foi dividido em efeitos ambientais genético e permanente. Todos os modelos admitiram covariâncias entre os efeitos genéticos. A inclusão dos efeitos relativos às avós nos modelos 2 e 3 não alterou as estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos comparados com o modelo 1. As variâncias atribuíveis aos efeitos relativos às avós tornaram-se negativas e foram posicionadas próximas a zero, exceto para o peso com 1 ano, para o qual a herdabilidade relativa à avo foi 0,03 ± 0,03. As estimativas para as herdabilidades direta e maternal foram, respectivamente, 0,08 ± 0,03 e 0,03 ± 0,02 para peso ao nascimento, 0,20 ± 0,05 e 0,21 ± 0,05 para peso ao desmame, 0,26 ± 0,07 e 0,16 ± 0,07 para peso com 1 ano e 0,14 ± 0,06 e 0,16 ± 0,06 para o peso final. As estimativas da correlação genética entre os efeitos direto e maternal para os pesos ao nascimento, ao desmame, com 1 ano e final foram -0,17 ± 0,40, -0,58 ± 0,32, -0,52 ± 0,34 e -0,34 ± 0,37, respectivamente. Para o peso com 1 ano com herdabilidade relativa à avó estimada como sendo apenas 0,03, o modelo 3 deu estimativas da correlação genética entre os efeitos direto e relativo à avó e entre os efeitos maternal e relativo à avó de 0,28 ± 0,48 e -0,33 ± 0,67, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade direta e maternal não se alteraram quando os efeitos relativos à avó não foram incluídos no modelo. Abstract in english Estimates of genetic parameters for birth (N = 3909), weaning (N = 3425), yearling (N = 2764) and final (N = 2144) weights were obtained from the records of Gobra cattle collected at the Centre de Recherches Zootechniques de Dahra, Senegal. Three animal models were fitted to obtain estimates by REML using an average information (AI) approach. Model 1 considered random direct, maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. In model 2, a general grandmaterna (more) l effect was added to the random effects considered in model 1, and in model 3, the general grandmaternal effect was divided into grandmaternal genetic and grandmaternal permanent environmental effects. All models allowed covariances among genetic effects. The inclusion of grandmaternal effects in models 2 and 3 did not change the estimates of the genetic parameters compared to model 1. Variances attributable to grandmaternal effects became negative and were set close to zero, except for yearling weight for which grandmaternal heritability was 0.03 ± 0.03. The estimates for direct and maternal heritabilities were, respectively, 0.08 ± 0.03 and 0.03 ± 0.02 for birth, 0.20 ± 0.05 and 0.21 ± 0.05 for weaning, 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.16 ± 0.07 for yearling and 0.14 ± 0.06 and 0.16 ± 0.06 for final weights. The estimates of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for birth, weaning, yearling and final weights were -0.17 ± 0.40, -0.58 ± 0.32, -0.52 ± 0.34 and -0.34 ± 0.37, respectively. For yearling weight with grandmaternal heritability estimated to be only 0.03, model 3 gave estimates of the genetic correlation between direct and grandmaternal effects and between maternal and grandmaternal effects of 0.28 ± 0.48 and -0.33 ± 0.67, respectively. Estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities were unchanged when grandmaternal effects were not included in the model.

Diop, M.; Dodenhoff, J.; Van Vleck, L.D.

1999-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Maternal transmission effects of the PAX genes among cleft case-parent trios from four populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is among the most common human birth defects, with a prevalence of 1 in 700 live births. The paired box (PAX) genes have been suggested as candidate genes for CL/P based largely on mouse models; however, few human studies have focused on this gene family. This study tests for association between markers in four PAX genes and CL/P using a case-parent trio design considering parent-of-origin effects. Trios from four populations (76 from Maryland, 146 from Taiwan, 35 from Singapore, and 40 from Korea) were genotyped for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PAX3, PAX6, PAX7, and PAX9 genes. We performed the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on individual SNPs. Parent-of-origin effects were assessed using the transmission asymmetry test (TAT) and the parent-of-origin likelihood ratio test (PO-LRT). TDT analysis showed one SNP (rs766325) in PAX7 yielding evidence of linkage and association when parent-of-origin was not considered, with an OR(transmission)=1.62 (P=0.003), and five SNPs in PAX6 (including two pairs in near perfect linkage disequilibrium). TAT analysis of all trios revealed two SNPs in PAX7 and four SNPs in PAX3 showing significant excess maternal transmission. For these six SNPs, the maternal OR(transmission) ranged between 1.74 and 2.40, and PO-LRT was also significant (P-values=0.035-0.012). When this analysis was limited to trios with male cases, SNPs in PAX7 showed higher maternal OR(transmission) and greater significance. PAX genes may influence the risk of CL/P through maternal effects, possibly imprinting, which seems to be stronger among male cases.

Sull JW; Liang KY; Hetmanski JB; Fallin MD; Ingersoll RG; Park J; Wu-Chou YH; Chen PK; Chong SS; Cheah F; Yeow V; Park BY; Jee SH; Jabs EW; Redett R; Scott AF; Beaty TH

2009-06-01

122

Maternal transmission effects of the PAX genes among cleft case-parent trios from four populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is among the most common human birth defects, with a prevalence of 1 in 700 live births. The paired box (PAX) genes have been suggested as candidate genes for CL/P based largely on mouse models; however, few human studies have focused on this gene family. This study tests for association between markers in four PAX genes and CL/P using a case-parent trio design considering parent-of-origin effects. Trios from four populations (76 from Maryland, 146 from Taiwan, 35 from Singapore, and 40 from Korea) were genotyped for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PAX3, PAX6, PAX7, and PAX9 genes. We performed the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on individual SNPs. Parent-of-origin effects were assessed using the transmission asymmetry test (TAT) and the parent-of-origin likelihood ratio test (PO-LRT). TDT analysis showed one SNP (rs766325) in PAX7 yielding evidence of linkage and association when parent-of-origin was not considered, with an OR(transmission)=1.62 (P=0.003), and five SNPs in PAX6 (including two pairs in near perfect linkage disequilibrium). TAT analysis of all trios revealed two SNPs in PAX7 and four SNPs in PAX3 showing significant excess maternal transmission. For these six SNPs, the maternal OR(transmission) ranged between 1.74 and 2.40, and PO-LRT was also significant (P-values=0.035-0.012). When this analysis was limited to trios with male cases, SNPs in PAX7 showed higher maternal OR(transmission) and greater significance. PAX genes may influence the risk of CL/P through maternal effects, possibly imprinting, which seems to be stronger among male cases. PMID:19142206

Sull, Jae Woong; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Fallin, Margaret Daniele; Ingersoll, Roxanne G; Park, Jiwan; Wu-Chou, Yah-Huei; Chen, Philip K; Chong, Samuel S; Cheah, Felicia; Yeow, Vincent; Park, Beyoung Yun; Jee, Sun Ha; Jabs, Ethylin W; Redett, Richard; Scott, Alan F; Beaty, Terri H

2009-01-14

123

Thalamic neuropeptide mediating the effects of nursing on lactation and maternal motivation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nursing has important physiological and psychological consequences on mothers during the postpartum period. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) may contribute to its effects on prolactin release and maternal motivation. Since TIP39-containing fibers and the receptor for TIP39, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2 receptor) are abundant in the arcuate nucleus and the medial preoptic area, we antagonized TIP39 action locally to reveal its actions. Mediobasal hypothalamic injection of a virus encoding an antagonist of the PTH2 receptor markedly decreased basal serum prolactin levels and the suckling-induced prolactin release. In contrast, injecting this virus into the preoptic area had no effect on prolactin levels, but did dampen maternal motivation, judged by reduced time in a pup-associated cage during a place preference test. In support of an effect of TIP39 on maternal motivation, we observed that TIP39 containing fibers and terminals had the same distribution within the preoptic area as neurons expressing Fos in response to suckling. Furthermore, TIP39 terminals closely apposed the plasma membrane of 82% of Fos-ir neurons. Retrograde tracer injected into the arcuate nucleus and the medial preoptic area labeled TIP39 neurons in the posterior intralaminar complex of the thalamus (PIL), indicating that these cells but not other groups of TIP39 neurons project to these hypothalamic regions. We also found that TIP39 mRNA levels in the PIL markedly increased around parturition and remained elevated throughout the lactation period, demonstrating the availability of the peptide in postpartum mothers. Furthermore, suckling, but not pup exposure without physical contact, increased Fos expression by PIL TIP39 neurons. These results indicate that suckling activates TIP39 neurons in the PIL that affect prolactin release and maternal motivation via projections to the arcuate nucleus and the preoptic area, respectively.

Cservenák M; Szabó ER; Bodnár I; Lékó A; Palkovits M; Nagy GM; Usdin TB; Dobolyi A

2013-09-01

124

Maternal effects of inducible tolerance against the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in the grazer Daphnia carinata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanobacterial blooms are becoming potent agents of natural selection in aquatic ecosystems because of their high production of some toxins and increased frequency in recent decades with eutrophication and climate change. Maternal exposure to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa significantly increased the intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates of a clone of the planktonic grazer Daphnia carinata in an offspring environment where cyanobacteria were present, but not for two additional clones. Offspring from mothers exposed to M. aeruginosa had lower intrinsic rates of population increase, average life span, and net reproductive rates than individuals from unexposed mothers when fed exclusively a green alga. These results suggest that benefits, costs, and clonal variations of maternal effects of inducible tolerance should be considered when trying to understand ecological consequences of cyanobacterial blooms since they can shape the trophic interactions between cyanobacteria and daphnids. PMID:23570781

Jiang, Xiaodong; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Shiye; Liang, Huishuang; Zhao, Yunlong; Chen, Liqiao; Li, Rui

2013-04-09

125

Placental serotonin: implications for the developmental effects of SSRIs and maternal depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In addition to its role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders, increasing evidence points to serotonin (5-HT) as a crucial molecule for the modulation of neurodevelopmental processes. Recent evidence indicates that the placenta is involved in the synthesis of 5-HT from maternally derived tryptophan (TRP). This gives rise to the possibility that genetic and environmental perturbations directly affecting placental TRP metabolism may lead to abnormal brain circuit wiring in the developing embryo, and therefore contribute to the developmental origin of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we discuss how perturbations of the placental TRP metabolic pathway may lead to abnormal brain development and function throughout life. Of particular interest is prenatal exposure to maternal depression and antidepressants, both known to alter fetal development. We review existing evidence on how antidepressants can alter placental physiology in its key function of maintaining fetal homeostasis and have long-term effects on fetal forebrain development.

Velasquez JC; Goeden N; Bonnin A

2013-01-01

126

Maternal-effect loci involved in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis: P element-induced mutations on the third chromosome.  

Science.gov (United States)

A collection of 1609 recessive P-lethal mutations on the third chromosome was tested in germline clones for effects on egg differentiation and embryonic development. In 164 lines, normal differentiation of the egg chamber is prevented and in 841 lines, embryos develop abnormally. This latter group of maternal-effect mutations was subdivided into 23 classes based on the cuticular phenotypes. Our collection comprises new alleles of previously characterized genes (e.g. kayak, punt, string, tramtrack). For some of the genes identified in this screen, a maternal contribution to embryonic development has not been described previously (e.g. extramacrochaete, Trithorax-like, single minded, couch potato, canoe). The genes classified in our study with a dual function during oogenesis and embryogenesis not only substantially extends the existing collection of maternal-effect genes but will also aid further understanding of how patterning of the Drosophila embryo is controlled by the maternal genome. PMID:11902676

Bellotto, Manolo; Bopp, Daniel; Senti, Kirsten A; Burke, Richard; Deak, Peter; Maroy, Peter; Dickson, Barry; Basler, Konrad; Hafen, Ernst

2002-01-01

127

Maternal-effect loci involved in Drosophila oogenesis and embryogenesis: P element-induced mutations on the third chromosome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A collection of 1609 recessive P-lethal mutations on the third chromosome was tested in germline clones for effects on egg differentiation and embryonic development. In 164 lines, normal differentiation of the egg chamber is prevented and in 841 lines, embryos develop abnormally. This latter group of maternal-effect mutations was subdivided into 23 classes based on the cuticular phenotypes. Our collection comprises new alleles of previously characterized genes (e.g. kayak, punt, string, tramtrack). For some of the genes identified in this screen, a maternal contribution to embryonic development has not been described previously (e.g. extramacrochaete, Trithorax-like, single minded, couch potato, canoe). The genes classified in our study with a dual function during oogenesis and embryogenesis not only substantially extends the existing collection of maternal-effect genes but will also aid further understanding of how patterning of the Drosophila embryo is controlled by the maternal genome.

Bellotto M; Bopp D; Senti KA; Burke R; Deak P; Maroy P; Dickson B; Basler K; Hafen E

2002-01-01

128

Effects of maternal ethanol ingestion on uptake of glucose alanine analogs in fetal rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distribution of maternally-derived glucose and alanine has been studied in selected tissues of fetuses from ethanol-fed (EF) rats (30% of caloric intake throughout gestation). Controls received diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation, 2 ..mu..Ci /sup 3/H 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and 1 ..mu..Ci /sup 14/C ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were administered i.v. to each rat. One hour later, maternal blood, placenta, and fetal blood, liver, lung and brain were sampled for /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C activities. When compared to either control group, the mean /sup 14/C AIB activities of tissues from EF animals were reduced from 19 to 46%, with the greatest effect seen in the brain (3.7 +/- 0.1, 7.2 +/- 0.3 and 6.9 +/- 1.3 dpm/mg in EF, PF and AF fetuses respectively). In addition, the ratios of tissue:plasma /sup 14/C were reduced (p < 0.01 or lower) in the EF fetal tissues and placenta. Maternal ethanol ingestion reduced the /sup 3/H 2-DG content of placenta (p < 0.05) and of brain (38.6 + 1.2, 48.1 +/- 1.2 and 47.2 +/- 1.2 in EF, PF and AF, p < 0.001). Brain weight showed significant positive correlations with AIB content (r = 0.466, p < 0.001) and with 2-DG content (r = 0.267, p < 0.01). Impaired uptake of maternally-derived nutrients may play a significant role in the effects of ethanol in utero.

Snyder, A.K.; Singh, S.P.; Pullen, G.L.

1986-05-01

129

Sex-dependent effects of maternal deprivation and adolescent cannabinoid treatment on adult rat behaviour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early life experiences such as maternal deprivation (MD) exert long-lasting changes in adult behaviour and reactivity to stressors. Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is a predisposing factor in developing certain psychiatric disorders. Therefore, the combination of the two factors could exacerbate the negative consequences of each factor when evaluated at adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early MD [24 hours at postnatal day (PND) 9] and/or an adolescent chronic treatment with the cannabinoid agonist CP-55,940 (0.4 mg/kg, PND 28-42) on diverse behavioural and physiological responses of adult male and female Wistar rats. We tested them in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response and analysed their exploratory activity (holeboard) and anxiety (elevated plus maze, EPM). In addition, we evaluated their adrenocortical reactivity in response to stress and plasma leptin levels. Maternal behaviour was measured before and after deprivation. MD induced a transient increase of maternal behaviour on reuniting. In adulthood, maternally deprived males showed anxiolytic-like behaviour (or increased risk-taking behaviour) in the EPM. Adolescent exposure to the cannabinoid agonist induced an impairment of the PPI in females and increased adrenocortical responsiveness to the PPI test in males. Both, MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure also induced sex-dependent changes in plasma leptin levels and body weights. The present results indicate that early MD and adolescent cannabinoid exposure exerted distinct sex-dependent long-term behavioural and physiological modifications that could predispose to the development of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, though no synergistic effects were found.

Llorente-Berzal A; Fuentes S; Gagliano H; López-Gallardo M; Armario A; Viveros MP; Nadal R

2011-10-01

130

Effect of maternal methionine supplementation on the transcriptome of bovine preimplantation embryos.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal nutrition exclusively during the periconceptional period can induce remarkable effects on both oocyte maturation and early embryo development, which in turn can have lifelong consequences. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal methionine supplementation on the transcriptome of bovine preimplantation embryos. Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments differing in level of dietary methionine (1.89 Met vs. 2.43 Met % of metabolizable protein) from calving until embryo flushing. High quality preimplantation embryos from individual cows were pooled and then analyzed by RNA sequencing. Remarkably, a subtle difference in methionine supplementation in maternal diet was sufficient to cause significant changes in the transcriptome of the embryos. A total of 276 genes out of 10,662 showed differential expression between treatments (FDR <0.10). Interestingly, several of the most significant genes are related to embryonic development (e.g., VIM, IFI6, BCL2A1, and TBX15) and immune response (e.g., NKG7, TYROBP, SLAMF7, LCP1, and BLA-DQB). Likewise, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that several Gene Ontology terms, InterPro entries, and KEGG pathways were enriched (FDR <0.05) with differentially expressed genes involved in embryo development and immune system. The expression of most genes was decreased by maternal methionine supplementation, consistent with reduced transcription of genes with increased methylation of specific genes by increased methionine. Overall, our findings provide evidence that supplementing methionine to dams prior to conception and during the preimplantation period can modulate gene expression in bovine blastocysts. The ramifications of the observed gene expression changes for subsequent development of the pregnancy and physiology of the offspring warrant further investigation in future studies.

Peñagaricano F; Souza AH; Carvalho PD; Driver AM; Gambra R; Kropp J; Hackbart KS; Luchini D; Shaver RD; Wiltbank MC; Khatib H

2013-01-01

131

[Effects of rat maternal fenvalerate exposure on behavior development of rat pubertal female offspring].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of rat maternal exposure to fenvalerate during lactation on behaviors development in rat pubertal female offspring. METHODS: Twelve ICR maternal mice were randomly divided into 7.5 and 30.0 mg/kg fenvalerate exposure groups and control group (four dams each group, ten pups each dam, half male half female, twenty female pups each group). The exposure groups were orally exposed to fenvalerate at the doses of 7.5 and 30 mg/kg a day from postnatal day 1 (PND1) to PND21. The control group was exposed to corn oil. The effects of maternal fenvalerate exposure during lactation on motor and species-typical behaviors in female offspring were observed on the PND 35. RESULTS: The peripheral time and standing frequency of 30.0 mg/kg exposure group were (263.4 ± 54.8) s and (47.3 ± 16.2) times, which were significantly higher than those [(203.4 ± 53.0) s and (30.9 ± 17.3) times] of control group (P < 0.05). The scores in 7.5 mg/kg and 30.0 mg/kg exposure groups were 56.50 ± 50.79 and 54.73 ± 53.91, respectively, which were significantly lower than that (114.53 ± 53.87) in control group (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences in beam walking scores, food hoarding quantity, food digging quantity, and nest construction scores between two exposure groups were found (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The rat maternal exposure to fenvalerate during lactation could decrease the ability of exploration and motor condition and increase the anxiety but not affect life habit in rat pubertal female offspring.

Zhang H; Xiang JY; Ning H

2012-04-01

132

Effect of Maternal Methionine Supplementation on the Transcriptome of Bovine Preimplantation Embryos  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal nutrition exclusively during the periconceptional period can induce remarkable effects on both oocyte maturation and early embryo development, which in turn can have lifelong consequences. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal methionine supplementation on the transcriptome of bovine preimplantation embryos. Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments differing in level of dietary methionine (1.89 Met vs. 2.43 Met % of metabolizable protein) from calving until embryo flushing. High quality preimplantation embryos from individual cows were pooled and then analyzed by RNA sequencing. Remarkably, a subtle difference in methionine supplementation in maternal diet was sufficient to cause significant changes in the transcriptome of the embryos. A total of 276 genes out of 10,662 showed differential expression between treatments (FDR <0.10). Interestingly, several of the most significant genes are related to embryonic development (e.g., VIM, IFI6, BCL2A1, and TBX15) and immune response (e.g., NKG7, TYROBP, SLAMF7, LCP1, and BLA-DQB). Likewise, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that several Gene Ontology terms, InterPro entries, and KEGG pathways were enriched (FDR <0.05) with differentially expressed genes involved in embryo development and immune system. The expression of most genes was decreased by maternal methionine supplementation, consistent with reduced transcription of genes with increased methylation of specific genes by increased methionine. Overall, our findings provide evidence that supplementing methionine to dams prior to conception and during the preimplantation period can modulate gene expression in bovine blastocysts. The ramifications of the observed gene expression changes for subsequent development of the pregnancy and physiology of the offspring warrant further investigation in future studies.

Penagaricano, Francisco; Souza, Alex H.; Carvalho, Paulo D.; Driver, Ashley M.; Gambra, Rocio; Kropp, Jenna; Hackbart, Katherine S.; Luchini, Daniel; Shaver, Randy D.; Wiltbank, Milo C.; Khatib, Hasan

2013-01-01

133

The effect of sustained maternal responsivity on later vocabulary development in children with Fragile X Syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The research question addressed was whether sustained maternal responsivity (a parent-child interaction style characterized by warmth, nurturance and stability as well as specific behaviors such as contingent positive responses to child initiations) was a significant variable predicting vocabulary development of children with FXS through age 9 years. METHOD: Fifty-five mother-child dyads were followed longitudinally when children were between 2 and 10 years of age. Measures of maternal responsivity and child vocabulary were obtained at regular intervals starting at age 2.9 years. Sustained responsivity was indicated by the average responsivity measured over observations 2-5. Responsivity at the first time period, autism symptoms, and cognitive development were used as control variables. RESULTS: After controlling for development and autism symptoms, we found significant effects for sustained responsivity on receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and the rate of different words children produced through age 9. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal responsivity, which is typically a variable of interest during early childhood, continues to be a significant variable, predicting vocabulary development through the middle childhood period. Thus, responsivity is a potential target for language interventions through this age period.

Brady N; Warren SF; Fleming K; Keller J; Sterling A

2013-09-01

134

Dredging associated effects: maternally transferred pollutants and DNA adducts in feral fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the bioavailability, maternal transfer, and genotoxicity in feral fish of organic sediment pollutants. Northern pike (Esox lucius) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were caught in a polluted bay before and during dredging activities and from reference areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in ovulating eggs to investigate if the bay sediment posed a threat to early life-stages of fish. On the basis of previous investigations in this area, the level of exposure via maternal transfer and diffusive uptake of water-borne pollutants after hatch is likely sufficient to cause abnormalities in early life-stages of fish. During dredging, hepatic DNA adducts were elevated in adult fish, demonstrating an increased release of genotoxic compounds, which may contribute to adverse effects in aquatic organisms for several years. Although no substantial increase of maternally transferred pollutants were observed during dredging, this is the first time a correlation between hepatic DNA adducts in fish and pollutant burden in their eggs is demonstrated. Our findings underline the importance of combining chemical and toxicological methods as well as a need for greater emphasis on other polycyclic aromatic compounds in environmental risk evaluations. PMID:17533866

Sundberg, Henrik; Hanson, Marsha; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Zebühr, Yngve; Broman, Dag; Balk, Lennart

2007-04-15

135

Effectiveness of maternal referral system in a rural setting: a case study from Rufiji district, Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional referral system is important in backing-up antenatal, labour and delivery, and postnatal services in the primary level of care facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the maternal referral system through determining proportion of women reaching the hospitals after referral advice, appropriateness of the referral indications, reasons for non-compliance and to find out if compliance to referrals makes a difference in the perinatal outcome. Methods A follow-up study was conducted in Rufiji rural district in Tanzania. A total of 1538 women referred from 18 primary level of care facilities during a 13 months period were registered and then identified at hospitals. Those not reaching the hospitals were traced and interviewed. Results Out of 1538 women referred 70% were referred for demographic risks, 12% for obstetric historical risks, 12% for prenatal complications and 5.5% for natal and immediate postnatal complications. Five or more pregnancies as well as age Conclusion Majority of the maternal referrals were due to demographic risks, where few women complied. To improve compliance to maternal referrals there is need to review the referral indications and strengthen counseling on birth preparedness and complication readiness.

Pembe Andrea B; Carlstedt Anders; Urassa David P; Lindmark Gunilla; Nyström Lennarth; Darj Elisabeth

2010-01-01

136

Midwifery Care at a Freestanding Birth Center: A Safe and Effective Alternative to Conventional Maternity Care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of a midwifery model of care delivered in a freestanding birth center on maternal and infant outcomes when compared with conventional care. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Birth certificate data for women who gave birth in Washington D.C. and D.C. residents who gave birth in other jurisdictions. STUDY DESIGN: Using propensity score modeling and instrumental variable analysis, we compare maternal and infant outcomes among women who receive prenatal care from birth center midwives and women who receive usual care. We match on observable characteristics available on the birth certificate, and we use distance to the birth center as an instrument. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Birth certificate data from 2005 to 2008. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Women who receive birth center care are less likely to have a C-section, more likely to carry to term, and are more likely to deliver on a weekend, suggesting less intervention overall. While less consistent, findings also suggest improved infant outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: For women without medical complications who are able to be served in either setting, our findings suggest that midwife-directed prenatal and labor care results in equal or improved maternal and infant outcomes.

Benatar S; Garrett AB; Howell E; Palmer A

2013-04-01

137

Effects of early life stress on brain activity: implications from maternal separation model in rodents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse experiences in early life can affect the formation of neuronal circuits during postnatal development and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (RMS), an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this mini-review, we introduce various cases of maternal separation in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA-axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT), an end-product of the HPA-axis in rodents. We then present the characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including RMS and single time maternal separation (SMS) at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Furthermore, we introduce changes in behavioral aspects and gene expression in adult mice exposed to RMS. PMID:23032077

Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo; Matsunaga, Wataru

2012-09-29

138

Effect of maternal body mass index on pregnancy outcome and newborn weight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, pre- and post-term delivery, induction of labor, macrosomia, increased rate of caesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: 1000 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. In order to explore the relationship between maternal first trimester Body Mass Index and pregnancy outcomes, participants were categorized into five groups based on their first trimester Body Mass Index. The data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square tests in SPSS 18. Differences were considered significant if p < 0.05. RESULTS: Women with an above-normal Body Mass Index had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia, induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor, and macrosomia than women with a normal Body Mass Index (controls). There was no significant difference in the incidence of post-term delivery between the control group and other groups. CONCLUSION: Increased BMI increases the incidence of induction of labor, caesarean section, pre-term labor and macrosomia. The BMI of women in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.

Yazdani S; Yosofniyapasha Y; Nasab BH; Mojaveri MH; Bouzari Z

2012-01-01

139

Neonatally Induced Mild Diabetes in Rats and Its Effect on Maternal, Placental, and Fetal Parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess placental changes and reproductive outcomes in neonatally induced mild diabetic dams and fetal development in their offspring. At birth, female rats were assigned either to control or diabetic group (100?mg of streptozotocin/Kg, subcutaneously). At adulthood, the female rats were mated. During pregnancy, the blood glucose levels and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. At term, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal and placental weight, and placental morphology were analyzed. Diabetic rats had smaller number of living fetuses, implantations and corpora lutea, and increased rate of embryonic loss. Placenta showed morphometric alterations in decidua area. Our results showed that mild diabetes was sufficient to trigger alterations in maternal organism leading to impaired decidua development contributing to failure in embryonic implantation and early embryonic losses. Regardless placental decidua alteration, the labyrinth, which is responsible for the maternal-fetal exchanges, showed no morphometric changes contributing to an appropriate fetal development, which was able to maintain normal fetal weight at term in mild diabetic rats. Thus, this experimental model of diabetes induction at the day of birth was more effective to reproduce the reproductive alterations of diabetic women.

Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Iessi, Isabela Lovizutto; Bueno, Aline; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Damasceno, Debora Cristina

2012-01-01

140

The Effect of Maternal Body Mass Index on Perinatal Outcomes in Women with Diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective To determine the effect of increasing maternal obesity, including superobesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 50 kg/m2), on perinatal outcomes in women with diabetes.Study Design Retrospective cohort study of birth records for all live-born nonanomalous singleton infants ? 37 weeks' gestation born to Missouri residents with diabetes from 2000 to 2006. Women with either pregestational or gestational diabetes were included.Results There were 14,595 births to women with diabetes meeting study criteria, including 7,082 women with a BMI > 30 kg/m2 (48.5%). Compared with normal-weight women with diabetes, increasing BMI category, especially superobesity, was associated with a significantly increased risk for preeclampsia (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5, 5.2) and macrosomia (aRR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8, 5.40). The majority of nulliparous obese women with diabetes delivered via cesarean including 50.5% of obese, 61.4% of morbidly obese, and 69.8% of superobese women. The incidence of primary elective cesarean among nulliparous women with diabetes increased significantly with increasing maternal BMI with over 33% of morbidly obese and 39% of superobese women with diabetes delivering electively by cesarean.Conclusion Increasing maternal obesity in women with diabetes is significantly associated with higher risks of perinatal complications, especially cesarean delivery.

Marshall NE; Guild C; Cheng YW; Caughey AB; Halloran DR

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension: effects on maternal and neonatal magnesium and calcium homeostasis.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double-blind manner, either to intravenous magnesium for 2 days followed by oral magnesium (n = 12) until delivery or placebo (n = 13). In women supplemented with magnesium the level of magnesium increased from 0.74 to 1.02 mmol/l during the first 24 h of inclusion and simultaneously we observed an increased urinary loss of magnesium. Serum level and the urinary excretion of magnesium returned to pretreatment level at delivery. Maternal magnesium supplement increased the concentrations of magnesium in umbilical cord and neonatal blood 1 day after delivery. Serum ionized calcium did not change during the study period despite a significant increased loss of calcium during the first 24 h of inclusion. Low dose maternal magnesium treatment did not cause neonatal hypocalcemia.

Rudnicki, M; FrØlich, A

1991-01-01

142

The effect of home care services on maternal health after cesarean delivery in Turkey  

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Full Text Available Background: Cesarean delivery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed today in Turkey. Maternal death after cesarean delivery is rare. However, more maternal problems arise after cesarean delivery compared to vaginal delivery. Therefore, it is very important for the nurses to make home visits to the women who can not properly benefit health services due to early postpartum discharge. The present research was conducted in order to determine the effect on maternal health of home care services given to the women who were discharged from hospital 96 hours after cesarean delivery. Methods: This randomized control study consisted of 140 women (intervention group=70, control group=70) who resided in Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Three home visits were made on the 2nd, 15th and 42nd postpartum days after discharge of the women in the intervention group. Care and training was given to the women during these visits. There was no intervention for women in the control group. Results: A statistically significant difference was found in favor of the intervention group in terms of health problems during the 6-week postpartum period. Conclusions: The research indicated that nurses’ planned home visits to women discharged early from hospital following birth by cesarean delivery affected mother’s health positively. 

Nuriye Büyükkayac? Duman; Nimet Karatas

2012-01-01

143

Estimates of (co)variance components for direct and maternal effects on birth weight of Karayaka lambs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for birth weight of Karayaka lambs by separating direct genetic, maternal genetic, and maternal permanent environmental effects. Records of 1013 Karayaka lambs born between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed. Six different animal models were examined, all including direct additive genetic variance and various combinations of genetic and environmental maternal effects. The most appropriate model was chosen based on log-likelihood ratio tests. Since model 1 had the smallest likelihood value, it was chosen as the best model in this study. Depending on the model, direct heritability varied from 0.37 to 0.55 and maternal heritability ranged from 0.08 to 0.20 for birth weight.

Ulutas Z; Sirin E; Aksoy Y; Sahin A; Kuran M

2013-04-01

144

Estimates of (co)variance components for direct and maternal effects on birth weight of Karayaka lambs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for birth weight of Karayaka lambs by separating direct genetic, maternal genetic, and maternal permanent environmental effects. Records of 1013 Karayaka lambs born between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed. Six different animal models were examined, all including direct additive genetic variance and various combinations of genetic and environmental maternal effects. The most appropriate model was chosen based on log-likelihood ratio tests. Since model 1 had the smallest likelihood value, it was chosen as the best model in this study. Depending on the model, direct heritability varied from 0.37 to 0.55 and maternal heritability ranged from 0.08 to 0.20 for birth weight. PMID:23224862

Ulutas, Zafer; Sirin, Emre; Aksoy, Yüksel; Sahin, Aziz; Kuran, Mehmet

2012-12-07

145

Effects of Maternal Nicotine Exposure on Expression of Laminin Alpha 5 in Lung Tissue of Newborn  

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Full Text Available Maternal smoking has been clearly demonstrated to be associated with increased health problems in infants and children. Nicotine is the chemical substance with high level of toxicity. It crosses through the placenta and accumulates in the developing organs of fetus. Previous investigation indicated that maternal nicotine exposures induce decreased fibronectin expression in lung parenchyma. In this study, the effect of maternal nicotine exposure on laminin expression of the newborn mice lungs has been evaluated. Female pregnant Balb/C mice were divided randomly in to four groups as fallow: Experimental group1 (Exp D1); was received 3 mg kg-1 nicotine intra peritoneal injection (IP) from gestational day 7 (GD7) to the last day of pregnancy, Experimental group 2 (Exp D14); was received 3 mg kg-1 nicotine from GD7 to postnatal day 14, Groups 3 and 4; as sham control groups (Sha-Con) were received the same volume (3 mg kg-1) of normal saline parallel to experimental groups. At the end of exposure times, all of newborns were anesthetized; their lungs were removed and prepared for immunohistochemical method and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The finding indicated that laminin alpha 5 (Lama5) mRNA expressions in the lung of newborn in the nicotine treated Exp D1 decreased by 0.63 fold but increased in Exp D14 by 1.57 fold comparing to Sh-Con groups. Lama5 immunoreactivity was not similar in different parts of the lungs including alveoli and bronchiole, having a significant increase in the experimental groups in contrast to the Sh-Con groups. However, increase in immunoreactivity observed more in Exp D14. Immunoreactivity intensity in small vessels of all experimental groups was not significantly different. These data also indicate that maternal nicotine exposure may induce abnormal laminin expression which may cause defects in lung function during life time.

Mahdi Shariati Kohbanani; Mohammad Reza Nikravesh; Mehdi Jalali; Alireza Fazel; Mojtaba Sankian; Alireza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan

2012-01-01

146

Effect of iron supplementation on zinc and magnesium concentrations in maternal milk and plasma  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Iron in the diet can influence the absorption of certain elements including zinc (Zn)and magnesium (Mg). In this study the effect of iron supplementation on zinc and magnesiumconcentrations in maternal milk and plasma at puerperal period were evaluated.Materials and Methods: Ninety nine non anemic mothers with single pregnancy and normaldelivery were randomly enrolled in two groups (iron and placebo group); blood samples werecollected at the time of delivery and also 140 mid 40 days after delivery. Milk samples were collectedtwice; at two weeks (transient milk) and 40 days after the delivery (mature milk). They weresupplemented orally with either 150mg ferrous sulfate or placebo from the time of delivery for 40days. Zinc and magnesium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry.Results: The maternal dietary intake for zinc and magnesium were similar between two groups.Mean iron indexes (ferritin, serum iron and TIBC) were not significantly different between two groupsat the time of delivery. No significant differences in Zn and mg levels were detected in maternal milkbetween two groups but in plasma although there was no significant difference in plasma magnesiumconcentrations; The zinc concentrations was significantly (p<0.001) decreased in the group receivingiron supplementation (0.076±0.047mg/dL) compared with the group receiving placebo (0.163±0.137)until 40 days after delivery.Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that iron supplementation does not affect the contents ofthese elements in maternal milk but despite the possible improvement in body iron status, it candecrease the plasma zinc concentrations, so the zinc supplementation may be needed with iron.

Parvin Ehsani; Pourandokht Afshari; Hamid Soori; Saleh Zahedi Asl

2009-01-01

147

Effects of maternal nicotine exposure on expression of laminin alpha 5 in lung tissue of newborn.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal smoking has been clearly demonstrated to be associated with increased health problems in infants and children. Nicotine is the chemical substance with high level of toxicity. It crosses through the placenta and accumulates in the developing organs of fetus. Previous investigation indicated that maternal nicotine exposures induce decreased fibronectin expression in lung parenchyma. In this study, the effect of maternal nicotine exposure on laminin expression of the newborn mice lungs has been evaluated. Female pregnant Balb/C mice were divided randomly in to four groups as fallow: Experimental group 1 (Exp D1); was received 3 mg kg(-1) nicotine intra peritoneal injection (IP) from gestational day 7 (GD7) to the last day of pregnancy, Experimental group 2 (Exp D14); was received 3 mg kg(-1) nicotine from GD7 to postnatal day 14, Groups 3 and 4; as sham control groups (Sha-Con) were received the same volume (3 mg kg(-1)) of normal saline parallel to experimental groups. At the end of exposure times, all of newborns were anesthetized; their lungs were removed and prepared for immunohistochemical method and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The finding indicated that laminin alpha 5 (Lama5) mRNA expressions in the lung of newborn in the nicotine treated Exp D1 decreased by 0.63 fold but increased in Exp D14 by 1.57 fold comparing to Sh-Con groups. Lama5 immunoreactivity was not similar in different parts of the lungs including alveoli and bronchiole, having a significant increase in the experimental groups in contrast to the Sh-Con groups. However, increase in immunoreactivity observed more in Exp D14. Immunoreactivity intensity in small vessels of all experimental groups was not significantly different. These data also indicate that maternal nicotine exposure may induce abnormal laminin expression which may cause defects in lung function during life time. PMID:23755407

Mahdi Shariati, Kohbanani; Mohammad Reza, Nikravesh; Mehdi, Jalali; Alireza, Fazel; Mojtaba, Sankian; Bideskan, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh

2012-12-15

148

What is common becomes normal: the effect of obesity prevalence on maternal perception.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This analysis investigates the poorly-known effect of local prevalence of childhood obesity on mothers' perception of their children's weight status. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 2008, a national nutritional survey of children attending the third grade of elementary school was conducted in Italy. Children were measured and classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for body mass index (BMI). A parental questionnaire included parental perception of their child's weight status (underweight, normal, a little overweight and a lot overweight). Regions were classified by childhood obesity prevalence (<8%, 8-12%, ?13%). The association between incorrect maternal perception and regional obesity prevalence, and maternal and child characteristics were examined using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Complete data were available for 37?590 children, of whom 24% were overweight and 12% obese. Mothers correctly identified the status of 84% of normal weight, 52% of overweight and 14% of obese children. Among overweight children, factors associated with underestimation of the child's weight included lower maternal education (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.4), residence in a high-obesity region (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.9-2.6), male gender (aOR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.6) and child's BMI. CONCLUSION: Higher regional obesity prevalence is associated with lower maternal perception, suggesting that what is common has a greater likelihood of being perceived as normal. As perception is a first step to change, it may be harder to intervene in areas with high-obesity prevalence where intervention is most urgent.

Binkin N; Spinelli A; Baglio G; Lamberti A

2013-05-01

149

Male sexual orientation in independent samoa: evidence for fraternal birth order and maternal fecundity effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Western cultures, male androphiles tend to have greater numbers of older brothers than male gynephiles (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In the non-Western nation of Independent Samoa, androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) have been shown to have greater numbers of older brothers, older sisters, and younger brothers (Vasey & VanderLaan, 2007). It is unclear, however, whether the observed older brother effect, in the context of the additional sibling category effects, represented a genuine fraternal birth order effect or was simply associated with elevated maternal fecundity. To differentiate between these two possibilities, this study employed a larger, independent replication sample of fa'afafine and gynephilic males from Independent Samoa. Fa'afafine had greater numbers of older brothers and sisters. The replication sample and the sample from Vasey and VanderLaan were then combined, facilitating a comparison that showed the older brother effect was significantly greater in magnitude than the older sister effect. These results suggest that fraternal birth order and maternal fecundity effects both exist in Samoa. The existence of these effects cross-culturally is discussed in the context of biological theories for the development of male androphilia.

VanderLaan DP; Vasey PL

2011-06-01

150

Maternal genistein exposure mimics the effects of estrogen on mammary gland development in female mouse offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human and animal data indicate that a high maternal estrogen exposure during pregnancy increases breast cancer risk among daughters. This may reflect an increase in the epithelial structures that are the sites for malignant transformation, i.e., terminal end buds (TEBs), and a reduction in epithelial differentiation in the mammary gland. Some phytoestrogens, such as genistein which is a major component in soy-based foods, and zearalenone, a mycotoxin found in agricultural products, have estrogenic effects on the reproductive system, breast and brain. The present study examined whether in utero exposure to genistein or zearalenone influences mammary gland development. Pregnant mice were injected daily with i) 20 ng estradiol (E2); ii) 20 microg genistein; iii) 2 microg zearalenone; iv) 2 microg tamoxifen (TAM), a partial estrogen receptor agonist; or v) oil-vehicle between days 15 and 20 of gestation. E2, genistein, zearalenone, and tamoxifen all increased the density of TEBs in the mammary glands. Genistein reduced, and zearalenone increased, epithelial differentiation. Zearalenone also increased epithelial density, when compared with the vehicle-controls. None of the treatments had permanent effects on circulating E2 levels. Maternal exposure to E2 accelerated body weight gain, physical maturation (eyelid opening), and puberty onset (vaginal opening) in the female offspring. Genistein and tamoxifen had similar effects on puberty onset than E2. Zearalenone caused persistent cornification of the estrus smears. These findings indicate that maternal exposure to physiological doses of genistein mimics the effects of E2 on the mammary gland and reproductive systems in the offspring. Thus, our results suggest that genistein acts as an estrogen in utero, and may increase the incidence of mammary tumors if given through a pregnant mother. The estrogenic effects of zearalenone on the mammary gland, in contrast, are probably counteracted by the permanent changes in estrus cycling.

Hilakivi-Clarke L; Cho E; Clarke R

1998-05-01

151

Effect of cocaine on periadolescent rats with or without early maternal separation  

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Full Text Available Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and weight loss were investigated in periadolescent Wistar rats kept with their mothers or subjected to repeated maternal separation. Litters allocated to the separation procedure were placed in a temperature-controlled (33ºC) chamber for 3 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P20. Non-handled rats were left undisturbed until weaning. Treatments were started on P30-31 and the test was performed on P36-37. Animals received injections of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, sc) twice daily for 5 days. On day 6 all animals received saline. On day 7 animals were challenged with 10 mg/kg cocaine and their locomotion was evaluated in activity cages. A third group received saline throughout the 7-day period. Body weights were recorded on P30-31 and P36-37. Two-way ANOVA on body weights showed a main effect of treatment group (F(1,35) = 10.446, P = 0.003; N = 10-12). Non-handled rats treated with cocaine for 5 days gained significantly less weight, while no significant effect was observed in maternally separated rats. Two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of drug treatment on locomotor activity (F(2,32) = 15.209, P<0.001; N = 6-8), but not on rearing condition (F(1,32)<0.001, P = 0.998). Animals pretreated with cocaine showed a clear behavioral sensitization relative to the saline group. No difference in the magnitude of sensitization was found between separated and non-handled animals. Only the effect of cocaine on weight gain was significantly affected by repeated episodes of early maternal separation during the pre-weaning period.

Planeta C.S.; Marin M.T.

2002-01-01

152

Effects of maternal stress on egg characteristics in a cooperatively breeding fish.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elevated stress experienced by a mother can compromise both her own reproductive success and that of her offspring. In this study, we investigated whether chronically stressed mothers experienced such effects in cooperatively breeding species, in which helpers at the nest potentially compound the negative effects of maternal stress. Using Neolamprologus pulcher, a group-living cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, we observed the effects of experimentally increased stress on female reproductive success (measured as inter-spawn interval, and number of eggs) as well as egg characteristics including egg size and cortisol concentrations. Stress levels were manipulated by repeated exposure to the acute stresses of chasing and netting. Stressed females had longer inter-spawn intervals and laid fewer, smaller eggs. Although no significant differences in egg cortisol concentrations were detected between control and stressed females, egg cortisol concentration fell between spawns in control but not in stressed fish. No effect of helper number was detected for any parameter examined, except there appeared to be less change in egg cortisol content in groups with helpers present. Our results suggest that stress imposes fitness costs on breeding females, and social regulation of a dominance hierarchy does not appear to exacerbate or alleviate the negative effects of maternal stress.

Mileva VR; Gilmour KM; Balshine S

2011-01-01

153

Maternal effects, flight versus fecundity trade-offs, and offspring immune defence in the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal condition can generate resource-related maternal effects through differential egg provisioning, and can greatly affect offspring performance. In the present study, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.) was used to investigate whether (after controlling for egg size) maternal age, and increased flight during the oviposition period, resulted in changes in egg provisioning and whether this contributed to variation in offspring performance, i) early in development (egg stage and early post-hatching development), and ii) later in larval development after being exposed to the model viral pathogen system; the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Results Age-related changes in maternal egg provisioning were observed to influence egg stage development only. Flight-induced changes in maternal egg provisioning had direct consequences for offspring growth and survival across each life stage from egg to adulthood; offspring from forced flight mothers had lower larval masses and longer development times. Offspring with lower larval masses also had reduced survival after exposure to the viral pathogen. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that a change in maternal provisioning as a result of increased flight during the oviposition period has the potential to exert non-genetic cross-generational fitness effects in P. aegeria. This could have important consequences for population dynamics, particularly in fragmented anthropogenic landscapes.

Gibbs Melanie; Breuker Casper J; Hesketh Helen; Hails Rosemary S; Van Dyck Hans

2010-01-01

154

Maternal and fetal cardiovascular effects and placental transfer of the oxytocin antagonist atosiban in late-gestation pregnant sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Atosiban is a synthetic oxytocin antagonist that is currently undergoing dose-ranging clinical trials. To date, no data are available on the cardiovascular effects of combined oxytocin and vasopressin blockade during late pregnancy. Our aims were (1) to determine the effects of atosiban infusion on the maternal and fetal cardiovascular system and on uterine blood flow and (2) to determine the maternal pharmacokinetics and the rate of placental transfer of atosiban. STUDY DESIGN: Five chronically catheterized pregnant sheep were treated with a 2-hour infusion of atosiban (300 micrograms.min-1) at 116 to 126 days' gestation. Maternal and fetal blood pressure and heart rate and uterine blood flow were measured before and during the infusion. Maternal and fetal arterial blood samples were obtained throughout the experiment for measurement of plasma atosiban levels and blood gas values. RESULTS: No significant change in maternal cardiovascular parameters or uterine blood flow were observed. Similarly, no changes in fetal blood pressure and arterial blood gases were present during the infusion of the atosiban. Maternal plasma levels of atosiban reached a maximum of 585.2 +/- 82.2 (ng/ml mean +/- SD) at the end of the infusion and decreased biexponentially with a mean t1/2 alpha of 17 minutes and a mean t1/2 beta of 2.2 hours. Fetal plasma levels of atosiban were at or below the detection limit. CONCLUSION: Atosiban does not significantly affect maternal or fetal cardiovascular parameters when it is administered for 2 hours in late-pregnant sheep. Although significant levels were measured in maternal blood, negligible transfer to the fetus occurred.

Greig PC; Massmann GA; Demarest KT; Weglein RC; Holland ML; Figueroa JP

1993-10-01

155

Effect of maternal body mass index on oxytocin treatment for arrest of dilatation1).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract To determine whether the effectiveness of oxytocin treatment of arrest of dilatation differed in obese compared to lean women, we did a retrospective analysis of 118 subjects in spontaneous labor whose arrest of dilatation was treated with oxytocin. Cases were stratified by maternal body mass index (BMI): Group A, <25 kg/m2; Group B, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2; Group C, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2; and Group D, ?35 kg/m2. Groups were comparable in maternal age, parity, gestational age, birth weight, and the frequency of infection. Full dilatation was reached in about 90% of Group A and B, 72% of Group C, and 39% of Group D, the most obese women (P<0.001). The cesarean rate was directly related to maternal BMI, 11.4%, 22.9%, 34.3%, and 69.6% in Groups A through D, respectively (P<0.001). Significantly more oxytocin was used in group D than in the other groups during the first 3h of infusion in attempting to overcome the arrest (P=0.003). We conclude that oxytocin treatment of arrest of dilatation was less effective in obese than in lean women. This effect was most prominent in women with a BMI >35 kg/m2, who were, despite having received more oxytocin than those in the leaner groups, less than half as likely to attain full dilatation and more than twice as likely to deliver by cesarean.

Soni S; Chivan N; Cohen WR

2013-09-01

156

Effects of Maternal Visitation to Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated whether directing mothers to make weekly appointments to visit the neonatal intensive care unit would generalize to increase the frequency of independent maternal visiation and affect maternal perceptions of the infant and infants' length of hospitalization. (Author/RH)

Zeskind, Philip Sanford; Iacino, Richard

1984-01-01

157

Effects of genistein in the maternal diet on reproductive development and spatial learning in male rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endocrine disruptors, chemicals that disturb the actions of endogenous hormones, have been implicated in birth defects associated with hormone-dependent development. Phytoestrogens are a class of endocrine disruptors found in plants. In the current study we examined the effects of exposure at various perinatal time periods to genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, on reproductive development and learning in male rats. Dams were fed genistein-containing (5 mg/kg feed) food during both gestation and lactation, during gestation only, during lactation only, or during neither period. Measures of reproductive development and body mass were taken in the male offspring during postnatal development, and learning and memory performance was assessed in adulthood. Genistein exposure via the maternal diet decreased body mass in the male offspring of dams fed genistein during both gestation and lactation, during lactation only, but not during gestation only. Genistein decreased anogenital distance when exposure was during both gestation and lactation, but there was no effect when exposure was limited to one of these time periods. Similarly, spatial learning in the Morris water maze was impaired in male rats exposed to genistein during both gestation and lactation, but not in rats exposed during only one of these time periods. There was no effect of genistein on cued or contextual fear conditioning. In summary, the data indicate that exposure to genistein through the maternal diet significantly impacts growth in male offspring if exposure is during lactation. The effects of genistein on reproductive development and spatial learning required exposure throughout the pre- and postnatal periods.

Ball ER; Caniglia MK; Wilcox JL; Overton KA; Burr MJ; Wolfe BD; Sanders BJ; Wisniewski AB; Wrenn CC

2010-03-01

158

Maternal carbon dioxide level during labor and its possible effect on fetal cerebral oxygenation: mini review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During pregnancy, and especially during labor, the maternal carbon dioxide level declines considerably. Maternal carbon dioxide levels show a close relation with fetal carbon dioxide levels. The latter affects fetal cerebral oxygenation by regulating cerebral blood flow and shifting the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, maternal hypocapnia appears to impair placental oxygen transfer. Thus, maternal hyperventilation may interfere with optimal fetal cerebral oxygenation. Here, we provide a brief overview of the literature relevant to this issue.

Tomimatsu T; Kakigano A; Mimura K; Kanayama T; Koyama S; Fujita S; Taniguchi Y; Kanagawa T; Kimura T

2013-01-01

159

Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration.

Wang Lei; Baskin Jerry M; Baskin Carol C; Cornelissen J Hans C; Dong Ming; Huang Zhenying

2012-01-01

160

Maternal diet rich in saturated fats has deleterious effects on plasma lipids of mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High dietary fat intake has been reported to cause an alteration in lipid metabolism that is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, an animal model was used to evaluate the effects of feeding diets rich in different fatty acids to mothers during pregnancy and lactation, and the effects of the maternal diet on parameters of lipid metabolism in adult offspring. The interaction between the offspring's own diet and the programming due to the maternal diet was also evaluated. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (20% fat [weight to weight]) rich in either saturated fatty acids (SFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for two weeks before mating, during pregnancy and until weaning. The offspring were divided into two groups; each group was fed a high-fat diet enriched in either SFA or PUFA for eight weeks after weaning. The groups were designated as SFA/SFA (diet of the mother/diet of the offspring), SFA/PUFA, PUFA/PUFA and PUFA/SFA. Blood and tissues were collected at the end of the eight-week feeding period after an overnight fast. RESULTS: The plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the SFA/SFA group than in all other groups, whereas the PUFA/PUFA group had the lowest total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the PUFA/SFA group than in the PUFA/PUFA and SFA/PUFA groups, whereas plasma triglyceride concentrations were not different among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that high maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy affects lipid metabolism in the adult offspring. However, it appears that the offspring's own diet is also important in maintaining the regulation of lipid metabolism.

Chechi K; Cheema SK

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Effect of maternal low protein diet during pregnancy on the fetal liver of rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal protein restriction plays a critical role in the developmental programming of later disease susceptibility of the fetus. Developmental insults could exert permanent effects on health through alteration of tissue morphology. As the liver has the greatest number of functions among other body organs, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of maternal dietary protein insufficiency on the structure and the proliferative capacity of the liver in rat fetuses. Morphometric histological studies and biochemical analysis were performed. Twenty adult Albino female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after confirmation of pregnancy. Group I (ST), serving as control, was fed a standard diet (20% protein) and group II (LP) a low protein diet (5% protein). Fetuses were extracted on the day 21.5 of pregnancy. Group II morphometric results revealed a significant decrease in the mothers' weight gain, number and weight of fetuses and weight of fetal livers, but there was also an increase in the mean area of hepatocytes. Histological results showed apoptosis, vacuolization of the hepatocytes, increased positivity of the Oil Red O stained fat droplets and the PAS-positive stained glycogen granules. Liver TUNEL showed increased apoptotic nuclei. Ki-67 immunostaining showed decreased proliferation of the hepatocytes. Ultrastructurally, the nucleus showed peripheral masses of heterochromatin besides irregular nuclear and cell membranes. Mitochondria varied in shape with loss of cristea. Biochemically, there was a significant decrease in the protein concentration and a significant increase in the glycogen concentration in livers of group II. It thus appears that the maternal metabolic condition not only reduced fetal growth in response to protein restriction, but also altered the structure of the liver.

Ramadan WS; Alshiraihi I; Al-karim S

2013-01-01

162

Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat. The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys. For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease in serum BDNF induced by MeHg exposure. Cord blood BDNF has been reported to increase in association with perinatal brain injuries and has been proposed as a possible predictive marker of neurodevelopmental outcomes. The negative effect that MeHg seems to exert on cord blood BDNF concentration could endanger compensatory responses to an adverse impact and therefore deserves attention.

Spulber S; Rantamäki T; Nikkilä O; Castrén E; Weihe P; Grandjean P; Ceccatelli S

2010-10-01

163

Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat. The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys. For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease in serum BDNF induced by MeHg exposure. Cord blood BDNF has been reported to increase in association with perinatal brain injuries and has been proposed as a possible predictive marker of neurodevelopmental outcomes. The negative effect that MeHg seems to exert on cord blood BDNF concentration could endanger compensatory responses to an adverse impact and therefore deserves attention. PMID:20631062

Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi; Castrén, Eero; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe; Ceccatelli, Sandra

2010-07-14

164

Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for neuronal survival and differentiation. We examined the concentration of BDNF in cord serum from newborns exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in utero by maternal consumption of whale meat. The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys. For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease in serum BDNF induced by MeHg exposure. Cord blood BDNF has been reported to increase in association with perinatal brain injuries and has been proposed as a possible predictive marker of neurodevelopmental outcomes. The negative effect that MeHg seems to exert on cord blood BDNF concentration could endanger compensatory responses to an adverse impact and therefore deserves attention.

Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi

2010-01-01

165

[Effects of a maternal sexuality education program for mothers of preschoolers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of a maternal sexuality education program for mothers of preschoolers. METHODS: A quasi-experimental with non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was conducted. The participants were 55 mothers of preschoolers in G city (Experimental group=27, Control group=28). The experimental group received the maternal sexuality education, and the control group received the program after the experiment. Data were collected during October and November 2012 through self-administered questionnaires at two times: prior to the intervention and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using ?²-test, Fisher's exact test and t-test. RESULTS: After the intervention, mothers in the experimental group reported significant differences in knowledge of sex (t=3.74, p<.001), attitude toward sex (t=4.31, p<.001), parent-efficacy on child sexuality education (t=11.96, p<.001). compared to mothers in the control group. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a sexuality education program for mothers of preschoolers is effective in improving knowledge of sex, attitude toward sex, and parent-efficacy on child sexuality education. Therefore further study should be done with larger and varied participants to confirm the effects of sexuality education programs for mothers of preschoolers.

Lee EM; Kweon YR

2013-06-01

166

Persistence of maternal effects in baboons: Mother's dominance rank at son's conception predicts stress hormone levels in subadult males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dominance status and reproductive experience are maternal characteristics that affect offspring traits in diverse taxa, including some cercopithecine primates. Maternal effects of this sort are widespread and are sources of variability in offspring fitness. We tested the hypothesis that maternal dominance rank and reproductive experience as well as a male's own age and dominance rank predicted chronic fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) concentrations in 17 subadult wild male baboons, Papio cynocephalus (median age 6.5 years), in the Amboseli basin, Kenya. Among these variables, maternal dominance rank at a subadult male's conception was the sole significant predictor of the male's fGC and accounted for 42% of fGC variance; sons of lower ranking mothers had higher fGC than did those of high-ranking mothers. This result is striking because subadult male baboons are approximately 4-6 years past the period of infant dependence on their mothers, and are larger than and dominant to all adult females. In addition, many males of this age have survived their mothers' death. Consequently, the influence of maternal dominance rank persisted well beyond the stage at which direct maternal influence on sons is likely. Persistence of these major maternal influences from the perinatal period may signal organizational effects of mothers on sons' HPA axis. Although short-term, acute, elevations in GC are part of adaptive responses to challenges such as predators and other emergencies, chronically elevated GC are often associated with stress-related pathologies and, thereby, adverse effects on fitness components. PMID:18448106

Onyango, Patrick Ogola; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Wango, Emmanuel O; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

2008-03-20

167

Reproductive development and maternal effects in the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a laboratory study of maturation feeding of female pine weevil Hylobius abietis on current and 1-year-old stem bark of transplants of Scots and Corsican pine, Norway and Sitka spruce, Douglas fir, and hybrid larch, the length of the pre-oviposition period was influenced by the species on which weevils fed. The shortest pre-oviposition period was on hybrid larch (11.8 days) and the longest on Douglas fir (15.5 days). The species on which weevils fed also affected fecundity but there was evidence of a species-year interaction. Over a period of 36 days, most eggs were laid by weevils feeding on current stem of Norway spruce and Corsican and Scots pine and fewest on current stem of Sitka spruce. Significant maternal effects on egg size were observed both in relation to female size and conifer species. The largest eggs were laid on Corsican pine and the smallest on Douglas fir, with no evidence of a trade-off between number of eggs laid and their size. There was a positive relationship between egg and larval size and between larval size and survival on logs of four conifer species. Residual resistance mechanisms in the bark of recently cut stumps and larval competition are discussed briefly in relation to the importance of the observed maternal effects on weevil population dynamics.

Wainhouse D; Ashburner R; Boswell R

2001-12-01

168

Protective effects of hydrogen on fetal brain injury during maternal hypoxia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the effects of hydrogen on fetal brain injury during maternal hypoxia. Pregnant rats (n=12, at gestational day 17) were randomly assigned into three groups; air, hypoxia, and hypoxia plus hydrogen groups were put into a chamber and flushed with room air (21% O2 and 79% N2), hypoxia (8% O2 and 92% N2), and hypoxia with hydrogen mixture (2% H2, 8% O2 and 90% N2), respectively, for 4 consecutive hours. After birth, body and brain weights, body-righting reflex, and negative geotropism of neonates were measured, and then pups were killed at days 1 and 7. Oligodendrocytes were studied at post-natal day 1 by immunohistochemistry. We found significant decreases in body weight in the hypoxia group (P0.05 vs. room air group). Even though brain weight was not different among groups, the brain weight to body weight ratio in the room air group was significantly (Pgeotropism at days 3-4 showed deficiency in hypoxia animals when compared with the room air group (Pgeotropism (P<0.05 vs. room air group). The above-mentioned functional changes caused by hypoxia were not associated with morphology and cell death of oligodendrocytes. Therefore, the maternal hypoxia-induced body weight loss, and functional abnormalities and hydrogen treatment during hypoxia offered a protective effect and improved functions in neonates. PMID:21725773

Liu, Wenwu; Chen, Oumei; Chen, Chunhua; Wu, Bihua; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

2011-01-01

169

The effect of maternal exercise during pregnancy on abnormal fetal growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim To assess the effect of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on abnormal fetal growth. Methods The study group of 166 women in gestational week 6-8 exercised regularly three days per week at submaximal intensity during their entire pregnancy and the control group of 168 women received standard antenatal care. The main outcomes were macrosomia and intrauterine growth restriction. Results The study group had a lower frequency of macrosomia in newborns (6.0% vs 12.5%, P?=?0.048) and gestational diabetes (1.8% vs 8.3%, P?=?0.008) than the control-group, but there was no significant difference in intrauterine growth restriction (7.2% vs 6.5%). There was also no significant differences in other perinatal outcomes. Conclusions The beneficial effect of maternal physical activity on fetal growth may be caused the impact of aerobic exercise on glucose tolerance. Fitness trainers and kinesiologists, as well as health care providers, should be educated on the benefits of regular exercise during pregnancy and safe physical exercise for pregnant women.

Tomic, Vlatka; Sporis, Goran; Tomic, Jozo; Milanovic, Zoran; Zigmundovac-Klaic, Djurdja; Pantelic, Sasa

2013-01-01

170

Early maternal deprivation in rats induces gender-dependent effects on developing hippocampal and cerebellar cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adult animals submitted to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation [24h, postnatal day 9-10] show behavioral alterations that resemble specific symptoms of schizophrenia. According to the neurodevelopmental theory, these behavioral deficits might be mediated by detrimental neurodevelopmental processes that might be associated, at least partially, with stress-induced corticosterone responses. In order to address this hypothesis, we have focused on the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex, two brain regions that show high density of glucocorticoid receptors, and analyzed possible neuronal and glial alterations by immunohistochemical techniques. To evaluate the presence of degenerated neurons we used Fluoro-Jade-C (FJ-C) staining and for the study of astrocytes we employed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Within control animals, females showed significantly more GFAP positive cells than males and a trend towards more FJ-C positive cells. Maternal deprivation induced neuronal degeneration and astroglial changes in the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex of neonatal rats that, in general, were more marked in males. This differential effect may be attributable to a greater vulnerability of males to this kind of early environmental insult and/or to sex-dependent differences in the onset and/or progression of the effects. The present experimental procedure may be instrumental in elucidating sex-dependent mechanisms of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders with a basis in early environmental insults.

Llorente R; Gallardo ML; Berzal AL; Prada C; Garcia-Segura LM; Viveros MP

2009-05-01

171

Phenotypic plasticity in response to breeding density in tree swallows: An adaptive maternal effect?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Territorial animals breeding in high-density environments are more likely to engage in aggressive competition with conspecifics for resources necessary for reproduction. In many avian species, increased competition among breeding females results in increased testosterone concentrations in egg yolks. Generally, elevated yolk testosterone increases nestling growth, competitive behaviors, and bold behavioral traits. However, few studies provide an environmental context with which to examine the potential adaptive benefits of these phenotypic changes. In this study, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding density was altered to modify levels of social competition and yolk testosterone. We measured nestling growth, competitive ability, and breathing rate in response to a stressor using a partial cross-foster design. Females breeding at high-density experienced more aggressive, competitive interactions and their eggs had higher testosterone concentrations. Nestlings that hatched in high-density environments grew faster and displayed more competitive behaviors and a higher breathing rate response to a stressor regardless of post-hatching density. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity occurs in response to yolk testosterone variation resulting from different breeding densities. These findings suggest that naturally-induced maternal effects prepare offspring for competitive environments, supporting the idea that maternal effects are adaptive.

Bentz AB; Navara KJ; Siefferman L

2013-08-01

172

The effect of maternal exercise during pregnancy on abnormal fetal growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. To assess the effect of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on abnormal fetal growth. Methods. The study group of 166 women in gestational week 6-8 exercised regularly three days per week at submaximal intensity during their entire pregnancy and the control group of 168 women received standard antenatal care. The main outcomes were macrosomia and intrauterine growth restriction. Results. The study group had a lower frequency of macrosomia in newborns (6.0% vs 12.5%, P=0.048) and gestational diabetes (1.8% vs 8.3%, P=0.008) than the control-group, but there was no significant difference in intrauterine growth restriction (7.2% vs 6.5%). There was also no significant differences in other perinatal outcomes. Conclusions. The beneficial effect of maternal physical activity on fetal growth may be caused the impact of aerobic exercise on glucose tolerance. Fitness trainers and kinesiologists, as well as health care providers, should be educated on the benefits of regular exercise during pregnancy and safe physical exercise for pregnant women. PMID:23986277

Tomic, Vlatka; Sporis, Goran; Tomic, Jozo; Milanovic, Zoran; Zigmundovac-Klaic, Djurdja; Pantelic, Sasa

2013-08-28

173

Evidence of maternal effects on temperature preference in side-blotched lizards: implications for evolutionary response to climate change.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural populations respond to selection pressures like increasing local temperatures in many ways, including plasticity and adaptation. To predict the response of ectotherms like lizards to local temperature increase, it is essential to estimate phenotypic variation in and determine the heritability of temperature-related traits like average field body temperature (T b) and preferred temperature (T p). We measured T p of Uta stansburiana in a laboratory thermal gradient and assessed the contribution of sex, reproductive status and throat color genotype to phenotypic variation in T b of adult lizards. Females had higher T p than males. However, they temporarily preferred lower temperature when gravid than when nongravid. Using a nested half-sib design for genetic crosses in the laboratory, we estimated relative contributions of additive genetic variation and maternal effects to T p of hatchlings. Our results show that maternal effects, but not additive genetic variation, influence T p of hatchlings in U. stansburiana. Maternal T p and the presence or absence of blue throat color alleles significantly influenced T p of hatchlings. We discuss ecological and evolutionary consequences of these maternal effects in the context of rapid climate change and natural selection that we measure on progeny survival to maturity as a function of maternal T p.

Paranjpe DA; Bastiaans E; Patten A; Cooper RD; Sinervo B

2013-07-01

174

Evidence of maternal effects on temperature preference in side-blotched lizards: implications for evolutionary response to climate change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural populations respond to selection pressures like increasing local temperatures in many ways, including plasticity and adaptation. To predict the response of ectotherms like lizards to local temperature increase, it is essential to estimate phenotypic variation in and determine the heritability of temperature-related traits like average field body temperature (T b) and preferred temperature (T p). We measured T p of Uta stansburiana in a laboratory thermal gradient and assessed the contribution of sex, reproductive status and throat color genotype to phenotypic variation in T b of adult lizards. Females had higher T p than males. However, they temporarily preferred lower temperature when gravid than when nongravid. Using a nested half-sib design for genetic crosses in the laboratory, we estimated relative contributions of additive genetic variation and maternal effects to T p of hatchlings. Our results show that maternal effects, but not additive genetic variation, influence T p of hatchlings in U. stansburiana. Maternal T p and the presence or absence of blue throat color alleles significantly influenced T p of hatchlings. We discuss ecological and evolutionary consequences of these maternal effects in the context of rapid climate change and natural selection that we measure on progeny survival to maturity as a function of maternal T p. PMID:23919144

Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Patten, Amy; Cooper, Robert D; Sinervo, Barry

2013-05-23

175

Evidence of maternal effects on temperature preference in side-blotched lizards: implications for evolutionary response to climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural populations respond to selection pressures like increasing local temperatures in many ways, including plasticity and adaptation. To predict the response of ectotherms like lizards to local temperature increase, it is essential to estimate phenotypic variation in and determine the heritability of temperature-related traits like average field body temperature (Tb) and preferred temperature (Tp). We measured Tp of Uta stansburiana in a laboratory thermal gradient and assessed the contribution of sex, reproductive status and throat color genotype to phenotypic variation in Tb of adult lizards. Females had higher Tp than males. However, they temporarily preferred lower temperature when gravid than when nongravid. Using a nested half-sib design for genetic crosses in the laboratory, we estimated relative contributions of additive genetic variation and maternal effects to Tp of hatchlings. Our results show that maternal effects, but not additive genetic variation, influence Tp of hatchlings in U. stansburiana. Maternal Tp and the presence or absence of blue throat color alleles significantly influenced Tp of hatchlings. We discuss ecological and evolutionary consequences of these maternal effects in the context of rapid climate change and natural selection that we measure on progeny survival to maturity as a function of maternal Tp.

Paranjpe, Dhanashree A; Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Patten, Amy; Cooper, Robert D; Sinervo, Barry

2013-01-01

176

Effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on immunoblogulin A-secreting cells in mammary glands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mortality and morbidity of neonates continue to be major problems in humans and animals, and immunoblogulin A (IgA) provides protection against microbial antigens at mucosal surfaces. The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in mammary glands in lactating mice. From 6.5 to 16.5 days post coitus and 1 to 13 days post partum (dpp), maternal mice were administered coumestrol at 200??g/kg body weight/day. Coumestrol administration increased the number of IgA ASC and the messenger RNA expression of IgA C-region and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in mammary glands of maternal mice at 14 dpp, but coumestrol administration had no effect on the number of IgA ASC in the ileum. Coumestrol administration increased serum IgA concentration in maternal mice at 14 dpp, but IgA concentrations in serum, stomach contents, intestine and feces of neonatal mice were not affected by treatment. These results imply that coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation is effective in increasing the numbers of IgA ASC in mammary glands during lactation owing to the activated messenger RNA expressions of IgA C-region and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in mammary gland.

Wang M; Sugimoto M; Ikeda S; Kume S

2013-04-01

177

Effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on immunoblogulin A-secreting cells in mammary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality and morbidity of neonates continue to be major problems in humans and animals, and immunoblogulin A (IgA) provides protection against microbial antigens at mucosal surfaces. The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in mammary glands in lactating mice. From 6.5 to 16.5 days post coitus and 1 to 13 days post partum (dpp), maternal mice were administered coumestrol at 200??g/kg body weight/day. Coumestrol administration increased the number of IgA ASC and the messenger RNA expression of IgA C-region and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in mammary glands of maternal mice at 14 dpp, but coumestrol administration had no effect on the number of IgA ASC in the ileum. Coumestrol administration increased serum IgA concentration in maternal mice at 14 dpp, but IgA concentrations in serum, stomach contents, intestine and feces of neonatal mice were not affected by treatment. These results imply that coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation is effective in increasing the numbers of IgA ASC in mammary glands during lactation owing to the activated messenger RNA expressions of IgA C-region and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in mammary gland. PMID:23590506

Wang, Mengdong; Sugimoto, Miki; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Kume, Shinichi

2012-12-03

178

Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

2008-07-01

179

Effect of maternal body mass index on oxytocin treatment for arrest of dilatation1).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract To determine whether the effectiveness of oxytocin treatment of arrest of dilatation differed in obese compared to lean women, we did a retrospective analysis of 118 subjects in spontaneous labor whose arrest of dilatation was treated with oxytocin. Cases were stratified by maternal body mass index (BMI): Group A, oxytocin was used in group D than in the other groups during the first 3h of infusion in attempting to overcome the arrest (P=0.003). We conclude that oxytocin treatment of arrest of dilatation was less effective in obese than in lean women. This effect was most prominent in women with a BMI >35 kg/m2, who were, despite having received more oxytocin than those in the leaner groups, less than half as likely to attain full dilatation and more than twice as likely to deliver by cesarean. PMID:23515101

Soni, Shelly; Chivan, Niraj; Cohen, Wayne R

2013-09-01

180

[Applicability of lives saved tool in projecting effects of scaling up interventions on reducing maternal mortality rates in the rural area of Guangxi province in China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate applicability of lives saved tool (LiST) in projecting effects of maternal health interventions on reducing maternal mortality in the rural area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China, and provide evidence for promoting LiST in China. METHODS: By using maternal intervention coverage and other information collected through the cross-sectional household survey, literature review and expert consultation, LiST projection was performed and modeled. The maternal mortality reduction and causes of death were measured and compared, and the differences were analyzed. SPSS 19.0 was used in the household survey data analysis. RESULTS: Coverage of calcium supplementation, MgSO4-management of pre-eclampsia and institutional delivery reached 51.9%, 99.0% and 98.4% respectively in rural Guangxi in 2011. The LiST captured the general trend of maternal mortality in rural Guangxi. The modeled maternal mortality rate was 4.71%, lower than the measured in 2009 and 10.43% higher in 2010. Maternal mortality rate would decreased to 18/100 000 in 2015 assuming all relevant interventions reached full coverage, and 90% of the maternal morality reduction was attributed to the labor and delivery management. CONCLUSION: LiST can be applied to project effects of maternal health interventions on reducing the maternal mortality in rural Guangxi, but its accuracy was limited by the fact that the effect of relevant interventions on some major causes of maternal death, such as amniotic embolism, was not calculated in LiST and maternal deaths caused by those causes varied by the year in the area. Based on the LiST projection, labor and delivery management was found to be the priority intervention in improving maternal health in rural Guangxi. Improving the quality of obstetric care in township hospitals and facilitating referral of high-risk pregnant women were highly recommended.

Luo DS; Chen LL; Wei P; Jiang Z; Guo Y

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Maternal mood and neuroendocrine programming: effects of time of exposure and sex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rationale/statement of the problem : Adverse exposures that influence growth in prenatal and early postnatal periods are thought to influence vulnerability to chronic diseases via their effects on the neuroendocrine system. In humans, assessment of the underlying mechanisms has been restricted. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of adverse early life exposures, specifically maternal mood, on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) responses to an acute physiological stressor. In addition, we conducted a preliminary examination into whether effects varied by time of exposure and sex. Methods : A total of 139 individuals (mean age 15.12 years) were recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Participants underwent the CO2 stress test, and indices of the PNS, SNS and HPA axis were measured. Pre-existing data on mothers’ demographic and psychosocial factors during pregnancy (18 and 32 weeks) and postnatally (8 weeks and 8 months) were extracted, as were participants’ clinical and demographic data at birth. Results : Increases in both prenatal and postnatal anxiety and depression were associated with greater SNS reactivity to the stressor and slower recovery, as well as blunted HPA axis responses. Programming effects on the SNS appeared restricted to male offspring only. No consistent relationships were evident for any of the measures of pre-stress function. Conclusion : We have found preliminary evidence that both pre- and postnatal maternal anxiety and depression have sustained programming effects on the SNS and HPA axis. Effects on the SNS were restricted to male offspring.

Kavita Vedhara; Chris Metcalfe; Heather Brant; Anna Crown; Kate Northstone; Karen Dawe; Stafford Lightman; George Davey-Smith

2012-01-01

182

Combined effects of caffeine and zinc in the maternal diet on fetal brains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have reported that caffeine (C) intake during the lactational period by dams decreases the Zn content of the brain in their offspring. The objective of the present study is to determine how C plus Zn supplementation to the maternal diet during gestation affects the fetal brains. Timed-pregnant rats at day 3 of gestation were randomly divided into 4 groups (G). G1 was fed a 20% protein diet as a control, G2 was fed a diet supplemented with Zn, G3 was fed a diet with C and G4 was fed a diet with C and Zn. At day 22 of gestation, fetuses were taken out surgically. Fetal brains were removed. Their weights, DNA, Zn, protein, cholesterol, caffeine concentration, and alkaline phosphatase activity were determined. Body and brain weights and cholesterol contents in G4 were greater than in G1, whereas Zn concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity were less. Zn concentration and Zn/DNA in G2 were greater than in G1. Cholesterol content in G4 was higher than in G3. Although mean caffeine concentration in brain and plasma in G4 was greater than in G3, there was no statistical significance between the G due to the wide fluctuation among the pups. It is concluded that supplementation of C and Zn in the maternal diet during gestation could influence fetal brain composition differently than C supplementation alone. Supplementation of Zn alone showed minor effects.

Nakamoto, T.; Gottschalk, S.B.; Yazdani, M.; Joseph, F. Jr. (Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans (United States))

1991-03-15

183

Effects of maternal ethanol ingestion on uptake of glucose alanine analogs in fetal rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The distribution of maternally-derived glucose and alanine has been studied in selected tissues of fetuses from ethanol-fed (EF) rats (30% of caloric intake throughout gestation). Controls received diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation, 2 ?Ci 3H 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and 1 ?Ci 14C ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were administered i.v. to each rat. One hour later, maternal blood, placenta, and fetal blood, liver, lung and brain were sampled for 3H and 14C activities. When compared to either control group, the mean 14C AIB activities of tissues from EF animals were reduced from 19 to 46%, with the greatest effect seen in the brain (3.7 +/- 0.1, 7.2 +/- 0.3 and 6.9 +/- 1.3 dpm/mg in EF, PF and AF fetuses respectively). In addition, the ratios of tissue:plasma 14C were reduced (p 3H 2-DG content of placenta (p

1986-01-01

184

[The effect of tobacco smoking on maternal weight gain and the neonatal results].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Our aim was to investigate the effects of smoking till term on maternal weight increase and on the foetus after delivery. The study is prospective and includes a group of 238 pregnant smokers consulted at the Antenatal clinics of the 3rd county polyclinic, Pleven. 115 of them smoked regularly until term at least 5 cigarettes weekly (48.32%), while 123 stopped smoking prenatally (45.9%). Utilizing a special test these two groups were compared based on their pre-delivery weight and the weight of their foetuses. RESULTS: The women who stopped smoking increased in weight with 16.6 kgs (SD-14.5), while those who smoked till term thrived with 13.2 kgs (SD-11.7) (Pt 0.001). This greater increase in maternal weight is connected with a 3.1 times more frequent delivery of babies weighing more than 4000 gr. All neonates with LBW were in the group of smokers, as well as those with foetal demise (perinatal deaths = 12.76%. CONCLUSION: In the studied group stoppage of smoking is connected with less risk of inadequate increase of weight, LBW and their foetuses more frequently weigh more than 4000 gr.

Porozhanova V; Bozhinova S; Popovski K

1998-01-01

185

Effectiveness of prenatal screening for Down syndrome on the basis of maternal age in Cape Town  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The prenatal screening programme for Down syndrome (DS) in the South African public health sector remains primarily based on advanced maternal age (AMA). We assessed the changes over time and effectiveness of this screening programme within a Cape Town health district. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the Groote Schuur Hospital Cytogenetic Laboratory and Pregnancy Counselling Clinic databases and audit of maternal delivery records at a primary health care fac (more) ility. RESULTS The number of amniocenteses performed for AMA in consecutive 5-year periods reduced progressively from 786 in 1981 - 1985 to 360 in 2001 - 2005. Comparing prenatal with neonatal diagnoses of DS, the absolute number and the proportion diagnosed prenatally have remained relatively constant over time. The Pregnancy Counselling Database showed that, of 507 women receiving genetic counselling for AMA in 2008 - 2009, 158 (31.1%) accepted amniocentesis - uptake has reduced considerably since the early 1990s. The audit of women delivering at a primary care facility found that only 10 (16.4%) of 61 AMA women reached genetic counselling in tertiary care: reasons included late initiation of antenatal care and low referral rates from primary care. CONCLUSION: Prenatal screening and diagnosis for DS based on AMA is working ineffectively in the Cape Town health district assessed, and this appears to be representative of a broader trend in South Africa. Inclusion of fetal ultrasound in the process of prenatal screening for DS should be explored as a way forward.

Urban, M F; Stewart, C; Ruppelt, T; Geerts, L

2011-01-01

186

Effects of maternal immune activation on gene expression patterns in the fetal brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

We are exploring the mechanisms underlying how maternal infection increases the risk for schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Several mouse models of maternal immune activation (MIA) were used to examine the immediate effects of MIA induced by influenza virus, poly(I:C) and interleukin IL-6 on the fetal brain transcriptome. Our results indicate that all three MIA treatments lead to strong and common gene expression changes in the embryonic brain. Most notably, there is an acute and transient upregulation of the ?, ? and ? crystallin gene family. Furthermore, levels of crystallin gene expression are correlated with the severity of MIA as assessed by placental weight. The overall gene expression changes suggest that the response to MIA is a neuroprotective attempt by the developing brain to counteract environmental stress, but at a cost of disrupting typical neuronal differentiation and axonal growth. We propose that this cascade of events might parallel the mechanisms by which environmental insults contribute to the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. PMID:22832908

Garbett, K A; Hsiao, E Y; Kálmán, S; Patterson, P H; Mirnics, K

2012-04-03

187

The effect of prenatal breastfeeding education on breastfeeding success and maternal perception of the infant.  

Science.gov (United States)

A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the effect of prenatal breastfeeding education on maternal reports of success in breastfeeding and maternal perception of the infant. The sample consisted of 40 primiparous women who desired to breastfeed their infants. All subjects were enrolled to attend childbirth education classes and vaginally delivered full-term, healthy infants without complication. Twenty subjects attended a prenatal breastfeeding education class and 20 served as controls. Data revealed that primiparous women who received prenatal breastfeeding education reported a significantly higher frequency of success in breastfeeding than those who did not (P = 0.01). There was a significant difference in the Neonatal Perception Inventory (NPI) I scores of experimental and control subjects at one to two days postpartum (P = 0.05). The NPI II scores of the experimental mothers were significantly more positive at one month postpartum (P = 0.001). Primiparous women who received prenatal breastfeeding education reported significantly more positive NPI II scores than the control group (P = 0.001). PMID:6565110

Wiles, L S

188

Maternal, social and abiotic environment effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development, or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue have delayed effects at later stages, or if social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, yet did not influence mass at emergence (at one month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at one month of age, and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment influences development in a cooperative mammal. Individuals are most sensitive to social and maternal factors during the period of nutritional dependence on carers whereas direct environmental effects are relatively more important later in development. Understanding the way in which environmental sensitivity varies across life stages is likely to be an important consideration in predicting trait responses to environmental change.

English S; Bateman AW; Mares R; Ozgul A; Clutton-Brock TH

2013-09-01

189

Effect of maternal anxiety and music on fetal movements and fetal heart rate patterns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Aimed to investigate (a) the effect of non-stress test (NST) and music on maternal anxiety (b) the effect of maternal anxiety and music on fetal heart rate (FHR) changes. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The two hundred and one pregnant women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized to receive either music (n=96) or no music (n=105) during NST. Before and after the test, these women were asked to complete the Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory on two interviews; primary outcome was considered as a maternal state anxiety score before and after NST. Secondary outcome was the baseline FHR, the number of fetal movement, large accelerations, dubious NST, variable decelerations, and the minimum procedure time. RESULTS: Before NST, the mean state anxiety score of the music and control groups was found as 38.1 +/- 8.8 and 38.08 +/-8.2, respectively (p>0.05). On the other hand, after NST, the mean state anxiety score of the music and control groups was found as 35.5 +/- 8.2 and 40.2 +/- 9.2, respectively (p<0.001). While in control group, NST brought about a statistically significant increase in a state anxiety score (38.08 +/- 8.2 versus 40.2 +/- 9.2, p<0.001), listening to music during NST resulted in decrease in a state anxiety score of the study group but it was not statistically significant (38.1 +/- 8.8 versus 35.5 +/- 8.2, p>0.05). The baseline FHR of the music group was significantly higher than that of the control group (134.09 +/- 7.2 versus 130.3 +/- 5.7, p<0.001).The number of fetal movement in the music group was significantly higher than that of the control group (8.9 +/- 4.7 versus 5.9 +/- 3.9, p<0.001). The number of large accelerations in music group was significantly higher than that of the control group (5.7 +/- 2.1 versus 4.5 +/- 2.04, p<0.001). The minimum procedure time in music group was significantly lower than that of control group (13.4 +/- 5.2 versus 15.6 +/- 6.1, p<0.05). The number of dubious NST and variable decelerations was found to be similar for both groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: NST has anxiogenic effects on mothers and listening to music during the test has positive impact on both maternal and fetal parameters but it is an open question whether maternal anxiety during pregnancy may affect fetal accelerations to such an extent that it could influence clinical judgments.

Kafali H; Derbent A; Keskin E; Simavli S; Gözdemir E

2011-03-01

190

Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects on risk of orofacial clefting (OC) using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a P-value

Shi, Min; Murray, Jeff

2012-01-01

191

Effect of Maternally Derived Antibody on Vaccination Against Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro) with Live Vaccine in Broiler  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease is one of the most important viral disease of poultry usually affects young chickens of 3-6 weeks. Hygienic management and proper vaccination are main way of control of this disease. But maternal antibody affects vaccination with live vaccine. To determine the effect of maternally derived antibody on live vaccine, the study was conducted. A total of 100 day old chicks (50 from vaccinated parent stock and 50 from non-vaccinated parent stock) were used in this study. A preset vaccination schedule was followed for chicken and blood samples were collected to find out the actual effect. It is observed that day old chicks contain high level (6294.14±24.95) of maternally derived antibody which gradually decline below positive level within 15-20 days (390.45 ±19.42) and half-life is about 5 days. Vaccination of chicken with high level of maternally derived antibody interferes with the vaccine virus results no immune response but revaccination provokes immune response. Better immune response is found in chickens vaccinated at day 21 and boostered at day 28. But there may be chance of infection because maternal antibody declined below positive level within 15-20 days. Chickens from non-vaccinated parent stock shows good immune response from first time that is from primary vaccination at day 7 and boosting at day 14.

J. Alam; M. M. Rahman; B. K. Sil; M. S. R. Khan; Giasuddin; M. S. K. Sarker

2002-01-01

192

In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7/group) were studied: ad libitum food intake (control, CON); ad libitum food intake with 1 mg dexamethasone/l drinking water from embryonic day (ED)13 to ED21 (DEX); pair-fed (PF) to DEX from ED13 to ED21. On ED22, dams were injected with [(3)H]phenylalanine for measurements of fetal leg muscle and diaphragm fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR). Fetal muscles were analyzed for protein and RNA contents, [(3)H]phenylalanine incorporation, and MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (MAFbx) mRNA expression. Fetal liver tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) expression was quantified to assess fetal exposure to GLCs. DEX treatment reduced maternal food intake by 13% (P < 0.001) and significantly reduced placental mass relative to CON and PF dams. Liver TAT expression was elevated only in DEX fetuses (P < 0.01). DEX muscle protein masses were 56% and 70% than those of CON (P < 0.01) and PF (P < 0.05) fetuses, respectively; PF muscles were 80% of CON (P < 0.01). Muscle FSR decreased by 35% in DEX fetuses (P < 0.001) but were not different between PF and CON. Only atrogin-1 expression was increased in DEX fetus muscles. We conclude that high maternal GLC levels and inadequate maternal food intake impair fetal skeletal muscle growth, most likely through different mechanisms. When combined, the effects of decreased maternal intake and maternal GLC intake on fetal muscle growth are additive.

Gokulakrishnan G; Estrada IJ; Sosa HA; Fiorotto ML

2012-05-01

193

In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7/group) were studied: ad libitum food intake (control, CON); ad libitum food intake with 1 mg dexamethasone/l drinking water from embryonic day (ED)13 to ED21 (DEX); pair-fed (PF) to DEX from ED13 to ED21. On ED22, dams were injected with [(3)H]phenylalanine for measurements of fetal leg muscle and diaphragm fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR). Fetal muscles were analyzed for protein and RNA contents, [(3)H]phenylalanine incorporation, and MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (MAFbx) mRNA expression. Fetal liver tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) expression was quantified to assess fetal exposure to GLCs. DEX treatment reduced maternal food intake by 13% (P < 0.001) and significantly reduced placental mass relative to CON and PF dams. Liver TAT expression was elevated only in DEX fetuses (P < 0.01). DEX muscle protein masses were 56% and 70% than those of CON (P < 0.01) and PF (P < 0.05) fetuses, respectively; PF muscles were 80% of CON (P < 0.01). Muscle FSR decreased by 35% in DEX fetuses (P < 0.001) but were not different between PF and CON. Only atrogin-1 expression was increased in DEX fetus muscles. We conclude that high maternal GLC levels and inadequate maternal food intake impair fetal skeletal muscle growth, most likely through different mechanisms. When combined, the effects of decreased maternal intake and maternal GLC intake on fetal muscle growth are additive. PMID:22422665

Gokulakrishnan, Ganga; Estrada, Irma J; Sosa, Horacio A; Fiorotto, Marta L

2012-03-14

194

Administration of lopinavir/ritonavir association during rat pregnancy: maternal and fetal effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of the association of lopinavir and ritonavir administered during the whole period of rat pregnancy. METHODS: 62 Wistar rats of the EPM-1 variant weighing about 200 g were randomly divided into five groups: two controls (Ctrl = stress control, n = 10; and Ctr2 = drug vehicle control, n = 10) and three experimental ones which were treated with an oral solution of lopinavir/ritonavir (Exp1 = 12.8/3.2 mg/kg b.w., n = 14; Exp2 = 38.4/9.6 mg/kg b.w., n = 14; Exp3 = 115.2/28.8 mg/kg b.w., n = 14) from 'day 0' up to the 20th day of pregnancy. Maternal body weight was recorded at the start of the experiment and on the 7th, 14th and 20th day thereafter. At term (20th day), upon laparotomy and hysterotomy, the rats were anesthetized and the amount of implantations, reabsorptions, living fetuses, placentae and intrauterine deaths were recorded. The collected fetuses and placentae were weighed and the concepts were examined under a stereoscope microscope for external malformations. RESULTS: An apparent dose-unrelated lethal effect of the antiviral association on the pregnant rats was observed; notwithstanding, the body weight gain of the surviving rats had no changes, independent of the considered group. It was noted that the quantitative and qualitative intrauterine content of living term rats was indistinguishable from that of the controls. CONCLUSION: There was some degree of deleterious effects of the administration of the lopinavir/ritonavir association on pregnant rats; such effects eventually led to maternal death. However, neither the surviving rats showed toxicity nor did their concepts present any detectable change which could be related to the drug association.

Kulay L Jr; Hagemann CC; Nakamura MU; Simões RS; de Carvalho AM; Oliveira-Filho RM; Espiridião S

2013-01-01

195

Maternal nutritional programming of fetal adipose tissue development: differential effects on messenger ribonucleic acid abundance for uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated and prolactin receptors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maternal nutrient restriction at specific stages of gestation has differential effects on fetal development such that the offspring are programmed to be at increased risk of a range of adult diseases, including obesity. We investigated the effect of maternal nutritional manipulation through gestatio...

Bispham, J; Gardner, DS; Gnanalingham, MG; Stephenson, T; Symonds, ME; Budge, H

196

Exercise partly reverses the effect of maternal separation on hippocampal proteins in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animals subjected to maternal separation stress during the early stages of development display behavioural, endocrine and growth factor abnormalities that mirror the clinical findings in anxiety/depression. In addition, maternal separation has been shown to exacerbate the behavioural deficits induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. In contrast, voluntary exercise reduced the detrimental effects of 6-OHDA in the rat model. The beneficial effects of exercise appeared to be largely due to compensation in the non-lesioned hemisphere. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary exercise for 3 weeks could reverse the effects of maternal separation in rats challenged with the neurotoxin 6-OHDA infused into the medial forebrain bundle after 1 week of exercise, at postnatal day 60. The rats were killed 2 weeks later, at postnatal day 74. Their brains were dissected and the hippocampus rapidly removed for proteomic analysis by isobaric tagging (iTRAQ) and quantification of peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS). Maternal separation upregulated hippocampal proteins functionally involved in energy metabolism (nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, enolase and triosephosphate isomerase) and synaptic plasticity (?-synuclein, tenascin-R, Ba1-667, brevican and neurocan core protein) in the non-lesioned hemisphere. Exercise reversed many of these changes by downregulating the levels of hippocampal proteins functionally associated with energy metabolism (nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, enolase and triosephosphate isomerase) and synaptic plasticity (?-synuclein, tenascin-R, Ba1-667, brevican and neurocan core protein) in the non-lesioned hemisphere of rats subjected to maternal separation. Exercise and maternal separation therefore appeared to have opposing effects on the hippocampus in the non-lesioned hemisphere of the rat brain. Exercise seemed partly to reverse the effects of maternal separation stress on these proteins in the non-lesioned hemisphere. The partial reversal of maternal separation-induced proteins by exercise in the non-lesioned side sheds some insight into the mechanism by which exercise alters the molecular role players involved in determining the consequences of early life stress.

Dimatelis JJ; Hendricks S; Hsieh J; Vlok NM; Bugarith K; Daniels WM; Russell VA

2013-01-01

197

Effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on renal Ca metabolism in neonatal mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on serum Ca and Ca metabolism in their neonatal mice. From 6.5 to 16.5 days post coitus and from 3 to 10 days after parturition, maternal mice were administered at 200 µg/kg body weight/day of coumestrol. Coumestrol administration did not affect weight gains, serum Ca and the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) protein in the kidney of neonatal mice, but weight gains of maternal mice were decreased by coumestrol administration. Coumestrol administration increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of epithelial Ca channels 1 (ECaC1) and VDR in the kidney of neonatal mice, and also increased the mRNA expressions of ECaC2 in the kidney and small intestine of male neonatal mice. The mRNA expressions of ECaC1, ECaC2, calbindin-D(9k) (CaBP-9k) and estrogen receptor (ER)? in the kidney and VDR in the small intestine of male neonatal mice were higher than those of female mice. Thus, coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation may affect renal Ca metabolism in neonatal mice, especially male neonatal mice via maternal milk.

Ueda M; Horiguchi Y; Sugimoto M; Ikeda S; Kume S

2012-06-01

198

Treatment with Azadirachta indica in diabetic pregnant rats: negative effects on maternal outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The role of Azadirachta indica (neem) against Chagas disease and its antibiotic and antidiabetic action have been demonstrated in non-pregnant animals. However, the effects of neem on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress during pregnancy remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Azadirachta indica (neem) on maternal reproductive performance and biochemical parameters in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic rats (MD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant rats were randomly distributed into six experimental groups: ND=non-treated non-diabetic (n=13); NDOil=non-diabetic treated with 1.2 mL/day neem seed oil (n=12); NDPA=non-diabetic treated with 1.0mg/mL/day azadirachtin (n=12); D=non-treated diabetic (n=13); DOil: diabetic treated with neem seed oil (n=12), and DPA=diabetic treated with azadirachtin, n=13. Treatment with either neem oil (1.2 mL/day) or azadirachtin (1.0mg/mL/day) was orally administered throughout pregnancy. Glucose test tolerance (GTT) was performed at day 17 of pregnancy and used as an inclusion criterion. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, lipid profile and oxidative stress status were assessed. RESULTS: Treatment with neem oil and azadirachtin during pregnancy (1) had no hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects on non-diabetic and diabetic rats, respectively; (2) affected OGTT glycemic levels in diabetic rats; (3) increased the proportion of fetuses classified as small for pregnancy age (SPA) in all groups; and (4) did not interfere with the lipid profile in non-diabetic dams. Neem oil reduced the rate of total cholesterol and NEFA in diabetic animals. Both neem oil and azadirachtin increased lipoperoxidation, characterized by increased MDA levels in non-diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: Both neem seed oil and azadirachtin impaired intrauterine development and altered antioxidant/oxidative status during pregnancy.

Dallaqua B; Saito FH; Rodrigues T; Calderon IM; Rudge MV; Herrera E; Damasceno DC

2012-10-01

199

Imprinting effects of maternal water deprivation during late gestation on fetal and offspring RAS in the rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the imprinting effect of maternal water deprivation during late gestation on fetal and offspring renin-angiotensin system ( RAS) in the rats. Methods: After three days of maternal water deprivation during late gestation, fetal heart, kidney, placenta and body dry, wet weight as well as body and tail length were examined. Both fetal and offspring plasma angiotensin (Ang) II concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Angiotensinogen (ATG) mRNA in the fetal and offspring liver and cardiovascular responses to intravenous injection of Ang II were also determined by real-time PCR. Results: Maternal water deprivation during late gestation significantly decreased heart, kidney, and body dry and wet weight ,the length of the fetal body and tail (P 0. 05), and increased fetal plasma Ang II concentration (P imprintingeffect of diseases in fetal origins. (authors)

2010-01-01

200

Protective effects of hydrogen on fetal brain injury during maternal hypoxia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to investigate the effects of hydrogen on fetal brain injury during maternal hypoxia. Pregnant rats (n=12, at gestational day 17) were randomly assigned into three groups; air, hypoxia, and hypoxia plus hydrogen groups were put into a chamber and flushed with room air (21% O2 and 79% N2), hypoxia (8% O2 and 92% N2), and hypoxia with hydrogen mixture (2% H2, 8% O2 and 90% N2), respectively, for 4 consecutive hours. After birth, body and brain weights, body-righting reflex, and negative geotropism of neonates were measured, and then pups were killed at days 1 and 7. Oligodendrocytes were studied at post-natal day 1 by immunohistochemistry. We found significant decreases in body weight in the hypoxia group (P<0.05 vs. room air group), but not in the hypoxia plus hydrogen group (P>0.05 vs. room air group). Even though brain weight was not different among groups, the brain weight to body weight ratio in the room air group was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that in the hypoxia alone or hypoxia plus hydrogen groups. Body-righting reflex at day 1 and negative geotropism at days 3-4 showed deficiency in hypoxia animals when compared with the room air group (P<0.05). Hydrogen treatment improved the body-righting reflex and negative geotropism (P<0.05 vs. room air group). The above-mentioned functional changes caused by hypoxia were not associated with morphology and cell death of oligodendrocytes. Therefore, the maternal hypoxia-induced body weight loss, and functional abnormalities and hydrogen treatment during hypoxia offered a protective effect and improved functions in neonates.

Liu W; Chen O; Chen C; Wu B; Tang J; Zhang JH

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effects of Temperament, Symptom Severity and Level of Functioning on Maternal Stress in Greek Children and Youth with ASD  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examined the effect of child temperament, symptom severity, verbal ability and level of functioning on maternal stress in 43 Greek mothers of children and young people with autism spectrum disorder. Symptom severity was assessed by the CARS, level of functioning by the PEP, temperament by the Dimensions of Temperament Scale (DOTS-R)…

Konstantareas, M. Mary; Papageorgiou, Vaya

2006-01-01

202

Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring w...

Buzatto Bruno A; Tomkins Joseph L; Simmons Leigh W

203

Effects of maternal and offspring environmental conditions on growth, development and diapause in latitudinal yellow dung fly populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extensive phenotypic plasticity can allow populations to persist in changing environments. Maternal effects represent one important but often neglected source of phenotypic plasticity. Mothers and offspring of 2 high- (northern Norway and central Sweden) and 2 low- (northern and southern Spain) lati...

Scharf, I; Bauerfeind, S S; Blanckenhorn, W U; Schaefer, M A

204

On the origin of the maternal age effect in trisomy 21 Down syndrome: the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have recently documented that trisomy 21 mosaicism is common in human foetal ovaries. On the basis of this observation we propose that the maternal age effect in Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the differential behaviour of trisomy 21 in relation to disomy 21 oocytes during development from foetal life until ovulation in adulthood. In particular, we suggest that trisomy 21 oocytes, lagging behind those that are disomic, may escape the timed pruning of the seven million in foetal life to the 300-400 finally selected for ovulation. The net effect of this preferential elimination will be an accumulation of trisomy 21 oocytes in the ovarian reserve of older women. We here highlight the implications of this Oocyte Mosaicism Selection (OMS) model with respect to the prevalent view that the maternal age effect is complex, dependent on many different biological and environmental factors. We examine conclusions drawn from recent large-scale studies in families, tracing DNA markers along the length of chromosome 21q between parents and DS children, in comparison to the OMS model. We conclude that these family linkage data are equally compatible with the maternal age effect originating from the accumulation of trisomy 21 oocytes with advancing maternal age. One relatively straightforward way to get to grips with what is actually going on in this regard would be to compare incidence of trisomy 21 oocytes (and their pairing configurations) in foetal ovaries with that in oocytes at the meiosis I stage from adult women.

Hultén MA; Patel S; Jonasson J; Iwarsson E

2010-01-01

205

Effects of maternal genotype and diet on offspring glucose and fatty acid-sensing ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus neurons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maternal obesity accentuates offspring obesity in dams bred to develop diet-induced obesity (DIO) on a 31% fat, high-sucrose, high-energy (HE) diet but has no effect on offspring of diet-resistant (DR) dams. Also, only DIO dams become obese when they and DR dams are fed HE diet throughout gestation ...

Le Foll, Christelle; Irani, Boman G.; Magnan, Christophe; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose; Levin, Barry E.

206

Effect of Maternal Morphine Sulfate Exposure on Neuronal Plasticity of Dentate Gyrus in Balb/c Mice Offspring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study carried out to evaluate the effects of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation period on the neuronal cells of dentate gyrus in 18 and 32 days Balb/c mice offspring. In this experimental study 10 female mice were randomly allocated into cases and controls. In experimen...

M.J. Golalipour; S. Ghafari; S. Kaboli Kafshgiri; M.H. Latifi Moghadam; A.R. Moharri

207

Effect of docosahexaenoic acid content of maternal diet on auditory brainstem conduction times in rat pups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) effects on neurodevelopment have focused mainly on effects on the visual system; these studies may be confounded by effects on the retina rather than on neural pathways. Auditory brainstem conduction times (ABCTs) provide an alternate measure of central neural development. We conducted a dose-response study in which ABCTs were measured in pups whose dams were fed diets containing one of three levels of DHA (2, 4 or 6% of total fatty acids) from a single cell oil. Diets were fed during pregnancy and lactation, and pups were randomly cross-fostered on postnatal day 3 to minimize litter effects. ABCTs showed a dose-response effect, with higher levels of dietary DHA being associated with longer conduction times on postnatal day 31 (p < 0.05). Higher dietary DHA was reflected in pup cerebrums collected on postnatal days 3 and 31, and levels of arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were inversely related to levels of DHA. This study demonstrated that the auditory brainstem response is sensitive for identifying effects of diet on neurodevelopment, and that supplementing the maternal diet with high levels of DHA may negatively impact development of the central auditory system of offspring. PMID:11111168

Stockard, J E; Saste, M D; Benford, V J; Barness, L; Auestad, N; Carver, J D

208

Maternal smoking and birth defects: validity of birth certificate data for effect estimation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the validity of birth certificate data for estimating the association between maternal smoking and birth defects. The US standard birth certificate includes check boxes for maternal smoking and for 21 congenital anomalies. The sensitivity and specificity of b...

Honein, M. A.; Paulozzi, L. J.; Watkins, M. L.

209

Early maternal deprivation and neonatal single administration with a cannabinoid agonist induce long-term sex-dependent psychoimmunoendocrine effects in adolescent rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal deprivation [24h on postnatal day 9] might represent an animal model of schizophrenia and behavioural and neurochemical alterations observed in adulthood may be mediated by hippocampal impairments induced by abnormally increased glucocorticoids due to neonatal stress. We aimed to provide new data for psychoimmunoendocrine characterization of this animal model by evaluating its effects in adolescent rats of both genders. In previous studies we found that cannabinoid compounds counteracted the enhanced impulsivity of maternally deprived animals and that the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 showed neuroprotective properties in neonatal rats. So, we hypothesised that this compound could counteract at least some of the detrimental effects that we expected to find in maternally deprived animals. Accordingly, the drug was administered immediately after the maternal deprivation period. Maternally deprived males showed significantly decreased motor activity in the holeboard and the plus-maze. The cannabinoid agonist induced, exclusively in males, a significant anxiogenic-like effect, which was reversed by maternal deprivation. In the forced swimming test, both treatments independently induced depressive-like responses. Maternal deprivation reduced immunological function whereas the drug exerted tissue-dependent effects on the immune parameters analysed. Maternally deprived females showed reduced corticosterone levels whereas the cannabinoid agonist increased hormone concentration in all groups. In general, the results show detrimental effects of both treatments as well as intriguing interactions, notably in relation to emotional behaviour and certain immunological responses. PMID:17553622

Llorente, Ricardo; Arranz, Lorena; Marco, Eva-María; Moreno, Enrique; Puerto, Marta; Guaza, Carmen; De la Fuente, Mónica; Viveros, Maria-Paz

2007-06-05

210

Bringing it all together: effective maternal and child health practice as a means to improve public health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effective maternal and child health (MCH) practice requires skillfully combining a number of theoretical models and frameworks to support systems addressing the health needs of women, children, and families. This paper describes three perspectives relevant to current MCH practice: the federal Maternal & Child Health Bureau's Pyramid of MCH Health Services [1], Frieden's Health Impact Pyramid [Frieden in Am J Public Health 100(4):590-595, (2010)], and life course theory [Halfon in Milbank Quart, 80:433-79, (2002); Kotelchuck in Matern Child Health J, 7:5-11, (2003); Pies (2009)], an emerging conceptual framework that addresses a number of pressing maternal and child health issues including health disparities and the social determinants of health. While developed independently, a synthesis of these three frameworks provides an important analytical perspective to assess the adequacy and comprehensiveness of current public health programs and systems supporting maternal and child health improvement. Synthesizing these frameworks from the specific vantage point of MCH practice provides public health practitioners with important and dynamic opportunities to promote improvements in health, especially for state and local governmental health agencies with the statutory authority and public accountability for improving the health of women, children, and families in their jurisdictions. A crucial finding of this synthesis is that significant improvements in MCH outcomes at the state and local levels are the result of collaborative, integrated, and synergistic implementation of many different interventions, programs and policies that are carried out by a number of stakeholders, and administered in many different settings. MCH programs have a long history of coordinating disparate sectors of the health care and public health enterprise to create systems of services that improve maternal and child health. Future improvements in MCH build on this legacy but will come from a "paradigm shift" in MCH practice that blends (1) evidence-based interventions and best practices that improve the health of individuals, communities, and populations, and crosscuts health service settings with (2) public policies that promote and improve maternal and child health needs at the local, state, and national levels, and (3) supports MCH leadership to implement such changes in MCH systems nationwide. As such, the challenge presented by this synthesis is not merely technical, i.e. having the scientific and organizational capacity to address identified MCH needs. Instead, a more pressing challenge is providing effective leadership in the coordination and integration of these frameworks and using them in practice to develop a vision that guides programs and policies to improve maternal and child health nationwide.

Fraser MR

2013-07-01

211

Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular) e perinatais (peso e prematuridade) da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22) e não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19) de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e relativa. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx), volume sistólico (VS) e débito cardíaco (DC). Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0%) e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0%) e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5) e DC de (13,5 para 15,1); no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos.PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity) and perinatal (weight and prematurity) effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random cohort study, with 41 low-risk pregnant women in their first pregnancy, practicing (study group, n=22) and not (control group, n=19) hydrotherapy. Anthropometric evaluation was used to assess lean mass, and absolute and relative body fat. Ergometric tests were used for maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). Perinatal results showed premature births and small for gestational age newborns. Initial and final indexes within and between groups were compared. Maternal variables were evaluated using the t test for dependent and independent values; the chi ² test was used to study proportions. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the groups for maternal variables at the start and end of hydrotherapy. Comparison within each group confirmed the beneficial effect of hydrotherapy. In the study group, relative fat index was maintained at 29.0%; the control group showed an increase from 28.8% to 30.7%; the study group maintained VO2max at 35%, and increased SV from 106.6 to 121.5 and CO from 13.5 to 15.1; the control group showed a drop in VO2max and no change in SV and CO. There was no relationship between hydrotherapy and perinatal results. CONCLUSIONS: hydrotherapy adequately assisted metabolic and cardiovascular maternal adaptation to pregnancy and did not cause prematurity or weight loss in newborns.

Tânia Terezinha Scudeller Prevedel; Iracema de Mattos Paranhos Calderon; Marta Helena De Conti; Elenice Bertanha Consonni; Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

2003-01-01

212

Repercussões maternas e perinatais da hidroterapia na gravidez/ Maternal and perinatal effects of hydrotherapy in pregnancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: estudar os efeitos maternos (composição corporal e capacidade cardiovascular) e perinatais (peso e prematuridade) da prática da hidroterapia na gestação. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, coorte, aleatorizado, com 41 gestantes de baixo risco e gestação única, praticantes (grupo estudo, n=22) e não-praticantes (grupo controle, n=19) de hidroterapia. Avaliações antropométricas definiram-se os índices de peso corporal, massa magra e gordura absoluta e rela (more) tiva. Por teste ergométrico, definiu-se os índices de consumo máximo de oxigênio(VO2máx), volume sistólico (VS) e débito cardíaco (DC). Como resultado perinatal observaram-se ocorrência de prematuridade e recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional. Compararam-se os índices iniciais e finais entre e dentro de cada grupo. As variáveis maternas foram avaliadas pelo teste t para amostras dependentes e independentes e empregou-se o chi ² para estudo das proporções. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos não evidenciou diferença significativa nas variáveis maternas no início e no final da hidroterapia. A comparação dentro de cada grupo confirmou efeito benéfico da hidroterapia: no grupo estudo os índices de gordura relativa foram mantidos (29,0%) e no grupo controle aumentaram de 28,8 para 30,7%; o grupo estudo manteve os índices de VO2máx (35,0%) e aumentou VS (106,6 para 121,5) e DC de (13,5 para 15,1); no grupo controle observaram-se queda nos índices de VO2máx e manutenção de VS e de DC. A hidroterapia não interferiu nos resultados perinatais, relacionados à prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascimento. CONCLUSÕES: a hidroterapia favoreceu adequada adaptação metabólica e cardiovascular materna à gestação e não determinou prematuridade e baixo peso nos recém-nascidos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study maternal (body composition and cardiovascular capacity) and perinatal (weight and prematurity) effects of hydrotherapy during pregnancy. METHODS: a prospective, random cohort study, with 41 low-risk pregnant women in their first pregnancy, practicing (study group, n=22) and not (control group, n=19) hydrotherapy. Anthropometric evaluation was used to assess lean mass, and absolute and relative body fat. Ergometric tests were used for maximum oxygen consu (more) mption (VO2max), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). Perinatal results showed premature births and small for gestational age newborns. Initial and final indexes within and between groups were compared. Maternal variables were evaluated using the t test for dependent and independent values; the chi ² test was used to study proportions. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the groups for maternal variables at the start and end of hydrotherapy. Comparison within each group confirmed the beneficial effect of hydrotherapy. In the study group, relative fat index was maintained at 29.0%; the control group showed an increase from 28.8% to 30.7%; the study group maintained VO2max at 35%, and increased SV from 106.6 to 121.5 and CO from 13.5 to 15.1; the control group showed a drop in VO2max and no change in SV and CO. There was no relationship between hydrotherapy and perinatal results. CONCLUSIONS: hydrotherapy adequately assisted metabolic and cardiovascular maternal adaptation to pregnancy and did not cause prematurity or weight loss in newborns.

Prevedel, Tânia Terezinha Scudeller; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos; De Conti, Marta Helena; Consonni, Elenice Bertanha; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha

2003-02-01

213

Effects of maternal drinking and marijuana use on fetal growth and development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study of 1,690 mother/child pairs at Boston City Hospital was conducted to assess the impact of maternal alcohol consumption on fetal development when confounding variables were controlled. Level of maternal drinking prior to pregnancy was associated with shorter duration of gestation. Lower maternal weight change, history of maternal illnesses, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use, however, were more consistently related to adverse fetal growth and development. New findings in this study include a negative association between maternal marijuana use during pregnancy and fetal growth. Also when confounding variables were controlled, women who used marijuana during pregnancy were five times more likely to deliver infants with features considered compatible with the fetal alcohol syndrome.

Hingson R; Alpert JJ; Day N; Dooling E; Kayne H; Morelock S; Oppenheimer E; Zuckerman B

1982-10-01

214

Comparison of the maternal and neonatal effects of bupivacaine plus fentanyl and ropivacaine plus fentanyl during cesarean delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy, and fetal and maternal effects of 7.5 mg (1 ml) intrathecal 0.75% hyperbaric ropivacaine + 25 ?g (0.5 ml) fentanyl versus 5 mg (l ml) intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine + 25 ?g (0.5 ml) fentanyl in elective cesarean delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 40 ASA I-II cases scheduled for cesarean delivery that were randomized into two groups of 20 cases each. Cases in the RF group were administered 0.75% hyperbaric ropivacaine + 25 ?g (0.5 ml) fentanyl and those in the BF group were administered 5 mg (l ml) hyperbaric bupivacaine + 25 ?g (0.5 ml) fentanyl into the spinal space. The time until spinal anesthesia in the T4 dermatome, overall duration of analgesia, hemodynamic parameters, Apgar score of newborns at 1-5 min, fetal blood gas values (pH, PO2, PCO2, HCO3-, and BE), maternal side effects, the degree of motor block, maternal need for ephedrine, objective pain scale score, and patient satisfaction were recorded in each group. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the parameters evaluated (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In elective cesarean delivery, the combinations of bupivacaine + fentanyl or ropivacaine + fentanyl exhibited similar anesthetic efficacy, and fetal and maternal effects.

Canan U; Ornek D; Kilci O; Donmez F; Gamli M; Dikmen B

2013-04-01

215

Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. RESULTS: Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. CONCLUSIONS: Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively, preparing at least their major offspring for the sexual competition they will face in the future. This new type of maternal effect in dung beetles represents a novel transgenerational response of alternative reproductive tactics to population density.

Buzatto BA; Tomkins JL; Simmons LW

2012-01-01

216

Effect of child marriage on use of maternal health care services in pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between child marriage (before 18 years of age) and maternal health care services use in Pakistan. METHODS: We limited the data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, to ever-married females aged 15-24 years with at least one childbirth (n=1,404) to identify differences in prenatal care provision (skilled or unskilled medical care provider), antenatal care (antenatal visits; care at home or a hospital), care at delivery (assistance by unskilled medical care provider), and place of birth by early (younger than 18 years) compared with adult (18 years or older) age at marriage. Associations between child marriage and health care services use were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), employment status, and partners' education. RESULTS: Overall, 66.1% of ever-married respondents aged 15-24 years in Pakistan with at least one childbirth were married before the age of 18 years. More than half (61.9%) of females married as children had no formal education, and the majority (71.0%) resided in rural areas. Child marriage was significantly associated with decreased likelihood of any prenatal care (adjusted OR 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.534-0.993) and prenatal care by skilled medical care providers (adjusted OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.476-0.871) and increased likelihood of delivery assistance by unskilled medical providers (adjusted OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.435-2.518) and delivery at home (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.617-2.915). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to increase the age of marriage and delay childbearing may have population-level effects on reducing disparities between females married as children and adults and improving maternal and child health in Pakistan. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: : II.

Nasrullah M; Zakar R; Krämer A

2013-09-01

217

Effect of endogenous vasoconstrictors on maternal intramyometrial and fetal stem villous arteries in pre-eclampsia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The contractile responses to various endogenous vasoactive agents were investigated in isolated human uteroplacental arteries from normotensive (NT) patients and patients with pre-eclampsia (PE) undergoing caesarian section. Tissue samples were obtained from the uterine incision and from macroscopically normal cotyledons. Vascular ring preparations of intramyometrial and stem villous arteries (length 1.0-1.3 mm, outer diameter 400-600 microns) were dissected and mounted in organ baths and isometric tension was recorded. Concentration-response relationships for vasopressin (VP), oxytocin (OX), angiotensin II (Ang II), noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were assessed. For each compound, the mean maximum contractile effect (Emax) and the drug concentration producing half-maximal response (EC50) were determined. In intramyometrial arteries from NT and PE patients, VP, Ang II, NA, 5-HT and PGF2 alpha induced contraction while OX and PGE2 produced weak or no responses. Preparations from PE patients showed higher Emax values, while no differences in EC50 were found between the two groups. In fetal stem villous arteries, Ang II, 5-HT, PGF2 alpha and PGE2 induced contractions, while VP, NA and OX produced weak responses. No differences in Emax or EC50 values were found between the fetal vessels of PE and NT patients. No qualitative differences were demonstrated in response to the agents tested between the vessels (fetal and maternal) from NT women at term and PE patients. However, the results may reflect quantitative differences, suggesting increased contractility of maternal uteroplacental arteries from women with PE.

Allen, J; Forman, Axel

1989-01-01

218

Maternal parity and its effect on adipose tissue deposition and endocrine sensitivity in the postnatal sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal parity influences size at birth, postnatal growth and body composition with firstborn infants being more likely to be smaller with increased fat mass, suggesting that adiposity is set in early life. The precise effect of parity on fat mass and its endocrine sensitivity remains unclear and was, therefore, investigated in the present study. We utilised an established sheep model in which perirenal-abdominal fat mass (the major fat depot in the neonatal sheep) increases approximately 10-fold over the first month of life and focussed on the impact of parity on glucocorticoid sensitivity and adipokine expression in the adipocyte. Twin-bearing sheep of similar body weight and adiposity that consumed identical diets were utilised, and maternal blood samples were taken at 130 days of gestation. One offspring from each twin pair was sampled at 1 day of age, coincident with the time of maximal recruitment of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), whilst its sibling was sampled at 1 month, when UCP1 had disappeared. Plasma leptin was lower in nulliparous mothers than in multiparous mothers, and offspring of nulliparous mothers possessed more adipose tissue with increased mRNA abundance of leptin, glucocorticoid receptor and UCP2, adaptations that persisted up to 1 month of age when gene expression for interleukin-6 and adiponectin was also raised. The increase in fat mass associated with firstborn status is therefore accompanied by a resetting of the leptin and glucocorticoid axis within the adipocyte. Our findings emphasise the importance of parity in determining adipose tissue development and that firstborn offspring have an increased capacity for adipogenesis which may be critical in determining later adiposity.

Hyatt MA; Keisler DH; Budge H; Symonds ME

2010-02-01

219

Maternal parity and its effect on adipose tissue deposition and endocrine sensitivity in the postnatal sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal parity influences size at birth, postnatal growth and body composition with firstborn infants being more likely to be smaller with increased fat mass, suggesting that adiposity is set in early life. The precise effect of parity on fat mass and its endocrine sensitivity remains unclear and was, therefore, investigated in the present study. We utilised an established sheep model in which perirenal-abdominal fat mass (the major fat depot in the neonatal sheep) increases approximately 10-fold over the first month of life and focussed on the impact of parity on glucocorticoid sensitivity and adipokine expression in the adipocyte. Twin-bearing sheep of similar body weight and adiposity that consumed identical diets were utilised, and maternal blood samples were taken at 130 days of gestation. One offspring from each twin pair was sampled at 1 day of age, coincident with the time of maximal recruitment of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), whilst its sibling was sampled at 1 month, when UCP1 had disappeared. Plasma leptin was lower in nulliparous mothers than in multiparous mothers, and offspring of nulliparous mothers possessed more adipose tissue with increased mRNA abundance of leptin, glucocorticoid receptor and UCP2, adaptations that persisted up to 1 month of age when gene expression for interleukin-6 and adiponectin was also raised. The increase in fat mass associated with firstborn status is therefore accompanied by a resetting of the leptin and glucocorticoid axis within the adipocyte. Our findings emphasise the importance of parity in determining adipose tissue development and that firstborn offspring have an increased capacity for adipogenesis which may be critical in determining later adiposity. PMID:19934248

Hyatt, M A; Keisler, D H; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

2009-11-24

220

Have children adapted to their mothers working, or was adaptation unnecessary? Cohort effects and the relationship between maternal employment and child well-being.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drawing on previous theoretical and empirical work, we posit that maternal employment influences on child well-being vary across birth cohorts. We investigate this possibility by analyzing longitudinal data from a sample of children and their mothers drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We introduce a series of age, cohort, and maternal employment interaction terms into multilevel models predicting child well-being to assess whether any potential short-term or long-term effects of early and current maternal employment vary across birth cohorts. Results indicate that maternal employment largely is inconsequential to child well-being regardless of birth cohort, with a few exceptions. For instance, children born in earlier cohorts may have experienced long-term positive effects of having an employed mother; however, as maternal employment became more commonplace in recent cohorts, these beneficial effects appear to have disappeared. We discuss theoretical and methodological implications of these findings.

Wills JB; Brauer JR

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

The effect of haloperidol on maternal behavior in WAG/Rij rats and its consequences in the offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Haloperidol treatment during pre- and post-natal period affects maternal behavior and this may have long-term effects on the offspring. We examined whether early haloperidol administration to Wistar-Albino-Glaxo dams from Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) and in Wistar control rats would affect maternal care and as a consequence, seizure susceptibility and behavior in the WAG/Rij's offspring at 3-4 months of age. Nursing dams of this well-validated genetic animal model of absence epilepsy and control dams were injected with haloperidol or saline at PPD 1 to 6. Maternal behavior was evaluated at PPD 7 to 9. Haloperidol-injected WAG/Rij dams showed more pup carryings compared with saline-injected mothers, this effect was not noticed in control Wistar dams. The offspring of haloperidol-treated WAG/Rij dams, tested during adulthood, showed heightened behavioral activity (time spent into the open arms, head dips) in the elevated plus-maze, as well as shorter spike-wave discharges (SWD) as measured in their electroencephalographic activity compared with saline-treated rats. Overall, it can be concluded that deviancies in the DA system as induced by haloperidol facilitates pup carrying/retrieval behavior in WAG/Rij rats and reduces seizure activity of the offspring in adulthood. Therefore, inter-individual differences in seizure properties and behavior in genetically predisposed animals may be due to differences in maternal behavior of the dams.

Dobryakova YV; Dubynin VA; Luijtelaar Gv

2011-01-01

222

Exploring Maternal and Child Effects of Comorbid Anxiety Disorders among African American Mothers with Depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 77) with a past year diagnosis of a depressive disorder and a child between the ages of ages 8-14 were administered a clinician interview and measures of maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing) in a cross-sectional design. Results showed that more than half (58%) of the mothers had a comorbid anxiety disorder and a third had Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Regression analyses showed that comorbid PTSD and Social Phobia were positively associated with maternal depression severity. Maternal comorbid Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) was associated with child internalizing symptoms. The findings are consistent with other research demonstrating negative outcomes with maternal comorbidity of depression and anxiety, however, there is limited research focused on maternal depression and OCD or PTSD. The study suggests that it is important to consider comorbid anxiety and cultural issues when conceptualizing, studying, and treating mothers with depression and their families.

Boyd RC; Tervo-Clemmens B

2013-06-01

223

Heterosis, maternal and direct effects for postweaning growth traits and carcass performance in rabbit crosses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY: A crossbreeding experiment was carried out in Egypt using a local breed (Baladi Red, BR) and New Zealand White (NZ) to estimate direct heterosis, maternal additive effects and direct sire effects on some growth and carcass traits in rabbits. Data of body weight (at 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 weeks) and daily gains (at intervals of 5-6, 6-8, 8-10, and 10-12 weeks) on 2153 weaned rabbits were collected. Carcass performance at 12 weeks of age (weight and percentages of carcass, giblets, head, fur, blood and viscera) on 213 male rabbits was evaluated. Estimates of coefficients of variation (CV) for most growth and carcass traits were high and ranged from 10.0 to 40.2%. Sire-breed was of considerable importance in the variation of growth traits and some carcass traits, while dam-breed contributed little. Sire-breed × dam-breed interaction affected (P<0.01 or P<0.001) most body weights and gains studied, while it contributed little to the variation of carcass traits. The purebred NZ resulted in rabbits with heavier weights and carcass and with lighter non-edible carcass (blood and viscera) compared to the BR. Heterosis percentages for most growth traits were significant and ranged from 2.5% to 5.0% for body weights and from 0.7% to 9.5% for daily gains. Insignificant positive direct heterosis was observed for most carcass traits. Crossbred rabbits from NZ sires with BR dams were superior to from the reciprocals. Maternal-breed effects on most weights and gains were insignificant, while sire-breed contrasts for some weights and gains proved significant. Postweaning growth and carcass performances of BR-mothered rabbits generally surpassed the NZ mothered, while NZ-sired rabbits were superior at later ages. High edible carcass was observed for BR-sired rabbits, while more non-edible carcass wastes (blood and viscera) for NZ-sired rabbits. Maternal-breed effects appeared to be less important than paternal-breed effects in influencing most weights, gains and carcass traits studied. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Heterosis, maternale und direkte Wirkungen bei Wachstums- und Schlachtkörpermerkmalen in Kaninchenkreuzungen Der Kreuzungsversuch wurde mit lokalen ägyptischen Rassen (BR) und Neuseeland Weißen (NZ) zur Schätzung direkter Heterosis, maternaler additiver Wirkungen, direkter Vater-Wirkung auf einige Wachstums- und Schlachtkörpermerkmale von Kaninchen durchgeführt. Angaben über Körpergewicht (5, 6, 8, 10, 12 Wochen) und Zuwachs (Intervalle 5 bis 6, 6 bis 8, 8 bis 10, 10 bis 12 Wochen) wurden von 2153 abgesetzten Kaninchen gewonnen. Die Schlachtkörperleistungen bei 12 Wochen Alter (Gewicht und Anteil von Schlachtkörper, Kopf, Pelz, Blut und Innereien) stammen von 213 männlichen Kaninchen. Schätzungen der Variationskoeffizenten (CV) für meiste Wachstums- und Schlachtkörpermerkmale waren hoch und bewegten sich zwischen 10 und 40,2%. Vaterrasse hatte erheblichen Einfluß auf Unterschiede in Wachstumsrate und einige Schlachtkörpermerkmale, während die Mutterrasse weniger beigetragen hat. Interaktion zwischen beiden beeinflußte die meisten Körpergewichts- und Zuwacnsleistungen, während sie wenig zur Variabilität der Schlachtkörpermerkmale beigetragen hat. Reinrassige NZ waren schwerer und hatten weniger nicht nutzbare Schlachtkörperteile (Blut und Eingeweide) verglichen mit BR. Heterosis-Prozente für die meisten Wachstumsmerkmale waren signifikant und schwankten zwischen 2,5 und 5% für Körpergewicht, 0,7 bis 9,5% für Zuwachs. Insignifikante positive direkte Heterosis wurde für die meisten Schlachtkörpermerkmale beobachtet. Kreuzungskaninchen von NZ Vätern waren den reziproken überlegen. Maternale Wirkungen auf meiste Gewichtsmerkmale waren insignifikant, während Vaterrassenkontraste hierfür signifikant waren. Zuwachs- und Schlachtkörperleistung von BR gesäugten Kaninchen haben im allgemeinen die von NZ gesäugten übertroffen, während von NZ Böcken gezeugte in späteren Altersabschnitten überlegen waren. Hohe Werte für Schlachtkörper wurden für BR gesäugte Kaninchen gefunden, während mehr nicht verz

Afifi EA; Khalil MH; Khadr AF; Youssef YM

1994-01-01

224

The effect of exclusive breast-feeding on respiratory illness in young infants in a maternal immunization trial in Bangladesh.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breast-feeding reduces the risk of respiratory illness in infants younger than 6 months of age in developing countries by approximately half. We evaluated the effect of exclusive breast-feeding on respiratory illness with fever (RIF) in Bangladeshi infants in the context of a randomized maternal influenza immunization trial. METHODS: Infants in a maternal vaccine trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were prospectively assessed at weekly intervals for 6 months after birth for breast-feeding practices and RIF. We estimated the risk of an RIF episode for infants who were exclusively breast-fed the prior week compared with infants not exclusively breast-fed the prior week using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: We followed a total of 331 infants from birth to 24 weeks of age. The median weeks infants were exclusively breast-fed was 15 (interquartile range, 6-21). The adjusted independent odds of respiratory illness for exclusively breast-fed infants compared with nonexclusively breast-fed infants was 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.45-0.77) for an RIF episode. After adjusting for exclusive breast-feeding, we confirmed the previous report that maternal immunization with influenza vaccine had an independent protective effect against RIF (odds ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.55-0.93). No significant difference in the protective effect of exclusive breast-feeding was seen by maternal influenza immunization status. CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life and maternal immunization with influenza vaccine independently and substantially reduced respiratory illness with fever in infants.

Henkle E; Steinhoff MC; Omer SB; Roy E; Arifeen SE; Raqib R; Breiman RF; Caulfield LE; Moss WJ; Zaman K

2013-05-01

225

The effects of maternal weight gain patterns on term birth weight in African-American women  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The goals of our study were 1) to estimate the trends in maternal weight gain patterns and 2) to estimate the influence of variation in maternal weight and rate of weight gain over different time periods in gestation on variation in birth weight in African-American and non-African-American gravidas. Study Design and Setting Data from a prospective cohort study in which pregnant women were monitored at multiple time points during pregnancy were analyzed. Maternal weight was measured at three times during pregnancy, preconception (W0); 16-20 weeks gestation (W1); and 30-36 weeks gestation (W2), in a cohort of 435 women with full-term singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age-adjusted birth weight (aBW) and measures of maternal weight and rate of weight gain across pregnancy was estimated using a multivariable longitudinal regression analysis stratified on African-American race. Results The aBW was significantly associated with maternal weight measured at any visit in both strata. For African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with variation in the rate of maternal weight gain in the first half of pregnancy (W01) but not the rate of maternal weight gain in the second half of pregnancy (W12); while for non-African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with W12 but not W01. Conclusion Factors influencing the relationship between aBW and maternal weight gain patterns depend on the context of the pregnancy defined by race. Clinical decisions and recommendations about maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy may need to account for such heterogeneity.

Misra, Vinod K.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sing, Charles F.

2010-01-01

226

The effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on cognition and mood during pregnancy and postpartum in Indonesia: a randomized trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal caregiving capacity, which is affected in part by cognition and mood, is crucial for the health of mothers and infants. Few interventions aim to improve maternal and infant health through improving such capacity. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation may improve maternal cognition and mood, since micronutrients are essential for brain function. We assessed mothers who participated in the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind cluster-randomized trial in Indonesia comparing MMN supplementation to iron and folic acid (IFA) during pregnancy and until three months postpartum. We adapted a set of well-studied tests of cognition, motor dexterity, and mood to the local context and administered them to a random sample of 640 SUMMIT participants after an average of 25 weeks (SD = 9) of supplementation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Controlling for maternal age, education, and socio-economic status, MMN resulted in a benefit of 0.12 SD on overall cognition, compared to IFA (95%CI 0.03-0.22, p = .010), and a benefit of 0.18 SD on reading efficiency (95%CI 0.02-0.35, p = .031). Both effects were found particularly in anemic (hemoglobin<110 g/L; overall cognition: B = 0.20, 0.00-0.41, p = .055; reading: B = 0.40, 0.02-0.77, p = .039) and undernourished (mid-upper arm circumference<23.5 cm; overall cognition: B = 0.33, 0.07-0.59, p = .020; reading: B = 0.65, 0.19-1.12, p = .007) mothers. The benefit of MMN on overall cognition was equivalent to the benefit of one year of education for all mothers, to two years of education for anemic mothers, and to three years of education for undernourished mothers. No effects were found on maternal motor dexterity or mood. This is the first study demonstrating an improvement in maternal cognition with MMN supplementation. This improvement may increase the quality of care mothers provide for their infants, potentially partly mediating effects of maternal MMN supplementation on infant health and survival. The study is registered as an International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN34151616. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN34151616.

Prado EL; Ullman MT; Muadz H; Alcock KJ; Shankar AH

2012-01-01

227

Effects of maternal dietary exposure to cadmium during pregnancy on mammary cancer risk among female offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Since heavy metal cadmium is an endocrine disrupting chemical, we investigated whether maternal exposure to cadmium during the pregnancy alters mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring. METHODS: From gestation day 10 to day 19, pregnant rat dams were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93G) diet containing 39% energy from fat (baseline diet), or the baseline diet containing moderate (75 ?g/kg of feed) or high (150 ?g/kg) cadmium levels. Some dams were injected with 10 ?g 17?-estradiol (E2) daily between gestation days 10 and 19. RESULTS: Rats exposed to a moderate cadmium dose in utero were heavier and exhibited accelerated puberty onset. Both moderate and high cadmium dose led to increased circulating testosterone levels and reduced the expression of androgen receptor in the mammary gland. The moderate cadmium dose mimicked the effects of in utero E2 exposure on mammary gland morphology and increased both the number of terminal end buds and pre-malignant hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HANs), but in contrast to the E2, it did not increase 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of in utero cadmium exposure were dependent on the dose given to pregnant dams: Moderate, but not high, cadmium dose mimicked some of the effects seen in the in utero E2 exposed rats, such as increased HANs in the mammary gland.

Davis J; Khan G; Martin MB; Hilakivi-Clarke L

2013-01-01

228

The effects of pregnancy on the exacerbation and development of maternal allergic respiratory disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The T-helper 2 (T(H)2) bias associated with pregnancy may predispose the pregnant mother to the development or exacerbation of allergic disease. To determine the effects of pregnancy on pre-existing maternal sensitization, we sensitized BALB/c mice before breeding by two intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposures to the fungal allergen, Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA). Some mice also received three IA exposures to MACA on gestational days 11, 15, and 19. After weaning, all mice were challenged IA with MACA before killing. To determine the effects of pregnancy on susceptibility to future sensitization, naïve parous and nulliparous BALB/c mice were sensitized by three IA exposures to MACA or to Hank's buffered salt solution vehicle control. Pregnancy did not have a significant effect on individual inflammatory parameters (airway responsiveness to methacholine, total serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgE, BALF total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and total and differential cell counts) following allergen challenge in sensitized mice, regardless of post-breeding allergen exposure. In conclusion there was a weak inhibition of the overall response in mice exposed to allergen during pregnancy compared to identically treated nulliparous mice. In contrast, parous mice that did not encounter allergen post-breeding tended to have exacerbated responses. Parity had no significant impact on future susceptibility to sensitization.

Pucheu-Haston CM; Copeland LB; Haykal-Coates N; Ward MD

2009-12-01

229

The effects of pregnancy on the exacerbation and development of maternal allergic respiratory disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The T-helper 2 (T(H)2) bias associated with pregnancy may predispose the pregnant mother to the development or exacerbation of allergic disease. To determine the effects of pregnancy on pre-existing maternal sensitization, we sensitized BALB/c mice before breeding by two intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposures to the fungal allergen, Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA). Some mice also received three IA exposures to MACA on gestational days 11, 15, and 19. After weaning, all mice were challenged IA with MACA before killing. To determine the effects of pregnancy on susceptibility to future sensitization, naïve parous and nulliparous BALB/c mice were sensitized by three IA exposures to MACA or to Hank's buffered salt solution vehicle control. Pregnancy did not have a significant effect on individual inflammatory parameters (airway responsiveness to methacholine, total serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgE, BALF total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and total and differential cell counts) following allergen challenge in sensitized mice, regardless of post-breeding allergen exposure. In conclusion there was a weak inhibition of the overall response in mice exposed to allergen during pregnancy compared to identically treated nulliparous mice. In contrast, parous mice that did not encounter allergen post-breeding tended to have exacerbated responses. Parity had no significant impact on future susceptibility to sensitization. PMID:19845451

Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Copeland, Lisa B; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Ward, Marsha D W

2009-12-01

230

Sepsis and maternal mortality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite global progress towards reducing maternal mortality, sepsis remains a leading cause of preventable maternal death. This review focuses on current measurement challenges, trends, causes and efforts to curb maternal death from sepsis in high and low-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Under-reporting using routine registration data, compounded by misclassification and unreported deaths, results in significant underestimation of the burden of maternal death from sepsis. In the UK and the Netherlands the recent increase in maternal death from sepsis is mainly attributed to an increase in invasive group A streptococcal infections. Susceptibility to infection may be complicated by modulation of maternal immune response and increasing rates of risk factors such as caesarean section and obesity. Failure to recognize severity of infection is a major universal risk factor. Standardized Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) recommendations for management of severe maternal sepsis are continuing to be implemented worldwide; however, outcomes differ according to models of intensive care resourcing and use. SUMMARY: The need for robust data with subsequent analyses is apparent. This will significantly increase our understanding of risk factors and their causal pathways, which are critical to informing effective treatment strategies in consideration of resource availability.

Acosta CD; Knight M

2013-04-01

231

Ecological and developmental context of natural selection: maternal effects and thermally induced plasticity in the frog Bombina orientalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variation in fitness generated by differences in functional performance can often be traced to morphological variation among individuals within natural populations. However, morphological variation itself is strongly influenced by environmental factors (e.g., temperature) and maternal effects (e.g., variation in egg size). Understanding the full ecological context of individual variation and natural selection therefore requires an integrated view of how the interaction between the environment and development structures differences in morphology, performance, and fitness. Here we use naturally occurring environmental and maternal variation in the frog Bombina orientalis in South Korea to show that ovum size, average temperature, and variance in temperature during the early developmental period affect body sizes, shapes, locomotor performance, and ultimately the probability of an individual surviving interspecific predation in predictable but nonadditive ways. Specifically, environmental variability can significantly change the relationship between maternal investment in offspring and offspring fitness so that increased maternal investment can actually negatively affect offspring over a broad range of environments. Integrating environmental variation and developmental processes into traditional approaches of studying phenotypic variation and natural selection is likely to provide a more complete picture of the ecological context of evolutionary change.

Kaplan RH; Phillips PC

2006-01-01

232

Oxidative stress and apoptosis in fetal rat liver induced by maternal cholestasis. Protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The sensitivity of fetal rat liver to maternal obstructive cholestasis during pregnancy (OCP), and the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) were investigated. METHODS: UDCA was administered (i.g. 0.6 mg/kg b.wt./day) from day 14 to day 21 of pregnancy after maternal common bile duct ligation. RESULTS: Impairment in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, levels of total glutathione and GSH/GSSG ratio and the degrees of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were similar in livers of OCP mothers and fetuses at term, despite hypercholanemia was milder in fetuses. Treatment of OCP rats with UDCA reduced maternal and fetal liver oxidative stress. Although maternal hypercholanemia was not corrected, fetal serum concentrations of major bile acids (except UDCA and beta-muricholic acid) were reduced. Fetal liver expression of key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, Cyp7a1, Cyp27 and Cyp8b1 was not affected by OCP or UDCA treatment. In OCP fetal livers, the relative expression of Bax-alpha and Bcl-2 and the activity of caspase-3, but not caspase-8, were increased. These changes were markedly reduced in fetuses of OCP animals treated with UDCA. CONCLUSIONS: OCP induced moderate fetal hypercholanemia but marked liver oxidative stress and apoptosis that were partly prevented by treatment of pregnant rats with UDCA.

Perez MJ; Macias RI; Duran C; Monte MJ; Gonzalez-Buitrago JM; Marin JJ

2005-08-01

233

The Role of Maternal Smoking in Effect of Fetal Growth Restriction on Poor Scholastic Achievement in Elementary School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction and maternal smoking during pregnancy are independently implicated in lowering intellectual attainment in children. We hypothesized that only reduction of fetal growth that is attributable to extrinsic causes (e.g., maternal smoking) affects intellectual development of a child. Cross-sectional survey of 3,739 students in Nova Scotia (Canada) in 2003 was linked with the perinatal database, parental interviews on socio-demographic factors and the performance on standardized tests when primarily 11–12 years of age, thereby forming a retrospective cohort. Data was analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression with correction for clustering of children within schools. The risk of poor test result among children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) to mothers who smoked was 29.4%, higher than in any other strata of maternal smoking and fetal growth. The adjusted odds ratio among SGA children born to mothers who smoked was the only one elevated compared to children who were not growth restricted and born to mothers who did not smoke (17.0%, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02, 2.09). Other perinatal, maternal and socio-demographic factors did not alter this pattern of effect modification. Heterogeneity of etiology of fetal growth restriction should be consider in studies that address examine its impact on health over life course.

Igor Burstyn; Stefan Kuhle; Alexander C. Allen; Paul Veugelers

2012-01-01

234

Stage dependence of phenotypical and phenological maternal effects: insight into squamate reptile reproductive strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enhanced thermal conditions have been credited as a driving force for the evolution of viviparity, particularly in squamate reptiles, among which it has independently evolved more than 100 times. However, maternal thermoregulation is also a critical component of reproduction in oviparous squamates, for which considerable embryonic development occurs prior to oviposition. When carrying eggs, oviparous mothers modify thermoregulation in a manner similar to that of pregnant females. To further understand the role of temperature in influencing reproductive strategies, it is critical that we elucidate the degree to which thermal sensitivity varies across developmental stages. We studied stage-dependent embryonic sensitivity in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper (Vipera aspis). We manipulated female body temperature at different stages of pregnancy-early development, early embryonic growth, and late embryonic growth-by imposing two contrasting daily thermal cycles that mimicked reproductive (warm) and nonreproductive (cool) female temperature profiles. Thermal sensitivity of offspring phenotype was stage dependent, with offspring quality more negatively affected when exposure to cool temperatures occurred early in development. In contrast, developmental rate was slowed by the cooler cycle, independent of the timing of the exposure. Given the more persistent effect on phenology, phenological effects likely provide a greater driving force for complete embryonic retention (i.e., viviparity).

Lorioux S; Vaugoyeau M; Denardo DF; Clobert J; Guillon M; Lourdais O

2013-08-01

235

The Calming Effect of Maternal Breast Milk Odor on Premature Infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To compare the effectiveness of maternal breast milk odor and formula milk odor in soothing premature infants undergoing heel lancing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty preterm infants born between 32 weeks and 37 weeks gestation were randomly assigned into two groups. During heel lancing, we used formula milk odor for the first group and breast milk odor for the second group. A filter paper (containing either formula or breast milk) was placed near the infant's nose from 3 minutes prior to and up to 9 minutes after the heel blood sampling. The pain score was measured using premature infant pain profile (PIPP) score. We also evaluated crying duration and salivary cortisol prior to and after heel lancing. RESULT: After the heel lancing, the PIPP score was found to be significantly lower in the breast milk group than the formula milk group (5.4 compared to 9 with p < 0.001).Also, the level of salivary cortisol had significantly increased in the formula milk group, but not in the breast milk group (25.3 nmol/L compared to 17.7 nmol/L (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Breast milk odor has analgesic effect in preterm newborn and can be used as a safe method for pain relief.

Badiee Z; Asghari M; Mohammadizadeh M

2013-05-01

236

Sex-dependent effects of maternal PCB exposure on the electroretinogram in adult rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the visual system. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated with the ortho-chlorinated 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and/or with the coplanar 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Total dose of PCBs was 18 mg/kg in all groups. Measurements of the flash-evoked electroretinogram (ERG) started in the offspring at an age of about 200 days. The scotopic b-wave, the maximum potential, and oscillatory potentials were recorded after dark adaptation. Amplitudes of these potentials were reduced in female rats exposed to the coplanar PCB. No differences from controls were found in females of other groups or male rats. The results indicate long-lasting effects on the scotopic ERG after maternal PCB exposure that are sex dependent and congener specific. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental report of PCB-related influences on visual processes.

Kremer H; Lilienthal H; Hany J; Roth-Härer A; Winneke G

1999-01-01

237

Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers with a habitual fish intake below the population median were randomized to 4.5 g center dot d(-1) of FO or olive oil (OO) for the first four months of lactation. Fifty-three mothers with habitual fish intake in the highest quartile were included as reference group. The effect of the resulting increase in infant DHA-intake and RBC-DHA level was assessed on problem solving ability at nine months and language at one and two years of age. Infants in the three groups performed equally well on the problem test and no association was observed between problem solving and erythrocyte-DHA at four months. Passive vocabulary at one year was lower in the children of the FO-compared with the OO-group ( P <0.05), but no differences were found at two years of age. Word comprehension at one year was inversely associated with erythrocyte-DHA at four months. The trial indicate a small effect of DHA levels in breast-milk on early language development of breast-fed infants.

Lauritzen, L.; JØrgensen, M.H.

2005-01-01

238

Sex-dependent maternal deprivation effects on brain monoamine content in adolescent rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rats subjected to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation (MD) [24h, postnatal days 9-10] show, later in life, behavioural alterations that resemble specific signs of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric signs including increased levels of impulsivity and an apparent difficulty to cope with stressful situations. Some of these behavioural modifications are observable in the periadolescent period. However there is no previous information regarding the possible underlying neurochemical correlates at this critical developmental period. In this study we have addressed the effects of MD on the levels of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and their respective metabolites in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, midbrain and cerebellum of male and female periadolescent Wistar rats. MD rats showed significantly increased levels of 5-HT in all regions studied with the exception of cerebellum. In addition, MD animals showed increased levels of DA in PFC as well as increased levels of DA and a decrease of DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA ratios in striatum. The effect of MD on the monoaminergic systems was in several cases sex-dependent.

Llorente R; O'Shea E; Gutierrez-Lopez MD; Llorente-Berzal A; Colado MI; Viveros MP

2010-07-01

239

Stage dependence of phenotypical and phenological maternal effects: insight into squamate reptile reproductive strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced thermal conditions have been credited as a driving force for the evolution of viviparity, particularly in squamate reptiles, among which it has independently evolved more than 100 times. However, maternal thermoregulation is also a critical component of reproduction in oviparous squamates, for which considerable embryonic development occurs prior to oviposition. When carrying eggs, oviparous mothers modify thermoregulation in a manner similar to that of pregnant females. To further understand the role of temperature in influencing reproductive strategies, it is critical that we elucidate the degree to which thermal sensitivity varies across developmental stages. We studied stage-dependent embryonic sensitivity in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper (Vipera aspis). We manipulated female body temperature at different stages of pregnancy-early development, early embryonic growth, and late embryonic growth-by imposing two contrasting daily thermal cycles that mimicked reproductive (warm) and nonreproductive (cool) female temperature profiles. Thermal sensitivity of offspring phenotype was stage dependent, with offspring quality more negatively affected when exposure to cool temperatures occurred early in development. In contrast, developmental rate was slowed by the cooler cycle, independent of the timing of the exposure. Given the more persistent effect on phenology, phenological effects likely provide a greater driving force for complete embryonic retention (i.e., viviparity). PMID:23852356

Lorioux, Sophie; Vaugoyeau, Marie; Denardo, Dale F; Clobert, Jean; Guillon, Michaël; Lourdais, Olivier

2013-06-18

240

Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

Groziak, Susan Marie

 
 
 
 
241

Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Policies for timing of cord clamping vary, with early cord clamping generally carried out in the first 60 seconds after birth, whereas later cord clamping usually involves clamping the umbilical cord more than one minute after the birth or when cord pulsation has ceased. The benefits and potential harms of each policy are debated. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of early cord clamping compared with late cord clamping after birth on maternal and neonatal outcomes SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (13 February 2013). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing early and late cord clamping. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 trials involving a total of 3911 women and infant pairs. We judged the trials to have an overall moderate risk of bias. Maternal outcomes: No studies in this review reported on maternal death or on severe maternal morbidity. There were no significant differences between early versus late cord clamping groups for the primary outcome of severe postpartum haemorrhage (risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.65; five trials with data for 2066 women with a late clamping event rate (LCER) of ~3.5%, I(2) 0%) or for postpartum haemorrhage of 500 mL or more (RR 1.17 95% CI 0.94 to 1.44; five trials, 2260 women with a LCER of ~12%, I(2) 0%). There were no significant differences between subgroups depending on the use of uterotonic drugs. Mean blood loss was reported in only two trials with data for 1345 women, with no significant differences seen between groups; or for maternal haemoglobin values (mean difference (MD) -0.12 g/dL; 95% CI -0.30 to 0.06, I(2) 0%) at 24 to 72 hours after the birth in three trials. Neonatal outcomes: There were no significant differences between early and late clamping for the primary outcome of neonatal mortality (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.04 to 3.41, two trials, 381 infants with a LCER of ~1%), or for most other neonatal morbidity outcomes, such as Apgar score less than seven at five minutes or admission to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. Mean birthweight was significantly higher in the late, compared with early, cord clamping (101 g increase 95% CI 45 to 157, random-effects model, 12 trials, 3139 infants, I(2) 62%). Fewer infants in the early cord clamping group required phototherapy for jaundice than in the late cord clamping group (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.96, data from seven trials, 2324 infants with a LCER of 4.36%, I(2) 0%). Haemoglobin concentration in infants at 24 to 48 hours was significantly lower in the early cord clamping group (MD -1.49 g/dL, 95% CI -1.78 to -1.21; 884 infants, I(2) 59%). This difference in haemoglobin concentration was not seen at subsequent assessments. However, improvement in iron stores appeared to persist, with infants in the early cord clamping over twice as likely to be iron deficient at three to six months compared with infants whose cord clamping was delayed (RR 2.65 95% CI 1.04 to 6.73, five trials, 1152 infants, I(2) 82%). In the only trial to report longer-term neurodevelopmental outcomes so far, no overall differences between early and late clamping were seen for Ages and Stages Questionnaire scores. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: A more liberal approach to delaying clamping of the umbilical cord in healthy term infants appears to be warranted, particularly in light of growing evidence that delayed cord clamping increases early haemoglobin concentrations and iron stores in infants. Delayed cord clamping is likely to be beneficial as long as access to treatment for jaundice requiring phototherapy is available.

McDonald SJ; Middleton P; Dowswell T; Morris PS

2013-01-01

242

Dual effects of superovulation: loss of maternal and paternal imprinted methylation in a dose-dependent manner.  

Science.gov (United States)

Superovulation or ovarian stimulation is currently an indispensable assisted reproductive technology (ART) for human subfertility/infertility treatment. Recently, increased frequencies of imprinting disorders have been correlated with ARTs. Significantly, for Angelman and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndromes, patients have been identified where ovarian stimulation was the only procedure used by the couple undergoing ART. In many cases, increased risk of genomic imprinting disorders has been attributed to superovulation in combination with inherent subfertility. To distinguish between these contributing factors, carefully controlled experiments are required on spontaneously ovulated, in vivo-fertilized oocytes and their induced-ovulated counterparts, thereby minimizing effects of in vitro manipulations. To this end, effects of superovulation on genomic imprinting were evaluated in a mouse model, where subfertility is not a confounding issue. This work represents the first comprehensive examination of the overall effects of superovulation on imprinted DNA methylation for four imprinted genes in individual blastocyst stage embryos. We demonstrate that superovulation perturbed genomic imprinting of both maternally and paternally expressed genes; loss of Snrpn, Peg3 and Kcnq1ot1 and gain of H19 imprinted methylation were observed. This perturbation was dose-dependent, with aberrant imprinted methylation more frequent at the high hormone dosage. Superovulation is thought to primarily affect oocyte development; thus, effects were expected to be limited to maternal alleles. Our study revealed that maternal as well as paternal H19 methylation was perturbed by superovulation. We postulate that superovulation has dual effects during oogenesis, disrupting acquisition of imprints in growing oocytes, as well as maternal-effect gene products subsequently required for imprint maintenance during pre-implantation development. PMID:19805400

Market-Velker, Brenna A; Zhang, Liyue; Magri, Lauren S; Bonvissuto, Anne C; Mann, Mellissa R W

2010-01-01

243

Dual effects of superovulation: loss of maternal and paternal imprinted methylation in a dose-dependent manner.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Superovulation or ovarian stimulation is currently an indispensable assisted reproductive technology (ART) for human subfertility/infertility treatment. Recently, increased frequencies of imprinting disorders have been correlated with ARTs. Significantly, for Angelman and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndromes, patients have been identified where ovarian stimulation was the only procedure used by the couple undergoing ART. In many cases, increased risk of genomic imprinting disorders has been attributed to superovulation in combination with inherent subfertility. To distinguish between these contributing factors, carefully controlled experiments are required on spontaneously ovulated, in vivo-fertilized oocytes and their induced-ovulated counterparts, thereby minimizing effects of in vitro manipulations. To this end, effects of superovulation on genomic imprinting were evaluated in a mouse model, where subfertility is not a confounding issue. This work represents the first comprehensive examination of the overall effects of superovulation on imprinted DNA methylation for four imprinted genes in individual blastocyst stage embryos. We demonstrate that superovulation perturbed genomic imprinting of both maternally and paternally expressed genes; loss of Snrpn, Peg3 and Kcnq1ot1 and gain of H19 imprinted methylation were observed. This perturbation was dose-dependent, with aberrant imprinted methylation more frequent at the high hormone dosage. Superovulation is thought to primarily affect oocyte development; thus, effects were expected to be limited to maternal alleles. Our study revealed that maternal as well as paternal H19 methylation was perturbed by superovulation. We postulate that superovulation has dual effects during oogenesis, disrupting acquisition of imprints in growing oocytes, as well as maternal-effect gene products subsequently required for imprint maintenance during pre-implantation development.

Market-Velker BA; Zhang L; Magri LS; Bonvissuto AC; Mann MR

2010-01-01

244

Maternal effects may act as an adaptation mechanism for copepods facing pH and temperature changes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acidification of the seas, caused by increased dissolution of CO(2) into surface water, and global warming challenge the adaptation mechanisms of marine organisms. In boreal coastal environments, temperature and pH vary greatly seasonally, but sometimes also rapidly within hours due to upwelling events. We studied if copepod zooplankton living in a fluctuating environment are tolerant to climate change effects predicted for 2100, i.e., a temperature increase of 3°C and a pH decrease of 0.4. Egg production of the copepod Acartia sp. was followed over five consecutive days at four temperature and pH conditions (17°C/ambient pH; 17°C/low pH; 20°C/ambient pH; 20°C/low pH). Egg production was higher in treatments with warmer temperature but the increase was smaller when copepods were simultaneously exposed to warmer temperature and lowered pH. To reveal if maternal effects are important in terms of adaptation to a changing environment, we conducted an egg transplantation experiment, where the produced eggs were moved to a different environment and egg hatching was monitored for three days. When pH changed between the egg production and hatching conditions, it resulted in lower hatching success, but the effect was diminished over the course of the experiment possibly due to improved maternal provisioning. Warmer egg production temperature induced a positive maternal effect and increased the egg hatching rate. Warmer hatching temperature resulted also in earlier hatching. However, the temperature effects appear to be dependent on the ambient sea temperature. Our preliminary results indicate that maternal effects are an important mechanism in the face of environmental change.

Vehmaa A; Brutemark A; Engström-Öst J

2012-01-01

245

Effect of maternal age on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a retrospective, observational study to evaluate the effect of maternal age on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). 11830 IVF-ET cycles from 10268 women were included. Four groups of different maternal age periods were compared. The groups were 21-30 years old group (4549 cycles), 31-35 years old group (4424 cycles), 36-40 years old group (2429 cycles), and over 40 years old group (428 cycles). The mean starting dose of Gn and mean total dose of Gn in each cycle were significantly higher (P<0.01), while the mean retrieved oocyte number was significantly lower (P<0.01) in groups of higher maternal age period than those in each of the lower groups. The biochemical pregnancy rate and the clinical pregnancy rate were significantly lower (P<0.01), while the miscarriage rate was significantly higher (P<0.01) in groups of higher maternal age period than those in the lower groups. No difference was found in two-pronuclear zygotes (2PN) rate and good quality embryo rate among different groups. Birth defect rate was also comparable in the born babies in different groups. In the group with patients' age over 40 years old, the pregnancy rate was 26.87%, the clinical pregnancy rate was 19.39%, while the miscarriage rate after clinical pregnancy was 36.14%. To draw the conclusion, patients with higher maternal age had worse IVF outcomes. In women of fertile age, patients between 20 and 30 years old have the best IVF outcomes. Patients over 40 years old have poor IVF outcome and high miscarriage rate, which suggested the necessity of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS).

Yan J; Wu K; Tang R; Ding L; Chen ZJ

2012-08-01

246

Lasting effects of maternal behaviour on the distribution of a dispersive stream insect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Predicting population dynamics at large spatial scales requires integrating information about spatial distribution patterns, inter-patch movement rates and within-patch processes. Advective dispersal of aquatic species by water movement is considered paramount to understanding their population dynamics. Rivers are model advective systems, and the larvae of baetid mayflies are considered quintessential dispersers. Egg laying of baetids along channels is patchy and reflects the distribution of oviposition sites, but larvae are assumed to drift frequently and far, thereby erasing patterns created during oviposition. Dispersal kernels are often overestimated, however, and empirical tests of such assumptions are warranted because of the pivotal role distribution patterns can have on populations. 2. We tested empirically whether the egg distribution patterns arising from oviposition behaviours persisted and were reflected in the distribution patterns of larval Baetis rhodani. In field surveys, we tested for associations between egg mass and larval densities over 1 km lengths of four streams. A control species, the mayfly Ephemerella ignita, was employed to test for covarying environmental factors. We estimated drift rates directly to test whether larvae dispersed between riffles (patches of high egg mass density) and whether drift rates were density-dependent or density-related - expected outcomes if drift erases patterns established by maternal behaviours. 3. Positive associations between egg masses and larval benthic densities were found for neonate and mid-stage larvae of Baetis, but not the control species, suggesting persistence of the patchy distribution patterns established at oviposition. Drift rates were high, and riffles were net exporters of neonate and mid-stage larvae, but drift rates were unrelated to benthic densities and few drifters reached the next riffle. Riffles were sinks for large larvae, suggesting ontogenetic shifts in habitat use, but little long-distance dispersal. 4. Overall, the results suggest that most neonate and mid-stage larvae of B. rhodani remain close to the natal riffle, and late-stage larvae disperse shorter distances than routinely assumed. The persistence of maternal effects on distribution patterns well into juvenile life of an allegedly iconic disperser suggests that traditional models of how dispersal influences the population dynamics of many lotic invertebrates may be incorrect.

Lancaster J; Downes BJ; Arnold A

2011-09-01

247

Influence of exercise-induced maternal stress on fetal outcome in Wistar rats: inter-generational effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of physical activity during pregnancy and lactation on the fetal outcome and the growth of pups was studied in Wistar rats (n 144). Rats were trained to swim for 2 h every day, 6 d/week through pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation. Maternal exercise during pregnancy, despite the dams having ad lib. access to food, resulted in low-birth-weight pups (5.6 (SD 0.7) g; n 178 in exercised dams v. 6.2 (SD 0.8) g; n 238 in sedentary dams). Maternal exercise continued through lactation exaggerated further the growth retardation of these pups (30.0 (SD 4.7) g; n 78 in exercised dams v. 36.0 (SD 6.9) g; n 126 in sedentary dams). The effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy and lactation studied over two successive generations revealed a reduction in the growth rates of the second generation progeny of both exercised (5.3 (SD 0.9) g; n 125 at birth and 25.1 (SD 6.8) g; n 54 at weaning) and sedentary rats (6.0 (SD 0.2) g; n 110 at birth and 31.3 (SD 4.3) g at weaning) born to first-generation exercised rats. While slower growth in the former indicates a cumulative effect of exercise stress over two generations, that of the latter indicates that the generational effects are manifest even though the dams of the F1 generation were not exposed to exercise stress during pregnancy and lactation. These findings suggest that the adverse effect of maternal exercise during pregnancy and lactation on fetal outcome in one generation is transferred to the subsequent generation.

Pinto ML; Shetty PS

1995-05-01

248

Changing maternity leave policy: short-term effects on fertility rates and demographic variables in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in reproductive behaviour and decreasing fertility rates have recently led to policy actions that attempt to counteract these developments. Evidence on the efficacy of such policy interventions, however, is limited. The present analysis examines fertility rates and demographic variables of a population in Germany in response to new maternity leave regulations, which were introduced in January 2007. As part of a population-based survey of neonates in Pomerania (SNiP), all births in the study region from the period 23 months prior to January 1st, 2007 until 23 months afterwards were examined. Crude Birth Rates (CBR) per month, General Fertility Rates (GFR) per month, parity and sociodemographic variables were compared using bivariate techniques. Logistic regression analysis was performed. No statistically significant difference in the CBR or GFR after Jan. 1st, 2007 was found. There were statistically significant differences in other demographic variables, however. The proportion of mothers who (a) were employed full-time before pregnancy; (b) came from a higher socioeconomic status; and (c) had higher income levels all increased after January 1st, 2007. The magnitude of these effects was higher in multigravid women. Forward stepwise logistic regression found an odds ratio of 1.79 for women with a family income of more than 3000 euro to give birth after the new law was introduced. This is the first analysis of population-based data that examines fertility rates and sociodemographic variables in response to new legal regulations. No short-term effects on birth rates were detected, but there was a differential effect on the subgroup of multigravidae. The focus of this policy was to provide financial support, which is certainly important, but the complexity of having a child suggests that attitudinal and motivational aspects also need to be taken into account. Furthermore, these analyses were only able to evaluate the short-term consequences of the policy; further studies are needed to assess for different, long-term effects. PMID:20594953

Thyrian, Jochen René; Fendrich, Konstanze; Lange, Anja; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Zygmunt, Marek; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

2010-05-24

249

Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ?1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ?2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ?2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors.

2005-01-01

250

Maternal hypoxaemia during labour and delivery: the influence of analgesia and effect on neonatal outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of analgesia on the incidence of hypoxaemia was assessed in an unrandomised trial in 51 parturients from the last hour of the first stage of labour until delivery. Women were retrospectively divided into four groups: no analgesia, pethidine with intermittent Entonox, extradural bupivacaine (either infusion of 0.125% or top-ups of 10 ml of 0.25%): and extradural infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine with 2 micrograms.ml-1 fentanyl. The lowest median incidence of desaturation (SpO2 < 94%) was in the extradural bupivacaine group: 0 min.h-1 in the last hour of the first stage and 0.1 min.h-1 in the second stage. The incidence was significantly lower than in the pethidine/Entonox group (1.4 min.h-1) in the last hour of the first stage (p < 0.001) and the extradural bupivacaine/fentanyl group (0.9 min.h-1) and no analgesia group (3 min.h-1) in the second stage (p < 0.05 in both cases). There was no correlation between maternal oxygenation during the second stage and measures of neonatal outcome including Apgar score and umbilical artery and vein blood gases.

Griffin RP; Reynolds F

1995-02-01

251

Oxytocin effects on complex brain networks are moderated by experiences of maternal love withdrawal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in a variety of social processes. However, recent studies indicate that oxytocin does not enhance prosocial behavior in all people in all circumstances. Here, we investigate effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on intrinsic functional brain connectivity with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were 42 women who received a nasal spray containing either 16 IU of oxytocin or a placebo and reported how often their mother used love withdrawal as a disciplinary strategy involving withholding love and affection after a failure or misbehavior. We found that oxytocin changes functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the brainstem. In the oxytocin group there was a positive connectivity between these regions, whereas the placebo group showed negative connectivity. In addition, oxytocin induced functional connectivity changes between the PCC, the cerebellum and the postcentral gyrus, but only for those participants who experienced low levels of maternal love withdrawal. We speculate that oxytocin enhances prosocial behavior by influencing complex brain networks involved in self-referential processing and affectionate touch, most prominently in individuals with supportive family backgrounds.

Riem MM; van Ijzendoorn MH; Tops M; Boksem MA; Rombouts SA; Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ

2013-02-01

252

Oxytocin effects on complex brain networks are moderated by experiences of maternal love withdrawal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in a variety of social processes. However, recent studies indicate that oxytocin does not enhance prosocial behavior in all people in all circumstances. Here, we investigate effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on intrinsic functional brain connectivity with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were 42 women who received a nasal spray containing either 16 IU of oxytocin or a placebo and reported how often their mother used love withdrawal as a disciplinary strategy involving withholding love and affection after a failure or misbehavior. We found that oxytocin changes functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the brainstem. In the oxytocin group there was a positive connectivity between these regions, whereas the placebo group showed negative connectivity. In addition, oxytocin induced functional connectivity changes between the PCC, the cerebellum and the postcentral gyrus, but only for those participants who experienced low levels of maternal love withdrawal. We speculate that oxytocin enhances prosocial behavior by influencing complex brain networks involved in self-referential processing and affectionate touch, most prominently in individuals with supportive family backgrounds. PMID:23453164

Riem, Madelon M E; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A S; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

2013-02-27

253

Teratogenic effects of maternal biotin deficiency on mouse embryos examined at midgestation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pregnant mice were fed a basal diet that not only did not contain biotin, but also contained the spray-dried egg white including avidin that caused the biotin deficiency. The effects of maternal biotin deficiency on craniofacial and limb development in embryos were examined at two stages of midgestation. On day 12.6 of gestation, male and female embryos weighted less and digit development was retarded in the biotin-deficient group. On day 15.6 of gestation (dg), the embryos also weighted less and external malformations, such as micrognathia (94.8%), micromelia (41.4%), and exencephaly (11.4%), were observed. The inhibition of palatal and digit formation by biotin deficiency at midgestation is responsible for later formation of cleft palate and micromelia. On dg 12.6 the liver biotin level of biotin-deficient dams was reduced to 20% of control values. Interestingly, the biotin content of the whole embryonic body was about ninefold greater than liver biotin levels in their dams.

Watanabe T; Endo A

1990-09-01

254

Effect of Skin to Skin Contact on Maternal State Anxiety in a Cesarean Section Ward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at investigating the effect of skin to skin contact (SSC) on maternal state anxiety (MSA) in cesarean section unit in Akbarabadi Hospital in Tehran. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 60 Iranian mothers with at least one record of cesarean section delivery were assigned to two intervention (SSC) and control groups. In the morning shift and two hours after the operation, as a routine postoperative care, pain-killers were given to all mothers. Then the mothers’ pain scores were measured using visual analog scale (VAS). If VAS was?3, MSA was measured by using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Scale (Spiel Berger). Thirty minutes of SSC intervention was done for mothers in the intervention group. Six hours later, in case VAS was ? 3, MSA was re-measured by using the Spiel Berger Scale for all mothers. Results: Six hours after implementing the intervention, there were no meaningful statistical differences between the MSA mean scores of the two groups, but severity of MSA in intervention group was less than that of the control group (P=0.037). Six hours after the intervention, there was a significant decrease in the MSA mean score in SSC group (P=0.002). Conclusion: As regards the important role of constant anxiety in developing postpartum depression, and as the results of this study indicate, SSC is recommended in postpartum and especially cesarean section wards.

Maryam Keshavarz; Fatemeh Keshavarz; Naeime Sayed Fatemi; Hamid Haghani

2011-01-01

255

The relationship between umbilical and maternal blood leptin and it's effect in fetal growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the correlation of leptin between maternal serum and cord blood and to know relationship between leptin and fetal growth, and the origin of leptin. Methods: The concentration of leptin in 55 cases of maternal serum and cord arterial and venous blood were measured by ELISA assay. According to the neonatal weight and gestational age, three groups were divided into small gestational age (SGA), appropriate gestational age (AGA) and large gestational age (LGA). The nutrition status of neonatal was evaluated by index of Pondernal. The comparision was made in these groups. Results: The concentration of leptin in the cord artery, venous and maternal serum among 55 cases was 16.58 ± 8.13 ng/ml, 12.05 ± 9.87 ng/ml, 13.24 ± 10.58 ng/ml respectively; The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of cord artery. The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of venous serum leptin slightly. There was significant difference between cord artery and venous in different gestational age groups. Serum leptin levels of cord artery and venous were well correlated with the one of the weight and gestational age of neonatal. Maternal serum leptin level was not correlated with birth weight, placental weight and gestational age. Conclusions: The leptin from placenta is concerned with the adjustment of fetal growth. Cord leptin can reflect the status of fetal growth. Cord venous leptin indicate that the leptin be from placenta. Cord artery leptin demonstrates a part of placenta leptin, which acts on the fetus and then induces the fetal fat tissue to produce leptin. The maternal leptin does not adjust fetal weight directly. It only adjusts fat content itself and energy metabolism. (authors)

2005-01-01

256

The effects of maternal depression and use of antidepressants during pregnancy on risk of a child small for gestational age  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

RATIONALE: Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with an increased rate of children small for gestational age (SGA), but it is unclear whether this is due to an effect of the underlying depressive disorder. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of antidepressants on SGA in a nationwide sample and to separate the effect of exposure to antidepressants in utero from the effect of maternal depression. METHODS: A register study was conducted on all pregnant women in Denmark from 1996 to 2006 linking nationwide individualized data from the Medical Birth Register, the Psychiatric Central Register, and a prescription database. The rate of SGA (birth weight below the 10 percentile at given gestational week) was investigated for children exposed in utero to antidepressants or to a maternal psychiatric diagnosis of depression compared to children not prenatally exposed to antidepressants or maternal diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 673,853 pregnancies were included in the study of which 35.737 women had a diagnosis of depression and/or used antidepressants before end of pregnancy. Antidepressant use during pregnancy was weakly associated with SGA (hazard ratios (HR)?=?1.19; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.28), whereas a psychiatric diagnosis before or during pregnancy was not (HR?=?1.02; 95 % CI, 0.92-1.13). The association for use during pregnancy was found for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and newer antidepressants, but not for older antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The use of antidepressants during pregnancy slightly increases the rate of SGA. The association seems unrelated to the underlying maternal depressive disorder.

Jensen, Hans MØrch; GrØn, Randi

2013-01-01

257

Effects of community participation on improving uptake of skilled care for maternal and newborn health: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite a broad consensus that communities should be actively involved in improving their own health, evidence for the effect of community participation on specific health outcomes is limited. We examine the effectiveness of community participation interventions in maternal and newborn health, asking: did participation improve outcomes? We also look at how the impact of community participation has been assessed, particularly through randomised controlled trials, and make recommendations for future research. We highlight the importance of qualitative investigation, suggesting key areas for qualitative data reporting alongside quantitative work. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Systematic review of published and 'grey' literature from 1990. We searched 11 databases, and followed up secondary references. Main outcome measures were the use of skilled care before/during/after birth and maternal/newborn mortality/morbidity. We included qualitative and quantitative studies from any country, and used a community participation theoretical framework to analyse the data. We found 10 interventions. Community participation had largely positive impacts on maternal/newborn health as part of a package of interventions, although not necessarily on uptake of skilled care. Interventions improving mortality or use of skilled care raised awareness, encouraged dialogue and involved communities in designing solutions-but so did those showing no effect. DISCUSSION: There are few high-quality, quantitative studies. We also lack information about why participation interventions do/do not succeed - an area of obvious interest for programme designers. Qualitative investigation can help fill this information gap and should be at the heart of future quantitative research examining participation interventions - in maternal/newborn health, and more widely. This review illustrates the need for qualitative investigation alongside RCTs and other quantitative studies to understand complex interventions in context, describe predicted and unforeseen impacts, assess potential for generalisability, and capture the less easily measurable social/political effects of encouraging participation.

Marston C; Renedo A; McGowan CR; Portela A

2013-01-01

258

The effects of maternal depression and use of antidepressants during pregnancy on risk of a child small for gestational age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with an increased rate of children small for gestational age (SGA), but it is unclear whether this is due to an effect of the underlying depressive disorder. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of antidepressants on SGA in a nationwide sample and to separate the effect of exposure to antidepressants in utero from the effect of maternal depression. METHODS: A register study was conducted on all pregnant women in Denmark from 1996 to 2006 linking nationwide individualized data from the Medical Birth Register, the Psychiatric Central Register, and a prescription database. The rate of SGA (birth weight below the 10 percentile at given gestational week) was investigated for children exposed in utero to antidepressants or to a maternal psychiatric diagnosis of depression compared to children not prenatally exposed to antidepressants or maternal diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 673,853 pregnancies were included in the study of which 35.737 women had a diagnosis of depression and/or used antidepressants before end of pregnancy. Antidepressant use during pregnancy was weakly associated with SGA (hazard ratios (HR)?=?1.19; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.28), whereas a psychiatric diagnosis before or during pregnancy was not (HR?=?1.02; 95 % CI, 0.92-1.13). The association for use during pregnancy was found for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and newer antidepressants, but not for older antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The use of antidepressants during pregnancy slightly increases the rate of SGA. The association seems unrelated to the underlying maternal depressive disorder.

Jensen HM; Grøn R; Lidegaard O; Pedersen LH; Andersen PK; Kessing LV

2013-07-01

259

Effects of magnesium on isolated human fetal and maternal uteroplacental vessels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of Mg2+ were studied in human umbilical arteries, stem villous arteries and maternal intramyometrial arteries. The vessels were dissected and mounted in organ baths, and isometric tension was recorded. In all fetal preparations investigated, Mg2+ (0.5-6.0 mM) in a concentration-related way decreased pD2 values for prostaglandin F2 alpha responses. The maximum response to prostaglandin F2 alpha was depressed in umbilical arteries, but remained unaffected in stem villous artery preparations. In stem villous arteries pretreated in Ca2(+)-free medium, increasing concentrations of Mg2+ markedly depressed the response to Ca2+ after stimulation with K+ or prostaglandin F2 alpha, suggesting that Mg2+ inhibited transmembrane calcium influx and interfered with intracellular calcium effects. In both stem villous and intramyometrial arteries, increasing concentrations of Mg2+ increased EC50 values for responses to K+, whereas Emax values were unaffected. Mg2+ produced relaxation of agonist-induced contractions by up to 60% in stem villous arteries and up to 40% in intramyometrial artery preparations. The relaxant effect of Mg2+ did not seem to be mediated through the endothelium or through changes in the synthesis of prostanoids, since endothelial disruption and treatment with indomethacin left the responses to Mg2+ unaffected. Relaxation of vessels important for resistance regulation in the human uteroplacental vascular bed may be of benefit when uteroplacental blood flow is impaired, and the present results support the established use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of pre-eclampsia.

Skajaa, K; Forman, Axel

1990-01-01

260

Maternal mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article comments on the causes of maternal mortality which are considered preventable if reproductive health services is adequately provided among women belonging to reproductive age. A report from the UN International Children's Emergency Fund announced that 585,000 women die each year from pregnancy and childbirth, which is a 20% increase from the estimates made a decade ago. About 140,000 maternal mortality victims die from violent hemorrhaging, while others perish from blood infections, obstructive deliveries, brain and kidney diseases, and self-administered abortions. It has also been discovered that for every maternal death in childbirth 30 more are grievously wounded. Modest improvements on modern obstetric facilities and proper sanitation and training have been found to dramatically decrease maternal injury and death rates. A foreign aid bill has also been passed to provide a US$600 million fund to address the health issues of both women and children. PMID:12295799

1996-06-21

 
 
 
 
261

Effects of Pollen Load Size and Maternal Plant on Pollen Performance and Seedling Vigor in Clarkia unguiculata (ONAGRACEAE)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollen load size may vary both temporally and spatially in natural flower pollinations. This variation could lead to differences in the intensity of competition between pollen grains for access to ovules for fertilization. Increased competition for ovules could lead to increases in progeny vigor, if the fastest growing pollen tubes sire the most vigorous offspring. The maternal tissue supporting the germination and growth of pollen may also influence the competition between grains through the promotion of certain grain genotypes over others. This study examines the effects of pollen load size and maternal plant on pollen tube attrition, seed set and seedling vigor in chamber grown plants of the wildflower Clarkia unguiculata (Lindl.). Pollen load size significantly affected the number of pollen tubes in the style and number of seeds set. Pollen load size had no significant effect on attrition levels, seed weight, or any measures of seedling vigor (germination, cotyledon size, first foliar leaf size, seedling dry weight). In contrast, significant maternal effects were observed in all parameters measured with the exception of attrition levels and dry weight of seedlings.

M. Barbara Nemeth; Nancy L. Smith-Huerta

2006-01-01

262

Sex-specific effect of first-trimester maternal progesterone on birthweight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY QUESTION: Are maternal progesterone levels in early pregnancy associated with fetal birthweight? SUMMARY ANSWER: Low levels of first-trimester maternal progesterone are significantly associated with a reduction in birthweight in girls, but not boys. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: Progesterone in the third trimester of pregnancy has previously been related to birthweight in humans. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Pregnant women between gestational weeks 4 and 12 were recruited by 99 obstetricians in private practice and enrolled in a prospective cohort study. A follow-up took place at birth. Women younger than 18 years, who had undergone fertility treatments or were diagnosed with infectious diseases, were excluded from the study. A subgroup of 906 participants in whom progesterone had been measured was then selected retrospectively based on the following criteria: no miscarriages, elective abortions or pregnancy complications, infections or multiple births. Data from the follow-up were available for 623 women, who were included in the analyses. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The study was coordinated at the Charité University Medicine in Berlin, Germany. Anthropometric, medical and psychosocial information were collected and serum progesterone and estradiol levels were measured in women during the first trimester of pregnancy, followed by the documentation of the pregnancy outcome at birth. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify maternal markers, among them progesterone, affecting birthweight and to determine environmental and maternal factors that are associated with maternal progesterone levels during pregnancy. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In the multivariable regression model, each increase in maternal progesterone by 1 ng/ml during the first trimester increased girls' birthweight by 10.17 g (95% CI: 2.03-18.31 g). If the mother carried a boy, maternal smoking and perceived worries during early pregnancy predicted a reduced birthweight, irrespective of progesterone levels. Maternal body mass index over 25 and maternal age <21 years significantly correlated with the reduced levels of progesterone. Correlations between environmental challenges and maternal progesterone did not reach levels of significance. Since the analyses were exploratory, the likelihood that results may be due to chance is increased. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Due to the exploratory nature of the analyses, results need to be independently confirmed in a larger sample. Furthermore, our findings pertain to pregnant women without pregnancy complications or fertility treatments. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Maternal progesterone during early pregnancy is an indicator of subsequent fetal development in female children. Future studies should confirm this relationship and determine whether maternal progesterone is a useful tool in predicting pregnancies at risk resulting in the birth of a girl with low birthweight. Detailed identification of environmental factors modulating maternal progesterone levels should be addressed in future studies. STUDY FUNDING/POTENTIAL COMPETING INTERESTS: Financial support was provided by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Excellence Initiative of the Hamburg Foundation for Research and the Association for Prevention and Information for Allergy and Asthma (Pina e.V.). The authors have no conflict of interest.

Hartwig IR; Pincus MK; Diemert A; Hecher K; Arck PC

2013-01-01

263

Maternal plasma hypo-osmolality: effects on spontaneous and stimulated ovine fetal swallowing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal swallowing is a major route of amniotic fluid resorption, and thus swallowing activity may alter amniotic fluid volume. Near-term ovine fetal swallowing increases in response to plasma and/or cerebrospinal fluid hypertonicity. As maternal hydration status alters amniotic fluid volume, we hypothesized that maternal plasma hypotonicity may alter fetal swallowing activity. Pregnant ewes (130 +/- 1 d; n = 6) were chronically prepared with maternal and fetal vascular catheters, a fetal esophageal flow probe, and fetal thyrohyoid and nuchal and thoracic esophagus electromyogram electrodes. Spontaneous fetal swallowing and hypertonic saline thresholds for stimulated swallowing were determined prior to and following maternal hypotonicity induced with water loading and intravenous DDAVP (arginine vasopressin V2 agonist). Fetal swallowing thresholds were determined with intracarotid injections (0.15 ml/kg) of increasing sodium chloride concentrations (0.15-1.2 M) at 2-min intervals. Maternal DDAVP infusion significantly decreased mean (+/-SEM) maternal and fetal plasma osmolalities (298 +/- 2-284 +/- 3; 295 +/- 2-278 +/- 3 mOsm/kg, respectively) and sodium concentrations (147.3 +/- 0.4-137.5 +/- 0.9; 142.7 +/- 0.8-133.5 +/- 1.0 mEq/l, respectively), suppressed spontaneous swallowing activity and volume (1.1 +/- 0.2-0.6 +/- 0.1 swallows/min; 0.7 +/- 0.2-0.5 +/- 0.1 ml/min, respectively) and significantly increased the osmotic threshold for swallowing stimulation (0.77 +/- 0.08-1.03 +/- 0.09 M NaCl). We conclude that: (1) maternal, and thus fetal, plasma hypotonicity results in suppression of spontaneous fetal swallowing activity and a decrease in volume swallowed, suggesting that spontaneous fetal ingestive behavior results, in part, from tonic dipsogenic stimulation, and (2) under hypotonic conditions, the intracarotid NaCl injection concentration for swallowing stimulation increases. These results suggest that the reset (lower) maternal plasma osmolality during human pregnancy may serve to minimize fetal ingestive and perhaps arginine vasopressin-mediated antidiuretic responses to acute maternal hypertonicity. PMID:9730481

Nijland, M J; Kullama, L K; Ross, M G

264

Factors influencing the prolonged second stage and the effects on perinatal and maternal outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors influencing the prolonged second stage and the maternal-perinatal outcomes after a prolonged second stage of labor. METHODS: Between January 1993 and June 1993, 165 women who delivered with a prolonged second stage of labor were enrolled in this study. The control group was 1750 term pregnancies that delivered under 2 hours in the second stage. Maternal and neonatal outcomes included one and 5 minute Apgar scores, umbilical blood gas determination, thick meconium stain, fetal trauma, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Factors such as nulliparity (p < 0.005), maternal weight gained during pregnancy (p < 0.01), active phase length (p < 0.05), persistent occiput posterior position (p < 0.05), station at complete cervical dilation (p < 0.05) and a need of instrumental vaginal delivery (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with a prolonged second stage of labor. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were not different significantly between the study and control group. CONCLUSION: The maternal and perinatal well-beings from the normal second stage group did not appear to be more favorable than the prolonged second stage. Under monitored condition, if the fetal heart rate is considered normal, then the natural labor course could be continued.

Kuo YC; Chen CP; Wang KG

1996-06-01

265

The effects of a childbirth psychoeducation program on learned resourcefulness, maternal role competence and perinatal depression: a quasi-experiment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Learned resourcefulness plays a significant role in facilitating maternal coping during the transition to motherhood. Given the growing evidence of perinatal depression and the frequent feeling of incompetence in the maternal role, the implementation of an effective intervention to promote maternal role competence and emotional well-being is essential. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of a childbirth psychoeducation program based on the concept of learned resourcefulness on maternal role competence and depressive symptoms in Chinese childbearing women. DESIGN: A pretest-posttest, control group quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was used. SETTING: The study was conducted in two regional public hospitals in Hong Kong that provide routine childbirth education programs with similar content and structure. One hospital was being randomly selected as the experimental hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 184 Chinese pregnant women attending the childbirth education was recruited between October 2005 and April 2007. Inclusion criteria were primiparous with singleton and uneventful pregnancy, at gestation between 12 and 35 weeks, and did not have a past or familial psychiatric illness. METHODS: The intervention was a childbirth psychoeducation program that was incorporated into the routine childbirth education in the experimental hospital. The experimental group (n=92) received the childbirth psychoeducation program and the routine childbirth education. The comparison group (n=92) received the routine childbirth education alone in the comparison hospital. Outcomes were measured by the Self-Control Schedule, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale-Efficacy subscale and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at baseline, immediately post-intervention, at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: Women receiving the childbirth psychoeducation program had significant improvement in learned resourcefulness at 6 weeks postpartum (p=0.004) and an overall reduction in depressive symptoms (p=0.01) from baseline to 6 months postpartum compared with those who only received the routine childbirth education after adjusting for baseline group differences on age and social support. No significant group difference was found on maternal role competence. CONCLUSIONS: The childbirth psychoeducation program appears to be a very promising intervention for promoting learned resourcefulness and minimizing the risk of perinatal depression in first-time Chinese childbearing women. Future empirical work is required to determine the effectiveness of extending the childbirth psychoeducation program into the early postpartum for the promotion of maternal role competence in Chinese childbearing women.

Ngai FW; Chan SW; Ip WY

2009-10-01

266

Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and possible multigenerational effects.

Amorim Elaine MP; Damasceno Débora C; Perobelli Juliana E; Spadotto Raquel; Fernandez Carla DB; Volpato Gustavo T; Kempinas Wilma DG

2011-01-01

267

Effect of reducing the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio on the maternal and fetal leptin axis in relation to infant body composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To investigate the effect of reducing the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio in maternal nutrition on the maternal and cord blood leptin axis and their association with infant body composition up to 2 years. Design and Methods: 208 healthy pregnant women were randomized to either dietary intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio from 15(th) week gestation until 4 months postpartum or a control group. Leptin, soluble leptin receptor and free leptin index were determined in maternal and cord plasma and related to infant body composition assessed by skinfold thicknesses up to 2 years. Results: The intervention had no effect on either the maternal or fetal leptin axis. Maternal leptin in late pregnancy was inversely related to infant weight and lean body mass (LBM) up to 2 years, after multiple adjustments. Cord leptin was positively related to weight, body fat and LBM at birth, and inversely associated with weight, BMI, fat mass and LBM at 2 years and weight gain up to 2 years. The contribution of cord leptin to infant outcomes was overall stronger compared with maternal leptin. Conclusions: Both, maternal and fetal leptin were associated with subsequent infant anthropometry with a greater impact of fetal leptin.

Brunner S; Schmid D; Hüttinger K; Much D; Brüderl M; Sedlmeier EM; Kratzsch J; Amann-Gassner U; Bader BL; Hauner H

2013-04-01

268

Effect of maternal cholestasis on TGR5 expression in human and rat placenta at term.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: TGR5 (Gpbar-1) is a plasma membrane-bound bile acid receptor expressed in several tissues, including liver, intestine and brain. High levels of TGR5 mRNA have been detected in human and rodent placenta, however, localization of the TGR5 protein has not been studied in this tissue. We aimed at characterizing TGR5 expression in placental tissue and investigated the effect of bile acids and progesterone metabolites, which accumulate during intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), on receptor expression and localization. METHODS: TGR5 mRNA levels and cell-specific localization were determined by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence, respectively. RESULTS: In human term placentas, TGR5 was mainly localized in fetal macrophages and to a lower extent in trophoblasts. In placentas from ICP patients and pregnant rats with obstructive cholestasis a marked down-regulation of TGR5 mRNA expression was observed. However, the cell-specific distribution of the TGR5 protein was unaffected. Besides bile acids, progesterone and its metabolites (5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one/5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one), which increase in serum during ICP, were able to dose-dependently activate TGR5. In addition, progesterone metabolites but not their sulfated derivatives nor taurolithocholic acid, significantly down-regulated TGR5 mRNA and protein expression in isolated human macrophages and a macrophage-derived cell line. CONCLUSION: Since fetal macrophages and trophoblast cells are exposed to changes in the flux of compounds across the placental barrier, the expression of TGR5 in these cells together with its sensitivity to bile acids and progesterone metabolites regarding receptor activity and mRNA expression suggest that TGR5 may play a role in the effect of maternal cholestasis on the placenta.

Keitel V; Spomer L; Marin JJ; Williamson C; Geenes V; Kubitz R; Häussinger D; Macias RI

2013-09-01

269

Hemoglobinas humanas: hipótese malária ou efeito materno? Human hemoglobins: malaria hypothesis or maternal effect?  

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Full Text Available As hemoglobinopatias têm provido uma das poucas demonstrações convincentes da seleção, influenciando a freqüência de único gene na população humana. A alta taxa de desordens, tais como a anemia falciforme e a beta-talassemia, ocorridas em áreas subtropicais ou tropicais dentro do cinturão da malária, levou Haldane a propor que a malária pode ser o agente seletivo responsável que balanceia a perda dos genes para a talassemia e a anemia falciforme, por morte prematura dos homozigotos a partir do aumento do valor adaptativo de heterozigotos no ambiente com malária. Mas uma nova proposta surgiu para explicar a manutenção deste polimorfismo, baseada na fertilidade diferencial ou efeito parental. Alguns autores observaram uma distorção favorecendo a transmissão de alelos mutantes em áreas não endêmicas de malária. Com base nestas observações, esses autores propuseram um efeito materno para explicar tais distorções. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão destes mecanismos envolvidos na manutenção do polimorfismo de hemoglobinopatias, desde seu modelo clássico até hipóteses alternativas que surgiram recentemente na literatura.Hemoglobinopathies are providing one of the few convincing demonstrations of selection, influencing the frequency of a single gene in the human population. The high rate of disorders, such as the sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia that occur in the subtropical or tropical regions within the strip affected by malaria, led Haldane to propose that malaria may be the selective agent responsible for balancing the loss of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia genes due to the early death of homozygous patients. But a new proposal appeared to explain the maintenance of these polymorphisms, based on the differential fertility or parental effect. Some authors observed a distortion favoring the transmission of mutant alleles in non-endemic malaria areas. Based on these observations, the authors proposed a maternal effect to explain these distortions. This study aims at presenting a review of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of polymorphisms of hemoglobinopathies, both from the classic model and the recently published alternative hypotheses.

Felipe R. Torres; Claudia R. Bonini-Domingos

2005-01-01

270

Cardiovascular effects of Boophone disticha aqueous ethanolic extract on early maternally separated BALB/C mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: There are a number of reports from traditional medical practice in Zimbabwe and neighboring countries and few in vitro studies suggesting an effect with extracts of Boophone disticha in some forms of anxiety disorder. AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to validate the use of Boophone disticha in treatment of anxiety, this study was set to determine the effects of the plant extracts on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in adult BALB/c mice subjected to repeated early maternal separation (MS) stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test whether early life stress increases anxiety in mice, non-invasive tail cuff method was used to examine the autonomic nervous system activity by assessing cardiovascular reactivity and response to acute mixing stress (AMS) and restraint stress (RS) in adult mice subjected to early postnatal stress as compared to control. AMS-induced cardiovascular response was then evaluated in adult MS mice treated with Boophone disticha as compared to vehicle and diazepam. RESULTS: Comparisons of the BP and HR measurements indicated that MS significantly reduced AMS-induced HR responses in BALB/c mice when compared with control. Boophone disticha treatment significantly reduced AMS-induced BP response in BALB/c MS mice as compared to vehicle and diazepam treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate for the first time that postnatal stress can induce short-term changes in the sensitivity of the cardiovascular system to subsequent stress which can be reduced by treatment with a freeze dried aqueous ethanolic extract of Boophone disticha.

Pote W; Tagwireyi D; Chinyanga HM; Musara C; Nyandoro G; Chifamba J; Nkomozepi P

2013-07-01

271

Mendelian Randomization Analysis of the Effect of Maternal Homocysteine During Pregnancy, as Represented by Maternal MTHFR C677T Genotype, on Birth Weight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: We used Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between maternal homocysteine level, as represented by maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, with the birth weight of offspring.Methods: We recruited women at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation who visited Ewha Womans University Hospital for prenatal care during the period from August 2001 to December 2003. A total of 473 newborns with a gestational age of at least 37 weeks were analyzed in this study. We excluded twin births and children of women with a history of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, or chronic renal disease. The association of maternal homocysteine concentration with the birth weight of infants was analyzed using 2-stage regression.Results: MTHFR C677T genotype showed a dose-response association with homocysteine concentration for each additional T allele (Ptrend < 0.01). Birth weight decreased from 120 to 130 grams as maternal homocysteine level increased, while controlling for confounding factors; however, the association was of marginal significance (P = 0.06).Conclusions: Our results suggest an adverse relationship between maternal homocysteine level and birth weight. A reduction in homocysteine levels might positively affect birth outcomes.

Lee HA; Park EA; Cho SJ; Kim HS; Kim YJ; Lee H; Gwak HS; Kim KN; Chang N; Ha EH; Park H

2013-09-01

272

Effect of interleukin-6 receptor blockade on feto-maternal outcomes in a rat model of intrauterine inflammation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To study the effect of blocking the inflammatory cascade with interleukin-6 receptor antibody (anti-IL-6R) on feto-maternal outcomes in a rat model. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n?=?38) were injected intraperitoneally (day 22) (control, anti-IL-6R 30??g/kg, lipopolysaccharide [LPS] 250??g/kg or 500??g/kg alone or combined with anti-IL-6R) followed by preterm caesarian performed 12?h later. Resuscitated pups (n?=?179) were given to surrogate mothers. Primary outcomes were maternal and pup mortality. RESULTS: Fifty percent of pregnant rats died after LPS 500??g/kg?+?anti-IL-6R injection but none in other groups. Neonatal mortality at 24?h was 63% and 86% in LPS 500??g/kg and LPS 500??g/kg?+?anti-IL-6R groups, respectively (P?Maternal cytokine analysis after LPS 500??g/kg?+?anti-IL-6R injection showed a tendency for increased IL-1 production (P?=?0.06). CONCLUSION: Paradoxically, the association of pregnancy, inflammation and anti-IL-6R increases the inflammatory effects of LPS.

Ouellet J; Berthiaume M; Corriveau S; Rola-Pleszczynski M; Pasquier JC

2013-07-01

273

Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively, preparing at least their major offspring for the sexual competition they will face in the future. This new type of maternal effect in dung beetles represents a novel transgenerational response of alternative reproductive tactics to population density.

Buzatto Bruno A; Tomkins Joseph L; Simmons Leigh W

2012-01-01

274

Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters at different gestational ages  

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This study establishes levels of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glycogen phosphorlyase (GP), and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues at Days 9, 12, and 15 in the 16-day gestation period of the hamster, and following a single dose of either 8 or 15 mg/kg mercuric acetate on the eighth gestational day. Mercury significantly elevated maternal kidney G6PD activity and decreased GP activity. The increase in kidney G6PD strongly correlated with observed urine and kidney abnormalities.

Karp, W.B.; Gale, T.F.; Subramanyam, S.B.; DuRant, R.H.

1985-04-01

275

Effects of maternal diet on fecundity and larval development in the 'primitive' granivorous carabid Amara (Curtonotus) macronota  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Granivory is one of the most specialized food habits in the Carabidae and has been reported for species from the tribes Zabrini and Harpalini. Most studies of carabid granivory have been conducted using specialized granivorous species, and few have examined primitive ones. This study examined effects of maternal diet on fecundity and larval development in Amara (Curtonotus) macronota (Solsky) (Coleoptera: Carabidae), a member of the most basal clade of the tribe Zabrini; a previous study indicated that larvae of this species are omnivores with a tendency toward carnivory. Three diet types, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae, mixed seeds [Bidens frondosa L. (Asteraceae), Setaria spp., and Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler (both Poaceae)], and T. molitor larvae + mixed seeds, were used as maternal diets, and larvae were reared on T. molitor larvae + mixed seeds (optimal diet) or T. molitor larvae (suboptimal diet). Fecundity differed significantly among treatments, with individuals fed the T. molitor larvae + mixed seeds diet having the highest fecundities and the mixed seeds diet producing the lowest values. Larval development [survival and duration of development through pre-overwintering stages (first and second instars)] was not significantly affected by either maternal or larval diets, but the addition of seeds to the maternal diet had a weak negative effect on larval survival. These results are in contrast with findings from specialized granivorous carabids, in which both adults and larvae performed best with pure-seed diets. Recent molecular phylogenies indicate that these specialized granivorous carabids belong to derived lineages, while A. macronota is the most basal clade of each tribe. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that carabid granivory has evolved gradually from ancestral carnivory, with omnivorous habits occurring as a transient state.

Sasakawa Kôji

2009-01-01

276

Effect of 5-HT1B receptor agonists injected into the prefrontal cortex on maternal aggression in rats  

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Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT1B) receptors play an essential role in the inhibition of aggressive behavior in rodents. CP-94,253, a 5-HT1B receptor agonist, can reduce aggression in male mice when administered directly into the ventro-orbitofrontal (VO) prefrontal cortex (PFC). The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of two selective 5-HT1B receptor agonists (CP-94,253 and CP-93,129), microinjected into the VO PFC, on maternal aggressive behavior after social instigation in rats. CP-94,253 (0.56 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8) or CP-93,129 (1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 9) was microinjected into the VO PFC of Wistar rats on the 9th day postpartum and 15 min thereafter the aggressive behavior by the resident female against a male intruder was recorded for 10 min. The frequency and duration of aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc tests. CP-93,129 significantly decreased maternal aggression. The frequency of lateral attacks, bites and pinnings was reduced compared to control, while the non-aggressive behaviors and maternal care were largely unaffected by this treatment. CP-94,253 had no significant effects on aggressive or non-aggressive behaviors when microinjected into the same area of female rats. CP-93,129, a specific 5-HT1B receptor agonist, administered into the VO PFC reduced maternal aggressive behavior, while the CP-94,253 agonist did not significantly affect this behavior after social instigation in female rats. We conclude that only the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP-93,129 administered into the VO PFC decreased aggression in female rats postpartum after social instigation.

C.P. Veiga; K.A. Miczek; A.B. Lucion; R.M.M. de Almeida

2007-01-01

277

The effect of using maternal care log book on pregnancy outcome in clients referred to private gynecologists and midwives offices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: One of the important health indicators in every society is maternal and neonatal health status. Provision of the best prenatal care can reduce mortality rate in these two susceptible groups. This study focused on the effect of maternal care log book on pregnancy outcome. METHODS: This was a clinical trial and 180 samples were randomly selected from the mothers referred to private offices of gynecologists and midwives and were divided into two groups of case and control. The outcome of pregnancy was determined by prenatal care log books in the case group and with pregnancy card in the control group. The data were collected using quality of life questionnaire and a pregnancy complications questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods (Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and chi-square test) were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The results demonstrated a significant difference between case and control groups concerning normal vaginal delivery (p = 0.01), preterm labor (p = 0.015) and postpartum infection (p = 0.012). The result of quality of life in physical and mental domains and especially in mental domains was better in the case group than in the control group (p = 0.026 in physical and mental dimensions and (p = 0.02 in mental dimensions). This difference was lower in physical dimensions alone (p = 0.049). However, there was no significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine fetal death. CONCLUSIONS: As found out by the results, using maternal log book of mothers cares due to its comprehensive care items was more effective than simple maternal cards used by gynecologists and midwives. This can bring about better prenatal care and detected pregnancy complications.

Beigi M; Javanmardi Z; Khani B; Safdari F

2011-01-01

278

Effect of 5-HT1B receptor agonists injected into the prefrontal cortex on maternal aggression in rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Serotonin (5-HT1B) receptors play an essential role in the inhibition of aggressive behavior in rodents. CP-94,253, a 5-HT1B receptor agonist, can reduce aggression in male mice when administered directly into the ventro-orbitofrontal (VO) prefrontal cortex (PFC). The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of two selective 5-HT1B receptor agonists (CP-94,253 and CP-93,129), microinjected into the VO PFC, on maternal aggressive behavior after social insti (more) gation in rats. CP-94,253 (0.56 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8, and 1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 8) or CP-93,129 (1.0 µg/0.2 µL, N = 9) was microinjected into the VO PFC of Wistar rats on the 9th day postpartum and 15 min thereafter the aggressive behavior by the resident female against a male intruder was recorded for 10 min. The frequency and duration of aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc tests. CP-93,129 significantly decreased maternal aggression. The frequency of lateral attacks, bites and pinnings was reduced compared to control, while the non-aggressive behaviors and maternal care were largely unaffected by this treatment. CP-94,253 had no significant effects on aggressive or non-aggressive behaviors when microinjected into the same area of female rats. CP-93,129, a specific 5-HT1B receptor agonist, administered into the VO PFC reduced maternal aggressive behavior, while the CP-94,253 agonist did not significantly affect this behavior after social instigation in female rats. We conclude that only the 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP-93,129 administered into the VO PFC decreased aggression in female rats postpartum after social instigation.

Veiga, C.P.; Miczek, K.A.; Lucion, A.B.; Almeida, R.M.M. de

2007-06-01

279

MATERNAL MORTALITY  

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Full Text Available Objective: The women residing in a developing country have 200 times greater risk of suffering from pregnancy and childbirth related mortality compared with the women of a developed country. To investigate relevant causes and the determinants of maternal mortality through conducting scientific clinical studies. Methodologies: We conducted a prospective study of maternal deaths in the obstetrics and gynaecology unit of RGH for one year. Period: January 2007 to December 2007. We investigated the socio-demographic variables -- including age, parity, socio-economic status and literacy -- along with the social behavior towards the antenatal. We designed standardized data collecting forms to collect data from the confidential hospital notes of the patients. The collected medical data of the patients proved useful in analyzing the underlying causes and the risk factors behind direct and indirect maternal mortalities. Results: In our unit, we have recorded 28 maternal deaths during the study period. 24 (86%) deaths are due to the direct causes and 4 (14%) are due to the indirect causes. The leading direct causes are hemorrhage 9 (37.5%), eclampsia 7 (29%), septicemia 5 (21%) and anaesthesia complications 2 (8%). Similarly, the distribution of indirect causes is: blood transfusion reactions 2 (50 %), hepatic failure 2 (50 %), Consequently, crude maternal mortality rate can be extrapolated at 645 per 100,000 maternities and maternal mortality ratio at 659 per 100,000 live births. The socio demographics of the dead mothers are: 16 (57%) patients in the age group of 25-35 years, 13 (52%) are multiparas (G2-G4) and 10 (36%) are grandmulti para i.e. G5 and above. Moreover, 13 (46%) of them expired at term. The majority of them is illiterate and belongs to lower socio-economic group. 14 (42%) mothers have not received antenatal care and just 4 (15%) of them have received antenatal care from RGH or other hospital. 23 (92%) patients have been suffering from anemia and we received 15 (54%) of them in a critical state with the hospital stay of less than 12 hours. Conclusion: In our study hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the leading causes of maternal deaths. We argue that most of these maternal deaths could have been possibly avoided by periodic interventions during the pregnancy, child birth and the postpartum period.

SADIA KHAN

2009-01-01

280

Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat  

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Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development

1986-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Effects of multiple maternal relationship transitions on offspring antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence: a cousin-comparison analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies of the association between multiple parental relationship transitions (i.e., when a parent begins or terminates an intimate relationship involving cohabitation) and offspring antisocial behavior have varied in their efforts to rule out confounding influences, such as parental antisocial behavior and low income. They also have been limited in the representativeness of their samples. Thus, it remains unclear to what degree parents' multiple relationship transitions have independent effects on children's antisocial behavior. Analyses were conducted using data on 8,652 6-9-year-old, 6,911 10-13-year-old, and 6,495 14-17-year-old offspring of a nationally representative sample of U.S. women. Cousin-comparisons were used in combination with statistical covariates to evaluate the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Cousin-comparisons suggested that associations between maternal relationship transitions and antisocial behavior in childhood and early adolescence are largely explained by confounding factors. In contrast, the associations between maternal relationship transitions and offspring delinquency in late adolescence were robust to measured and unmeasured confounds. The present findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing exposure to parental relationship transitions or addressing the psychosocial consequences of exposure to parental relationship transitions could reduce risk for offspring delinquency in late adolescence.

Goodnight JA; D'Onofrio BM; Cherlin AJ; Emery RE; Van Hulle CA; Lahey BB

2013-02-01

282

The effect of maternal age and reproductive history on offspring survival and lifetime reproduction in preindustrial humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Senescence is one of the least understood aspects of organism life history. In part, this stems from the relatively late advent of complete individual-level datasets and appropriate statistical tools. In addition, selection against senescence should depend on the contribution to population growth arising from physiological investment in offspring at given ages, but offspring are rarely tracked over their entire lives. Here, we use a multigenerational dataset of preindustrial (1732-1860) Finns to describe the association of maternal age at offspring birth with offspring survival and lifetime reproduction. We then conduct longitudinal analyses to understand the drivers of this association. At the population level, offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS) declined by 22% and individual ?, which falls with delays to reproduction, declined by 45% as maternal age at offspring birth increased from 16 to 50 years. These results were mediated by within-mother declines in offspring survival and lifetime reproduction. We also found evidence for modifying effects of offspring sex and maternal socioeconomic status. We suggest that our results emerge from the interaction of physiological with social drivers of offspring LRS, which further weakens selection on late-age reproduction and potentially molds the rate of senescence in humans.

Gillespie DO; Russell AF; Lummaa V

2013-07-01

283

Genetic control of immune response to pseudorabies and atrophic rhinitis vaccines: II. Comparison of additive direct and maternal genetic effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data from 52 litters farrowed in two seasons of a cross-fostering experiment were analyzed to estimate variances and covariances for additive direct and maternal genetic effects on immune response to pseudorabies virus and B. bronchiseptica vaccine. Twenty purebred boars and 44 sows of the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds were used. Immune response was measured after vaccine challenge. A modified-live pseudorabies (PR) vaccine was administered to piglets at 28 d of age; response was measured by log2 serum neutralization titers at 56 d. An inactivated B. bronchiseptica bacterin was administered at 28, 42 and 112 d. Antibody levels were measured relative to positive and negative controls at 28, 56 and 119 d by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results from this study for heritability were .18 +/- .09 for PR titer and .15 +/- .07 and .52 +/- .15 for 56- and 119-d ELISA values, respectively. The variability due to nurse environment (maternal genetic variance and common environmental variance) as a percentage of phenotypic variance was 11.1% for PR titers and 29.6 and 8.8% for 56- and 119-d ELISA values, respectively. The heritabilities estimated in this study indicate that, if improved immune response to vaccines is desired, selection may be useful. However, the importance of maternal environment would make early selections less accurate than selections based on immune response measured later in life.

Meeker DL; Rothschild MF; Christian LL; Warner CM; Hill HT

1987-02-01

284

Complex interactions between paternal and maternal effects: parental experience and age at reproduction affect fecundity and offspring performance in a butterfly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parental effects can greatly affect offspring performance and are thus expected to impact population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Most studies have focused on maternal effects, whereas fathers are also likely to influence offspring phenotype, for instance when males transfer nutrients to females during mating. Moreover, although the separate effects of maternal age and the environment have been documented as a source of parental effects in many species, their combined effects have not been investigated. In the present study, we analyzed the combined effects of maternal and paternal age at reproduction and a mobility treatment in stressful conditions on offspring performance in the butterfly Pieris brassicae. Both paternal and maternal effects affected progeny traits but always via interactions between age and mobility treatment. Moreover, parental effects shifted from male effects expressed at the larval stage to maternal effects at the adult stage. Indeed, egg survival until adult emergence significantly decreased with father age at mating only for fathers having experienced the mobility treatment, whereas offspring adult life span decreased with increasing mother age at laying only for females that did not experience the mobility treatment. Overall, our results demonstrate that both parents' phenotypes influence offspring performance through nongenetic effects, their relative contribution varying over the course of progeny's life.

Ducatez S; Baguette M; Stevens VM; Legrand D; Fréville H

2012-11-01

285

Effects of maternally transferred organochlorine contaminants on early life survival in a freshwater fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory research has shown that female fish can pass toxic organochlorines (OCs) from their bodies to their eggs, killing their offspring if sufficient quantities are transferred. We conducted a controlled incubation study using gametes from a wild, OC-contaminated walleye (Sander vitreus) population (Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada) in order to assess among-female variation in offspring early life survival in relation to ova concentrations of planar OCs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans and planar polychlorinated biphenyls) and a suite of other maternal and ova characteristics. Equal volumes of ova from each female were fertilized, pooled, and incubated together as an experimental cohort. Relative survival of each female's offspring was estimated as the proportion of surviving larvae (at approximately 5 d posthatch) that she contributed to the cohort as determined by microsatellite DNA parentage assignment. Total planar OC concentration (expressed as toxic equivalency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) of ova was positively related to maternal age and size and to ova lipid content. However, early life survival did not decline with increasing ova planar OC concentrations. Similarly, we observed no significant relationships between early life survival and ova thiamine content, ova fatty acid composition, or maternal age or size. Early life survival was more strongly correlated with date of spawn collection, thyroid hormone status of the ova, and ovum size. Maternally transferred planar OCs do not appear to negatively influence female reproductive success in this walleye population. PMID:16268162

Johnston, Thomas A; Miller, Loren M; Whittle, D Michael; Brown, Scott B; Wiegand, Murray D; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Leggett, William C

2005-10-01

286

Chronic effects of maternal smoking on pulse waves in the fetal aorta.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the impact of maternal smoking on arterial stiffness in utero, pulse wave characteristics in the fetal aorta were investigated. A prospective clinical study was made of 34 smoking and 34 non-smoking healthy volunteers with uncomplicated pregnancies at 31-40 weeks of gestation. METHODS: The mechanical properties of the fetal thoracic aorta were assessed by an ultrasonic phase-locking echo-tracking system. For each fetus with a smoking mother, a non-smoking control matched for gestational and maternal age was monitored. Women with later appearing pregnancy complications were excluded. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), maximum diameter in systole (Ds), end-diastolic diameter (Dd), pulse amplitude (DeltaD), and maximum incremental velocity (MIV) in the fetal aorta were measured and analyzed in relation to maternal smoking and gestational age. RESULTS: Results were computed on fetuses of 32 smokers and 30 non-smokers. PWV increased with gestational age in smokers (corr. coeff. 0.49, p < 0.006) but not in non-smokers (corr. coeff. -0.12). MIV did not change in smokers (corr. coeff. -0.15) but increased in non-smokers (corr. coeff. 0.40, p < 0.03). Differences in regression lines between the groups regarding PWV and MIV were significant (p < 0.02 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking seems to promote the stiffening of the fetal aorta during gestation.

Kyrklund-Blomberg NB; Hu J; Gennser G

2006-08-01

287

The Effects of Rumination on the Timing of Maternal and Child Negative Affect  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined whether rumination serves as a moderator of the temporal association between maternal and child negative affect. Participants included 88 mothers with a history of major depressive episodes and their 123 children. During an initial assessment, mothers and their children completed measures assessing negative affect and…

Flancbaum, Meir; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Abela, John R. Z.; Young, Jamie F.; Stolow, Darren; Hankin, Benjamin L.

2011-01-01

288

Effect of maternal folic acid supplementation on hepatic proteome in newborn piglets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the hepatic proteome of newborn piglets after maternal folic acid supplementation (FS). METHODS: Pregnant dams were fed a control diet (folic acid 1.3 mg/kg) or an FS diet (folic acid 30 mg/kg) during gestation. The liver samples of newborn piglets from each group were collected at birth for the analysis of the proteome using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: The results indicated that the expression levels of 11 proteins were changed dramatically in the newborn piglets after maternal FS. FS during gestation increased the content of proteins that regulate the immune response (90-kDa heat shock protein), energy metabolism (aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase), and intermediary metabolism (formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase and abhydrolase). In addition, maternal FS downregulated the expression of proteins associated with cellular signal transduction (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein and exportin), proteolysis (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and porcine ?-trypsin), and cell migration regulation (actin-related protein-3). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that maternal FS alters the expression abundance of several hepatic proteins that are involved in metabolic regulation, oxidative responses, and cancer-related processes.

Liu J; Yao Y; Yu B; Mao X; Huang Z; Chen D

2013-01-01

289

The effect of grand maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation on lung integrity of the F2 generation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation adversely affects lung development in the offspring. It has been suggested that the "program" that control long-term maintenance of the structural integrity of the lung may be compromised. The aim of the study was to establish whether the effect of grand-maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation can be transferred to the F2 generation. METHODS: After mating, rats were randomly divided into two groups (F0). One group received nicotine (1?mg/kg body weight/day). The controls receive saline. Body weight (BW), lung volume (Lv), linear intercept (Lm), alveolar wall thickness (Tsept), senescent and proliferating cell numbers were used to evaluate changes in the lung structure of the offspring (F1). The F1 generation was divided into four groups, namely, (1) control (F1 males mated with F1 females, (2) NmCf (F1 nicotine exposed male mated with F1 control female), (3) NfCm (F1 nicotine exposed female mated with F1 control male), and (4) NmNf (F1 male exposed to nicotine mated with F1 female also exposed to nicotine). The F1 nicotine exposed males and females were exposed to nicotine via the placenta and mother's milk (F0 generation) only. The F2 progeny was never exposed to nicotine. DISCUSSION: Grand-maternal nicotine (F0) resulted in parenchymal deterioration and emphysema in the F2 progeny due to increased numbers of premature senescent cells together with a slower cell proliferation. The transfer of premature aging characteristics from the F1 progeny to the F2 progeny is via the male and female germ cell line. CONCLUSION: Grand-maternal nicotine exposure induces structural changes in the lungs of the F2 generation that resembled premature aging. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Maritz GS; Mutemwa M

2013-02-01

290

Aujeszky's disease vaccination and infection of pigs with maternal immunity: effects on cell- and antibody-mediated immunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

SCC, ADV-SCC, ADV-ADCC and ADV-LYST as well as ND50-titres of neutralizing serum antibodies were examined in 36 passively immune pigs, 25 of which were vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and partly revaccinated 3 weeks later. Twenty-five vaccinated animals and 8 non-immune control pigs were challenged with infectious ADV. Independent of the state of maternal immunity the cytotoxic response of the white blood cells from all the animals was low at WPP 3 but rose with increasing age. ADV-LYST occurred only in some of the animals. A single vaccination evoked no significant effect on our immune parameters, but revaccination led to higher ADV-LYST and ADV-ADCC. In pigs vaccinated at WPP 3 the neutralizing serum titres decreased gradually, similar to unvaccinated animals, indicating that the antibodies were of maternal origin. However, after vaccination at WPP 6, no further decline of ND50-titres could be detected, pointing to a limited antibody production. Animals vaccinated at WPP 3 and revaccinated 3 weeks later showed a significant increase of serum neutralizing titres. Whereas the controls showed typical symptoms of Aujeszky's disease, the immune animals, especially the unvaccinated passively immune pigs, showed only elevated temperatures and most of them excreted small amounts of ADV. The development of cellular immunity after infection was rather similar within the maternally immune group independent whether the animals had been vaccinated or not, but ADV-ADCC and ADV-LYST showed a more rapid progress within the vaccinated group than in the non-vaccinated group and the non-immune control group. Infection resulted in significantly higher ND50 titres in vaccinated and revaccinated animals than in unvaccinated animals, indicating a secondary response in those pigs. Thus, ADV sensitization of lymphocytes had been evoked by vaccination despite the presence of maternal antibody. The interpretation of the results was complicated by great individual and litter-dependent variations of the immune parameters. PMID:3026291

Wittmann, G; Ohlinger, V

1987-01-01

291

Aujeszky's disease vaccination and infection of pigs with maternal immunity: effects on cell- and antibody-mediated immunity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SCC, ADV-SCC, ADV-ADCC and ADV-LYST as well as ND50-titres of neutralizing serum antibodies were examined in 36 passively immune pigs, 25 of which were vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and partly revaccinated 3 weeks later. Twenty-five vaccinated animals and 8 non-immune control pigs were challenged with infectious ADV. Independent of the state of maternal immunity the cytotoxic response of the white blood cells from all the animals was low at WPP 3 but rose with increasing age. ADV-LYST occurred only in some of the animals. A single vaccination evoked no significant effect on our immune parameters, but revaccination led to higher ADV-LYST and ADV-ADCC. In pigs vaccinated at WPP 3 the neutralizing serum titres decreased gradually, similar to unvaccinated animals, indicating that the antibodies were of maternal origin. However, after vaccination at WPP 6, no further decline of ND50-titres could be detected, pointing to a limited antibody production. Animals vaccinated at WPP 3 and revaccinated 3 weeks later showed a significant increase of serum neutralizing titres. Whereas the controls showed typical symptoms of Aujeszky's disease, the immune animals, especially the unvaccinated passively immune pigs, showed only elevated temperatures and most of them excreted small amounts of ADV. The development of cellular immunity after infection was rather similar within the maternally immune group independent whether the animals had been vaccinated or not, but ADV-ADCC and ADV-LYST showed a more rapid progress within the vaccinated group than in the non-vaccinated group and the non-immune control group. Infection resulted in significantly higher ND50 titres in vaccinated and revaccinated animals than in unvaccinated animals, indicating a secondary response in those pigs. Thus, ADV sensitization of lymphocytes had been evoked by vaccination despite the presence of maternal antibody. The interpretation of the results was complicated by great individual and litter-dependent variations of the immune parameters.

Wittmann G; Ohlinger V

1987-01-01

292

The effect of maternal iodine status on infant outcomes in an iodine-deficient Indian population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: An adequate intake of iodine during pregnancy is essential for the synthesis of maternal thyroid hormones needed to support normal fetal development. This study aimed to assess the iodine status of pregnant tribal Indian women and their infants and to determine the impact of maternal iodine status on infant growth and behavior. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was undertaken to assess the iodine status of tribal pregnant Indian women living in Ramtek, northeast of Nagpur, India. Pregnant women were recruited at 13-22 weeks gestation (n=220), visited a second time at 33-37 weeks gestation (n=183), and again visited at 2-4 weeks postpartum with their infants. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including household salt, blood, and urine samples were obtained from pregnant women. Urine samples, anthropometric, and neonatal behavioral data were collected from infants. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) at recruitment (mean gestation=17.5 weeks) of mothers was 106??g/L, which declined to 71??g/L at the second visit (mean gestation=34.5 weeks) similar to the postpartum MUIC of 69??g/L, indicating that these women were iodine deficient. Infant (mean age=2.5 weeks) MUIC was 168??g/L. Median maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT(4)) concentrations at first and second visits were 1.71 and 1.79?mIU/L and 14.4 and 15.4?pmol/L, respectively; 20.0% of women at first visit had TSH >97.5th percentile and 1.4% had FT(4) <2.5th percentile. Salt iodine concentration was a significant predictor of maternal UIC (p<0.001), and postpartum maternal UIC was a significant predictor of infant UIC (p<0.001). For every pmol/L increase in maternal FT(4) concentration at first visit, both infant weight-for-age Z-score and length-for-age Z-score increased by 0.05 units. There was no relationship between maternal UIC, FT(4), or TSH at first visit and neonatal behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Despite three quarters of the women in this study having access to adequately iodized salt (i.e., >15?ppm), these pregnant tribal Indian women were iodine deficient. Increasing the iodine content of salt deemed adequately iodized and iodine supplementation are two strategies that might improve the iodine status of these pregnant women and, consequently, the growth of their infants.

Menon KC; Skeaff SA; Thomson CD; Gray AR; Ferguson EL; Zodpey S; Saraf A; Das PK; Pandav CS

2011-12-01

293

Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise train (more) ing regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1) compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1). Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively) compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively). Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for control animals) and showed lower differentiation compared to fetuses from the control group. These effects were probably caused by caloric restriction, hypoxia and reduction of umbilical cord length.

Oliveira, A.O.; Fileto, C.; Melis, M.S.

2004-06-01

294

Mendelian Randomization Analysis of the Effect of Maternal Homocysteine During Pregnancy, as Represented by Maternal MTHFR C677T Genotype, on Birth Weight.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: We used Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between maternal homocysteine level, as represented by maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, with the birth weight of offspring.Methods: We recruited women at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation who visited Ewha Womans University Hospital for prenatal care during the period from August 2001 to December 2003. A total of 473 newborns with a gestational age of at least 37 weeks were analyzed in this study. We excluded twin births and children of women with a history of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, or chronic renal disease. The association of maternal homocysteine concentration with the birth weight of infants was analyzed using 2-stage regression.Results: MTHFR C677T genotype showed a dose-response association with homocysteine concentration for each additional T allele (Ptrend homocysteine level increased, while controlling for confounding factors; however, the association was of marginal significance (P = 0.06).Conclusions: Our results suggest an adverse relationship between maternal homocysteine level and birth weight. A reduction in homocysteine levels might positively affect birth outcomes. PMID:23856949

Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Hwayoung; Gwak, Hye Sun; Kim, Ki Nam; Chang, Namsoo; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook

2013-07-13

295

Maternal sepsis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal sepsis is relatively common. Most of these infections are the result of tissue damage during labor and delivery and physiologic changes normally occurring during pregnancy. These infections, whether directly pregnancy-related or simply aggravated by normal pregnancy physiology, ultimately have the potential to progress to severe sepsis and septic shock. This article discusses commonly encountered entities and septic shock. The expeditious recognition of common maternal sepsis and meticulous attention to appropriate management to prevent the progression to severe sepsis and septic shock are emphasized. Also discussed are principles and new approaches for the management of septic shock.

Morgan J; Roberts S

2013-03-01

296

Genetic analysis of embryo, cytoplasm and maternal effects and their environment interactions for isoflavone content in soybean [Glycine max L. Merr.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soybean seed products contain isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and glycitein that display biological effects when ingested by humans and animals. These effects are species, dose and age dependent. Therefore, the content and quality of isoflavones in soybeans is a key factor to the biological effect. Our objective was to identify the genetic effects that underlie the isoflavone content in soybean seeds. A genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants was applied to estimate the genetic main effects and genotype x environment GE interaction effects for the isoflavone content IC of soybean seeds by using two years experimental data with an incomplete diallel mating design of six parents. Results showed that the IC of soybean seeds was simultaneously controlled by the genetic effects of maternal, embryo, and cytoplasm, of which maternal genetic effects were most important, followed by embryo and cytoplasmic genetic effects. The main effects of different genetic systems on IC trait were more important than environment interaction effects. The strong dominance effects on isoflavone from residual was made easily by environment conditions. Therefore, the improvement of the IC of soybean seeds would be more efficient when selection is based on maternal plants than that on the single seed. Maternal heritability 65.73% was most important for IC, followed by embryo heritability 25.87% and cytoplasmic heritability 8.39%. Based on predicated genetic effects, Yudou 29 and Zheng 90007 were better than other parents for increasing IC in the progeny and improving the quality of soybean, The significant effects of maternal and embryo dominance effects in variance show that the embryo heterosis and maternal heterosis are existent and uninfluenced by environment interaction effects.

Liang Huizhen; Wang Shufeng; Wang Tingfeng; Zhao Haiyang; Zhao Shuangjin; Zhang Mengchen

297

Maternal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Term Birth Weight: A Multi-Country Evaluation of Effect and Heterogeneity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A growing body of evidence has associated maternal exposure to air pollution with adverse effects on fetal growth; however, the existing literature is inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to quantify the association between maternal exposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight and low birth weight (LBW) across 14 centers from 9 countries, and to explore the influence of site characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in this association. Methods: Using a common analytical protocol, International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) centers generated effect estimates for term LBW and continuous birth weight associated with PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ? 10 and 2.5 µm). We used meta-analysis to combine the estimates of effect across centers (~ 3 million births) and used meta-regression to evaluate the influence of center characteristics and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in reported effect estimates. Results: In random-effects meta-analyses, term LBW was positively associated with a 10-?g/m3 increase in PM10 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05] and PM2.5 (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) exposure during the entire pregnancy, adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status. A 10-?g/m3 increase in PM10 exposure was also negatively associated with term birth weight as a continuous outcome in the fully adjusted random-effects meta-analyses (–8.9 g; 95% CI: –13.2, –4.6 g). Meta-regressions revealed that centers with higher median PM2.5 levels and PM2.5:PM10 ratios, and centers that used a temporal exposure assessment (compared with spatiotemporal), tended to report stronger associations. Conclusion: Maternal exposure to particulate pollution was associated with LBW at term across study populations. We detected three site characteristics and aspects of exposure assessment methodology that appeared to contribute to the variation in associations reported by centers.

Parker, Jennifer; Bell, Michelle L.; Bonzini, Matteo; Brauer, Michael; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana V.; Gouveia, Nelson; Ha, Eun-hee; Leem, Jong Han; van den Hooven, Edith H.; Jalaludin, Bin; Jesdale, Bill M.; Lepeule, Johanna; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Morgan, Geoffrey G.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pierik, Frank H.; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Rich, David Q.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Seo, Juhee; Slama, Remy; Strickland, Matthew; Tamburic, Lillian; Wartenberg, Daniel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

2013-01-01

298

Structural equation modeling and nested ANOVA: Effects of lead exposure on maternal and fetal growth in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provided an assessment of the effects of lead on early growth in rats based on structural equation modeling and nested analysis of variance (ANOVA). Structural equation modeling showed that lead in drinking water (250, 500, or 1000 ppm) had a direct negative effect on body weight and tail length (i.e., growth) in female rats during the first week of exposure. During the following 2 weeks of exposure, high correlation between growth measurements taken over time resulted in reduced early postnatal growth. By the fourth week of exposure, reduced growth was not evident. Mating began after 8 weeks of exposure, and exposure continued during gestation. Decreased fetal body weight was detected when the effects of litter size, intrauterine position, and sex were controlled in a nested ANOVA. Lead exposure did not appear to affect fetal skeletal development, possibly because lead did not alter maternal serum calcium and phosphorus levels. The effect of lead on individual fetal body weight suggests that additional studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal lead exposure on fetal development and early postnatal growth. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hamilton, J.D. (Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House, PA (United States)); O' Flaherty, E.J.; Shukla, R.; Gartside, P.S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Ross, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1994-01-01

299

The effect of maternal nutritional status during mid-gestation on placental characteristics in ewes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal nutritional status during mid-gestation on placental characteristics in ewes. Time of estrus of 3-5 years old Karayaka breed ewes was synchronized and mating was monitored to determine the day 0 of gestation. The ewes had similar body weights (47.8±0.7kg) and loin eye muscle values (thickness; 20.9±1.0mm and fat thickness; 4.7±0.5mm) at mating. The ewes were allocated into two treatment groups at day 30 of gestation; under-fed (UF; n=12) and well-fed (WF; n=13) groups. The ewes in UF group were fed with a diet to provide 50% of their daily requirement from day 30 to day 80 of gestation and 100% of their daily requirement during the rest of the gestation period. The ewes in WF group were fed at least 100% of their daily requirement throughout gestation. The singleton bearing ewes in the UF group had a lesser (P<0.05) placental weight (354.1 compared with 378.3g), average cotyledon weight (1.50 compared with 1.82g) and lamb birth weight (3.8 compared with 4.2kg) than singleton bearing ewes in the WF group. There were positive correlations between placental weight and lamb birth weight (r=.469; P<0.05), placental weight and average cotyledon weight (r=.695; P<0.01), average cotyledon weight and lamb birth weight (r=.742; P<0.01) and placental efficiency and cotyledon density (r=.853; P<0.01) for ewes in WF group. Additionally, the pattern of weight gain/loss was different (P<0.05) between the two groups. Ewes in UF group lost body weight progressively from day 30 of gestation until day 80. The results of present study show that under-feeding of ewes during mid-gestation may cause an insufficient placental development and hence alter fetal development resulting in a reduced birth weight from singleton pregnancies.

Sen U; Sirin E; Kuran M

2012-12-01

300

Effect of maternal excessive iodine intake on neurodevelopment and cognitive function in rat offspring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency and iodine excess are both associated with adverse health consequences. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy leads to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone, subsequently causing irreversible adverse effects on the neurological and cognitive functions of the offspring. The results of our previous epidemiological study suggested that mild iodine excess might increase the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. In the present study, female Wistar rats maintained on low-iodine grain were randomly assigned to three groups based on iodated water concentration: low iodine (LI, 1.2??g/d), normal iodine (NI, 5–6??g/d), and 3-fold high iodine (3HI, 15–16??g/d). The present study investigated whether higher-than-normal iodine intake (3HI) by rats from before pregnancy until breastfeeding affects the postnatal (PN) neurodevelopment (PN7 and PN45) of their offspring during particularly sensitive periods in brain development. Results After 12?weeks of treatment (before pregnancy), iodine concentrations in urine and thyroid tissue and circulating thyroxine of adult females correlated with iodine intake. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampi of pups on PN7 and PN45 was decreased in 3HI group compared to the NI controls (P??0.05, all) On PN7 and PN45, the BDNF levels of the 3HI pups were 83.5% and 88.8%, respectively, that of the NI pups. In addition, the 3HI group had a higher neuroendocrine-specific protein A (NSP-A) level than the NI controls on PN7 (P??0.05). NSP-A levels of the 3HI pups were 117.0% that of the NI pups. No significant difference was observed in the expressions of c-Fos or c-Jun in the hippocampal CA1 region of the 3HI group compared to the controls (P?>?0.05). Results from the Morris water maze test revealed that pups of the 3HI group had mild learning and spatial memory deficits. Conclusions The neurodevelopmental and cognitive deficits of the 3HI pups were mild and temporary, likely related to the changes in hippocampal protein expressions of BDNF and NSP-A.

Zhang Le; Teng Weiping; Liu Yuhui; Li Jing; Mao Jinyuan; Fan Chenling; Wang Hong; Zhang Hongmei; Shan Zhongyan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The effect of maternal nutritional status during mid-gestation on placental characteristics in ewes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal nutritional status during mid-gestation on placental characteristics in ewes. Time of estrus of 3-5 years old Karayaka breed ewes was synchronized and mating was monitored to determine the day 0 of gestation. The ewes had similar body weights (47.8±0.7kg) and loin eye muscle values (thickness; 20.9±1.0mm and fat thickness; 4.7±0.5mm) at mating. The ewes were allocated into two treatment groups at day 30 of gestation; under-fed (UF; n=12) and well-fed (WF; n=13) groups. The ewes in UF group were fed with a diet to provide 50% of their daily requirement from day 30 to day 80 of gestation and 100% of their daily requirement during the rest of the gestation period. The ewes in WF group were fed at least 100% of their daily requirement throughout gestation. The singleton bearing ewes in the UF group had a lesser (P<0.05) placental weight (354.1 compared with 378.3g), average cotyledon weight (1.50 compared with 1.82g) and lamb birth weight (3.8 compared with 4.2kg) than singleton bearing ewes in the WF group. There were positive correlations between placental weight and lamb birth weight (r=.469; P<0.05), placental weight and average cotyledon weight (r=.695; P<0.01), average cotyledon weight and lamb birth weight (r=.742; P<0.01) and placental efficiency and cotyledon density (r=.853; P<0.01) for ewes in WF group. Additionally, the pattern of weight gain/loss was different (P<0.05) between the two groups. Ewes in UF group lost body weight progressively from day 30 of gestation until day 80. The results of present study show that under-feeding of ewes during mid-gestation may cause an insufficient placental development and hence alter fetal development resulting in a reduced birth weight from singleton pregnancies. PMID:23273533

Sen, U; Sirin, E; Kuran, M

2012-12-01

302

Evaluation Of The Potential Mutagenic Effects Of Ginseng On Maternally Treated Postimplanted Mouse Foetuses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of ginseng (herbal medicine) on maternally treated postimplanted mouse foetuses. A total of 60 adult albino female mice were used and divided into 6 groups (10 females each). The first group (I) served as a control group and received oral doses of the vehicle (0.5 ml disteled water ) for 60 days before pregnancy to 13th day of pregnancy. The rest 5 groups received orally 4mg/kg.bw of ginseng for 7, 14, 30, 45 and 60 days before day 0 of gestation and extended to 13th day of pregnancy. Then 6 females of each group were sacrificed, feotuses sample from each female were taken and subjected to cytogenetic analysis. The rest females of each group (4 females) were continuously treated and sacrificed at day 17 of getation, foetuses were examined morphologically and for different features such as implanation sites, living feotuses, resorbed foetuses and foetus body weight. Chromosome analysis of the present study (Table 1) revealed that there were numerical aberrations (peridiploidy). There was a difference only between group II and III in respect to hypodiploid (2n-), meanwhile, hyperdiploid (2n+) were more frequent in group IV and VI than that in control group (group I). For the total numerical aberrations, there were significant differences between groups II, VI compared to the control group. All groups had little frequencies of structural aberrations especially for chromatid gaps, breaks and fragments. There were a significant differences between group IV and VI compared with the control group for the deletions. Chromosome breaks were more frequent in the groups III and IV compared to the control group, whereas groups V, VI had more frequencies of centromeric attenuations than the control group. There were no differences between control group and the rest of all groups investigated for implantation sites, living foetuses and resorbed foetuses (Table 2), whereas for gross malformation, 5.41 % of group VI where abnormal and the rest of all groups had no malformations. For the mean fetal body weight, there was a significant difference among the control group (I) and the groups number II, III and VI. We conclude that treatment with ginseng as a herbal medicine may cause fetal chromosomal aberrations as well as gross malformation especially when taken for a long time and extended during pregnancy. So, we recommend that the use of ginseng during first trimester of pregnancy should be with caution.

H.M. El Ashmaoui, S. M. Girgis and Abd El Raouf, A.

2003-01-01

303

Maternal corticosterone effects on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and behavior of the offspring in rodents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The behavioral and physiological traits of an individual are strongly influenced by early life events. One of the major systems implicated in the responses to environmental manipulations and stress is the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents) represent the final step in the activation of the HPA system and play an important role in the effects induced by the perinatal environment. We demonstrated, in rats with some differences between males and females, that mothers whose drinking water was supplemented with moderate doses of corticosterone throughout the lactation period, give birth to offspring better able to meet the demands of the environment. The progeny of these mothers, as adults, show improved learning capabilities, reduced fearfulness in anxiogenic situations, lower metabotropic glutamate receptors and higher glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus with a persistent hyporeactivity of the HPA axis leading to a resistance to ischemic neuronal damage. Other studies performed in mice showed that low doses of corticosterone in the maternal drinking water, which, as in our rat model, may reflect a form of mild environmental stimulation, enhanced the offspring's ability to cope with different situations, while elevated doses, comparable to those elicited by strong stressors, caused developmental disruption. Significantly, adult rats and mice that had been nursed by mothers with a mild hypercorticosteronemia provide an example of how a moderate corticosterone increase mediates the salutary effects of some events occurring early in life. Both maternal and infantile plasma levels of the hormone may play a role in these effects, the first influencing maternal behavior, the second acting directly on the central nervous system of the developing rat.

Catalani A; Alemà GS; Cinque C; Zuena AR; Casolini P

2011-06-01

304

Maternal corticosterone effects on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and behavior of the offspring in rodents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The behavioral and physiological traits of an individual are strongly influenced by early life events. One of the major systems implicated in the responses to environmental manipulations and stress is the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents) represent the final step in the activation of the HPA system and play an important role in the effects induced by the perinatal environment. We demonstrated, in rats with some differences between males and females, that mothers whose drinking water was supplemented with moderate doses of corticosterone throughout the lactation period, give birth to offspring better able to meet the demands of the environment. The progeny of these mothers, as adults, show improved learning capabilities, reduced fearfulness in anxiogenic situations, lower metabotropic glutamate receptors and higher glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus with a persistent hyporeactivity of the HPA axis leading to a resistance to ischemic neuronal damage. Other studies performed in mice showed that low doses of corticosterone in the maternal drinking water, which, as in our rat model, may reflect a form of mild environmental stimulation, enhanced the offspring's ability to cope with different situations, while elevated doses, comparable to those elicited by strong stressors, caused developmental disruption. Significantly, adult rats and mice that had been nursed by mothers with a mild hypercorticosteronemia provide an example of how a moderate corticosterone increase mediates the salutary effects of some events occurring early in life. Both maternal and infantile plasma levels of the hormone may play a role in these effects, the first influencing maternal behavior, the second acting directly on the central nervous system of the developing rat. PMID:21056056

Catalani, Assia; Alemà, Giovanni Sebastiano; Cinque, Carlo; Zuena, Anna Rita; Casolini, Paola

2010-11-04

305

The single-patient room in the NICU: maternal and family effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore differences in maternal factors, including visitation and holding, among premature infants cared for in single-patient rooms (SPR) compared with open-bay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: A total of 81 premature infants were assigned to a bed space in either the open-bay area or in a SPR upon NICU admission, based on bed space and staffing availability in each area. Parent visitation and holding were tracked through term equivalent, and parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire at discharge to describe maternal health. Additional maternal and medical factors were collected from the medical record. Differences in outcome variables were investigated using linear regression. RESULT: No significant differences in gestational age at birth, initial medical severity, hours of intubation or other factors that could affect the outcome were observed across room type. Significantly more hours of visitation were observed in the first 2 weeks of life (P=0.02) and in weeks 3 and 4 (P=0.02) among infants in the SPR. More NICU stress was reported by mothers in the SPR after controlling for social support (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Increased parent visitation is an important benefit of the SPR, however, mothers with infants in the SPR reported more stress.

Pineda RG; Stransky KE; Rogers C; Duncan MH; Smith GC; Neil J; Inder T

2012-07-01

306

PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

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Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

2006-01-01

307

Developmental Timing of the Effects of Maternal Care on Gene Expression and Epigenetic Regulation of Hormone Receptor Levels in Female Rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal care experienced during postnatal development has enduring effects on neuroendocrine function and behavior. Previous studies in rats have illustrated the effect of maternal licking/grooming (LG) on hormone receptors and maternal behavior of adult female offspring associated with altered DNA methylation. However, the developmental timing of these effects, which provide insight into the cellular and molecular pathways through which early experience alters later behavior, had not been explored. Here, we demonstrate the developmental emergence of these outcomes and use cross-fostering to identify sensitive periods for these effects. Estrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? mRNA levels within the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the hypothalamus were increased by postnatal day (PN)21 in female offspring of high LG dams; LG-associated increases in oxytocin receptor mRNA levels were observed beyond the weaning period. Quantification of ER?-immunoreactivity indicated a high degree of neuroanatomical specificity of LG effects within the MPOA that were observed by PN6. Reduced DNA methylation and H3K9 tri-methylation and increased H3K4 tri-methylation at the ER? gene promoter (Esr1) were detected at PN21 in high LG female offspring. Latency to engage in maternal behavior toward donor pups was significantly shorter among high LG females. Cross-fostering revealed that maternal sensitization and MPOA ER? levels are sensitive to maternal care experienced before but not after PN10. Differential windows of plasticity were identified for ER? and oxytocin receptor mRNA levels. These studies contribute significantly to our understanding of the molecular, neurobiological, and behavioral pathways through which variation in maternal behavior is transmitted from one generation to the next.

Peña CJ; Neugut YD; Champagne FA

2013-09-01

308

The Costs, Benefits, and Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Maternal Morbidity and Mortality in Mexico  

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Background: In Mexico, the lifetime risk of dying from maternal causes is 1 in 370 compared to 1 in 2,500 in the U.S. Although national efforts have been made to improve maternal services in the last decade, it is unclear if Millennium Development Goal 5 - to reduce maternal mortality by three-quart...

Hu, Delphine; Bertozzi, Stefano M.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hoffman, Daniel; Sweet, Steven Goldie; Goldie, Sue J.

309

Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021, a Chinese herbal formula, and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS: JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials. All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005). In a neonatal maternal separation (NMS) model, male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14, or no specific handling (NH). Starting from postnatal day 60, rats were administered JCM-16021 (2, 4, 8 g/kg per day) orally twice a day for 28 d. Pain threshold pressure and electromyographic activities of external oblique muscles in response to colorectal distention recorded with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International), were tested as pain indices. Changes in serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations in the colon of rats were analyzed; the enterochromaffin cell numbers and serotonin transporter in the colon of rats were also evaluated with an immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: NMS treatment significantly reduced pain threshold pressure (37.4 ± 1.4 mmHg), as compared to that of NH rats (57.7 ± 1.9 mmHg, P < 0.05). After JCM-16021 treatment, the pain threshold pressure significantly increased when compared to that before treatment (34.2 ± 0.9 mmHg vs 52.8 ± 2.3 mmHg in the high dose group, 40.2 ± 1.6 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.3 mmHg in the middle dose group, and 39.3 ± 0.7 mmHg vs 46.5 ± 1.6 mmHg in the low dose group, P < 0.05). Also JCM-16021 significantly and dose-dependently decreased electromyographic activity to the graded colorectal distension (CRD), (the mean ?AUC values were: 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.06 ± 0.18, 1.22 ± 0.24 in the high dose group; 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.68 ± 0.17, 1.27 ± 0.26, 1.8 ± 0.3 in the middle dose group; and 0.29 ± 0.06, 0.8 ± 0.16, 1.53 ± 0.24, 2.1 ± 0.21 in the low dose group for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg), as compared to the NMS vehicle group. The mean ?AUC values were: 0.57 ± 0.12, 1.33 ± 0.18, 2.57 ± 0.37, 3.08 ± 0.37 for the pressures 20, 40, 60, 80 mmHg (P < 0.05). JCM-16021 treatment significantly reduced the 5-HT concentrations (from high, middle and low dosage groups: 60.25 ± 5.98 ng/100 mg, 60.32 ± 4.22 ng/100 mg, 73.31 ± 7.65 ng/100 mg), as compared to the NMS vehicle groups (93.11 ± 9.85 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05); and increased the 5-HIAA concentrations (after treatment, from high, middle and low dosage groups: 54.24 ± 3.27 ng/100 mg, 50.34 ± 1.26 ng/100 mg, 51.37 ± 2.13 ng/100 mg) when compared to that in the NMS vehicle group (51.75 ± 1.98 ng/100 mg, P < 0.05); but did not change the enterochromaffin cell numbers in the colon of rats. In addition, NMS rats had higher SERT expression (n = 10) than NH rats (n = 8, P < 0.05). JCM-16021 treatment significantly decreased SERT expression when compared to the NMS group (P < 0.01-0.001).CONCLUSION: JCM-16021 can attenuate visceral hypersensitivity, and this analgesic effect may be mediated through the serotonin signaling pathway in the colon of rats.

Zhao-Xiang Bian, Man Zhang, Quan-Bin Han, Hong-Xi Xu, Joseph JY Sung

2010-01-01

310

Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on global and gene-specific DNA methylation in the liver of the rat offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SCOPE: Intrauterine and early-life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use, and periconceptional supplementation. We investigated the effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on DNA methylation in the rat offspring. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female rats were placed on a control or folic acid-supplemented diet during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, pups from each maternal diet group were randomized to the control or supplemented diet for 11 weeks. At weaning, maternal folic acid supplementation significantly decreased global (p < 0.001) and site-specific DNA methylation of the Ppar-?, ER-?, p53, and Apc genes (p < 0.05) in the liver. At 14 weeks of age, postweaning, but not maternal, folic acid supplementation significantly decreased global DNA methylation (p < 0.05). At 14 weeks of age, both maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation significantly increased DNA methylation of the Ppar-?, p53, and p16 genes (p < 0.05) whereas only postweaning FA supplementation significantly increased DNA methylation of the ER-? and Apc genes (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation can significantly modulate global and gene-specific DNA methylation in the rat offspring. The functional ramifications of the observed DNA methylation changes need to be determined in future studies.

Sie KK; Li J; Ly A; Sohn KJ; Croxford R; Kim YI

2013-04-01

311

Simulation analysis to test the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits with direct and maternal effects  

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Full Text Available Abstract Simulations were used to study the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits governed by direct and maternal effects. To test model adequacy, several data sets were simulated according to different underlying genetic assumptions and analysed by comparing the correct and incorrect models. Results showed that omission of one of the random effects leads to an incorrect decomposition of the other components. If maternal genetic effects exist but are neglected, direct heritability is overestimated, and sometimes more than double. The bias depends on the value of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects. To study the influence of data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters, several populations were simulated, with different degrees of known paternity and different levels of genetic connectedness between flocks. Results showed that the lack of connectedness affects estimates when flocks have different genetic means because no distinction can be made between genetic and environmental differences between flocks. In this case, direct and maternal heritabilities are under-estimated, whereas maternal environmental effects are overestimated. The insufficiency of pedigree leads to biased estimates of genetic parameters.

Clément Virginie; Bibé Bernard; Verrier Étienne; Elsen Jean-Michel; Manfredi Eduardo; Bouix Jacques; Hanocq Éric

2001-01-01

312

Cost-effectiveness of targeted vaccination to protect new-borns against pertussis: Comparing neonatal, maternal, and cocooning vaccination strategies.  

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Pertussis (whooping cough) is a severe infectious disease in infants less than 6 months old. Mass vaccination programmes have been unable to halt transmission effectively. Strategies to protect new-borns against infection include vaccination of the neonate or the mother directly after birth (cocooning), or the mother during pregnancy (maternal). Here we investigate the cost-effectiveness of these three strategies in the Netherlands. Costs for health care utilization and productivity losses, as well as impact on quality of life were calculated for a 10-year vaccination programme, assuming that vaccine-induced immunity lasts 5 years. Cocooning was the most attractive option from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint (€89,000/QALY). However, both cocooning and maternal vaccination would reduce the disease burden in infants and mothers vaccinated (about 17-20 QALY/year). Specifically, with a persistent epidemic as seen in 2012, there is need for reconsidering the vaccination schedules against pertussis in order to increase protection of the vulnerable new-borns. PMID:24075918

Lugnér, Anna K; van der Maas, Nicoline; van Boven, Michiel; Mooi, Frits R; de Melker, Hester E

2013-09-27

313

Cost-effectiveness of targeted vaccination to protect new-borns against pertussis: Comparing neonatal, maternal, and cocooning vaccination strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pertussis (whooping cough) is a severe infectious disease in infants less than 6 months old. Mass vaccination programmes have been unable to halt transmission effectively. Strategies to protect new-borns against infection include vaccination of the neonate or the mother directly after birth (cocooning), or the mother during pregnancy (maternal). Here we investigate the cost-effectiveness of these three strategies in the Netherlands. Costs for health care utilization and productivity losses, as well as impact on quality of life were calculated for a 10-year vaccination programme, assuming that vaccine-induced immunity lasts 5 years. Cocooning was the most attractive option from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint (€89,000/QALY). However, both cocooning and maternal vaccination would reduce the disease burden in infants and mothers vaccinated (about 17-20 QALY/year). Specifically, with a persistent epidemic as seen in 2012, there is need for reconsidering the vaccination schedules against pertussis in order to increase protection of the vulnerable new-borns.

Lugnér AK; van der Maas N; van Boven M; Mooi FR; de Melker HE

2013-09-01

314

Effect of maternal calcium supplementation on offspring blood pressure in 5- to 10-y-old rural Gambian children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that increased maternal calcium intake during pregnancy may result in lower offspring blood pressure, prompting calls for more robust data in this field, particularly in settings of habitually low calcium intake. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the effect of maternal calcium supplementation on blood pressure in offspring by recruiting children born after a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of calcium supplementation during pregnancy. DESIGN: Children (n = 389) from a rural area of The Gambia (mean age: 7.4 ± 1.2 y; range: 5-10 y), whose mothers received a calcium supplement (1500 mg Ca/d from 20 wk of gestation until delivery) or placebo, were followed up in West Africa. Blood pressure was assessed under standardized conditions with use of the Omron 705IT automated oscillometric device (Morton Medical Ltd, London, United Kingdom), and anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) measurements were also made. RESULTS: The analysis was restricted to 350 children born at term, which represented 64% of original trial births. There was no difference in systolic (adjusted mean difference: -0.04 mm Hg; 95% CI: -1.78, 1.69 mm Hg) or diastolic (adjusted mean difference: 0.25 mm Hg; 95% CI: -1.27, 1.77 mm Hg) blood pressure between children whose mothers had received calcium and those who received placebo. No interaction between childhood body mass index (in kg/m(2); mean: 14.0) and maternal calcium supplementation was observed in this study. CONCLUSION: Calcium supplementation in the second half of pregnancy in Gambian women with very low habitual calcium intakes may not result in lower offspring blood pressure at 5-10 y of age.

Hawkesworth S; Sawo Y; Fulford AJ; Goldberg GR; Jarjou LM; Prentice A; Moore SE

2010-10-01

315

The effect of maternal common mental disorders on infant undernutrition in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although maternal common mental disorder (CMD) appears to be a risk factor for infant undernutrition in South Asian countries, the position in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is unclear Methods A population-based cohort of 1065 women, in the third trimester of pregnancy, was identified from the demographic surveillance site (DSS) in Butajira, to investigate the effect of maternal CMD on infant undernutrition in a predominantly rural Ethiopian population. Participants were interviewed at recruitment and at two months post-partum. Maternal CMD was measured using the locally validated Self-Reported Questionnaire (score of ? six indicating high levels of CMD). Infant anthropometry was recorded at six and twelve months of age. Result The prevalence of CMD was 12% during pregnancy and 5% at the two month postnatal time-point. In bivariate analysis antenatal CMD which had resolved after delivery predicted underweight at twelve months (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50). There were no other statistically significant differences in the prevalence of underweight or stunted infants in mothers with high levels of CMD compared to those with low levels. The associations between CMD and infant nutritional status were not significant after adjusting for pre-specified potential confounders. Conclusion Our negative finding adds to the inconsistent picture emerging from SSA. The association between CMD and infant undernutrition might be modified by study methodology as well as degree of shared parenting among family members, making it difficult to extrapolate across low- and middle-income countries.

Medhin Girmay; Hanlon Charlotte; Dewey Michael; Alem Atalay; Tesfaye Fikru; Lakew Zufan; Worku Bogale; Aray Mesfin; Abdulahi Abdulreshid; Tomlinson Mark; Hughes Marcus; Patel Vikram; Prince Martin

2010-01-01

316

Easing maternal anxiety: an update.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maternal mental health is an important public health issue because of its effects not only on the mother's well-being and functional status, but also her relationship with her partner and the development of her children. There is accumulating evidence of the adverse sequelae of maternal anxiety on fetal development, obstetrical complications, pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight, and subsequent child development. Evaluation of maternal anxiety and intervention to reduce these symptoms, may ensure optimal developmental outcomes, particularly in high-risk infants such as those born at very low birth weights. This article will outline recent advances in our understanding of the etiology, assessment and impact of maternal anxiety, and describe intervention strategies to promote maternal well-being.

Zelkowitz P; Papageorgiou A

2012-03-01

317

Effect of embryonic and maternal genotype on embryo and foetal survival in rabbit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work was to study the influence of embryonic and maternal genotype of two lines of rabbits selected by growth rate (line R) and litter size at weaning (line A) on prenatal survival. Embryos were recovered at 48 h of gestation from R and A donors (39 and 35 does, respectively) and reciprocally transferred to the oviducts of recipient does to the R (n = 15) and A (n = 14) lines. Each recipient doe received six embryos from line R into one oviduct and six embryos from line A into the other. Recipient does were examined by laparoscopy to determine implantation rate on day 14 and slaughtered on day 25 of gestation to determine the number of live foetuses and the weight of foetuses and placentas. No differences were found between lines in fertilization rate and stage of embryo development at 48 h post-insemination. Implantation rate was affected by both the embryonic and maternal genotype. While embryos from donor line A had the highest implantation rate (0.78 ± 0.032 vs 0.65 ± 0.036 for line R), recipient line R had a better implantation rate (0.78 ± 0.033 vs 0.64 ± 0.036 for line A). Foetal survival was affected by the embryonic genotype. Embryos from donor line A had a higher foetal survival rate than embryos from donor line R (0.65 ± 0.036 vs 0.53 ± 0.038, respectively) but lower foetal and placenta weights. In conclusion, while embryonic genotype influenced both implantation and foetal survival rate, R embryos had the lowest rates, maternal genotype affected the implantation rate and R recipients may show a greater uterine receptivity during implantation period. Moreover, it must be observed that foetal and placenta weights were significantly affected by embryonic genotype and heavier for R line.

Vicente JS; Llobat MD; Jiménez-Trigos E; Lavara R; Marco-Jiménez F

2013-06-01

318

Effect of maternal alcohol and nicotine intake, individually and in combination, on fetal growth in the rat  

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The effect of maternal ethanol and nicotine administration, separately and in combination, on fetal growth of rats was studied. Nicotine was administered by gavage for the entire gestational period. Alcohol was given in drinking water for 4 weeks prior to mating and 30% throughout gestation. Appropriate pair-fed and ad libitum control animals were included to separate the effect of ethanol and nicotine on the outcome of pregnancy from those produced by the confounding variables of malnutrition. Body weights of fetuses exposed to alcohol alone or in combination with nicotine were significantly lower than those of the pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, the difference in fetal body weight between the alcohol plus nicotine and the alcohol alone group was not significant. Similarly, in the rats administered nicotine only, fetal weight was not significantly different compared to control animals. The results of this study indicate that maternal alcohol intake impairs fetal growth and nicotine does not, regardless whether it is administered separately or in combination with alcohol for the entire gestational period.

Leichter, J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1991-03-15

319

Effects of feeding Bt MON810 maize to sows during first gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring health indicators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of twenty-four sows and their offspring were used in a 20-week study to investigate the effects of feeding GM maize on maternal and offspring health. Sows were fed diets containing GM or non-GM maize from service to the end of lactation. GM maize-fed sows were heavier on day 56 of gestation (P< 0·05). Offspring from sows fed GM maize tended to be lighter at weaning (P= 0·08). Sows fed GM maize tended to have decreased serum total protein (P= 0·08), and increased serum creatinine (P< 0·05) and ?-glutamyltransferase activity (P= 0·07) on day 28 of lactation. Serum urea tended to be decreased on day 110 of gestation in GM maize-fed sows (P= 0·10) and in offspring at birth (P= 0·08). Both platelet count (P= 0·07) and mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC; P= 0·05) were decreased on day 110 of gestation in GM maize-fed sows; however, MCHC tended to be increased in offspring at birth (P= 0·08). There was a minimal effect of feeding GM maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring serum biochemistry and haematology at birth and body weight at weaning.

Walsh MC; Buzoianu SG; Gardiner GE; Rea MC; O'Donovan O; Ross RP; Lawlor PG

2013-03-01

320

Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies  

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Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000): 353-364

Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Expression of gap junctional connexin proteins in ovine fetal ovaries: effects of maternal diet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gap junctions have been implicated in the regulation of cellular metabolism and the coordination of cellular functions during growth and differentiation of organs and tissues, and gap junctions play a major role in direct cell-cell communication. Gap junctional channels and connexin (Cx) proteins have been detected in adult ovaries in several species. Furthermore, it has been shown that several environmental factors, including maternal diet, may affect fetal organ growth and function. To determine whether maternal diet affects expression of Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, and Cx43 in fetal ovaries, sheep were fed a maintenance (M) diet with adequate (A) selenium (Se) or high (H) Se levels from 21 d before breeding to day 132 of pregnancy. From day 50 to 132 of pregnancy (tissue collection day), a portion of the ewes from the ASe and HSe groups was fed a restricted (R; 60% of M) diet. Sections of fetal ovaries were immunostained for the presence of Cxs followed by image analysis. All four Cxs were detected, but the distribution pattern differed. Cx26 was immunolocalized in the oocytes from primordial, primary, secondary, and antral follicles; in granulosa and theca layers of secondary and antral follicles; stroma; and blood vessels. Cx32 was in oocytes, granulosa, and theca cells in a portion of antral follicles; Cx37 was on the borders between oocyte and granulosa/cumulus cells of primordial to antral follicles and in endothelium; and Cx43 was on cellular borders in granulosa and theca layers and between oocyte and granulosa/cumulus cells of primordial to antral follicles. Maternal diet affected Cx26 and Cx43 expression, Cx26 in granulosa layer of antral follicles was decreased (P < 0.01) by HSe in the M and R diets, and Cx43 in granulosa layer of primary and granulosa and theca of antral follicles was increased (P < 0.05) by the M diet with HSe. Thus, Cxs may be differentially involved in regulation of fetal ovarian function in sheep. These data emphasize the importance of maternal diet in fetal growth and development.

Grazul-Bilska AT; Vonnahme KA; Bilski JJ; Borowczyk E; Soni D; Mikkelson B; Johnson ML; Reynolds LP; Redmer DA; Caton JS

2011-11-01

322

Expression of gap junctional connexin proteins in ovine fetal ovaries: effects of maternal diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gap junctions have been implicated in the regulation of cellular metabolism and the coordination of cellular functions during growth and differentiation of organs and tissues, and gap junctions play a major role in direct cell-cell communication. Gap junctional channels and connexin (Cx) proteins have been detected in adult ovaries in several species. Furthermore, it has been shown that several environmental factors, including maternal diet, may affect fetal organ growth and function. To determine whether maternal diet affects expression of Cx26, Cx32, Cx37, and Cx43 in fetal ovaries, sheep were fed a maintenance (M) diet with adequate (A) selenium (Se) or high (H) Se levels from 21 d before breeding to day 132 of pregnancy. From day 50 to 132 of pregnancy (tissue collection day), a portion of the ewes from the ASe and HSe groups was fed a restricted (R; 60% of M) diet. Sections of fetal ovaries were immunostained for the presence of Cxs followed by image analysis. All four Cxs were detected, but the distribution pattern differed. Cx26 was immunolocalized in the oocytes from primordial, primary, secondary, and antral follicles; in granulosa and theca layers of secondary and antral follicles; stroma; and blood vessels. Cx32 was in oocytes, granulosa, and theca cells in a portion of antral follicles; Cx37 was on the borders between oocyte and granulosa/cumulus cells of primordial to antral follicles and in endothelium; and Cx43 was on cellular borders in granulosa and theca layers and between oocyte and granulosa/cumulus cells of primordial to antral follicles. Maternal diet affected Cx26 and Cx43 expression, Cx26 in granulosa layer of antral follicles was decreased (P < 0.01) by HSe in the M and R diets, and Cx43 in granulosa layer of primary and granulosa and theca of antral follicles was increased (P < 0.05) by the M diet with HSe. Thus, Cxs may be differentially involved in regulation of fetal ovarian function in sheep. These data emphasize the importance of maternal diet in fetal growth and development. PMID:21820266

Grazul-Bilska, A T; Vonnahme, K A; Bilski, J J; Borowczyk, E; Soni, D; Mikkelson, B; Johnson, M L; Reynolds, L P; Redmer, D A; Caton, J S

2011-07-22

323

[Effects of maternal anemia on computerized cardiotocography and fetal biophysical profile].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSES: To evaluate the influence of maternal hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the patterns of fetal heart rate (FHR) and in the fetal biophysical profile (FBP) in term gestations. METHODS: Pregnant women with anemia (Hb<11.0 g/dL) were prospectively evaluated between the 36(th) and the 40(th) week of gestation, from January 2008 to March 2009. The Control Group was composed of term and healthy pregnant women, with normal values of hemoglobin (Hb>11,0 g/dL). Cases of anomalies or fetal growing restrictions were excluded. The FHR evaluation was performed by computerized cardiotocography (8002 System-Sonicaid), and by record analysis during 30 minutes of exam. The FBP was done in all the patients. Student's, chi2 and Fisher's exact tests were used, with 0.05 significance level. RESULTS: The average of maternal Hb in the group with anemia (n=18) was 9.4 g/dL (DP=1.4 g/dL), and in the control group, 12.4 g/dL (DP=1.3 g/dL). There has been no significant mean differences between groups concerning the cardiotocography parameters, respectively: basal FHR(131.3 versus 133.7 bpm, p=0.5), FHR accelerations > 10b pm (7.9 versus 8.2, p=0.866), FHR accelerations > 15 bpm (5.2 versus. 5.4, p=0.9), episodes of high variation of the FHR (17.1 versus 15.5 min, p=0.5), episodes of variation of the FHR (4.4 versus 3.6 min, p=06), and short term variation (10.5 versus 10.9 ms, p=0.5). In both groups, all patients presented normal FBP. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that light or moderate maternal anemia, without other maternal or fetal comorbidity, is not associated with abnormalities in the parameters of fetal biophysical profile and of the FHR analyzed by computerized cardiotocography.

Nomura RM; Gordon MC; Fatobene G; Igai AM; Zugaib M

2009-12-01

324

The effects of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor antagonism in the medial preoptic area, ventral pallidum, or nucleus accumbens on the maternal retrieval response and other aspects of maternal behavior in rats.  

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The medial preoptic area (MPOA), ventral pallidum (VP), and nucleus accumbens (NA) receive dopaminergic afferents and are involved in maternal behavior. Experiments investigated whether dopamine (DA) receptor antagonism in NA disrupts maternal behavior, determined the type of DA receptor involved, and investigated the involvement of drug spread to VP or MPOA. Injection of SCH 23390 (D1 DA receptor antagonist) into NA of postpartum rats disrupted retrieving at dosage levels that were ineffective when injected into MPOA or VP. Motor impairment was not the cause of the deficit. Injection of eticlopride (D2 DA receptor antagonist) into NA or VP was without effect. Results emphasize the importance of DA action on D1 receptors in NA for retrieval behavior. PMID:16420162

Numan, Michael; Numan, Marilyn J; Pliakou, Natalia; Stolzenberg, Danielle S; Mullins, Olivia J; Murphy, Jennifer M; Smith, Carl D

2005-12-01

325

Effect of maternal calcium intake during pregnancy on children's blood pressure: A systematic review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium supplementation during pregnancy has been shown to reduce the incidence of hypertension in the mother, but the effects on the offspring are uncertain. Assessing the impact on the offspring is very important given the now large body of evidence indicating that blood pressure levels in childhood and young adulthood can be influenced by factors operating during fetal life. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to summarize the evidence supporting an association between maternal dietary calcium intake during pregnancy and blood pressure in the offspring. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify randomized, quasi-randomized and cohort studies reporting the relationship between offspring blood pressure or incidence of hypertension and levels of maternal dietary calcium intake during pregnancy, either from supplements (i.e. pills) or food. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library Registry were searched for relevant trials. Results Two randomized trial and three observational studies were identified and included in this review. In 4 of the 5 studies, loss to follow-up was a serious concern. There was heterogeneity between the studies, particularly those conducted on children below 12 month of age. Results were more consistent among the studies including older children (1 to 9 years) where a higher maternal calcium intake was associated with a reduction of -1.92 mm Hg (95% CI -3.14 to -0.71) in offspring systolic blood pressure. One large randomized trial found a clinically and statistically significant reduction in the incidence of hypertension in 7-year-old children (RR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.90). Conclusion There is evidence in the literature to support an association between maternal calcium intake during pregnancy and offspring blood pressure. However, more research is needed to confirm these finding given the small sample sizes and the methodological problems in many of the studies conducted so far. More studies on populations with calcium deficit are also needed. If confirmed, these findings could have important public health implications. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy is simple and inexpensive and may be a way to reduce the risk of hypertension and its sequels in the next generation.

Bergel Eduardo; Barros Aluisio JD

2007-01-01

326

Fetal alcohol-related growth restriction from birth through young adulthood and moderating effects of maternal prepregnancy weight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol-related growth restriction persists through infancy, but its impact later in life is less clear. Animal studies have demonstrated important roles for maternal nutrition in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, but the impact of prenatal maternal body composition has not been studied in humans. This study examined the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth from birth through young adulthood and the degree to which maternal weight and body mass index (BMI) moderate these effects. METHODS: Nearly 480 mothers were recruited at their first prenatal clinic visit to overrepresent moderate-to-heavy use of alcohol during pregnancy, including a 5% random sample of low-level drinkers and abstainers. They were interviewed at every prenatal visit about their alcohol consumption using a timeline follow-back approach. Their children were examined for weight, length/height, and head circumference at birth, 6.5 and 13 months, and 7.5, 14, and 19 years. RESULTS: In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with longitudinal reductions in weight, height, and weight-for-length/BMI that were largely determined at birth. At low-to-moderate levels of exposure, these effects were more severe in infancy than in later childhood. By contrast, effects persisted among children whose mothers drank at least monthly and among those born to women with alcohol abuse and/or dependence who had consumed ? 4 drinks/occasion. In addition, effects on weight, height, and head circumference were markedly stronger among children born to mothers with lower prepregnancy weight. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm prior studies demonstrating alcohol-related reductions in weight, height, weight-for-height/BMI, and head circumference that persist through young adulthood. Stronger effects were seen among children born to mothers with smaller prepregnancy weight, which may have been because of attainment of higher blood alcohol concentrations in smaller mothers for a given amount of alcohol intake or to increased vulnerability in infants born to women with poorer nutrition.

Carter RC; Jacobson JL; Sokol RJ; Avison MJ; Jacobson SW

2013-03-01

327

Effects of chronic social stress on maternal behavior, anhedonia, milk intake, pup growth, and gene expression  

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Full Text Available Background : Exposure to chronic social stress is a strong predictor of postpartum depression and anxiety. Recent studies have described a chronic social stress (CSS) rodent model for postpartum depression where the repeated exposure of lactating dams to novel male intruders attenuates both the display of maternal care and growth during lactation and increases self-grooming, a measure of anxiety. Investigation of the adult female offspring of these affected dams reveals an attenuated nursing efficiency that is associated with decreases in central oxytocin, prolactin, and vasopressin gene expression. Methods : The current study continued the characterization of the (CSS) model by expanding the analyses to include milk intake, saccharin intake (a measure of anhedonia), and gene expression of the stressed dams. Results : CSS decreased maternal care and saccharin intake, attenuated pup milk intake by 40%, and altered gene expression in lactating dams. Conclusions : It is concluded that CSS is an ethologically and translationally relevant model for postpartum depression and anxiety, as well as associated impairments in nursing.

Christorpher Murgatroyd; Lindsay Carini; Benjamin Nephew

2012-01-01

328

Effect of maternal antibodies and pig age on the antibody response after vaccination against Glässers disease.  

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The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the development and duration of postvaccinal antibody response against Glässer's disease were investigated. Pigs born to immune (MDA-positive) and non-immune (MDA-negative) sows were vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. Vaccination was done according to three different protocols: at 1 and 4, at 2 and 5 or at 4 and 7 weeks of age. There were also two control groups for MDA-negative and MDA-positive pigs. The level of Haemophilus parasuis (Hps) specific antibodies were determined using commercial ELISA test. No serological responses were seen in any of the groups after the first vaccination. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against Hps were above the positive level until approximately 3 weeks of life in MDA-positive pigs. In those pigs the strongest postvaccinal humoral response was observed in piglets vaccinated at 4 and 7 weeks of age. In the remaining MDA-positive piglets only slight seroconversion was noted but levels of antibodies never exceeded values considered as positive. All MDA-negative pigs produced Hps-specific antibodies after the second vaccination. The results of the present study indicated that MDA may alter the development and duration of active postvaccinal antibody response. Age of pigs at the moment of vaccination was not associated with the significant differences in the magnitude of antibody response, however influenced the kinetics of decline of Hps-specific antibodies. PMID:21584780

Pomorska-Mól, Ma?gorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Rachubik, Jaros?aw; Pejsak, Zygmunt

2011-05-17

329

Effect of maternal antibodies and pig age on the antibody response after vaccination against Glassers disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the development and duration of postvaccinal antibody response against Glässer's disease were investigated. Pigs born to immune (MDA-positive) and non-immune (MDA-negative) sows were vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. Vaccination was done according to three different protocols: at 1 and 4, at 2 and 5 or at 4 and 7 weeks of age. There were also two control groups for MDA-negative and MDA-positive pigs. The level of Haemophilus parasuis (Hps) specific antibodies were determined using commercial ELISA test. No serological responses were seen in any of the groups after the first vaccination. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against Hps were above the positive level until approximately 3 weeks of life in MDA-positive pigs. In those pigs the strongest postvaccinal humoral response was observed in piglets vaccinated at 4 and 7 weeks of age. In the remaining MDA-positive piglets only slight seroconversion was noted but levels of antibodies never exceeded values considered as positive. All MDA-negative pigs produced Hps-specific antibodies after the second vaccination. The results of the present study indicated that MDA may alter the development and duration of active postvaccinal antibody response. Age of pigs at the moment of vaccination was not associated with the significant differences in the magnitude of antibody response, however influenced the kinetics of decline of Hps-specific antibodies.

Pomorska-Mól M; Markowska-Daniel I; Rachubik J; Pejsak Z

2011-08-01

330

Effect of nursing intervention program using abdominal palpation of Leopold's maneuvers on maternal-fetal attachment  

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Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether a nursing intervention program using abdominal palpation would improve maternal-fetal relationships of pregnant women. Methods The subjects were Japanese women aged less than 40?years with singleton pregnancies. A nursing intervention involving abdominal palpations of Leopold’s Maneuvers was performed for the intervention group (n?=?35) in the 30th, 32nd, and 34th weeks’ gestation, while ordinary health-related advice was provided to the control group (n?=?73) in the corresponding period. Results At the 30th (baseline) week, no intergroup differences were observed. However, the intervention group showed higher Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) scores in the 34th (P?maternal–fetal relationship. Further random controlled trials are warranted to ascertain this observation.

2013-01-01

331

Effect of maternal undernutrition on human foetal pancreas morphology in second trimester of pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Maternal undernutrition and hyperglycaemia during pregnancy, as well as foetal undernutrition affecting the development of foetal endocrine pancreas structure and function, especially that of ?-cells is well known. This study was undertaken to look into the changes in pancreatic islets morphology of aborted normal human foetuses (16-20 wk old) of undernourished and adequately nourished mothers. METHODS: Foetuses were collected over a 24 month period from medically terminated pregnancies of six undernourished mothers (BMI <18.5 kg/m² and eight adequately nourished mothers (BMI >18.5 kg/m². The sections were stained with haematoxylin & eosin as well as Masson trichrome for morphometric estimates such as islet count, area, volume, etc. and immunohistochemistry analysis of ?-cells for insulin presence was done. RESULTS: Significant correlations between maternal and foetal parameters were seen. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the number, size or density and beta cell counts of the pancreas among foetal pancreas of mothers with BMI <18.5 and >18.5 kg/m². INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that nutritional status of the mother may not have profound influence on the morphology of beta cells of foetal pancreas in second trimester of pregnancy. Further studies need to be done to confirm these findings.

Kumar PU; Ramalaxmi BA; Venkiah K; Sesikeran B

2013-02-01

332

Preliminary investigation of effects of sublethal acid exposure on maternal behavior in the Crayfish Orconectes virilis  

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The occurrence of crayfish inhabiting the littoral regions of many oligotrophic acid sensitive lakes makes these organisms vulnerable to spring pH decreases. Egg extrusion in Orconectes spp. found in south-central Ontario is generally synchronous and occurs during or slightly after ice melting in late April, a time at which these lakes receive between 36-77% of the year's export of H from their watersheds. To understand how a toxicant affects crayfish reproduction it is necessary that the maternal and embryonic responses to experimental perturbation be separated. In an acidified lake in the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, 6.9-16.9% of the egg-bearing females experienced partial mortality of their broods at pH 5.4-5.6. An ancillary experiment was undertaken here to determine if this egg mortality could be a result of low pH-induced behavioral modification of the maternal female, rather than direct acid toxicity to the developing eggs.

France, R.L.

1985-11-01

333

Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy: Do the Effects on Innate (Toll-Like Receptor) Function Have Implications for Subsequent Allergic Disease?  

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Full Text Available Subtle increases in immaturity of immune function in early infancy have been implicated in the rising susceptibility to allergic disease, particularly relative impairment of type 1 interferon (IFN)-? responses in the neonatal period. Although genetic predisposition is a clear risk factor, the escalating rates of allergic disease in infancy suggest that environmental factors are also implicated. We previously showed that maternal smoking in pregnancy may impair neonatal IFN-? responses. Our more recent studies now indicate that this common avoidable toxic exposure is also associated with attenuation of innate immune function, with attenuated Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated microbial responses (including TLR-2, -3, -4, and -9 responses). Most notably, the effects were more marked if the mothers were also allergic. In this review, we discuss the significance of these observations in the context of the emerging hypothesis that variations in TLR function in early life may be implicated in allergic propensity. There is now growing evidence that many of the key pathways involved in subsequent T-cell programming and regulation (namely, antigen-presenting cells and regulatory T cells) rely heavily on microbe-driven TLR activation for maturation and function. Factors that influence the function and activity of these innate pathways in early life may contribute to the increasing predisposition for allergic disease. Although "cleaner" environments have been implicated, here we explore the possibility that other common environmental exposures (such as maternal smoking) could also play a role.

Prescott Susan L; Noakes Paul S

2007-01-01

334

Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district  

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Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999). Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years) from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

Gogoi Gourangie; Ahmed F

2007-01-01

335

Creation and Evaluation of a Multi-layered Maternal and Child Health Database for Comparative Effectiveness Research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: As high-speed computers and sophisticated software packages for data linkage become increasingly available, investigators from nearly every arena are creating massive databases for epidemiologic and comparative effectiveness research (CER). Decisions made during database construction have a major impact on the accuracy and completeness of the data. Considering their potential use in informing health-care decisions, it is vital that we increase transparency of these data, including a thorough understanding of the record linkage strategy implemented and an evaluation of linked and unlinked records so that potential biases can be addressed. Methods: Our target population included infants born to Florida-resident women from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2009 with a valid birth certificate record. We used a stepwise deterministic record linkage strategy to link to any and all inpatient, ambulatory, and emergency department hospital visits from birth through December 31, 2010, and to identify deaths that occurred within the first year of life. Thus, each infant was followed up for at least 1 year after birth or until death, up to a maximum of 13 years. We investigated linkage rates and associations between linked status (linked vs unlinked) and a host of maternal and infant demographic and reproductive characteristics, all extracted from the birth certificate files. Bivariate county-level maps were created to describe the impact of both maternal race/ethnicity and maternal nativity on the geographic variation in linkage rates. Results: During the 13-year study period, there were 2,549,738 birth certificate records for infants born alive to Florida resident women, and with no indication of an adoption. We were able to link 2,347,738 (92.1 percent) birth certificate records to an infant birth hospitalization record. The highest crude unlinked rates were seen among infants who died during their first year of life (35.9 percent), births in which the documented principal source of payment was "self-pay" (28.1 percent), and infants born to mothers with less than a ninth-grade education (26.0 percent), who were foreign-born (12.9 percent), and who self-identified as Hispanic (12.8 percent). After adjusting for other related and potentially confounding variables, several of these infant and maternal characteristics were associated with increased odds of failure to link infant birth records. Conclusion: Using a stepwise deterministic linkage approach, we achieved a high linkage rate of several data sources, and produced a reliable, multipurpose database that can be used for observational, comparative effectiveness, and health services research in maternal and child health (MCH) populations. Our findings underscore the importance of evaluating routinely collected health data and increasing clarity regarding the strengths and limitations of linked electronic data sources. The resultant database will be of immense utility to researchers, health planners, and policy makers as well as other stakeholders interested in MCH outcome studies.

Salemi JL; Tanner JP; Bailey M; Mbah AK; Salihu HM

2013-01-01

336

Impulsive rats are less maternal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early life environment and maternal care can have long-lasting effects on behavior and physiology. Previously, we found that compared to mother-reared (MR) female rats, rats reared without mothers, siblings, and nest, through artificially rearing (AR), show reduced levels of maternal behavior when they grow up. These effects can be reversed if AR pups are provided with extra "licking-like" tactile stimulation during the preweaning period [Gonzalez et al. [2001] Developmental Psychobiology, 38(1), 11-42]. We also found that AR rats are more action impulsive and have reduced attentional capacities in comparison to their MR siblings [Lovic, Fletcher, & Fleming, in preparation; Lovic & Fleming [2004] Behavioural Brain Research 148: 209-219]. However, it is unknown whether increased impulsivity contributes to reduced levels of maternal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between impulsivity and maternal behavior in AR and MR rats. Female rats were reared with (MR) or without mothers (AR) and half of the AR rats received additional stroking stimulation. As adults, AR and MR rats were mated and mate