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Mast cells and angiogenesis in canine mammary tumor / Mastócitos e angiogênese nos tumores mamários caninos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estimou-se a correlação entre a densidade de microvasos e a densidade de mastócitos em tumores mamários caninos. Sessenta e cinco amostras de tumores mamários caninos - 24 benignos e 41 malignos - foram analisadas, pela técnica rotineira de coloração com Azul de Toluidina para avaliação da densidade [...] de mastócitos. Para a avaliação da angiogênese, foi utilizada a técnica de imunoistoquímica para expressão de CD31. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de mastócitos (P=0.44) ou densidade microvascular (P=0.77) entre tumores malignos e benignos. A correlação entre densidade microvascular e densidade de mastócitos foi positiva (r=0,39; P=0,011) em tumores malignos. Estes resultados sugerem que os mastócitos podem exercer um importante papel no desenvolvimento de tumores mamários malignos caninos mediante promoção da angiogênese, similarmente a alguns tumores descritos na espécie humana Abstract in english The correlation between microvessel density and mast cells density in canine mammary tumors was studied. Sixty-five samples of canine mammary tumors, being 24 benign and 41 malignant, were analyzed. The routine Toluidine Blue staining method was used to assess the mast cells. To evaluate angiogenesi [...] s, the immunohistochemical expression of CD31 was assessed. There was no significant difference in either mast cells (P=0.44) or microvessel density (P=0.77) between malignant and benign tumors. A positive correlation was observed between microvessel density and mast cells (r=0.39; P=0.011) in malignant tumors. These results suggest that mast cells may play a role in canine mammary malignant tumors development, promoting angiogenesis, similar to some tumors described in the human species

G.E, Lavalle; A.C, Bertagnolli; W.L.F, Tavares; M.A.N.D, Ferreira; G.D, Cassali.

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Hyperproduction of Hyaluronan in Neu-Induced Mammary Tumor Accelerates Angiogenesis through Stromal Cell Recruitment  

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Elevated concentrations of hyaluronan are often associated with human breast cancer malignancy. Here, we investigated the roles of hyaluronan in carcinogenesis and cancer progression using the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Neu transgenic model of spontaneous breast cancer. Conditional transgenic mice that express murine hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2) by Cre-mediated recombination were generated and crossed with the MMTV-Neu mice. In expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the MMTV promoter, the bigenic mice bearing Has2 and neu transgenes exhibited a deposition of hyaluronan matrix and aggressive growth of Neu-initiated mammary tumors. Notably, forced expression of Has2 impaired intercellular adhesion machinery and elicited cell survival signals in tumor cells. Concurrent with these alterations of tumor cells, intratumoral stroma and microvessels were markedly induced. To reveal the molecular basis of hyaluronan-mediated neovascularization, various hyaluronan samples were examined for their ability to potentiate in vivo angiogenesis. In Matrigel plug assays, basic fibroblast growth factor-induced neovascularization was elevated in the presence of either hyaluronan oligosaccharides or a hyaluronan aggregate containing versican. Administration of hyaluronan-versican aggregates, but not native hyaluronan alone, promoted stromal cell recruitment concurrently with the infiltration of endothelial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that hyaluronan overproduction accelerates tumor angiogenesis through stromal reaction, notably in the presence of versican. PMID:17322391

Koyama, Hiroshi; Hibi, Terumasa; Isogai, Zenzo; Yoneda, Masahiko; Fujimori, Minoru; Amano, Jun; Kawakubo, Masatomo; Kannagi, Reiji; Kimata, Koji; Taniguchi, Shun’ichiro; Itano, Naoki

2007-01-01

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MDSCs Mediate Angiogenesis and Predispose Canine Mammary Tumor Cells for Metastasis via IL-28/IL-28RA (IFN-?) Signaling  

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Background Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) function in immunosuppression and tumor development by induction of angiogenesis in a STAT3-dependent manner. Knowledge of MDSC biology is mainly limited to mice studies, and more clinical investigations using spontaneous tumor models are required. Here we performed in vitro experiments and clinical data analysis obtained from canine patients. Methods Using microarrays we examined changes in gene expression in canine mammary cancer cells due to their co-culture with MDSCs. Further, using Real-time rt-PCR, Western blot, IHC, siRNA, angiogenesis assay and migration/invasion tests we examined a role of the most important signaling pathway. Results In dogs with mammary cancer, the number of circulating MDSCs increases with tumor clinical stage. Microarray analysis revealed that MDSCs had significantly altered molecular pathways in tumor cells in vitro. Particularly important was the detected increased activation of IL-28/IL-28RA (IFN-?) signaling. The highest expression of IL-28 was observed in stage III/IV mammary tumor-bearing dogs. IL-28 secreted by MDSCs stimulates STAT3 in tumor cells, which results in increased expression of angiogenic factors and subsequent induction of angiogenesis by endothelial cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased migration of tumor cells in vitro. Knockdown of IL-28RA decreased angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion and migration. Conclusions We showed for the first time that MDSCs secrete IL-28 (IFN-?), which promotes angiogenesis, EMT, invasion and migration of tumor cells. Thus, IL-28 may constitute an interesting target for further therapies. Moreover, the similarity in circulating MDSC levels at various tumor clinical stages between canine and human patients indicates canines as a good model for clinical trials of drugs targeting MDSCs. PMID:25075523

Mucha, Joanna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Taciak, Bartlomiej; Hellmen, Eva; Krol, Magdalena

2014-01-01

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Angiogenesis and tumor  

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Full Text Available Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from existing ones, plays an important role in the physiologic circumstances such as embryonic development, placenta formation, and wound healing. It is also crucial to progress of pathogenic processes of a variety of disorders, including tumor growth and metastasis. In general, angiogenesis process is a multi-factorial and highly structured sequence of cellular events comprising migration, proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and finally vascular formation, maturation and remodeling.Thereby, angiogenesis inhibition as a helping agent to conventional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation has attracted the scientists’ attentions studying in this field.

Kamran Mansouri

2010-12-01

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Hyperproduction of Hyaluronan in Neu-Induced Mammary Tumor Accelerates Angiogenesis through Stromal Cell Recruitment : Possible Involvement of Versican/PG-M  

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Elevated concentrations of hyaluronan are often associated with human breast cancer malignancy. Here, we investigated the roles of hyaluronan in carcinogenesis and cancer progression using the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Neu transgenic model of spontaneous breast cancer. Conditional transgenic mice that express murine hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2) by Cre-mediated recombination were generated and crossed with the MMTV-Neu mice. In expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the MMTV pr...

Koyama, Hiroshi; Hibi, Terumasa; Isogai, Zenzo; Yoneda, Masahiko; Fujimori, Minoru; Amano, Jun; Kawakubo, Masatomo; Kannagi, Reiji; Kimata, Koji; Taniguchi, Shun’ichiro; Itano, Naoki

2007-01-01

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Canine mammary tumors - clinical survey  

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Full Text Available Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples. Aged female patients (12 – 13 years are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumourshave never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumoursis elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.

Elena Atanaskova Petrov

2014-10-01

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Nanotechnology-mediated targeting of tumor angiogenesis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Angiogenesis is disregulated in many diseased states, most notably in cancer. An emerging strategy for the development of therapies targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is to harness the potential of nanotechnology to improve the pharmacology of chemotherapeutics, including anti-angiogenic agents. Nanoparticles confer several advantages over that of free drugs, including their capability to carry high payloads of therapeutic agents, confer increased half-life and reduced toxicity to the drugs, and provide means for selective targeting of the tumor tissue and vasculature. The plethora of nanovectors available, in addition to the various methods available to combine them with anti-angiogenic drugs, allows researchers to fine-tune the pharmacological profile of the drugs ad infinitum. Use of nanovectors has also opened up novel avenues for non-invasive imaging of tumor angiogenesis. Herein, we review the types of nanovector and therapeutic/diagnostic agent combinations used in targeting tumor angiogenesis.

Banerjee Deboshri

2011-01-01

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Nanotechnology-mediated targeting of tumor angiogenesis  

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Abstract Angiogenesis is disregulated in many diseased states, most notably in cancer. An emerging strategy for the development of therapies targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is to harness the potential of nanotechnology to improve the pharmacology of chemotherapeutics, including anti-angiogenic agents. Nanoparticles confer several advantages over that of free drugs, including their capability to carry high payloads of therapeutic agents, confer increased half-life and reduced...

Banerjee Deboshri; Harfouche Rania; Sengupta Shiladitya

2011-01-01

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Prevention of radiation-induced mammary tumors  

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The radiation-induced rat mammary tumor model is useful for studying tumor prevention by treatment in the initiation or promotion stage. In anti-initiation experiments, the administration of radical scavengers or spin-trapping agents before or immediately after irradiation reduced the incidence of mammary tumors, suggesting that free radicals produced by exposure are a potent initiator. To evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the initiation, NO-specific scavengers or NO synthase inhibitors were administered during the initiation. These agents partially prevented the tumorigenesis, suggesting that radiation-induced NO contributes to tumor initiation. The administration of curcumin during irradiation reduced the incidence of the tumors in the presence of tumor promotor. In anti-promotion experiments on preventing diethylstilbestrol (DES)-dependent tumor development from mammary primodial cells exposed to radiation, tamoxifen decreased the tumor incidence. From the results, estrogen itself or prolactin induced by estrogen may be a promoter for the tumorigenesis. Bezafibrate and simvastatin, agents inducing hypolipidemia and hypocholesterolemia respectively, cause a decrease in the DES-dependent promotion of radiation-induced tumorigenesis. The simultaneous administration of curcumin and DES significantly reduces the development of mammary tumors in irradiated rats. In this review, the endocrinologic and pharmacologic significance of the anti-initiation and anti-promcance of the anti-initiation and anti-promotion is discussed

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Influence of estradiol on mammary tumor collagen solubility in DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors.  

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Estradiol plays a vital role in the growth and development of mammary glands. It is a potent stimulator of metabolic processes in normal and carcinoma breast. A critical factor in determining mammary glandular morphology is the stroma. Collagen is a predominant component of the extracellular matrix and cell-collagen interactions are essential carcinogenesis. The present investigation explored the influence of estradiol on collagen solubility and metabolism in mammary tumors during tumor progression and regression. A single injection of 20 mg of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene was given to rats at 7 weeks of age. With the appearance of the first palpable mammary tumor, the rats were treated with 0.5 microg estradiol or 50 microg tamoxifen daily for 30 days. The rats were sacrificed 24 h after 30 days of treatment. Estradiol appears to stimulate the synthesis of new collagens and thus contributes to the enlargement of the mammary tumors. This might have created a potential microenvironment by increasing the synthesis of suitable matrix that sustains the growth of the mammary tumors. In short, the present findings emphasize a definite mediatory role for collagen in estradiol promoted mammary tumor growth. PMID:16388971

Rajkumar, L; Balasubramanian, K; Arunakaran, J; Govindarajulu, P; Srinivasan, N

2006-02-01

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Evaluation of Tumor Angiogenesis with a Second-Generation US Contrast Medium in a Rat Breast Tumor Model  

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Tumor angiogenesis is an important factor for tumor growth, treatment response and prognosis. Noninvasive imaging methods for the evaluation of tumor angiogenesis have been studied, but a method for the quantification of tumor angiogenesis has not been established. This study was designed to evaluate tumor angiogenesis in a rat breast tumor model by the use of a contrast enhanced ultrasound (US) examination with a second-generation US contrast agent. The alkylating agent 19N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) was injected into the intraperitoneal cavity of 30-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Three to four months later, breast tumors were detected along the mammary lines of the rats. A total of 17 breast tumors larger than 1 cm in nine rats were evaluated by gray-scale US, color Doppler US and contrast-enhanced US using SonoVue. The results were recorded as digital video images; time-intensity curves and hemodynamic parameters were analyzed. Pathological breast tumor specimens were obtained just after the US examinations. The tumor specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and the expression of CD31, an endothelial cell marker, was determined by immunohistochemical staining. We also evaluated the pathological diagnosis of the tumors and the microvessel density (MVD). Spearman's correlation and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for the analysis. The pathological diagnoses were 11 invasive ductal carcinomas and six benign intraductal epithelial proliferationsnign intraductal epithelial proliferations. The MVD did not correlate with the pathological diagnosis. However, blood volume (BV) showed a statistically significant correlation with MVD (Spearman's correlation, p < 0.05). Contrast-enhanced US using a second-generation US contrast material was useful for the evaluation of tumor angiogenesis of breast tumors in the rat

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Muscarinic receptors are involved in LMM3 tumor cells proliferation and angiogenesis  

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Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel development from pre-existing vasculature and it plays an essential role in tumor growth and metastases. Here, we investigate the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) and their participation in tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis ability. Saturation binding assays with the tritiated muscarinic antagonist quinuclidinyl benzilate indicate that LMM3 cells derived from a murine mammary adenocarcinoma express a single class of functional mAchR. Competition binding assays with selective muscarinic antagonists indicate a predominance of M3 receptor subtype. The muscarinic agonist carbachol (CARB) stimulates LMM3 cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. The maximal effect induced by 10-9 M CARB was totally blunted by atropine and by the selective M3 and M1 antagonists, para-fluoro hexahydro sila-difenidol (pf-HHSiD) and pirenzepine, respectively. In addition, pf-HHSiD completely blocked in vivo CARB-induced neovascular formation and vascular endothelial growth factor-A in LMM3 tumor cells. We can conclude that mAchR expressed in LMM3 mammary tumor cells positively regulate proliferation and angiogenesis required for tumor progression

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Granular-cell tumor: A rare variant of mammary tumor  

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Full Text Available Background. Granular cell tumor (GCT is a rare variant of mammary tumor beset with diagnostic dilemmas that may be resolved by using numerous, very complex, enzymohistochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Case reports. We reported three female patients 16, 21 and 65 years old, operated on for mammary tumor at the Surgical Clinic of the School of Medicine in Niš, over the period of thirty years, 1977 to 2007. During this period 14.022 mammary tumors were diagnosed, including these three cases. These tumors had benign characteristics, without associated tumors in other localizations. A typical histological feature of GCT was a granular cytoplasm in large ovoid cells, organized like nests or like a trabecular arrangement. The tumors were analyzed by sets of histochemical, enzymohistochemical, immunohistochemical methods as well as ultrastructural examination. Protein, S-100 neuron-specific enolase and vimentin expressed a diffuse and intensive immunohistochemical activity, while expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, as well as HER-2 oncoprotein was negative. The ultrastructural analysis confirmed that the tumor cells were enriched by lysosomes and consequential disorganization of cytoplasm. Conclusion. The reported enzymo- and immunohistochemical combined methods provide a precise diagnosis and confirm the GCT's neural origin, which has been disputed for years.

Ili? Ivan

2008-01-01

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Microenvironmental Regulation of Tumor Angiogenesis: Biological and Engineering Considerations  

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Tumor angiogenesis is fundamental to tumor growth and metastasis, and antiangiogenic therapies have been developed to target this process. However, the clinical success of these treatments has been limited, which may be due, in part, to an incomplete understanding of cell-microenvironment interactions and their role in tumor angiogenesis. Traditionally, two-dimensional (2D) culture approaches have been used to study tumor progression in vitro, but these systems fail to faithfully recreate tumor microenvironmental conditions contributing to tumor angiogenesis in vivo. By integrating cancer biology with tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches, the development of biologically inspired tumor models has emerged. Such 3D model systems allow studying the specific role of soluble factor signaling, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, cell-cell interactions, mechanical cues, and metabolic stress. This chapter discusses specific biological and engineering design considerations for tissue-engineered tumor models and highlights their application for defining the underpinnings of tumor angiogenesis.

Infanger, David W.; Pathi, Siddharth P.; Fischbach, Claudia

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Nestin: A novel angiogenesis marker and possible target for tumor angiogenesis  

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Full Text Available Abnormal vasculature, termed tumor vessels, is a hallmark of solid tumors. The degree of angiogenesis is associated with tumor aggressiveness and clinical outcome. Therefore, exact quantification of tumor vessels is useful to evaluate prognosis. Furthermore, selective detection of newly formed tumor vessels within cancer tissues using specific markers raises the possibility of molecular targeted therapy via the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, is reportedly expressed in repair processes, various neoplasms, and proliferating vascular endothelial cells. Nestin expression is detected in endothelial cells of embryonic capillaries, capillaries of the corpus luteum, which replenishes itself by angiogenesis, and proliferating endothelial progenitor cells, but not in mature endothelial cells. Therefore, expression of nestin is relatively limited to proliferating vascular endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells. Nestin expression is also reported in blood vessels within glioblastoma, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer, and its expression is more specific for newly formed blood vessels than other endothelial cell markers. Nestin-positive blood vessels form smaller vessels with high proliferation activity in tumors. Knockdown of nestin in vascular endothelial cells suppresses endothelial cell growth and tumor formation ability of pancreatic cancers in vivo. Using nestin to more accurately evaluate microvessel density in cancer specimens may be a novel prognostic indicator. Furthermore, nestin-targeted therapy may suppress tumor proliferation via inhibition of angiogenesis in numerous malignancies, including pancreatic cancer. In this review article, we focus on nestin as a novel angiogenesis marker and possible therapeutic target via inhibition of tumor angiogenesis.

Yoko Matsuda

2013-01-01

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Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Molecular Biology and Oncogenesis  

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Full Text Available Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, which was discovered as a milk?transmitted, infectious cancer-inducing agent in the 1930s, has been used since that time as an animal model for the study of human breast cancer. Like other complex retroviruses, MMTV encodes a number of accessory proteins that both facilitate infection and affect host immune response. In vivo, the virus predominantly infects lymphocytes and mammary epithelial cells. High level infection of mammary epithelial cells ensures efficient passage of virus to the next generation. It also results in mammary tumor induction, since the MMTV provirus integrates into the mammary epithelial cell genome during viral replication and activates cellular oncogene expression. Thus, mammary tumor induction is a by-product of the infection cycle. A number of important oncogenes have been discovered by carrying out MMTV integration site analysis, some of which may play a role in human breast cancer.

Susan R. Ross

2010-09-01

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Classification and grading of canine malignant mammary tumors  

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Full Text Available Histological grading is a good parameter to stratify tumors according to their biologicalaggressiveness. The Elston and Ellis grading method in humans, invasive ductal breastcarcinomas and other invasive tumors are routinely used. The aims of this study wereclassification of mammary gland tumors and also application of ahuman grading methodincanine mammary carcinoma. The samples included 37 tumors of mammary glands.Mammary tumors were carcinomas (n=32 and sarcomas (n=5. The carcinomas wereclassified as simple carcinoma 56.8% (n= 21, complex carcinoma13.5% (n= 5, carcinomaarising from benign tumor 10.8% (n= 4 and special type of carcinoma 5.4% (n= 2. Out of 32carcinomas studied, 37.5% (n= 12 grade I, 46.9% (n=15 grade II and 15.6% (n= 5 gradeIII. This study demonstrated that the Elston and Ellis method of histological grading in caninemammary tumor is a reliable prognostic factorwhichis correlated with histopathologicalclassification.

Abbas Tavasoly

2013-03-01

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Expression of Hyaluronidase by Tumor Cells Induces Angiogenesis in vivo  

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Hyaluronic acid is a proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and is important for the maintenance of tissue architecture. Depolymerization of hyaluronic acid may facilitate tumor invasion. In addition, oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid have been reported to induce angiogenesis. We report here that a hyaluronidase similar to the one on human sperm is expressed by metastatic human melanoma, colon carcinoma, and glioblastoma cell lines and by tumor biopsies from patients with colorectal carcinomas, but not by tissues from normal colon. Moreover, angiogenesis is induced by hyaluronidase+ tumor cells but not hyaluronidase- tumor cells and can be blocked by an inhibitor of hyaluronidase. Tumor cells thus use hyaluronidase as one of the ``molecular saboteurs'' to depolymerize hyaluronic acid to facilitate invasion. As a consequence, breakdown products of hyaluronic acid can further promote tumor establishment by inducing angiogenesis. Hyaluronidase on tumor cells may provide a target for anti-neoplastic drugs.

Liu, Dacai; Pearlman, Eric; Diaconu, Eugenia; Guo, Kun; Mori, Hiroshi; Haqqi, Tariq; Markowitz, Sanford; Willson, James; Sy, Man-Sun

1996-07-01

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Experimental studies on mammary tumors in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of dietary fat components in radiation-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis, and the response of chemically- or radiation-induced rat mammary tumors (MT) to experimental radiotherapy. Female rats of F344 strain were fed, for 400 days after neutron irradiation, with a synthetic diet containing various fat components with different proportion. Transplanted MTs were tested for their response to radiotherapy in terms of their hormone dependency and antigenicity. An incidence rate of MT was significantly higher in rats given 20% corn oil than in those given 5% or 1% corn oil (61.5% vs 23.0% and 23.8%). In giving diet composed of different fat components with a constant rate of 20%, fish oil significantly inhibited the incidence of MT (16.7%) as compared with lard oil (77.0%) and corn oil (61.5%). In the case of corn oil, an MT incidence rate of 61.5% was reduced to 16.7% when the total caloric intake was decreased by 70%. No association was found between the MT incidence and serum levels of estrogen or prolactin in groups of different fat components. In rats transplanted with 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), some of DMBA-induced MTs were spontaneously reduced, suggesting a high antigenicity. Other DMBA-induced MTs were rejected by syngeneic recipients upon cellular transplantation. A high antigenicity may be explained by tumor take and growth with a short latency upon transplantation into immunosuppressed syngeneic rantation into immunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. Ovarian hormone-dependent MTs tended to have a higher radiosensitivity than hormone-independent autonomous MTs. DMBA-induced MTs began to reduce 10 days and were completely destroyed 30 days after irradiation, irrespective of whether they were directly exposed to or shielded from neutron. This abscopal effect can be explained by immunological reaction of the host. (Namekawa, K) 87 refs

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Soluble angiogenesis markers in gastric tumor patients.  

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Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the second commonest cause of cancer-associated death in the world. Its molecular markers can be useful not only for diagnostic, but also prognostic purposes. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of soluble angiogenesis markers such as endoglin and VEGFR2 in gastric cancer patients and to compare these results with those of VEGF levels. As a secondary objective, we compared the concentrations of all three soluble markers in plasma and serum. The study was performed on 26 patients with gastric cancer (17 intestinal-type and 9 diffuse-type, and additionally in 2 patients with B cell lymphoma and 2 with gastro-intestinal stromal tumor. In summary, we showed increases in circulating VEGF-A in patients with both types of gastric cancer. The levels of VEGFR2 did not change significantly in patients with gastric cancer as compared to healthy subjects. Interestingly, after the operation greater levels of VEGFR2 were observed in patients without metastases. Both VEGF and VEGFR2 circulating levels were greater in patients with lymphoma, when compared to both gastric cancer patients and the control group. However, because of small number of patients, this requires further studies. Presented data suggests that endoglin does not seem to be a valuable tool in the assessment of gastric cancer invasion and spread.

Bogus?aw Kedra

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Neem leaf extract inhibits mammary carcinogenesis by altering cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis.  

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Plant-based medicines are useful in the treatment of cancer. Many breast cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine in parallel with conventional treatments. Neem is historically well known in Asia and Africa as a versatile medicinal plant with a wide spectrum of biological activities. The experiments reported herein determined whether the administration of an ethanolic fraction of Neem leaf (EFNL) inhibits progression of chemical carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rat models. Seven-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Upon the appearance of palpable mammary tumors, the rats were divided into vehicle-treated control groups and EFNL-treated groups. Treatment with EFNL inhibited MNU-induced mammary tumor progression. EFNL treatment was also highly effective in reducing mammary tumor burden and in suppressing mammary tumor progression even after the cessation of treatment. Further, we found that EFNL treatment effectively upregulated proapoptotic genes and proteins such as p53, B cell lymphoma-2 protein (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2-associated death promoter protein (Bad) caspases, phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In contrast, EFNL treatment caused downregulation of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), angiogenic proteins (angiopoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGF-A]), cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 [Cdk2], and Cdk4), and pro-survival signals such as NF?B, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). The data obtained in this study demonstrate that EFNL exert a potent anticancer effect against mammary tumorigenesis by altering key signaling pathways. PMID:24146019

Arumugam, Arunkumar; Agullo, Pamela; Boopalan, Thiyagarajan; Nandy, Sushmita; Lopez, Rebecca; Gutierrez, Christina; Narayan, Mahesh; Rajkumar, Lakshmanaswamy

2014-01-01

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Detection of novel murine mammary tumor viruses by interspecies immunoassays.  

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Radioimmunoassays were developed that can detect antigenic determinants common to mammary tumor viruses (MTV's) of four distinct Mus species: M. musculus, M. cervicolor, M. cookll, and M. caroll. The radioimmunoassays were based on the immunologic cross-reactivity observed between the murine mammary tumor viruses (MuMTV) of M. musculus and type B retrovirus isolated from M. cervicolor. Both of the glycoproteins of MuMTV (gp52, gp36) shared antigenic determinants with virions of M. cervicolor mammary tumor virus. Interspecies radioimmunoassays for gp52 and gp36 were developed and used to detect viruses in the milk of noninbred feral Mus species and MuMTV-related translational products in mammary tumors in these species. Type C and type D retroviruses, as well as the M432 retrovirus of M. cervicolor, did not react in either assay. Both interspecies immunoassays were therefore specific for the detection of distinct MuMTV-related antigenic determinants. PMID:6154165

Teramoto, Y A; Hand, P H; Callahan, R; Schlom, J

1980-04-01

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Protein Kinase C beta in the tumor microenvironment promotes mammary tumorigenesis  

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Full Text Available Protein kinase C beta (PKC? expression in breast cancer is associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype, yet the mechanism for how PKC? is pro-tumorigenic in this disease is still unclear. Interestingly, while it is known that PKC? mediates angiogenesis, immunity, fibroblast function and adipogenesis, all components of the mammary tumor microenvironment (TME, no study to date has investigated whether stromal PKC? is functionally relevant in breast cancer. Herein, we evaluate mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T-antigen (MMTV-PyMT induced mammary tumorigenesis in the presence and absence of PKC?. We utilize two model systems: one where PKC? is deleted in both the epithelial and stromal compartments to test the global requirement for PKC? on tumor formation, and second, where PKC? is deleted only in the stromal compartment to test its role in the TME. MMTV-PyMT mice globally lacking PKC? live longer and develop smaller tumors with decreased proliferation and decreased macrophage infiltration. Similarly, when PKC? is null exclusively in the stroma, PyMT-driven B6 cells form smaller tumors. These experiments reveal for the first time a tumor promoting role for stromal PKC? in MMTV-PyMT tumorigenesis. In corroboration with these results, PKC? mRNA (Prkcb is increased in fibroblasts isolated from MMTV-PyMT tumors. These data were confirmed in a breast cancer patient cohort. Combined these data suggest the continued investigation of PKC? in the mammary TME is necessary to elucidate how to effectively target this signaling pathway in breast cancer.

GinaMSizemore

2014-04-01

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Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer  

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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ? CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ? The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have been studied in vitro and in vivo. ? CYP4Z1 regulates expression and production of VEGF-A and TIMP-2. ? CYP4Z1-induced angiogenesis is associated with PI3K and ERK1/2 activation. ? CYP4Z1 may be an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.

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Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer  

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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ? CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ? The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have been studied in vitro and in vivo. ? CYP4Z1 regulates expression and production of VEGF-A and TIMP-2. ? CYP4Z1-induced angiogenesis is associated with PI3K and ERK1/2 activation. ? CYP4Z1 may be an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.

Yu, Wei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Guifang [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cai, Xiaojun [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2012-10-01

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Effects of synthetic urokinase inhibitors on local invasion and metastasis in a murine mammary tumor model.  

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Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) initiates an extracellular proteolytic cascade with which invasive cells eliminate barriers to movement. We have evaluated the antiinvasive and antimetastatic properties of two recently developed synthetic uPA inhibitors, B428 and B623, in a BALB/c mouse mammary carcinoma model. We used the F3II and M3 tumor cell lines, previously described by our laboratory. In vitro, noncytotoxic concentrations of B428 or B623 inhibited secreted and cell-associated uPA activity produced by tumor cells and blocked uPA-mediated whole tumor cell degradation of fibronectin, allowing deposition of extracellular fibronectin fibrils. In vivo, administration of compounds was not associated with overt toxic effects. Daily i.p. treatment with B428 (20 mg/kg/day) or B623 (7.5 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks, beginning after tumor take, markedly blocked the invasion of the muscle and adipose layers of the subcutis and dermis in mice bearing highly invasive F3II tumors. However, these compounds neither inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis nor reduced the incidence of spontaneous lung metastasis. Moreover, B623 enhanced the formation of experimental lung metastasis. Our results suggest that synthetic uPA inhibitors act as potent antiinvasiveness agents in vivo but may be unable to control progression of the metastatic disease in the present mammary tumor model. PMID:8883963

Alonso, D F; Farías, E F; Ladeda, V; Davel, L; Puricelli, L; Bal de Kier Joffé, E

1996-01-01

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Mammary gland tumors in irradiated and untreated guinea pigs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a report of mammary gland tumors from 62 guinea pigs. The tumors arose in the terminal ductal-lobular units as either lobular acinar carcinoma or cystadenocarcinoma or as papillary carcinomas within large ducts near the mammilla. About half the number of the males had terminal ductal-lobular carcinomas and all but 2 of the papillary duct carcinomas also arose in males. Large tumors frequently exhibited squamous, chondromatous, osseous, fatty and myoepitheliomatous types of tissues. In 2 irradiated males and 1 female the tumors metastasized. Whole-body irradiation did not produce significant changes in the number or sex distribution or in the morphology of mammary gland tumors in inbred or outbred guinea pigs. All females had cystic ovaries without increase in granulosa cells, 24 (66.6%) had uterine tumors and 13 (34.2%) had adrenal gland tumors; all males had atrophic testes, 5 (16.5%) had testicular and 6 (22.2%) had adrenal gland tumors

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Prognostic significance of tumor-induced angiogenesis in colorectal cancer  

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Full Text Available Introduction Tumor-induced angiogenesis is a central pathogenic step in the process of tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the quantitative expression of angiogenesis in colorectal carcinoma and to determine if and how angiogenesis correlates with other clinicopathologic factors and prognosis. Material and methods This study included 40 patients who underwent curative resection of colorectal cancer at the Department of Surgery of the Senta General Hospital with complete 5 years follow-up or till death. Microvessels were identified immunohistochemically using monoclonal CD31 antibodies. The microvessel count was assessed by means of stereology with test grid M42, as well as vascular surface density in the stromal volume at the invasive front of colorectal cancer. Results Tumor-induced angiogenesis count of colorectal carcinomas statistically significantly correlated with stage of disease and histologic tumor grade There was no significant correlation between intratumoral microvessel density and sex and age of patients, localization and histologic tumor type Five-year survival rate in patients with hypervascular colorectal tumors was statistically significantly lower than in patients with hypovascular tumors Thus, microvessel density in colorectal cancer is an independent prognostic factor, but its significance is less than the importance concerning stage of disease and histologic grade of tumor. Conclusions Intratumoral microvessel density quantification in histologic specimens of colorectal carcinoma reflects the biological malignant potential of tumors and may be a useful additional predictive marker. Assessment of intratumoral microvessel count might be used for determining the pathologic stage when adjuvant therapy is concerned. Microvessel density in tumor specimens is valuable in stratifying patients in planning appropriate adjuvant and antiangiogenic therapy after surgery.

Fenyvesi Attila

2003-01-01

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Macromolecular MRI contrast agents for imaging tumor angiogenesis  

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Angiogenesis has long been accepted as a vital process in the growth and metastasis of tumors. As a result it is the target of several novel anti-cancer medications. Consequently, there is an urgent clinical need to develop accurate, non-invasive imaging techniques to improve the characterization of tumor angiogenesis and the monitoring of the response to anti-angiogenic therapy. Macromolecular MR contrast media (MMCM) offer this diagnostic potential by preferentially exploiting the inherent hyperpermeable nature of new tumor vessels compared with normal vessels. Over the last 10-15 years many classes of MMCM have been developed. When evaluated with dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI, a number of MMCM have demonstrated in vivo imaging properties that correlate with ex vivo histological features of angiogenesis. The enhancement patterns with some MMCM have been reported to correlate with tumor grade, as well as show response to anti-angiogenic and anti-vascular drugs. Future applications of MMCM include targeted angiogenesis imaging and drug delivery of anti-cancer 'payloads'. Herein we discuss the best known MMCMs along with their advantages and disadvantages

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Phyllodes malignant mammary tumors:communication of three cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three cases of phyllode malignant mammary tumors were studied in the Anatomo-Pathology Chair of the Montevideo, Uruguay.The discussion covered epidemiology, morphologic staging and biological significance of phyllode tumor within the broader spectrum of libro-epithelial breast tumors.An overview of literature shows that histo-pathological criteria recommended by world Health Organization(WHO) are the ones which determine the behaviour of phyllode mammary tumors, wheter bening, malignant of borderline.Prognostic factors of metastases are those involved in stroma overgrowth, anaplasia high mitotic index and infiltrative edge of tumor.None of the clinical aspects,including tumor size, are significant from the viewpoint of prognosis.Efective treatment is broad extended surgical excision (adequate margins),mastectomy being reserved for large tummors that are borderline, malignant or recurrent

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Antimetastatic effect of desmopressin in a mouse mammary tumor model.  

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We have investigated the effects of desmopressin (DDAVP), a synthetic analog of the natural hormone vasopressin, on experimental lung colonization of mammary tumor cells using a syngeneic BALB/c mouse model. Coinjection of DDAVP (1-2 microg/kg body weight) at the time of i.v. inoculation of F3II carcinoma cells or LM3 adenocarcinoma cells significantly inhibited the formation of experimental lung metastases. In both cases, the number of pulmonary nodules was reduced about 70%. Inhibition of metastasis was also obtained with i.v. administration of DDAVP 24 h after tumor cell inoculation. Interestingly, the inhibition of lung metastasis was not due to direct cytotoxic effects of DDAVP on mammary tumor cells. The in vitro formation of multicellular aggregates in the presence of citrated plasma from control and DDAVP-treated mice was also examined. Control plasma rapidly induced a significant tumor cell aggregation. In contrast, in the presence of plasma from DDAVP-treated mice, tumor cells remained as a single cell suspension. DDAVP may help to dissolve the protective fibrin shield of circulating tumor cells. Our data suggest, for the first time, that adjuvant DDAVP therapy may impair successful implantation of circulating mammary tumor cells. PMID:10617303

Alonso, D F; Skilton, G; Farías, E F; Bal de Kier Joffé, E; Gomez, D E

1999-10-01

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Tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis: tumor/endothelial crosstalk and cellular/microenvironmental signaling mechanisms  

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Tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are key features of tumor progression and metastasis. The role of tumor cells-derived factors in the promotion of associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is much studied and, no doubt, very important for the understanding of cancer progression. This review aims to present and discuss the work done on the pro-angiogenic and lymphangiogenic cellular interactions within the tumor microenvironment and the signaling pathways that regulate this cross talk. Such multifactor studies are critical for the development of future therapeutic approaches for cancer because they take into account the complexities of cellular interactions within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:23178150

Gomes, Fausto Gueths; Nedel, Fernanda; Alves, Alessandro Menna; Nor, Jacques Eduardo; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves

2013-01-01

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Labeled estrogens as mammary tumor probes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis estrogens labeled with a gamma or positron emitting nuclide, called estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are investigated as mammary tumour probes. The requirements for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are formulated and the literature on estrogens labeled for this purpose is reviewed. The potential of mercury-197/197m and of carbon-11 as label for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals is investigated. The synthesis of 197Hg-labeled 4-mercury-estradiol and 2-mercury-estradiol and their properties in vitro and in vivo are described. It appears that though basically carbon-11 labeled compounds are very promising as mammary tumour probes, their achievable specific activity has to be increased. (Auth.)

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BMP4/Thrombospondin-1 loop paracrinically inhibits tumor angiogenesis and suppresses the growth of solid tumors.  

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Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has potential as an anticancer agent. Recent studies have suggested that BMP4 inhibits the survival of cancer stem cells (CSCs) of neural and colon cancers. Here, we showed that BMP4 paracrinically inhibited tumor angiogenesis via the induction of Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), and consequently suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Although HeLa (human cervical cancer), HCI-H460-LNM35 (highly metastatic human lung cancer) and B16 (murine melanoma) cells did not respond to the BMP4 treatment in vitro, the growth of xeno- and allografts of these cells was suppressed via reductions in tumor angiogenesis after intraperitoneal treatment with BMP4. When we assessed the mRNA expression of major angiogenesis-related factors in grafted tumors, we found that the expression of TSP1 was significantly upregulated by BMP4 administration. We then confirmed that BMP4 was less effective in suppressing the tumor growth of TSP1-knockdown cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that BMP4 reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vivo in a TSP1-dependent manner, which indicates that BMP4 interfered with the stabilization of tumor angiogenesis. In conclusion, the BMP4/TSP1 loop paracrinically suppressed tumor angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment, which subsequently reduced the growth of tumors. BMP4 may become an antitumor agent and open a new field of antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:24013228

Tsuchida, R; Osawa, T; Wang, F; Nishii, R; Das, B; Tsuchida, S; Muramatsu, M; Takahashi, T; Inoue, T; Wada, Y; Minami, T; Yuasa, Y; Shibuya, M

2014-07-17

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Plants as useful agents for angiogenesis and tumor growth prevention  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels, has important physiological roles in embryonic development, female reproduction cycle, and wound healing. It is also crucial for pathological processes in several diseases especially tumor growth and metastasis. Thereby, inhibition of angiogenesis as an addition to the conventional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy has attracted the attention of scientists. Results: Different studies have shown that botanical derivatives specifically antagonize new vessel formation in tumors without significant toxicity to normal tissues and without major adverse reactions. Furthermore, many studies have revealed that the active ingredients of these natural products inhibit tumor cell proliferation through interference with other physiological pathways such as intracellular signaling pathways. A number of studies have also demonstrated that many traditional foods especially plant derived foods have preventive potential against around one third of cancers. Therefore, plant rich diet can inhibit the progression of many chronic diseases such as malignant solid tumors which are related to angiogenesis.

Hamid-Reza Mohammadi-Motlagh

2010-10-01

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SHORT PEDF-DERIVED PEPTIDE INHIBITS ANGIOGENESIS AND TUMOR GROWTH  

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Purpose Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor with multiple other functions, some of which enhance tumor growth. Our previous studies mapped PEDF anti-angiogenic and pro-survival activities to distinct epitopes. This study was aimed to determine the minimal fragment of PEDF, which maintains anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor efficacy. Experimental Design We analyzed antigenicity, hydrophilicity, and charge distribution of the angioinhibitory epitope (the 34-mer) and designed three peptides covering its C-terminus, P14, P18 and P23. We analyzed their ability to block endothelial cell (EC) chemotaxis and induce apoptosis in vitro and their anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. The selected peptide was tested for the anti-tumor activity against mildly aggressive xenografted prostate carcinoma and highly aggressive renal cell carcinoma. To verify that P18 acts in the same manner as PEDF, we used immunohistochemistry to measure PEDF targets, VEGFR2 and CD95L expression in P18-treated vasculature. Results P14 and P18 blocked endothelial cell chemotaxis; P18 and P23 induced apoptosis. P18 showed the highest IC50 and blocked angiogenesis in vivo: P23 was inactive and P14 was pro-angiogenic. P18 increased the production of CD95L and reduced the expression of VEGFR-2 by the endothelial cells in vivo. In tumor studies, P18 was more effective in blocking the angiogenesis and growth of the prostate cancer then parental 34-mer; in the renal cell carcinoma P18 strongly decreased angiogenesis and halted the progression of established tumors. Conclusions P18 is a novel and potent anti-angiogenic biotherapeutic agent, which has potential to be developed for the treatment of prostate and renal cancer. PMID:19223494

Mirochnik, Yelena; Aurora, Arin; Schulze-Hoepfner, Frank T.; Deabes, Ahmed; Shifrin, Victor; Beckmann, Richard; Polsky, Charles; Volpert, Olga V.

2010-01-01

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Celecoxib decreases growth and angiogenesis and promotes apoptosis in a tumor cell line resistant to chemotherapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: During the last few years it has been shown in several laboratories that Celecoxib (Cx), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) normally used for pain and arthritis, mediates antitumor and antiangiogenic effects. However, the effects of this drug on a tumor cell line resistant t [...] o chemotherapeutical drugs used in cancer have not been described. Herein we evaluate the angiogenic and antitumor effects of Cx in the development of a drug-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma tumor (TA3-MTXR). RESULTS: Cx reduces angiogenesis in the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM), inhibits the growth and microvascular density of the murine TA3-MTXR tumor, reduces microvascular density of tumor metastases, promotes apoptosis and reduces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and cell proliferation in the tumor. CONCLUSION: The antiangiogenic and antitumor Cx effects correlate with its activity on other tumor cell lines, suggesting that Prostaglandins (PGs) and VEGF production are involved. These results open the possibility of using Celecoxib combined with other experimental therapies, ideally aiming to get synergic effects.

Carlos, Rosas; Mariana, Sinning; Arturo, Ferreira; Marcela, Fuenzalida; David, Lemus.

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Murine mammary tumor cells with a claudin-low genotype  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular classification of human breast cancers has identified at least 5 distinct tumor subtypes; luminal A, luminal B, Her2-enriched, basal-like and claudin-low. The claudin-low subtype was identified in 2007 and is characterized by low expression of luminal differentiation markers and claudins 3, 4 and 7 and high levels of mesenchymal markers. Claudin-low tumors have a reported prevalence of 7-14% and these tumors have a poor prognosis. Results In this study we report the characterization of several cell lines established from mammary tumors that develop in MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice. Two lines, RM11A and RJ348 present with histological features and gene expression patterns that resemble claudin-low breast tumors. Specifically, RM11A and RJ348 cells express high levels of the mesenchymal genes Zeb1, Zeb2, Twist1 and Twist2 and very low levels of E-cadherin and claudins 3, 4 and 7. The RM11A and RJ348 cells are also highly tumorigenic when re-introduced into the mammary fat pad of mice. Conclusions Mammary tumor cells established from MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice can be used as in vitro and in vivo model systems to further our understanding of the poorly characterized, claudin-low, breast cancer subtype.

Siwicky Megan D

2011-08-01

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Dynamic MRI and tumor angiogenesis of breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanism underlying early enhanced MR images of breast cancer by dynamic MR imaging from the aspect of tumor angiogenesis. The images depicted by dynamic MR imaging of breast cancer were divided into the following two groups: a marginal strong enhancement (MSE) pattern and a variable pattern without marginal strong enhancement (non-MSE). Twenty patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (maximum diameter <2 cm) were examined by dynamic MR imaging, and the histological materials were submitted to two-dimensional computer image analysis with immunohistochemistry and histochemistry; morphological microvessel characteristics and microvessel density were examined; and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was investigated. In the MSE cases, vessel wall irregularity of capillaries and venules in the peripheral area adjacent to the tumor correlated (p<0.0001) with the enhancement pattern, and the total microvessel density (especially of arterioles with a maximum diameter less than 50 ?m) of the peripheral area adjacent to the tumor was significantly higher than that of the tumor area. However, in the non-MSE cases, total microvessel density showed no significant difference between the peripheral area adjacent to the tumor and the tumor area, whereas the capillary density of the tumor area was four times greater than that of the peripheral area adjacent to the tumor. The expression of VEGF was strongly positive for the tumor nest adjacent to the capillaries. These results suggest that the enhanced images of the MSE pattern depend on abundant blood supply from arterioles and that the images of the non-MSE pattern might be reflective of angiogenic activity including variable VEGF expression of tumor cells. Thus the mechanism underlying early dynamic MR images of breast cancer was a complex result of tumor angiogenesis and the microcirculatory environment. (author)

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Dynamic MRI and tumor angiogenesis of breast cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanism underlying early enhanced MR images of breast cancer by dynamic MR imaging from the aspect of tumor angiogenesis. The images depicted by dynamic MR imaging of breast cancer were divided into the following two groups: a marginal strong enhancement (MSE) pattern and a variable pattern without marginal strong enhancement (non-MSE). Twenty patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (maximum diameter <2 cm) were examined by dynamic MR imaging, and the histological materials were submitted to two-dimensional computer image analysis with immunohistochemistry and histochemistry; morphological microvessel characteristics and microvessel density were examined; and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was investigated. In the MSE cases, vessel wall irregularity of capillaries and venules in the peripheral area adjacent to the tumor correlated (p<0.0001) with the enhancement pattern, and the total microvessel density (especially of arterioles with a maximum diameter less than 50 {mu}m) of the peripheral area adjacent to the tumor was significantly higher than that of the tumor area. However, in the non-MSE cases, total microvessel density showed no significant difference between the peripheral area adjacent to the tumor and the tumor area, whereas the capillary density of the tumor area was four times greater than that of the peripheral area adjacent to the tumor. The expression of VEGF was strongly positive for the tumor nest adjacent to the capillaries. These results suggest that the enhanced images of the MSE pattern depend on abundant blood supply from arterioles and that the images of the non-MSE pattern might be reflective of angiogenic activity including variable VEGF expression of tumor cells. Thus the mechanism underlying early dynamic MR images of breast cancer was a complex result of tumor angiogenesis and the microcirculatory environment. (author)

Yasumura, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kenji [Nippon Kokan Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Yuasa, Yuji; Hiramatsu, Hideko; Hiramatsu, Kyoichi; Kitajima, Masaki

2000-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Inoculated mammary carcinoma-associated fibroblasts: contribution to hormone independent tumor growth  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence has underscored the role of carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAF in tumor growth. However, there are controversial data regarding the persistence of inoculated CAF within the tumors. We have developed a model in which murine metastatic ductal mammary carcinomas expressing estrogen and progesterone receptors transit through different stages of hormone dependency. Hormone dependent (HD tumors grow only in the presence of progestins, whereas hormone independent (HI variants grow without hormone supply. We demonstrated previously that CAF from HI tumors (CAF-HI express high levels of FGF-2 and that FGF-2 induced HD tumor growth in vivo. Our main goal was to investigate whether inoculated CAF-HI combined with purified epithelial (EPI HD cells can induce HD tumor growth. Methods Purified EPI cells of HD and HI tumors were inoculated alone, or together with CAF-HI, into female BALB/c mice and tumor growth was evaluated. In another set of experiments, purified EPI-HI alone or combined with CAF-HI or CAF-HI-GFP were inoculated into BALB/c or BALB/c-GFP mice. We assessed whether inoculated CAF-HI persisted within the tumors by analyzing inoculated or host CAF in frozen sections of tumors growing in BALB/c or BALB/c-GFP mice. The same model was used to evaluate early stages of tumor development and animals were euthanized at 2, 7, 12 and 17 days after EPI-HI or EPI-HI+CAF-HI inoculation. In angiogenesis studies, tumor vessels were quantified 5 days after intradermal inoculation. Results We found that admixed CAF-HI failed to induce epithelial HD tumor growth, but instead, enhanced HI tumor growth (p Conclusions Inoculated CAF-HI do not persist within the tumor mass although they play a role during the first stages of tumor formation promoting angiogenesis. This angiogenic environment is unable to replace the hormone requirement of HD tumors that still need the hormone to recruit the stroma from the host.

Lanari Claudia

2010-06-01

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Effect of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd extract on tumor angiogenesis.  

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Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become an attractive target of anticancer chemotherapy. However, drug resistance and cytotoxicity against non-tumor associated endothelial cells limit the long-term use and the therapeutic effectiveness of angiogenesis inhibitors, thus increasing the necessity for the development of multi-target agents with minimal side effects. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas, which have relatively fewer side effects and have been used clinically to treat various types of diseases, including cancer, for thousands of years, are considered to be multi-component and multi-target agents exerting their therapeutic function in a more holistic way. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd (EEHDW) has long been used as an important component in several TCM formulas to treat various types of cancer. Although recently we reported that EEHDW promotes cancer cell apoptosis via activation of the mitochondrial-dependent pathway, the precise mechanism of its tumoricidalactivity still remains to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the angiogenic effects of the ethanol extract of EEHDW. Cell cycle analysis was perfomed using flow cytometry. Cell viability was analyzed using MTT assay. We found that EEHDW inhibited angiogenesis in vivo in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). In addition, we observed that EEHDW dose- and time-dependently inhibited the prolife-ration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by blocking the cell cycle G1 to S progression. Moreover, EEHDW inhibited the migration and tube formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, EEHDW treatment down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGF-A in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells and HUVECs. Our findings suggest that inhibiting tumor angiogenesis is one of the mechanisms by which EEHDW is involved in cancer therapy. PMID:21887465

Lin, Jiumao; Wei, Lihui; Xu, Wei; Hong, Zhenfeng; Liu, Xianxiang; Peng, Jun

2011-01-01

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Caveolin-1 expression is elevated in claudin-low mammary tumor cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Caveolin-1 is a scaffolding protein found in plasma membrane invaginations known as caveolae. Caveolin-1 can regulate a number of intracellular processes such as signal transduction, cholesterol metabolism and vesicular transport. With respect to breast cancer caveolin-1 has been observed in both tumor cells and stromal cells surrounding tumors however most of the recent research has focused on how the loss of caveolin-1 in the stromal cells surrounding the tumor alters the tumor microenvironment. Methods Caveolin-1 expression was evaluated in (1 mammary tumors induced by the transgenic overexpression of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR, (2 mammary tumors that became independent of IGF-IR signalling and acquired a claudin-low genotype, (3 two murine mammary epithelial tumor cell lines and (4 two murine mammary claudin-low tumor cell lines. Results We found that mammary tumors induced by IGF-IR overexpression expressed low levels of caveolin-1 while mammary tumors that became independent of IGF-IR signalling expressed considerably higher levels of caveolin-1. Interestingly, pockets of caveolin-1 positive cells could be observed in some of the IGF-IR-induced mammary tumors and these caveolin-1 positive cells were associated with tumor cells that expressed basal cytokeratins (cytokeratins 5 and 14. This caveolin-1 expression pattern was maintained in the murine mammary tumor cell lines in that the epithelial mammary tumor cell lines expressed little or no caveolin-1 while the claudin-low cell lines expressed caveolin-1. Conclusions Our model indicates that mammary tumor cells with epithelial characteristics lack caveolin-1 while mesenchymal tumor cells express caveolin-1 suggesting that caveolin-1 may serve as a marker of mammary tumor cells with mesenchymal characteristics such as claudin-low breast tumors.

Thompson Devan E

2012-02-01

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Purified mouse mammary tumor and lymphoid cells in immune assays.  

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Tumor and lymphoid cell components from primary mammary adenocarcinomas of C3H/He mice were isolated simultaneously by velocity gradients. Viable tumor cells were obtained in sufficient numbers to test their in vivo and in vitro growth. Isolated tumor cells grew in 97% of inoculated syngeneic animals. In six assays with different tumors the effects of tumor-associated lymphoid cells (TAL) on in vivo tumor growth varied, enhancing in three and delaying in two experiments. Isolated tumor cells from animals with enhancing TAL grew faster in nonirradiated mice, whereas tumor cells from animals with inhibitory TAL grew better in irradiated animals. Isolated tumor cells also proliferated in cell culture, where they averaged 35% primary plating efficiency. Separated tumor cells were used in short-term 51Cr-release assays with TAL, tumor-bearer lymph node and spleen effectors. Cytotoxicity was detected in only five of 25 assays. In no case was there killing by lymphocyte populations from normal animals. In the present report we describe a technique for the isolation of viable tumor and lymphoid cells from murine adenocarcinomas that allows study of interactions between these populations from the original tumor-bearing host. PMID:6568874

Blazar, B A; Vanky, F; Klein, E

1984-01-01

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Dexamethasone alleviates tumor-associated brain damage and angiogenesis.  

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Children and adults with the most aggressive form of brain cancer, malignant gliomas or glioblastoma, often develop cerebral edema as a life-threatening complication. This complication is routinely treated with dexamethasone (DEXA), a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with pleiotropic action profile. Here we show that dexamethasone reduces murine and rodent glioma tumor growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of DEXA are already capable of inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and at higher levels induce cell death. Further, the expression of the glutamate antiporter xCT (system Xc-; SLC7a11) and VEGFA is up-regulated after DEXA treatment indicating early cellular stress responses. However, in human gliomas DEXA exerts differential cytotoxic effects, with some human glioma cells (U251, T98G) resistant to DEXA, a finding corroborated by clinical data of dexamethasone non-responders. Moreover, DEXA-resistant gliomas did not show any xCT alterations, indicating that these gene expressions are associated with DEXA-induced cellular stress. Hence, siRNA-mediated xCT knockdown in glioma cells increased the susceptibility to DEXA. Interestingly, cell viability of primary human astrocytes and primary rodent neurons is not affected by DEXA. We further tested the pharmacological effects of DEXA on brain tissue and showed that DEXA reduces tumor-induced disturbances of the microenvironment such as neuronal cell death and tumor-induced angiogenesis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that DEXA inhibits glioma cell growth in a concentration and species-dependent manner. Further, DEXA executes neuroprotective effects in brains and reduces tumor-induced angiogenesis. Thus, our investigations reveal that DEXA acts pleiotropically and impacts tumor growth, tumor vasculature and tumor-associated brain damage. PMID:24714627

Fan, Zheng; Sehm, Tina; Rauh, Manfred; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Savaskan, Nicolai E

2014-01-01

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Oral administration of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) inhibits VEGF expression, tumor angiogenesis, and growth of breast cancer in female mice.  

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The progression of breast cancer is associated with oxidative stress.  However, the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a known antioxidant, on the development of breast cancer are poorly understood.  The present study evaluates the effects of PDTC on tumor growth, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and angiogenesis of breast cancer in female mice.  Eight week old female mice (C57BL/6J) were given PDTC at 100 to 200 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks (n=10).  The control mice received regular drinking water only.  In the 2nd wk, 5x10^5 E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells were injected in the pad of the fourth mammary gland of the mice.  Tumor size was monitored using dial calipers.  At the end of the experiment, the tumors were isolated and measured for tumor size, intratumoral microvessel (IM) density using CD31 immunohistochemistry staining, NF?B activation using EMSA, and VEGF protein levels using ELISA.  PDTC treatment caused a significant decrease in tumor weight compared to the control (0.64±0.22 vs. 1.43±0.31 g; n=8; PE0771 cells.  VEGF receptor inhibitor SU5416 and PDTC synergistically suppressed the proliferation of E0771 cells.  PDTC also significantly inhibited the migration of cultured E0771 cells.  These results support the hypothesis that PDTC suppresses tumor angiogenesis, growth, and migration of breast cancer via inhibiting autocrine and paracrine effects of VEGF through the reduction of NF?B activation and VEGF expression. PMID:19242105

Gu, Jian-Wei; Young, Emily; Busby, Brandi; Covington, Jordan; Johnson, James W

2009-03-15

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Molecular cloning and characterization of mouse mammary tumor proviruses from a T-cell lymphoma.  

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Five mouse mammary tumor virus proviruses and their flanking cellular DNA sequences have been cloned from a transplanted C57BL/6 (B6) T-cell lymphoma containing additional copies of mouse mammary tumor virus DNA. Characterization of these proviruses and their flanking DNA indicates that B6 lymphomas contain many newly integrated mouse mammary tumor virus copies synthesized by a mechanism(s) which generates polymorphism or deletions or both.

Dudley, J. P.; Arfsten, A.; Hsu, C. L.; Kozak, C.; Risser, R.

1986-01-01

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[SIBLING proteins: molecular tools for tumor progression and angiogenesis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) family consists of osteopontin (OPN), bonesialoprotein (BSP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE). These proteins, initially identified in bone and teeth, share many structural characteristics. It is now well established that they are over expressed in many tumors and play a critical role at different steps of cancer development. In this review, we describe the roles of SIBLING proteins at different stages of cancer progression including cancer cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. PMID:24280506

Lamour, Virginie; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Henry, Aurélie; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila

2013-11-01

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A Core Human Primary Tumor Angiogenesis Signature Identifies the Endothelial Orphan Receptor ELTD1 as a Key Regulator of Angiogenesis  

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Summary Limited clinical benefits derived from anti-VEGF therapy have driven the identification of new targets involved in tumor angiogenesis. Here, we report an integrative meta-analysis to define the transcriptional program underlying angiogenesis in human cancer. This approach identified ELTD1, an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor whose expression is induced by VEGF/bFGF and repressed by DLL4 signaling. Extensive analysis of multiple cancer types demonstrates significant upregulation of ELTD1 in tumor-associated endothelial cells, with a higher expression correlating with favorable prognosis. Importantly, ELTD1 silencing impairs endothelial sprouting and vessel formation in vitro and in vivo, drastically reducing tumor growth and greatly improving survival. Collectively, these results provide insight into the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and highlight ELTD1 as key player in blood vessel formation. PMID:23871637

Masiero, Massimo; Simoes, Filipa Costa; Han, Hee Dong; Snell, Cameron; Peterkin, Tessa; Bridges, Esther; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Wu, Sherry Yen-Yao; Pradeep, Sunila; Li, Demin; Han, Cheng; Dalton, Heather; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Tuynman, Jurriaan B.; Mortensen, Neil; Li, Ji-Liang; Patient, Roger; Sood, Anil K.; Banham, Alison H.; Harris, Adrian L.; Buffa, Francesca M.

2013-01-01

50

Modulation of tumor induced angiogenesis in Ehrlich ascites tumor.  

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In this study the enzyme glutaminase, purified from the ascites fluid of ovarian cancer patients, was analysed for its antiangiogenic activity. Intraperitoneal administration of this enzyme reduces the number of tumor directed capillaries in solid and ascites tumor bearing Swiss mice induced by transplantation of Ehrlich ascites cells. The enzyme has a critical role in regulating the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from tumor cell and in turn tumor growth. Glutamine analogue like 6-diazo, 5- oxo L-norleucine (DON) is also found to be effective in regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion from tumor cells in vitro. Treatment with enzyme reduced serum VEGF levels of the tumor induced animals. In vitro VEGF production by EAC cells was reduced in a concentration dependent manner in presence of glutamine analogue. PMID:15743040

Ghosh, S; Roy, S; Banerjee, M; Maity, P

2004-12-01

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Mammary gland tumor formation in transgenic mice overexpressing stromelysin-1  

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An intact basement membrane (BM) is essential for the proper function, differentiation and morphology of many epithelial cells. The disruption or loss of this BM occurs during normal development as well as in the disease state. To examine the importance of BM during mammary gland development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that inappropriately express autoactivating isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. The mammary glands from these mice are both functionally and morphologically altered throughout development. We have now documented a dramatic incidence of breast tumors in several independent lines of these mice. These data suggest that overexpression of stromelysin-1 and disruption of the BM may be a key step in the multi-step process of breast cancer.

Sympson, Carolyn J; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

1995-06-01

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Radioiodinated VEGF to image tumor angiogenesis in a LS180 tumor xenograft model  

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Introduction: Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth or metastasis. A method involving noninvasive detection of angiogenic activity in vivo would provide diagnostic information regarding antiangiogenic therapy targeting vascular endothelial cells as well as important insight into the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (flt-1 and KDR) system in tumor biology. We evaluated radioiodinated VEGF{sub 121}, which displays high binding affinity for KDR, and VEGF{sub 165}, which possesses high binding affinity for flt-1 and low affinity for KDR, as angiogenesis imaging agents using the LS180 tumor xenograft model. Methods: VEGF{sub 121} and VEGF{sub 165} were labeled with {sup 125}I by the chloramine-T method. Biodistribution was observed in an LS180 human colon cancer xenograft model. Additionally, autoradiographic imaging and immunohistochemical staining of tumors were performed with {sup 125}I-VEGF{sub 121}. Results: {sup 125}I-VEGF{sub 121} and {sup 125}I-VEGF{sub 165} exhibited strong, continuous uptake by tumors and the uterus, an organ characterized by angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-VEGF{sub 121} uptake in tumors was twofold higher than that of {sup 125}I-VEGF{sub 165} (9.12{+-}98 and 4.79{+-}1.08 %ID/g at 2 h, respectively). {sup 125}I-VEGF{sub 121} displayed higher tumor to nontumor (T/N) ratios in most normal organs in comparison with {sup 125}I-VEGF{sub 165}. {sup 125}I-VEGF{sub 121} accumulation in tumors decreased with increasing tumor volume. Autoradiographic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that the difference in {sup 125}I-VEGF{sub 121} tumor accumulation correlated with degree of tumor vascularity. Conclusion: Radioiodinated VEGF{sub 121} is a promising tracer for noninvasive delineation of angiogenesis in vivo.

Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan)]. E-mail: myoshi@mhs.mp.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Kinuya, Seigo [Department of Biotracer Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan); Kawashima, Atsuhiro [Kanazawa Medical Center, Ishikawa 920-8650 (Japan); Nishii, Ryuichi [Department of Radiology, Fujimoto Hayasuzu Hospital, Miyazaki 885-0055 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yokoyama, Kunihiko [Department of Biotracer Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-8640 (Japan); Kawai, Keiichi [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

2006-11-15

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Mathematical Modeling of Interleukin-35 Promoting Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis  

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Interleukin-35 (IL-35), a cytokine from the Interleukin-12 cytokine family, has been considered as an anti-inflammatory cytokine which promotes tumor progression and tumor immune evasion. It has also been demonstrated that IL-35 is secreted by regulatory T cells. Recent mouse experiments have shown that IL-35 produced by cancer cells promotes tumor growth via enhancing myeloid cell accumulation and angiogenesis, and reducing the infiltration of activated CD8 T cells into tumor microenvironment. In the present paper we develop a mathematical model based on these experimental results. We include in the model an anti-IL-35 drug as treatment. The extended model (with drug) is used to design protocols of anti-IL-35 injections for treatment of cancer. We find that with a fixed total amount of drug, continuous injection has better efficacy than intermittent injections in reducing the tumor load while the treatment is ongoing. We also find that the percentage of tumor reduction under anti-IL-35 treatment improves when the production of IL-35 by cancer is increased. PMID:25356878

Liao, Kang-Ling; Bai, Xue-Feng; Friedman, Avner

2014-01-01

54

Postmenopausal obesity promotes tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression in mice.  

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Obese postmenopausal women have a 50% higher risk of breast cancer than non-obese women. There is not an animal model that mimics postmenopausal obesity related to breast cancer progression. Using age-relevant C57BL/6 mice, this study determined whether postmenopausal obesity increases VEGF expression, tumor angiogenesis, and breast tumor growth. Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed in 12 sixty week-old female mice, then followed by a low-fat (5%, LF, n=6) or a high-fat (60%, HF, n=6) diet for 12 weeks. In the eighth week of the dietary program, 10(6) E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells were injected in the left fourth mammary gland. Tumor size was monitored for 4 weeks. Body weights were monitored weekly. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, visceral fat and tumors were collected for measuring VEGF expression using ELISA and intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) using CD31 immunochemistry. Body weight was significantly increased in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group (55.3±1.7 vs. 41.5±1.5 g; p < 0.01). There was a two-fold increase in the ratio of visceral fat/BW in OVX/HF mice, compared to those in OVX/LF group (0.062±0.005 vs. 0.032±0.003; p < 0.01). Postmenopausal obesity significantly increased breast tumor weight over the control (4.62±0.63 vs. 1.98±0.27 g; p < 0.01) and IMD (173±3.7 vs. 139±4.3 IM#/mm^2; p < 0.01). Tumor VEGF levels were higher in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group (73.3±3.8 vs. 49.5±4.3 pg/mg protein; p < 0.01). Plasma VEGF levels (69±7.1 vs. 48±3.5 pg/ml) and visceral fat VEGF levels (424.4±39.5 vs. 208.5±22.4 pg/mg protein) were significantly increased in OVX/HF mice, compared to OVX/LF group, respectively (n=6; p < 0.01). Interestingly, adipose tissue primary culture showed that subcutaneous fat released more VEGF, compared to visceral fat (6.77±1.14 vs. 0.94±0.16 pg/mg tissue; n=6; p < 0.01). These findings support the hypothesis that postmenopausal obesity promotes tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression, possibly through increased adipose tissue mass and adipokines such as VEGF that could systemically and locally affect breast cancer progression. PMID:21451264

Gu, Jian-Wei; Young, Emily; Patterson, Sharla G; Makey, Kristina L; Wells, Jeremy; Huang, Min; Tucker, Kevan B; Miele, Lucio

2011-05-15

55

The significance of angiogenesis and tumoral proliferation in renal cell carcinoma.  

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Angiogenesis represents one of the most important factors of the tumor proliferation. Renal carcinoma with clear cells is highly vascularized. Knowing numerous quantification systems of tumor angiogenesis, we used a simple one, the evaluation of the relative vascular density. We studied 61 cases with partial or total nephrectomy performed in the Urology Department of Timisoara County Hospital. We correlated the intensity of angiogenesis with a tumor proliferation factor PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and with the monoclonal antibody PC10. Correlation of the two immunohistochemical methods with the degree of the tumor differentiation suggested an inverse ratio between vascular density and tumor proliferation degree. PMID:21424076

Pu?ca?iu, Daniela; Tatu, Carmen; Tatu, R F; Potencz, Elena; Popescu, Roxana; Muntean, Ioana; Verde?, Doina

2011-01-01

56

Analysis of gag proteins from mouse mammary tumor virus.  

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Structural proteins designated p10gag, p21gag, p8gag, p3gag, p27gag, and p14gag from the C3H strain of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) were purified by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences and amino acid composition of each protein were determined and compared with the amino acids encoded by the proviral DNA sequences for the MMTV gag gene. The results show that each of the purified proteins is a proteolytic cleavage product derived f...

Hizi, A.; Henderson, L. E.; Copeland, T. D.; Sowder, R. C.; Krutzsch, H. C.; Oroszlan, S.

1989-01-01

57

Novel syngeneic mouse mammary carcinoma cell lines from aggressive ErbB2/Neu-overexpressing/PTEN-deficient tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer cell lines and mouse models are valuable tools for investigating the biology of and developing potential therapeutics for human breast carcinoma. The PTEN-/-/NIC mouse is a genetically engineered mouse model for ErbB2/Neu-overexpressing/?PTEN deficient breast carcinoma with histopathological and molecular features relevant to the luminal subtype of primary human breast cancer. However, the PTEN-/-/NIC model develops multifocal and aggressive mammary tumors with a short life-span, which greatly impedes its preclinical usage. To complement the genetic engineering approach and to facilitate the future application of this model, in the present study, two newly established cell lines, NICP20 and NICP21, from PTEN-/-/NIC mammary tumors are described. These NICP20 and NICP21 cells retained the crucial molecular phenotype similar to the origin, as confirmed by genotyping and western blot analysis. These cells induced tumors in immunocompetent syngeneic mice by mammary fat pad injection and produced lung metastasis when injected intravenously. Tumors induced by these cells displayed luminal?like histologic morphology and hyperactivation of Akt which are similar to PTEN-/-/NIC tumors. Immunohistochemical staining also revealed that tumors induced by the NICP20 and NICP21 cells showed a high proliferative level, comparable angiogenesis and T-cell infiltration properties similar to PTEN-/-/NIC tumors. Therefore, these NICP20 and NICP21 cells represent an alternative and useful model system to enhance our understanding of the nature of ErbB2-positive breast cancers, particularly accompanying PTEN loss and to facilitate further experimental therapeutic studies. PMID:25354531

Wang, Qingfei; Ding, Hui; Wang, Hai; Li, Ping; Liu, Baorui; Zhang, Kui

2015-01-01

58

Reduction of tumor angiogenesis induced by desmopressin in a breast cancer model.  

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Desmopressin (DDAVP), a synthetic peptide analog of vasopressin, is a safe antidiuretic and hemostatic compound that acts as a selective agonist for the vasopressin V2 membrane receptor. It is known that DDAVP can inhibit progression of residual metastatic cells and also improves chemotherapy effects in preclinical breast cancer models. Here, we explored the effects of DDAVP on tumor angiogenesis using the aggressive F3II mammary carcinoma in syngeneic Balb/c mice. Intravenous administration of the compound (2 ?g/kg) markedly decreased vascularization of growing subcutaneous tumors, as well as inhibited the early angiogenic response around intradermal inoculation sites. In vitro studies confirmed the presence of vasopressin V2 receptors on F3II cells and a modest antiproliferative activity of DDAVP. Interestingly, conditioned media from F3II monolayers exposed to low doses of DDAVP (100 nM) significantly increased angiostatin formation in the presence of purified plasminogen. Such increase was associated with an enhancement of tumor-secreted urokinase-type plasminogen activator, suggesting the proteolytic conversion of plasminogen to angiostatin in vitro. Similar results were observed with the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma, a cell line known to express the vasopressin V2 receptor. No direct effects of DDAVP (100 nM–1 ?M) were found on capillary-like tube formation by human microvascular cells HMVEC. Our studies showed that DDAVP induces anti-angiogenic effects that may be associated with the generation of angiostatin by tumor cells. Further preclinical studies with DDAVP and other vasopressin analogs are warranted to determine their potential in cancer management. PMID:24122393

Ripoll, Giselle V; Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Farina, Hernan G; Gomez, Daniel E; Alonso, Daniel F

2013-11-01

59

Dietary linoleate-enhanced metastasis of 4526 murine mammary tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of quantitative differences in dietary linoleic acid (18:2) and of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (IM), on the metastasis of line 4526 mammary tumors was investigated. All mice were fed high fat (20%, w/w), semipurified diets that were prepared using different mixtures of coconut (primarily saturated) and safflower (mostly 18:2) oil and thus contained either 1, 2, 4, 8, or 12% 18:2 (w/w). The spontaneous metastasis of 4526 tumor cells from primary sites, was increased 2-4 fold in mice that were fed diets containing higher levels of 18:2 (8 and 12%). Chronic treatment of mice with a relatively low dosage of IM reduced the growth rate of primary 4526 tumors, slightly reduced metastasis in mice fed 1 and 4% 18:2, and completely inhibited the increased metastasis observed in mice fed 12% 18:2. Treatment with a higher dosage of IM reduced metastasis even further compared to controls, but did not decrease growth rate compared to the low dosage of IM. The level of 18:2 in the diet did not appear to affect the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into tumor cells of metastatic lung nodules. The effect of 18:2 may be through a modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. This modulation, in turn, may affect particular steps in the metastatic cascade such as lodgement and survival of tumor cells

60

Confrontation cultures of embryonic stem cells with multicellular tumor spheroids to study tumor-induced angiogenesis.  

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Human embryonic stem cells efficiently differentiate blood vessels, which allows using this in vitro model to study the interaction of blood vessels with adjacent tissues. Herein, we introduce confrontation cultures of human embryonic stem cells with multicellular tumor spheroids to investigate molecular mechanisms of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Vascularization of tumor tissue by the host is a prerequisite for tumor growth, which has led to the development of antiangiogenic therapy. This promising anti-cancer therapy intends to reduce, halt, or even regress tumor growth by deprivation from blood, oxygen, and nutrient supply. Confrontation cultures of human embryonic stem cells with multicellular tumor spheroids allow the investigation of the time course of endothelial cell invasion into the tumor tissue, the concomitant analysis of changes in angiogenesis-related gene expression, and analysis of the cellular microenvironment (i.e., pericellular oxygen pressure, tissue pH, and levels of tissue reactive oxygen species). The in vitro model of confrontation cultures is suitable for routine screening of antiangiogenic agents in pre-clinical trials and may be used to replace animal experiments applied in antiangiogenesis research. PMID:16881524

Wartenberg, Maria; Finkensieper, Andreas; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sauer, Heinrich

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Tumor angiogenesis in rabbit VX2 brain tumor: model establishment, pathologic study and preliminary imaging observation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To establish a stable implanted model of VX2 rabbit brain tumor, and to evaluate the pathological and imaging features and tumor angiogenesis. Methods: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were implanted with 100 ?l viable VX2 tumor cells (107/ml) through a hole 5 mm to the right of the sagittal suture and 5 mm posterior to the coronal suture bored by a dental drill. MRI was performed every 2 days after 7 days of implantation to evaluate the growth of the tumor, and perfusion CT studies were performed in different days of tumor growth. After that the animals were sacrificed on days 14, 18, 22, 26, and 30 of tumor implantation. 2% Evans blue (2 ml/kg) was given intravenously in 16 of these animals 1 hour prior to sacrifice to detect the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The specimens of the rabbit brains were examined pathologically and histologically. VEGF and MVD were evaluated in immunohistochemical examination. Results: Of the 22 animals included into the study, the tumor grew in 20 animals, which could be seen clearly on MR imaging. Pathologic examination showed characteristics of squamous carcinoma. VEGF was expressed in all tumors with the mean rate of positive cells of (52.51 ± 19.15)% (19.5%-92.9%). Mean MVD was (51.30 ± 14.42) pice piece/microscope (25-81 pice piece/microscope). Using Pearson's linear correlation analysis, positive correlation was found between tumor growth time and volume (r=0.791, P=0.000), between MVD and tum(r=0.791, P=0.000), between MVD and tumor growth time (r=0.875, P=0.000), and between MVD and tumor volume (r=0.901, P=0.000), respectively. Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed positive correlation between VEGF grade and blue stain of the tumor (rs=0.594, P=0.015). Conclusion: A stable model of VX2 rabbit brain tumor has been established with the method of skull drilling. The method was simple and easy to use, with a high tumor growth rate and remarkable angiogenesis. The model is helpful for the pathological and radiological study of tumor angiogenesis. (authors)

62

A Spectrum of Monoclonal Antibodies Reactive with Human Mammary Tumor Cells  

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Splenic lymphocytes of mice, immunized with membrane-enriched fractions of metastatic human mammary carcinoma tissues, were fused with the NS-1 non-immunoglobulin-secreting murine myeloma cell line. This resulted in the generation of hybridoma cultures secreting immunoglobulins reactive in solid-phase radioimmunoassays with extracts of metastatic mammary carcinoma cells from involved livers, but not with extracts of apparently normal human liver. As a result of further screening of immunoglobulin reactivities and double cloning of cultures, 11 monoclonal antibodies were chosen that demonstrated reactivities with human mammary tumor cells and not with apparently normal human tissues. These monoclonal antibodies could be placed into at least five major groups on the basis of their differential binding to the surface of various live human mammary tumor cells in culture, to extracts of mammary tumor tissues, or to tissue sections of mammary tumor cells studied by the immunoperoxidase technique. Whereas a spectrum of reactivities to mammary tumors was observed with the 11 monoclonal antibodies, no reactivity was observed to apparently normal cells of the following human tissues: breast, lymph node, lung, skin, testis, kidney, thymus, bone marrow, spleen, uterus, thyroid, intestine, liver, bladder, tonsils, stomach, prostate, and salivary gland. Several of the antibodies also demonstrated a ``pancarcinoma'' reactivity, showing binding to selected non-breast carcinomas. None of the monoclonal antibodies showed binding to purified ferritin or carcinoembryonic antigen. Monoclonal antibodies of all five major groups, however, demonstrated binding to human metastatic mammary carcinoma cells both in axillary lymph nodes and at distal sites.

Colcher, D.; Horan Hand, P.; Nuti, M.; Schlom, J.

1981-05-01

63

Fully human VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody BC001 attenuates tumor angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth.  

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The critical role of VEGFR2 in tumor neovascularization and progression has allowed the design of clinically beneficial therapies based on it. Here we show that BC001, a new fully human anti-VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody, inhibits VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration, tube formation, and effectively suppressed the transdifferentiation of cancer stem cells into endothelial cells in vitro. Since BC001 exhibited no activity against the mouse VEGFR2 and mouse based study was required to confirm its efficacy in vivo, BC101, the mouse analogue of BC001, was developed. BC101 significantly attenuated angiogenesis according to Matrigel plug assay and resulted in ~80% growth inhibition of mouse B16F10 homograft tumors relative to vehicle control. Similarly, human analogue BC001 suppressed the growth of human xenograft tumors HCT116 and BGC823. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results showed reduced expression of CD31, VEGFR2 and Ki-67, as well as increased expression of Caspase 3 in BC001-treated tumor, which indicated BC001 was able to significantly decrease microvessel density, suppress proliferation and promote apoptosis. These results demonstrate the fully human VEGFR2 monoclonal antibody BC001 can work as an effective inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25269419

Xuan, Zi-Xue; Li, Lin-Na; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Cheng-Wang; Yang, De-Xuan; Yuan, Ye; An, Ying-Hong; Wang, Shan-Shan; Li, Xiao-Wen; Yuan, Shou-Jun

2014-12-01

64

Amplification of tumor inducing putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) by vitamin A/retinol from mammary tumors  

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Highlights: •Vitamin A supports self renewal of putative CSCs from mammary tumors. •These cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism into retinoic acid. •CSCs from mammary tumors differentiate into mammary specific cell lineages. •The cells express mammary stem cell specific CD29 and CD49f markers. •Putative CSCs form highly metastatic tumors in NOD SCID mouse. -- Abstract: Solid tumors contain a rare population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for relapse and metastasis. The existence of CSC however, remains highly controversial issue. Here we present the evidence for putative CSCs from mammary tumors amplified by vitamin A/retinol signaling. The cells exhibit mammary stem cell specific CD29{sup hi}/CD49f{sup hi}/CD24{sup hi} markers, resistance to radiation and chemo therapeutic agents and form highly metastatic tumors in NOD/SCID mice. The cells exhibit indefinite self renewal as cell lines. Furthermore, the cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism and do not express enzymes that metabolize retinol into retinoic acid. Vitamin A/retinol also amplified putative CSCs from breast cancer cell lines that form highly aggressive tumors in NOD SCID mice. The studies suggest that high purity putative CSCs can be isolated from solid tumors to establish patient specific cell lines for personalized therapeutics for pre-clinical translational applications. Characterization of CSCs will allow understanding of basic cellular and molecular pathways that are deregulated, mechanisms of tumor metastasis and evasion of therapies that has direct clinical relevance.

Sharma, Rohit B. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Wang, Qingde [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Khillan, Jaspal S., E-mail: khillan@pitt.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

2013-07-12

65

Tumor growth and angiogenesis is impaired in CIB1 knockout mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological angiogenesis contributes to various ocular, malignant, and inflammatory disorders, emphasizing the need to understand this process more precisely on a molecular level. Previously we found that CIB1, a 22 kDa regulatory protein, plays a critical role in endothelial cell function, angiogenic growth factor-mediated cellular functions, PAK1 activation, MMP-2 expression, and in vivo ischemia-induced angiogenesis. Since pathological angiogenesis is highly dependent on many of these same processes, we hypothesized that CIB1 may also regulate tumor-induced angiogenesis. Methods To test this hypothesis, we allografted either murine B16 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma cells into WT and CIB1-KO mice, and monitored tumor growth, morphology, histology, and intra-tumoral microvessel density. Results Allografted melanoma tumors that developed in CIB1-KO mice were smaller in volume, had a distinct necrotic appearance, and had significantly less intra-tumoral microvessel density. Similarly, allografted Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in CIB1-KO mice were smaller in volume and mass, and appeared to have decreased perfusion. Intra-tumoral hemorrhage, necrosis, and perivascular fibrosis were also increased in tumors that developed in CIB1-KO mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in addition to its other functions, CIB1 plays a critical role in facilitating tumor growth and tumor-induced angiogenesis.

Zayed Mohamed A

2010-08-01

66

Calcitriol reduces thrombospondin-1 and increases vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer cells: implications for tumor angiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcitriol, a potent antineoplastic vitamin D metabolite, inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and slows the growth of tumors. Calcitriol also may exert either antiangiogenic or proangiogenic effects depending on the tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 (Tsp-1) are key factors involved in promoting and inhibiting angiogenesis, respectively. The effects of calcitriol on Tsp-1 have not been studied in the mammary gland, while VEGF regulation is not clear, since opposite outcomes have been demonstrated. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of calcitriol on VEGF and Tsp-1 expression in primary breast tumor-derived cells and a panel of established breast cancer cell lines. In vivo studies in athymic mice were also performed in order to gain further insight into the biological effects of calcitriol on angiogenesis. Real time-PCR and ELISA analyses showed that calcitriol stimulated VEGF mRNA expression and protein secretion while elicited the opposite effect on Tsp-1 in 7 out of 8 cell lines studied, independently of the cell phenotype (PVEGF was higher in calcitriol-treated animals compared to controls (PVEGF and Tsp-1 expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24120914

García-Quiroz, Janice; Rivas-Suárez, Mariana; García-Becerra, Rocío; Barrera, David; Martínez-Reza, Isela; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Santos-Martinez, Nancy; Villanueva, Octavio; Santos-Cuevas, Clara L; Avila, Euclides; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

2014-10-01

67

The impact of the immune system on tumor angiogenesis and vascular remodeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, as well as inflammation with massive infiltration of leukocytes are hallmarks of various tumor entities. Various epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have not only demonstrated a link between chronic inflammation and cancer onset but also shown that immune cells from the bone marrow such as tumor-infiltrating macrophages significantly influence tumor progression. Tumor angiogenesis is a crucial step in tumor development as tumors have to establish a blood supply in order to grow and metastasize. Although tumor cells were first thought to drive the cellular events underpinning tumor angiogenesis, the use of transgenic mouse models and analysis of human tumor biopsies have shown that the tumor microenvironment with infiltrating immune cell subsets are important for regulating the process of tumor angiogenesis. These infiltrates involve the adaptive immune system including several types of lymphocytes as well as cells of the innate immunity such as macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Besides their known immune function, these cells are now recognized for their important role in regulating the formation and the remodeling of blood vessels in the tumor. In this review we will discuss for each cell type the mechanisms that regulate the vascular phenotype and its impact on tumor growth and metastasis.

ChristianStockmann

2014-04-01

68

Depletion of Ascorbic Acid Restricts Angiogenesis and Retards Tumor Growth in a Mouse Model  

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Angiogenesis requires the deposition of type IV collagen by endothelial cells into the basement membrane of new blood vessels. Stabilization of type IV collagen triple helix depends on the hydroxylation of proline, which is catalyzed by the iron-containing enzyme prolyl hydroxylase. This enzyme, in turn, requires ascorbic acid to maintain the enzyme-bound iron in its reduced state. We hypothesized that dietary ascorbic acid might be required for tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, tumor growth...

Telang, Sucheta; Clem, Amy L.; Eaton, John W.; Chesney, Jason

2007-01-01

69

Tumor Markers for Potentially Predicting Outcome of Anti-angiogenesis Therapy  

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Researchers at the National Cancer Institute have identified tumor cell apoptosis, p53, and HER2 as having potential predictive significance for treatment outcome in breast cancer patients who received anti-angiogenesis therapy in combination with chemotherapy. The researchers have developed a quantitative antibody-based testing method for correlating expression of p53 and HER2 and tumor apoptosis with clinical outcome. These markers can be potentially applied to predict which patients should receive anti-angiogenesis therapy plus chemotherapy.

70

SU11248, a selective tyrosine kinases inhibitor suppresses breast tumor angiogenesis and growth via targeting both tumor vasculature and breast cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

SU11248 is a selective inhibitor of certain protein kinases including VEGFR types 1-3 that are expressed in human breast cancer. The present study determines whether the anti-tumor activity of SU11248 results from the inhibition of angiogenesis, as well as direct anti-proliferation and anti-migration effects on breast tumors. Eight-wk old female mice (C57BL/6) were given SU11248 at 20-40 mg/kg/d in drinking (distilled) water for 4 wks. Control mice received drinking water only. In the 2nd wk, 10(6) E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells were injected in the left fourth mammary gland. Tumor size was monitored using dial calipers. At the end, tumors were isolated for measuring tumor size and intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) using CD31 immunohistochemistry. SU11248 significantly reduced tumor weight over the control (1.22 ± 0.28 vs. 3.28 ± 0.31 g; n = 8; p E0771 cells. VEGF (10 ng/ml) caused a 42% increase in proliferation of E0771 cells, compared to the control (p E0771 cells treated with VEGF plus SU11248 (10 ?mol/L) vs. the control (65%, p E0771 cells. SU11248 significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDAMB-231 cells in a dose-related manner. These findings support the hypothesis that the antitumor activity of SU11248 on breast cancer is possibly mediated by targeting the paracrine and autocrine effects of VEGF on breast cancer to suppress tumor angiogenesis, proliferation and migration. PMID:20686367

Young, Emily; Miele, Lucio; Tucker, Kevan B; Huang, Min; Wells, Jeremy; Gu, Jian-Wei

2010-10-01

71

Decidua mesenchymal stem cells migrated toward mammary tumors in vitro and in vivo affecting tumor growth and tumor development.  

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have affinity to tumor sites where they home, affecting their biology and growth. Previously, we have isolated mesenchymal cells from the decidua of the human placenta named as decidua-derived MSCs (DMSCs). The aims of the present study were to investigate the migration capacity of DMSCs in vitro, and in vivo in a preclinical model of mammary tumors induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). Additionally, we assessed the safety of DMSC administration in vivo and their effect on tumor growth. In vitro studies showed that DMSCs significantly migrate toward both, healthy human breast tissue and breast adenocarcinoma. Nevertheless, the effect on DMSC migration was significantly higher in the presence of tumor tissue. DMSCs also significantly migrated in vitro in the presence of NMU-mammary tumor homogenate when compared with control media alone. In vivo studies showed both migration and engraftment of DMSCs into NMU-induced tumors. Interestingly, DMSCs showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of primary tumors and in the development of new tumors. DMSCs did not affect the growth of secondary tumors, although secondary tumors appeared 2 weeks later, and the number of secondary tumors was lower in the DMSC-treated rats as compared with vehicle-treated rats. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing placental MSCs effect on tumor growth. In conclusion, DMSCs could serve as a therapeutic agent themselves and as a cellular vehicle of anticancer drugs. PMID:23037810

Vegh, I; Grau, M; Gracia, M; Grande, J; de la Torre, P; Flores, A I

2013-01-01

72

Evaluation of melatonin treatment in primary culture of canine mammary tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammary neoplasias are the most common tumors observed in female dogs. Identification of these tumors is valuable in order to identify beneficial therapeutic agents as alternative treatments for this tumor type. Oral administration of melatonin appears to exert an oncostatic effect on mammary neoplasia and may have a possible mechanism of action through its interaction with estrogen receptors on epithelial cells. Hence, we analyzed the potential therapeutic value of melatonin in tumors that are estrogen-dependent or -independent, and established a relationship of its action with the expression of the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of cell proliferation and apoptosis after treatment with melatonin. Cell cultures were performed using 10 canine mammary tumor fragments and were divided into estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative tumors. The results showed that both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors had decreased cell viability and proliferation after treatment with melatonin (pcanine mammary tumors and the cellular response to melatonin in 10 samples. MT1 was overexpressed in ER-positive tumors (pcanine mammary tumors. PMID:25384569

Lopes, Juliana Ramos; Maschio, Larissa Bazela; Jardim-Perassi, Bruna Victorasso; Moschetta, Marina Gobbe; Ferreira, Lívia Carvalho; Martins, Gustavo Rodrigues; Gelaleti, Gabriela Bottaro; De Campos Zuccari, Debora Aparecida Pires

2015-01-01

73

Systemic miRNA-7 delivery inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth in murine xenograft glioblastoma  

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Tumor-angiogenesis is the multi-factorial process of sprouting of endothelial cells (EC) into micro-vessels to provide tumor cells with nutrients and oxygen. To explore miRNAs as therapeutic angiogenesis-inhibitors, we performed a functional screen to identify miRNAs that are able to decrease EC viability. We identified miRNA-7 (miR-7) as a potent negative regulator of angiogenesis. Introduction of miR-7 in EC resulted in strongly reduced cell viability, tube formation, sprouting and migration. Application of miR-7 in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay led to a profound reduction of vascularization, similar to anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib. Local administration of miR-7 in an in vivo murine neuroblastoma tumor model significantly inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, systemic administration of miR-7 using a novel integrin-targeted biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles that targets both EC and tumor cells, strongly reduced angiogenesis and tumor proliferation in mice with human glioblastoma xenografts. Transcriptome analysis of miR-7 transfected EC in combination with in silico target prediction resulted in the identification of OGT as novel target gene of miR-7. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of miR-7 as novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic miRNA that can be systemically delivered to both EC and tumor cells and offers promise for miR-7 as novel anti-tumor therapeutic. PMID:25149532

Van Beijnum, Judy R.; Cerisoli, Francesco; Scaria, Puthupparampil V.; Verheul, Mark; Van Berkel, Maaike P.; Pieters, Ebel H. E.; Van Haastert, Rick J.; Yousefi, Afrouz; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Storm, Gert; Berezikov, Eugene; Cuppen, Edwin; Woodle, Martin; Schaapveld, Roel Q. J.; Prevost, Gregoire P.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Van Noort, Paula I.; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

2014-01-01

74

Systemic miRNA-7 delivery inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth in murine xenograft glioblastoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor-angiogenesis is the multi-factorial process of sprouting of endothelial cells (EC) into micro-vessels to provide tumor cells with nutrients and oxygen. To explore miRNAs as therapeutic angiogenesis-inhibitors, we performed a functional screen to identify miRNAs that are able to decrease EC viability. We identified miRNA-7 (miR-7) as a potent negative regulator of angiogenesis. Introduction of miR-7 in EC resulted in strongly reduced cell viability, tube formation, sprouting and migration. Application of miR-7 in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay led to a profound reduction of vascularization, similar to anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib. Local administration of miR-7 in an in vivo murine neuroblastoma tumor model significantly inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, systemic administration of miR-7 using a novel integrin-targeted biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles that targets both EC and tumor cells, strongly reduced angiogenesis and tumor proliferation in mice with human glioblastoma xenografts. Transcriptome analysis of miR-7 transfected EC in combination with in silico target prediction resulted in the identification of OGT as novel target gene of miR-7. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of miR-7 as novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic miRNA that can be systemically delivered to both EC and tumor cells and offers promise for miR-7 as novel anti-tumor therapeutic. PMID:25149532

Babae, Negar; Bourajjaj, Meriem; Liu, Yijia; Van Beijnum, Judy R; Cerisoli, Francesco; Scaria, Puthupparampil V; Verheul, Mark; Van Berkel, Maaike P; Pieters, Ebel H E; Van Haastert, Rick J; Yousefi, Afrouz; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Storm, Gert; Berezikov, Eugene; Cuppen, Edwin; Woodle, Martin; Schaapveld, Roel Q J; Prevost, Gregoire P; Griffioen, Arjan W; Van Noort, Paula I; Schiffelers, Raymond M

2014-08-30

75

Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growth-II: Tumor invasion and angiogenesis.  

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We extend the diffuse interface model developed in Wise et al. (2008) to study nonlinear tumor growth in 3-D. Extensions include the tracking of multiple viable cell species populations through a continuum diffuse-interface method, onset and aging of discrete tumor vessels through angiogenesis, and incorporation of individual cell movement using a hybrid continuum-discrete approach. We investigate disease progression as a function of cellular-scale parameters such as proliferation and oxygen/nutrient uptake rates. We find that heterogeneity in the physiologically complex tumor microenvironment, caused by non-uniform distribution of oxygen, cell nutrients, and metabolites, as well as phenotypic changes affecting cellular-scale parameters, can be quantitatively linked to the tumor macro-scale as a mechanism that promotes morphological instability. This instability leads to invasion through tumor infiltration of surrounding healthy tissue. Models that employ a biologically founded, multiscale approach, as illustrated in this work, could help to quantitatively link the critical effect of heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment with clinically observed tumor growth and invasion. Using patient tumor-specific parameter values, this may provide a predictive tool to characterize the complex in vivo tumor physiological characteristics and clinical response, and thus lead to improved treatment modalities and prognosis. PMID:20303982

Frieboes, Hermann B; Jin, Fang; Chuang, Yao-Li; Wise, Steven M; Lowengrub, John S; Cristini, Vittorio

2010-06-21

76

Radiation and inhibition of angiogenesis by canstatin synergize to induce HIF-1?–mediated tumor apoptotic switch  

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Tumor radioresponsiveness depends on endothelial cell death, which leads in turn to tumor hypoxia. Radiation-induced hypoxia was recently shown to trigger tumor radioresistance by activating angiogenesis through hypoxia-inducible factor 1–regulated (HIF-1–regulated) cytokines. We show here that combining targeted radioiodide therapy with angiogenic inhibitors, such as canstatin, enhances direct tumor cell apoptosis, thereby overcoming radio-induced HIF-1–dependent tumor survival pathway...

Magnon, Claire; Opolon, Paule; Ricard, Marcel; Connault, Elisabeth; Ardouin, Patrice; Galaup, Ariane; Me?tivier, Didier; Bidart, Jean-michel; Germain, Ste?phane; Perricaudet, Michel; Schlumberger, Martin

2007-01-01

77

Role of Collagen Matrix in Tumor Angiogenesis and Glioblastoma Multiforme Progression  

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Glioblastoma is a highly vascularized brain tumor, and antiangiogenic therapy improves its progression-free survival. However, current antiangiogenic therapy induces serious adverse effects including neuronal cytotoxicity and tumor invasiveness and resistance to therapy. Although it has been suggested that the physical microenvironment has a key role in tumor angiogenesis and progression, the mechanism by which physical properties of extracellular matrix control tumor angiogenesis and glioblastoma progression is not completely understood. Herein we show that physical compaction (the process in which cells gather and pack together and cause associated changes in cell shape and size) of human glioblastoma cell lines U87MG, U251, and LN229 induces expression of collagen types IV and VI and the collagen crosslinking enzyme lysyl oxidase and up-regulates in vitro expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor. The lysyl oxidase inhibitor ?-aminopropionitrile disrupts collagen structure in the tumor and inhibits tumor angiogenesis and glioblastoma multiforme growth in a mouse orthotopic brain tumor model. Similarly, d-penicillamine, which inhibits lysyl oxidase enzymatic activity by depleting intracerebral copper, also exhibits antiangiogenic effects on brain tumor growth in mice. These findings suggest that tumor microenvironment controlled by collagen structure is important in tumor angiogenesis and brain tumor progression. PMID:23928381

Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Panigrahy, Dipak; Kieran, Mark W.; Mammoto, Akiko

2014-01-01

78

MiR-145 inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth by N-RAS and VEGF  

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MiR-145 is known as a tumor suppressor in numerous human cancers. However, its role in tumor angiogenesis remains poorly defined. In this study, we found that miR-145 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues by using 106 cases of normal and cancer tissues as well as in breast cancer cells. MiR-145 exhibited inhibitory role in tumor angiogenesis, cell growth and invasion and tumor growth through the post-transcriptional regulation of the novel targets N-RAS and VEGF-A. In addit...

Zou, Chao; Xu, Qing; Mao, Feng; Li, Dan; Bian, Chuanxiu; Liu, Ling-zhi; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Xiaona; Qi, Yanting; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Xuejing; Sun, Qiang; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Lin, Marie C.; Dress, Andreas

2012-01-01

79

Preliminary study on application of synchrotron radiation imaging to tumor angiogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. However, only vessels lager than 200 ?m in diameter can be observed using conventional medical image. Synchrotron radiation(SR) phase contrast imaging, with a spatial resolution being as high as 1 ?m, has great advantages in imaging soft tissue structure, such as blood vessels and tumors. The morphology of tumor angiogenesis at different stages in the 4T1 nude mice tumor window model was firstly studied without contrast agent using the SR phase contrast imaging at SSRF X-ray imaging and biomedical application beamline. The results showed dense, irregular and tortuous tumor angiogenesis with the smallest vessels of 20-30 ?m in diameter. (authors)

80

Pyruvate kinase m2 in blood circulation facilitates tumor growth by promoting angiogenesis.  

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It is long known that pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is released into the circulation of cancer patients. The PKM2 levels in patients have been suggested as a diagnostic marker for many types of cancers. However, it is not known how PKM2 is released in the blood, and whether the circulating PKM2 has any physiological function(s) in tumor progression. In this report, we demonstrate that PKM2 in the blood facilitates tumor growth by promoting tumor angiogenesis. Our experiments show that PKM2 promotes tumor angiogenesis by increasing endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and cell-ECM adhesion. Only the dimeric PKM2 possess the activity in promoting tumor angiogenesis, which is consistent with the observations that PKM2 in circulation of cancer patients is a dimer form. PMID:25070887

Li, Liangwei; Zhang, Yinwei; Qiao, Jingjuan; Yang, Jenny J; Liu, Zhi-Ren

2014-09-12

 
 
 
 
81

EGCG, a major green tea catechin suppresses breast tumor angiogenesis and growth via inhibiting the activation of HIF-1? and NF?B, and VEGF expression  

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The role of EGCG, a major green tea catechin in breast cancer therapy is poorly understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that EGCG can inhibit the activation of HIF-1? and NF?B, and VEGF expression, thereby suppressing tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression. Sixteen eight-wk-old female mice (C57BL/6?J) were inoculated with 10^6 E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells in the left fourth mammary gland fat pad. Eight mice received EGCG at 50–100?mg/kg/d in drinking water for 4?weeks. 8 control mice received drinking water only. Tumor size was monitored using dial calipers. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, tumors, heart and limb muscles were collected for measuring VEGF expression using ELISA and capillary density (CD) using CD31 immunohistochemistry. EGCG treatment significantly reduced tumor weight over the control (0.37?±?0.15 vs. 1.16?±?0.30?g; P?E0771 cells, compared to the control, respectively. These findings support the hypothesis that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, directly targets both tumor cells and tumor vasculature, thereby inhibiting tumor growth, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of breast cancer, which is mediated by the inhibition of HIF-1? and NF?B activation as well as VEGF expression. PMID:23638734

2013-01-01

82

EGCG, a major green tea catechin suppresses breast tumor angiogenesis and growth via inhibiting the activation of HIF-1? and NF?B, and VEGF expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of EGCG, a major green tea catechin in breast cancer therapy is poorly understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that EGCG can inhibit the activation of HIF-1? and NF?B, and VEGF expression, thereby suppressing tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression. Sixteen eight-wk-old female mice (C57BL/6?J) were inoculated with 10^6 E0771 (mouse breast cancer) cells in the left fourth mammary gland fat pad. Eight mice received EGCG at 50-100?mg/kg/d in drinking water for 4?weeks. 8 control mice received drinking water only. Tumor size was monitored using dial calipers. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, tumors, heart and limb muscles were collected for measuring VEGF expression using ELISA and capillary density (CD) using CD31 immunohistochemistry. EGCG treatment significantly reduced tumor weight over the control (0.37?±?0.15 vs. 1.16?±?0.30?g; P?E0771 cells, compared to the control, respectively. These findings support the hypothesis that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, directly targets both tumor cells and tumor vasculature, thereby inhibiting tumor growth, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of breast cancer, which is mediated by the inhibition of HIF-1? and NF?B activation as well as VEGF expression. PMID:23638734

Gu, Jian-Wei; Makey, Kristina L; Tucker, Kevan B; Chinchar, Edmund; Mao, Xiaowen; Pei, Ivy; Thomas, Emily Y; Miele, Lucio

2013-01-01

83

Mesenchymal stem cells promote growth and angiogenesis of tumors in mice.  

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Though the early integration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into tumor-associated stroma of cancer has been demonstrated, the functional contributions and underlying mechanisms of these cells to tumor growth and angiogenesis remain to be clarified. Using a xenograft model, human colorectal cancer cells, MSCs, and their cell mixture were introduced to a subcutaneous site of immunodeficient mice. The tumor growth rate and angiogenesis of each transplantation was then compared. We demonstrate that a variety of colorectal cancer cells, when mixed with otherwise non-tumorigenic MSCs, increase the tumor growth rate and angiogenesis more than that when mixed with carcinoma-associated fibroblasts or normal colonic fibroblasts. The secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) from MSCs increases the secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in cancer cells, which induces the activation of Akt and ERK in endothelial cells, thereby enhancing their capacities for recruitment and angiogenesis to tumor. The IL-6/ET-1/Akt or ERK pathway of tumor-stroma interaction can be targeted by an antibody against IL-6 or Lentiviral-mediated RNAi against IL-6 in MSCs, by inhibition or knockdown of ET-1 in cancer cells, or by inhibition of ERK and Akt in host endothelial cells. These demonstrate that attempts to interrupt the interaction of MSCs and cancer cells help to abrogate angiogenesis and inhibit tumor growth in tumors formed by cancer cells admixed with MSCs. These data demonstrate that the tumor microenvironment, namely, MSCs-secreted IL-6, may enrich the proangiognic factors secreted by cancer cells to increase angiogenesis and tumor growth and that targeting this interaction may lead to novel therapeutic and preventive strategies. PMID:23085755

Huang, W-H; Chang, M-C; Tsai, K-S; Hung, M-C; Chen, H-L; Hung, S-C

2013-09-12

84

Immunotherapy with SLPI over-expressing mammary tumor cells decreases tumor growth.  

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We have demonstrated previously that the inoculation of murine mammary tumor cells genetically modified to express high levels of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (2C1) do not develop tumors in immunocompetent mice and these cells are more prone to apoptosis than control cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of the adaptive immune response in the lack of tumor growth of 2C1 cells and the possibility of using these cells for immunotherapy. The s.c. administration of mock transfected F3II cells induces tumor in BALB/c and Nude mice. However, the inoculation of 2C1 cells develops tumor in Nude but not in BALB/c mice. The inoculation of mock transfected F3II cells to 2C1 immunized BALB/c mice by repeated administration of 2C1 cells (once a week for 3 weeks) developed significantly smaller tumors than those observed in non-immunized mice. Remarkably, survival of tumor-bearing immunized mice was higher than non-immunized animals. Herein, we demonstrate that an immunotherapy with SLPI over-expressing non-irradiated tumor cells which do not develop tumor in immunocompetent mice, partially restrain the tumor growth induced by F3II cells and increase the survival of the mice. PMID:21519828

Amiano, Nicolás; Reiteri, R Macarena; Costa, María J; Tateosian, Nancy; Chuluyan, H Eduardo

2011-06-01

85

Measuring tumor cycling hypoxia and angiogenesis using a side-firing fiber optic probe.  

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Hypoxia and angiogenesis can significantly influence the efficacy of cancer therapy and the behavior of surviving tumor cells. There is a growing demand for technologies to measure tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis temporally in vivo to enable advances in drug development and optimization. This paper reports the use of frequency-domain photon migration with a side-firing probe to quantify tumor oxygenation and hemoglobin concentrations in nude rats bearing human head/neck tumors administered with carbogen gas, cycling hypoxic gas or just room air. Significant increase (with carbogen gas breathing) or decrease (with hypoxic gas breathing) in tumor oxygenation was observed. The trend in tumor oxygenation during forced cycling hypoxia (CH) followed that of the blood oxygenation measured with a pulse oximeter. Natural CH was also observed in rats under room air. The studies demonstrated the potential of the technology for longitudinal monitoring of tumor CH during tumor growth or in response to therapy. PMID:23242854

Yu, Bing; Shah, Amy; Wang, Bingqing; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Wang, Quanli; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Palmer, Gregory M; Dewhirst, Mark W

2014-07-01

86

Evolution of somatic mutations in mammary tumors in transgenic mice is influenced by the inherited genotype  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice develop mammary hyperplasia early in development, followed by the appearance of solitary mammary tumors with a high proportion of cells expressing early lineage markers and many myoepithelial cells. The occurrence of tumors is accelerated in experiments that activate FGF proto-oncogenes or remove the tumor suppressor genes Pten or P53, implying that secondary oncogenic events are required for progression from mammary hyperplasia to carcinoma. It is not known, however, which oncogenic pathways contribute to Wnt1-induced tumorigenesis – further experimental manipulation of these mice is needed. Secondary events also appear to be required for mammary tumorigenesis in MMTV-Neu transgenic mice because the transgene in the tumors usually contains an acquired mutation that activates the Neu protein-tyrosine kinase. Methods cDNA or DNA from the mammary glands and mammary tumors from MMTV-Wnt1, MMTV-Wnt1/p53-/-, MMTV-Neu transgenic mice, and newly generated MMTV-Wnt1/MMTV-Neu bitransgenic mice, was sequenced to seek activating mutations in H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras genes, or in the MMTV-Neu transgene. In addition, tumors from bitransgenic animals were examined to determine the cellular phenotype. Results We found activating mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61 of H-Ras in just over half of the mammary tumors in MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice, and we confirmed the high frequency of activating mutations of Neu in tumors in MMTV-Neu transgenic mice. Tumors appeared earlier in bitransgenic MMTV-Wnt1/MMTV-Neu mice, but no Ras or MMTV-Neu mutations were found in these tumors, which were phenotypically similar to those arising in MMTV-Wnt1 mice. In addition, no Ras mutations were found in the mammary tumors that arise in MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice lacking an intact P53 gene. Conclusions Tumorigenic properties of cells undergoing functionally significant secondary mutations in H-Ras or the MMTV-Neu transgene allow selection of those cells in MMTV-Wnt1 and MMTV-Neu transgenic mice, respectively. Alternative sources of oncogenic potential, such as a second transgenic oncogene or deficiency of a tumor suppressor gene, can obviate the selective power of those secondary mutations. These observations are consistent with the notion that somatic evolution of mouse mammary tumors is influenced by the specific nature of the inherited cancer-promoting genotype.

Li Yi

2004-06-01

87

Sca-1 identifies the tumor-initiating cells in mammary tumors of BALB-neuT transgenic mice  

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Cancer stem cells, initiating and sustaining the tumor process, have been isolated in human and murine breast cancer using different cell markers. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the presence and characteristics of stem/tumor-initiating cells in the model of the mouse mammary neoplasia driven by the activated form of rat Her-2/neu oncogene (BALB-neuT mice). For this purpose, we generated tumor spheres from primary spontaneous BALB-neuT tumors. Tumor sphere cultur...

Camussi, Giovanni; Cavallo, Federica; Bussolati, Benedetta; Grange, Cristina; Lanzardo, Stefania

2008-01-01

88

Modulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis in murine mammary adenocarcinoma tumor cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In efforts to exploit the differential oxygen levels within the subcompartments of solid neoplasms, this project has focused on modulating prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Mammary adenocarcinoma tumor cells (Line 4526), either intact or sonicated, were incubated with either 2.0 uM 14C-arachidonic acid (AA) or 20.0 uM 14C-PGH2, respectively. Following metabolism, products were extracted, separated by thin layer chromatography and analyzed by radiochromatographic scan. PGE2 was predominantly formed with minimal amounts of PGF2a or PGD2. Indomethacin and ibuprofen inhibited the PGE2 formation from AA with an IC50 value of 6.3 x 10-8 and 9.6 x 10-5M, respectively. Suspended cells in glass vials were made hypoxic by flushing with N2 for varying time intervals to study AA metabolism. A time-dependent inhibition of PG biosynthesis was observed under hypoxia, and by 30 min, the PGE2 synthesis was reduced by 50% which was further inhibited by indomethacin. Misonidazole, a 2-nitroimidazole analogue, partially reversed the inhibition of PGE2 synthesis under hypoxia by 49% at 100 uM. However, misonidazole did not affect PG biosynthesis under aerobic conditions. The stimulation of PGE2 biosynthesis by misonidazole under hypoxia was blocked by indomethacin, suggesting that misonidazole can not cin, suggesting that misonidazole can not act independently of the cyclooxygenase

89

Localization of mammary tumors in vivo with 131I-labeled Fab fragments of antibodies against mouse mammary epithelial (MME) antigens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fab fragments of antibodies against cell-type-specific surface antigens of mouse mammary epithelial cells (MME-antigens) were used to localize mammary tumors successfully. The radioiodine-labeled anti-MME (Fab) was injected into mice carrying simulated mammary metastases, and after 24 hours the amount of label per gram of excised tissue was several times greater in the tumor than in liver, brain, lung, or muscle. Kidney showed considerable accumulation of label but this appeared to be nonspecific. Kinetic studies revealed a rapid elimination of labeled Fab in the urine with only 1% of the injected dose remaining in the entire blood pool after 24 hours. Wit a high-purity germanium camera, mammary tumors were clearly located ty the 131I-labeled anti-MME (Fab), and normalization to /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate distribution in the animal increased the specificity. The density of 131I-label was fourfold greater over the mammary tumor than over comparable areas of the mouse. No accumulation of 131I-anti-MME (Fab) was observed in nonmammary tumors nor in mammary tumors when labeled nonspecific Fab was used. An analogous system using an antihuman mammary epithelial antiserum is being developed for localization of breast metastases in humans

90

Morphological and immunohistochemical assays of surgically removed mammary gland tumors in bitches  

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Full Text Available In this study an estimation of the malignancy of mammary gland tumors was carried out based upon clinical examination, macroscopic and pathohistological characteristics of neoplasms and expression of cytokeratins. In the study 60 bitches of different ages, race and reproductive status with clinically evident signs of mammary gland tumor were included. After clinical examination the mammary gland tumors were excided, after which tissue samples were taken for subsequent pathohistological and immunohistochemical analysis. Tumors are classified according to the latest WHO recommendation (1999. The ratio of malignant tumors vs. non-malignant was 1.9 : 1. The most frequent malignant tumor was adenocarcinoma (n=17, followed by complex adenocarcinoma (n=12, carcinoma in mixed tumors (n=5, mucinous carcinoma (n=3, and fibrosarcoma and osteosarcoma, one of each. Most common benign changes were benign mixed tumors (n=10 and adenoma (n=6. Hyperplasia of the mammary gland was found in two bitches, while chronic steatitis, fibrosis and complex adenoma were reported only in individual cases. The expression of cytokeratins on different malignant and benign neoplastic cells was determined by the immunohystochemical peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. In simple carcinoma a positive reaction was established within the epithelium of the lumen of the alveoli and in the stromal tumor cells present in the lymph and blood vessels. In the cells of complex tumors cytokeratin was expressed on epithelial cells as well as on spindle, stellate and myoepithelial cells. .

Magaš Vladimir

2007-01-01

91

Basement membrane biosynthesis as a target for developing inhibitors of angiogenesis with anti-tumor properties.  

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Basement membrane (BM) exerts profound influence on endothelial cell (EC) behavior. In addition BM is a structural element of blood vessels; in fact at some point of their formation blood vessels are bare EC tubes lined with the BM produced by these EC. We thought, therefore, that a quantitative relationship must exist between the rate of BM synthesis and angiogenesis, and that interfering with BM synthesis must have an effect on angiogenesis. This was found experimentally in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) system. It was shown that the rate of BM collagen biosynthesis can serve as a biochemical index of angiogenesis and that inhibitors of BM synthesis prevent angiogenesis. GPA 1734 (8,9-dihydroxy-70-methyl-benzo(b)quinolizinium bromide), which inhibits proline and lysine hydroxylations in type IV collagen formation, suppresses angiogenesis in the CAM. Similarly, D609 (tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthate), which inhibits BM synthesis by an as yet unknown mechanism, also prevents angiogenesis. Structurally related analogs of GPA 1734 and D609 that have no effect on BM biosynthesis are also without effect on angiogenesis. The aforementioned inhibitors of angiogenesis GPA 1734 and D609 have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on tumor growth in rats bearing Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, without any obvious toxic effects. This effect is probably related to angiosuppression, since structurally related analogs that do not inhibit angiogenesis are without antitumor properties. Also GPA 1734 and D609 have no direct cytotoxic effects on Walker 256 cells in vitro. These results suggest that a search for agents that are specific inhibitors of BM synthesis may provide novel angiosuppressors with potential application in tumor chemotherapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7679456

Maragoudakis, M E; Missirlis, E; Karakiulakis, G D; Sarmonica, M; Bastakis, M; Tsopanoglou, N

1993-01-01

92

Mo polyoxometalate nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth and vascular endothelial growth factor induced angiogenesis  

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Tumor growth depends on angiogenesis, which can furnish the oxygen and nutrients that proliferate tumor cells. Thus, blocking angiogenesis can be an effective strategy to inhibit tumor growth. In this work, three typical nanoparticles based on polyoxometalates (POMs) have been prepared; we investigated their capability as antitumor and anti-angiogenesis agents. We found that Mo POM nanoparticles, especially complex 3, inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) through cellular reactive oxygen species levels’ elevation and mitochondrial membrane potential damage. Complex 3 also suppressed the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro and chicken chorioallantoic membrane development ex vivo. Furthermore, western blot analysis of cell signaling molecules indicated that Mo POMs blocked the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated their cellular uptake and localization within the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells. These results indicate that, owing to the extraordinary physical and chemical properties, Mo POM nanoparticles can significantly inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, which makes them potential drug candidates in anticancer and anti-angiogenesis therapies.

Zheng, Wenjing; Yang, Licong; Liu, Ying; Qin, Xiuying; Zhou, Yanhui; Zhou, Yunshan; Liu, Jie

2014-06-01

93

Relationship between major histocompatibility complex class I expression and prognosis in canine mammary gland tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate MHC class I expression and prognosis using tumor tissues surgically removed from 9 dogs with mammary gland carcinomas and from 13 dogs with complex carcinomas. We assessed MHC class I expression and its correlation with tumor size, B2M expression, infiltration of lymphocytes, histological grade and prognosis. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were histologically graded using the Elston and Ellis grading method. MHC class I expression on tumor cells was evaluated using the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. Loss of MHC class I expression from canine mammary gland carcinomas was significantly correlated with poor prognosis (P<0.05). Loss of MHC class I expression showed no association with poor prognosis in canine mammary gland complex carcinomas, because the data were not balanced. Only 1 of 13 (7.6%) canine mammary gland complex carcinomas showed loss of MHC class I expression. All 13 of these dogs showed good prognosis. Thus, the low frequency of MHC class I expression loss from canine mammary gland complex carcinomas may be associated with good prognosis. Taken together, these results suggest that loss of MHC class I expression may be associated with poor prognosis in canine mammary gland carcinomas. PMID:23728200

Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Shimada, Terumasa; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Shimizu, Junichiro; Zheng, Cao; Yijyun, Li; Mie, Keiichiro; Hayashi, Akiyoshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Hoshi, Fumio; Ohashi, Fumihito

2013-10-01

94

Correlation Between PSMA and VEGF Expression as Markers for LNCaP Tumor Angiogenesis  

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Our aim is the identification and correlation of changes in tumor-associated protein expression which results from therapy. LNCaP tumors, excised from nude mice treated either by orchiectomy or with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel, were evaluated for the expression of proteins and receptors associated with growth, differentiation, and angiogenesis using immunohistologic procedures. Compared to untreated control tumors, both treatments reduced the expression of vascular endothelial gr...

Tsui Paulus; Rubenstein Marvin; Guinan Patrick

2005-01-01

95

Radiolabeled RGD peptides as tumor angiogenesis markers: from molecular imaging to targeted therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integrin ???3 plays a significant role in tumor angiogenesis which is one of the key requirements for cancer growth. During the past two decades, a number of radiolabeled linear and cyclic RGD peptide derivatives have been evaluated as integrin ???3-targeting radiotracers for detection and prognosis of cancer by SPECT and PET imaging. However, there is a continuing need for more efficient integrin ???3 -targeted radiotracers that could be readily prepared from a kit formulation without further post-labeling purification. The present article gives a brief overview of the fundamental aspects in the design and development of ideal radiotracers for targeting tumor angiogenesis based on RGD peptides. (author)

96

A lovastatin-elicited genetic program inhibits M2 macrophage polarization and enhances T cell infiltration into spontaneous mouse mammary tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beyond their ability to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis, the statins have pleiotropic effects that include anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Statins could have clinical utility, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics, in the treatment of cancer. The mechanisms that underlie the anti-tumor activity of the statins are nonetheless poorly defined. No studies have analyzed how they alter the tumor-associated leukocyte infiltrate, a central factor that influences tumor stroma and cancer evolution. Here we used HER2/neu transgenic (Tg-neu) mice to analyze the effect of lovastatin (Lov) on the inflammatory reaction of spontaneous mammary tumors. Lov treatment of tumor-bearing Tg-neu mice did not alter growth of established tumors, but significantly reduced the number of new oncogenic lesions in these mice. Moreover, Lov inhibited the growth of newly implanted Tg-neu tumors in immunocompetent but not in immunodeficient mice. We found that Lov enhanced tumor infiltration by effector T cells, and reduced the number of immunosuppressive and pro-angiogenic M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). Concomitantly, the drug improved the structure and function of the tumor vasculature, measured as enhanced tumor oxygenation and penetration of cytotoxic drugs. Microarray analysis identified a Lov-elicited genetic program in Tg-neu tumors that might explain these effects; we observed Lov-induced downregulation of placental growth factor, which triggers aberrant angiogenesis and M2-like TAM polarization. Our results identify a role for lovastatin in the shaping and re-education of the inflammatory infiltrate in tumors, with functional consequences in angiogenesis and antitumor immunity. PMID:24317954

Mira, Emilia; Carmona-Rodríguez, Lorena; Tardáguila, Manuel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; González-Martín, Alicia; Almonacid, Luis; Casas, Josefina; Fabriás, Gemma; Mañes, Santos

2013-12-01

97

Effect of lapatinib on the development of estrogen receptor-negative mammary tumors in mice.  

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Lapatinib, a selective orally available inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases, is a promising agent for the treatment of breast cancer. We examined the effect of lapatinib on the development of mammary tumors in MMTV-erbB2 transgenic mice, which express wild-type ErbB2 under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter and spontaneously develop estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and ErbB2-positive mammary tumors by 14 months of age. Mice were treated from age 3 months to age 15 months with vehicle (n = 17) or lapatinib (30 or 75 mg/kg body weight; n = 16 mice per group) by oral gavage twice daily (6 d/wk). All statistical tests were two-sided. By 328 days after the start of treatment, all 17 (100%) of the vehicle-treated mice vs five (31%) of the 16 mice treated with high-dose lapatinib developed mammary tumors (P < .001). Among MMTV-erbB2 mice treated for 5 months (n = 20 mice per group), those treated with lapatinib had fewer premalignant lesions and noninvasive cancers in their mammary glands than those treated with vehicle (P = .02). Lapatinib also effectively blocked epidermal growth factor-induced signaling through the EGFR and ErbB2 receptors, suppressed cyclin D1 and epiregulin mRNA expression, and stimulated p27 mRNA expression in human mammary epithelial cells and in mammary epithelial cells from mice treated for 5 months with high-dose lapatinib. Thus, cyclin D1, epiregulin, and p27 may represent useful biomarkers of lapatinib response in patients. These data suggest that lapatinib is a promising agent for the prevention of ER-negative breast cancer. PMID:19141783

Strecker, Tracy E; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Yun; Hill, Jamal L; Li, Yuxin; Wang, Chunyu; Kim, Hee-Tae; Gilmer, Tona M; Sexton, Krystal R; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Osborne, C Kent; Brown, Powel H

2009-01-21

98

Lysyl Oxidase Plays a Critical Role in Endothelial Cell Stimulation to Drive Tumor Angiogenesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Identification of key molecules that drive angiogenesis is critical for the development of new modalities for the prevention of solid tumor progression. Using multiple models of colorectal cancer, we show that activity of the extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) is essential for stimulating endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. We show that LOX activates Akt through platelet-derived growth factor receptor ß (PDGFRß) stimulation, resulting in increased VEGF expression. LOX-driven angiogenesis can be abrogated through targeting LOX directly or using inhibitors of PDGFRß, Akt, and VEGF signaling. Furthermore, we show that LOX is clinically correlated with VEGF expression and blood vessel formation in 515 colorectal cancer patient samples. Finally, we validate our findings in a breast cancer model, showing the universality of these observations. Taken together, our findings have broad clinical and therapeutic implications for a wide variety of solid tumor types. Cancer Res; 73(2); 1-12. ©2012 AACR.

Baker, Ann-Marie; Bird, Demelza

2013-01-01

99

Human antibodies binding to the mouse mammary tumor virus: a nonspecific reaction?  

Science.gov (United States)

Specific rabbit antisera and over 100 human sera were found to precipitate iodinated mouse mammary tumor virus (MTV). The specificity of these reactions was tested in competitive inhibition studies. Three classes of reaction could be distinguished. The Class 1 reaction was the most specific; it could be inhibited only by MTV and was observed exclusively with rabbit anti-MTV. The Class 2 reaction was apparently against mouse cell determinants; it could be inhibited not only by MTV but also by mouse lactating mammary gland and was characteristic of rabbit anti-mouse lactating mammary gland. The Class 3 reaction was the least specific; it could be inhibited not only by MTV and mouse lactating mammary gland but also by dog milk. All of the human sera tested exhibited Class 3 reactivities. PMID:943235

Newgard, K W; Cardiff, R D; Blair, P B

1976-02-01

100

Combination of angiogenesis inhibitors increases the anti-tumor efficacy of photodynamic therapy in a human bladder tumor xenograft model  

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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a standard treatment for various malignant and non-malignant conditions. Though therapeutic responses are encouraging, recurrences have been noted, as one of the limitations of PDT is treatment-induced hypoxia that triggers angiogenesis. The present study evaluates the use of angiogenic inhibitors Avastin, that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Erbitux that targets epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with PDT in an in vivo bladder carcinoma xenograft. Tumor bearing mice were assigned to 6 different categories: control, PDT only, Avastin + Erbitux, PDT + Avastin, PDT + Erbitux and PDT + Avastin and Erbitux. Treated and control tumors were monitored for recurrence for up to 90 days. VEGF and EGFR expression was detected in the tumor tissue. Migratory assay was performed to establish the inhibitory effect of the angiogenesis agents. Using confocal laser endomicroscopy, the tumor microvasculature was assessed. Tumors treated with the combination therapy of PDT + inhibitors showed significantly greater response compared to control and PDT only treated group. Combination therapy treated tumors also showed the most post-treatment damage with reduced tumor vasculature. These results demonstrate that the combination of PDT with inhibitors that target different angiogenesis pathways can improve tumor control.

Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Gan, Yik Yuen; Thong, Patricia S. P.; Chin, William Wei L.; Soo, Khee Chee; Olivo, Malini

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Adrenergic signaling promotes angiogenesis through endothelial cell-tumor cell crosstalk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiogenesis is an important factor in invasive tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. Multiple proangiogenic mechanisms are involved in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we showed that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine upregulated VEGF (VEGFA) expression in breast cancer cells and that the culture supernatant from norepinephrine-treated breast cancer cells promoted the formation of the capillary-like network of endothelial cells. However, the effects of norepinephrine were further enhanced when the endothelial cells were cocultured with breast cancer cells, indicating a critical role of tumor cell-endothelial cell contacts in norepinephrine-induced tumor angiogenesis. Interestingly, norepinephrine dramatically induced the activation of the Notch pathway, which is a cell-contact-mediated intercellular signaling pathway and tightly linked to tumor cell-stromal cell interaction and angiogenesis, in the endothelial cells that had been cocultured with breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the expression of the Notch ligand Jagged 1 was significantly upregulated by norepinephrine at both mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells. Inhibitors of ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR), protein kinase A (PKA), and mTOR could reverse norepinephrine-induced Jagged 1 upregulation, indicating that the ?2-AR-PKA-mTOR pathway participates in this process. Knockdown of Jagged 1 expression in breast cancer cells not only repressed norepinephrine-induced activation of the Notch pathway in cocultured endothelial cells but also evidently impaired the effects of norepinephrine on capillary-like sprout formation. These data demonstrate that tumor angiogenesis mediated by the Jagged 1/Notch intercellular signaling is governed by the norepinephrine-activated ?2-AR-PKA-mTOR pathway. PMID:25179535

Chen, Hongyu; Liu, Dan; Yang, Zhengyan; Sun, Limin; Deng, Que; Yang, Shuo; Qian, Lu; Guo, Liang; Yu, Ming; Hu, Meiru; Shi, Ming; Guo, Ning

2014-10-01

102

Flor-Essence? Herbal Tonic Promotes Mammary Tumor Development in Sprague Dawley Rats  

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Background: Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines to augment their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} Tonic is a complex mixture of herbal extracts used by cancer patients because of anecdotal evidence that it can treat or prevent disease. Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were given water or exposed to 3% or 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign} beginning at one day of age. Mammary tumors were induced with a single oral 40 mg/kg/bw dose of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene at 50 days of age and sacrificed at 23 weeks. Rats were maintained on AIN-76A diet. Results: Control rats had palpable mammary tumor incidence of 51.0% at 19 weeks of age compared to 65.0% and 59.4% for the 3% and 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign} groups respectively. Overall, no significant difference in time until first palpable tumor was detected among any of the groups. At necropsy, mammary tumor incidence was 82.5% for controls compared to 90.0% and 97.3% for rats consuming 3% and 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign}, respectively. Mean mammary tumor multiplicity ({+-}SES) for the controls was 2.8 ({+-} 0.5) and statistically different from the 3% or 6% Flor- Essence{reg_sign} groups with 5.2 ({+-} 0.7), and 4.8 ({+-} 0.6), respectively (p{<=}0.01). As expected, the majority of isolated tumors were diagnosed as adenocarcinomas. Conclusions: Flor-Essence{reg_sign} can promote mammary tumor development in the Sprague Dawley rat model. This observation is contrary to widely available anecdotal evidence as well as the desire of the consumer that this commercially available herbal tonic will suppress and/or inhibit tumor growth.

Bennett, L; Montgomery, J; Steinberg, S; Kulp, K

2004-01-28

103

Tie2-dependent deletion of ?6 integrin subunit in mice reduces tumor growth and angiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ?6 integrin subunit (?6) has been implicated in cancer cell migration and in the progression of several malignancies, but its role in tumor angiogenesis is unclear. In mice, anti-?6 blocking antibodies reduce tumor angiogenesis, whereas Tie1-dependent ?6 gene deletion enhances neovessel formation in melanoma and lung carcinoma. To clarify the discrepancy in these results we used the cre-lox system to generate a mouse line, ?6fl/fl?Tie2Cre(+), with ?6 gene deletion specifically in Tie2-lineage cells: endothelial cells, pericytes, subsets of hematopoietic stem cells, and Tie2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs), known for their proangiogenic properties. Loss of ?6 expression in ?6fl/fl?Tie2Cre(+) mice reduced tumor growth in a murine B16F10 melanoma model. Immunohistological analysis of the tumors showed that Tie2-dependent ?6 gene deletion was associated with reduced tumor vascularization and with reduced infiltration of proangiogenic Tie2-expressing macrophages. These findings demonstrate that ?6 integrin subunit plays a major role in tumor angiogenesis and TEM infiltration. Targeting ?6 could be used as a strategy to reduce tumor growth. PMID:25176420

Bouvard, Claire; Segaoula, Zacharie; De Arcangelis, Adèle; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Mauge, Laetitia; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth; Helley, Dominique

2014-11-01

104

PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate suppresses tumor growth through direct and indirect angiogenesis inhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiogenesis and inflammation are central processes through which the tumor microenvironment influences tumor growth. We have demonstrated recently that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha deficiency in the host leads to overt inflammation that suppresses angiogenesis via excess production of thrombospondin (TSP)-1 and prevents tumor growth. Hence, we speculated that pharmacologic activation of PPARalpha would promote tumor growth. Surprisingly, the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate potently suppressed primary tumor growth in mice. This effect was not mediated by cancer-cell-autonomous antiproliferative mechanisms but by the inhibition of angiogenesis and inflammation in the host tissue. Although PPARalpha-deficient tumors were still susceptible to fenofibrate, absence of PPARalpha in the host animal abrogated the potent antitumor effect of fenofibrate. In addition, fenofibrate suppressed endothelial cell proliferation and VEGF production, increased TSP-1 and endostatin, and inhibited corneal neovascularization. Thus, both genetic abrogation of PPARalpha as well as its activation by ligands cause tumor suppression via overlapping antiangiogenic pathways. These findings reveal the potential utility of the well tolerated PPARalpha agonists beyond their use as lipid-lowering drugs in anticancer therapy. Our results provide a mechanistic rationale for evaluating the clinical benefits of PPARalpha agonists in cancer treatment, alone and in combination with other therapies. PMID:18199835

Panigrahy, Dipak; Kaipainen, Arja; Huang, Sui; Butterfield, Catherine E; Barnés, Carmen M; Fannon, Michael; Laforme, Andrea M; Chaponis, Deviney M; Folkman, Judah; Kieran, Mark W

2008-01-22

105

P53-induced microRNA-107 inhibits HIF-1 and tumor angiogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathway involving the tumor suppressor gene TP53 can regulate tumor angiogenesis by unclear mechanisms. Here we show that p53 regulates hypoxic signaling through the transcriptional regulation of microRNA-107 (miR-107). We found that miR-107 is a microRNA expressed by human colon cancer specimens and regulated by p53. miR-107 decreases hypoxia signaling by suppressing expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). Knockdown of endogenous miR-107 enhances HIF-1? expression and hypoxic signaling in human colon cancer cells. Conversely, overexpression of miR-107 inhibits HIF-1? expression and hypoxic signaling. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-107 in tumor cells suppresses tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and tumor VEGF expression in mice. Finally, in human colon cancer specimens, expression of miR-107 is inversely associated with expression of HIF-1?. Taken together these data suggest that miR-107 can mediate p53 regulation of hypoxic signaling and tumor angiogenesis. PMID:20308559

Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Lotterman, Craig D.; Bao, Clare; Hruban, Ralph H.; Karim, Baktiar; Mendell, Joshua T.; Huso, David; Lowenstein, Charles J.

2010-01-01

106

DNA vaccines designed to inhibit tumor growth by suppression of angiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of new blood vessels, i.e. angiogenesis, is a rate-limiting step in the development of tumors since tumor growth is generally limited to 1-2 mm3 in the absence of a blood supply. Thus, the inhibition of tumor growth by attacking the tumor's vascular supply offers a primary target for antiangiogenic intervention by DNA-based vaccines. Here, we describe two novel orally delivered DNA vaccines which suppress tumor angiogenesis and induce a robust cell-mediated immune response that provides for long-lived protection against melanoma, colon, breast and non-small-cell lung carcinoma in mouse model systems. These vaccines, which are delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to secondary lymphoid organs, are directed against such targets as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (FLK-1) and transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1). Both vaccines break peripheral T cell tolerance against these self-antigens and induce a robust T cell-mediated immune response leading to suppression of tumor angiogenesis and resulting in effective suppression of tumor growth and metastases. Such research efforts may open up new possibilities for the rational design of future DNA vaccines effective for the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:14988601

Reisfeld, Ralph A; Niethammer, A G; Luo, Y; Xiang, R

2004-03-01

107

Angiogenesis and the tumor microenvironment: vascular endothelial growth factor and beyond.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our understanding of the dynamic tumor microenvironment (TME) has improved exponentially over the last few decades. In addition to traditional cytotoxic agents, anti-cancer strategies now include numerous molecular-targeted drugs that modulate distinct elements of the TME. Angiogenesis is an underlying promoter of tumor growth, invasion, and metastases. From traditional and emerging angiogenic cytokines and their receptors to novel immune checkpoint inhibitors, regulation of the tumor microenvironment is potentially key in countering tumor progression. In this article, an overview of the architecture of the TME and the orchestration of angiogenesis within the TME is provided. Additionally, traditional and novel angiogenic targets of current interest within the TME are reviewed. PMID:24787295

Mittal, Kriti; Ebos, John; Rini, Brian

2014-04-01

108

Raloxifene inhibits tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of raloxifene, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, were studied in a mouse metastatic mammary cancer model expressing cytoplasmic ER?. Methods Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of syngeneic BALB/c mice with BJMC3879luc2 cells, were subsequently treated with raloxifene at 0, 18 and 27 mg/kg/day using mini-osmotic pumps. Results In vitro study demonstrated that the ER? in BJMC3879luc2 cells was smaller (between 50 and 64 kDa than the normal-sized ER? (66 kDa and showed cytoplasmic localization. A statistically significant but weak estradiol response was observed in this cell line. When BJMC3879luc2 tumors were implanted into mice, the ER? mRNA levels were significantly higher in females than in males. In vitro studies showed that raloxifene induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in the G1-phase and a decrease in the cell population in the S-phase. In animal experiments, tumor volumes were significantly suppressed in the raloxifene-treated groups. The multiplicity of lymph node metastasis was significantly decreased in the 27 mg/kg group. Levels of apoptosis were significantly increased in the raloxifene-treated groups, whereas the levels of DNA synthesis were significantly decreased in these groups. No differences in microvessel density in tumors were observed between the control and raloxifene-treated groups. The numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells were significantly reduced in mammary tumors in the raloxifene-treated groups. The levels of ER? mRNA in mammary tumors tended to be decreased in the raloxifene-treated groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the antimetastatic activity of raloxifene in mammary cancer expressing cytoplasmic ER? may be a crucial finding with clinical applications and that raloxifene may be useful as an adjuvant therapy and for the chemoprevention of breast cancer development.

Li Zhong-Lian

2010-10-01

109

Roles of Polo-like kinase 3 in suppressing tumor angiogenesis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Angiogenesis is essential for promoting growth and metastasis of solid tumors by ensuring blood supply to the tumor mass. Targeting angiogenesis is therefore an attractive approach to therapeutic intervention of cancer. Tumor angiogenesis is a process that is controlled by a complex network of molecular components including sensors, signaling transducers, and effectors, leading to cellular responses under hypoxic conditions. Positioned at the center of this network are the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs. HIF-1 is a major transcription factor that consists of two subunits, HIF-1? and HIF-1?. It mediates transcription of a spectrum of gene targets whose products are essential for mounting hypoxic responses. HIF-1? protein level is very low in the normoxic condition but is rapidly elevated under hypoxia. This dramatic change in the cellular HIF-1? level is primarily regulated through the proteosome-mediated degradation process. In the past few years, scientific progress has clearly demonstrated that HIF-1? phosphorylation is mediated by several families of protein kinases including GSK3? and ERKs both of which play crucial roles in the regulation of HIF-1? stability. Recent research progress has identified that Polo-like kinase 3 (Plk3 phosphorylates HIF-1? at two previously unidentified serine residues and that the Plk3-mediated phosphorylation of these residues results in destabilization of HIF-1?. Plk3 has also recently been found to phosphorylate and stabilize PTEN phosphatase, a known regulator of HIF-1? and tumor angiogenesis. Given the success of targeting protein kinases and tumor angiogenesis in anti-cancer therapies, Plk3 could be a potential molecular target for the development of novel and effective therapeutic agents for cancer treatment.

Xu Dazhong

2012-04-01

110

MRI monitoring of tumor response following angiogenesis inhibition in an experimental human breast cancer model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

tumor growth was significantly reduced (PPS values declined slightly. Estimated values for the fractional plasma volume did not differ significantly between treatment groups or contrast agents. Microvascular density counts correlated fairly with the tumor growth rate (r=0.64) and were statistically significant higher (PPS), using either of two macromolecular contrast media, were able to detect effects of treatment with a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor on tumor vascular permeability. In a clinical setting such quantitative MRI measurements could be used to monitor tumor anti-angiogenesis therapy. (orig.)

111

Interleukin-12-deficiency is permissive for angiogenesis in UV radiation-induced skin tumors  

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We have shown previously that endogenous deficiency of interleukin (IL)-12 promotes photocarcinogenesis in mice. To characterize the role of IL-12-deficiency in tumor angiogenesis, we developed IL-12p35 knockout (IL-12 KO) mice on a C3H/HeN background. IL-12 KO mice and their wild-type counterparts were subjected to a photocarcinogenesis protocol. When tumor yield was stabilized, samples of tumor and tumor un-involved UVB-exposed skin were collected and subjected to immunohistochemical, gelat...

Meeran, Syed M.; Katiyar, Suchitra; Elmets, Craig A.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

2007-01-01

112

Tumor delivery of chemotherapy combined with inhibitors of angiogenesis and vascular targeting agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous angiogenesis-vascular targeting agents have been admitted to the ranks of cancer therapeutics; most of them are used in polytherapy regimens. This review will address recent progress together with our preclinical experience in combining angiogenesis inhibitors, mainly acting on VEGF/VEGFR pathways and vascular targeting agents with conventional chemotherapy and discuss the critical factors that determine the outcome of these treatments. Molecular and morphological modifications of the tumor microenvironment associated to drug distribution and activity will be reviewed. Finally modalities to improve drug delivery and strategies for the optimization of combination therapy will be addressed.

MartaCesca

2013-10-01

113

Tumor-associated fibroblast-conditioned medium promotes tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to explore how tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) promote the proliferation and angiogenesis of tumor cells via the paracrine mechanism in vitro. Conditioned media (CM) of ovarian TAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were collected. Ovarian cancer cells (OCCs) were treated with 2 mL TAFs-CM and NFs-CM in experimental and control groups, respectively; 20 mM SB431512, a specific small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), was added in the experimental group as the intervention group. The cell cycle was determined in each group. mRNA expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and protein expressions of ?-SMA and VEGF were detected in each group. Proliferation of OCCs was significantly promoted in the experimental group compared with that of the control group. The proliferative effect was obviously inhibited in the intervention group. The mRNA expressions of PCNA, ?-SMA, and VEGF, and protein expressions of ?-SMA and VEGF were all dramatically up-regulated in each group, and were strongly inhibited by SB-431512. TAFs promote the proliferation of OCCs via paracrine and up-regulated expression of angiogenic genes and proteins, which can be effectively inhibited by inhibiting the TGF-? signaling pathway. PMID:24301956

Xu, L N; Xu, B N; Cai, J; Yang, J B; Lin, N

2013-01-01

114

PET imaging of tumor angiogenesis in mice with VEGF-A targeted 86Y-CHX-A?-DTPA-bevacizumab  

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Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to tumor-secreted VEGF-A and inhibits tumor angiogenesis. In 2004, the antibody was approved by the United States FDA for the treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma in combination with chemotherapy. This report describes the preclinical evaluation of a radioimmunoconjugate, 86Y-CHX-A?-DTPA-bevacizumab, for potential use in PET imaging of VEGF-A tumor angiogenesis and as a surrogate marker for 90Y based radioimmunotherapy. Bevac...

Nayak, Tapan K.; Garmestani, Kayhan; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Milenic, Diane E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2011-01-01

115

mTORC1/2 targeted by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on breast cancer, inconsistencies still remain in the data and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we identified mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which plays an essential role in cell proliferation and breast tumorigenesis, as a target of n-3 PUFAs. In breast cancer cell lines, n-3 PUFAs rapidly and efficiently suppress both mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2 and their downstream signaling, and subsequently inhibit cell proliferation and angiogenesis while promoting apoptosis. Further study indicates that stabilization of the mTOR-raptor complex by n-3 PUFAs may contribute to their inhibitory effect on mTORC1. Importantly, four complementary and well-controlled animal models were utilized to identify the role and molecular target of n-3 PUFAs in the prevention of breast carcinogenesis and progression, namely: (1) chemically induced mammary tumor rats with a high dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs; (2) nude mice implanted with mammary tumor cell lines stably expressing fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously; (3) fat-1 transgenic severe combined immune deficiency mice implanted with breast tumor cells; and (4) the fat-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma virus middle T oncogene double-hybrid mice, a model of aggressive breast cancer. In summary, dietary and endogenous n-3 PUFAs abrogate the activity of mTORC1/2 pathways in vitro and in vivo and prevent breast carcinogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. Taken together, our findings convincingly clarify the causal relationship between n-3 PUFAs and breast cancer prevention and establish mTORC1/2 as a target of n-3 PUFAs. PMID:24096482

Chen, Z; Zhang, Y; Jia, C; Wang, Y; Lai, P; Zhou, X; Wang, Y; Song, Q; Lin, Jun; Ren, Z; Gao, Q; Zhao, Z; Zheng, H; Wan, Z; Gao, T; Zhao, A; Dai, Y; Bai, X

2014-09-11

116

{sup 18}F-labeled RGD peptide: initial evaluation for imaging brain tumor angiogenesis  

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Brain tumors are highly angiogenesis dependent. The cell adhesion receptor integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} is overexpressed in glioma and activated endothelial cells and plays an important role in brain tumor growth, spread and angiogenesis. Suitably labeled {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin antagonists may therefore be useful for imaging brain tumor associated angiogenesis. Cyclic RGD peptide c(RGDyK) was labeled with {sup 18}F via N-succinimidyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate through the side-chain {epsilon}-amino group of the lysine residue. The radiotracer was evaluated in vivo for its tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics in subcutaneously implanted U87MG and orthotopically implanted U251T glioblastoma nude mouse models by means of microPET, quantitative autoradiography and direct tissue sampling. The N-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl-RGD ([{sup 18}F]FB-RGD) was produced in less than 2 h with 20-25% decay-corrected yields and specific activity of 230 GBq/{mu}mol at end of synthesis. The tracer showed very rapid blood clearance and both hepatobiliary and renal excretion. Tumor-to-muscle uptake ratio at 30 min was approximately 5 in the subcutaneous U87MG tumor model. MicroPET imaging with the orthotopic U251T brain tumor model revealed very high tumor-to-brain ratio, with virtually no uptake in the normal brain. Successful blocking of tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD in the presence of excess amount of c(RGDyK) revealed receptor specific activity accumulation. Hence, N-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoyl labeled cyclic RGD peptide [{sup 18}F]FB-RGD is a potential tracer for imaging {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin positive tumors in brain and other anatomic locations.

Chen Xiaoyuan; Park, Ryan; Shahinian, Anthony H.; Tohme, Michel; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Bozorgzadeh, Mohammed H.; Bading, James R.; Moats, Rex; Laug, Walter E.; Conti, Peter S. E-mail: pconti@usc.edu

2004-02-01

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18F-labeled RGD peptide: initial evaluation for imaging brain tumor angiogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brain tumors are highly angiogenesis dependent. The cell adhesion receptor integrin ?v?3 is overexpressed in glioma and activated endothelial cells and plays an important role in brain tumor growth, spread and angiogenesis. Suitably labeled ?v?3-integrin antagonists may therefore be useful for imaging brain tumor associated angiogenesis. Cyclic RGD peptide c(RGDyK) was labeled with 18F via N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate through the side-chain ?-amino group of the lysine residue. The radiotracer was evaluated in vivo for its tumor targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetics in subcutaneously implanted U87MG and orthotopically implanted U251T glioblastoma nude mouse models by means of microPET, quantitative autoradiography and direct tissue sampling. The N-4-[18F]fluorobenzoyl-RGD ([18F]FB-RGD) was produced in less than 2 h with 20-25% decay-corrected yields and specific activity of 230 GBq/?mol at end of synthesis. The tracer showed very rapid blood clearance and both hepatobiliary and renal excretion. Tumor-to-muscle uptake ratio at 30 min was approximately 5 in the subcutaneous U87MG tumor model. MicroPET imaging with the orthotopic U251T brain tumor model revealed very high tumor-to-brain ratio, with virtually no uptake in the normal brain. Successful blocking of tumor uptake of [18F]FB-RGD in the presence of excess amount of c(RGDyK) revealed receptor specific c(RGDyK) revealed receptor specific activity accumulation. Hence, N-4-[18F]fluorobenzoyl labeled cyclic RGD peptide [18F]FB-RGD is a potential tracer for imaging ?v?3-integrin positive tumors in brain and other anatomic locations

118

Macrophages Mediate a Switch between Canonical and Non-Canonical Wnt Pathways in Canine Mammary Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective According to the current hypothesis, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are “corrupted” by cancer cells and subsequently facilitate, rather than inhibit, tumor metastasis. Because the molecular mechanisms of cancer cell–TAM interactions are complicated and controversial we aimed to better define this phenomenon. Methods and Results Using microRNA microarrays, Real-time qPCR and Western blot we showed that co-culture of canine mammary tumor cells with TAMs or treatment with macrophage-conditioned medium inhibited the canonical Wnt pathway and activated the non-canonical Wnt pathway in tumor cells. We also showed that co-culture of TAMs with tumor cells increased expression of canonical Wnt inhibitors in TAMs. Subsequently, we demonstrated macrophage-induced invasive growth patterns and epithelial–mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. Validation of these results in canine mammary carcinoma tissues (n?=?50) and xenograft tumors indicated the activation of non-canonical and canonical Wnt pathways in metastatic tumors and non-metastatic malignancies, respectively. Activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway correlated with number of TAMs. Conclusions We demonstrated that TAMs mediate a “switch” between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in canine mammary tumors, leading to increased tumor invasion and metastasis. Interestingly, similar changes in neoplastic cells were observed in the presence of macrophage-conditioned medium or live macrophages. These observations indicate that rather than being “corrupted” by cancer cells, TAMs constitutively secrete canonical Wnt inhibitors that decrease tumor proliferation and development, but as a side effect, they induce the non-canonical Wnt pathway, which leads to tumor metastasis. These data challenge the conventional understanding of TAM–cancer cell interactions. PMID:24404146

Krol, Magdalena; Mucha, Joanna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Homa, Agata; Bulkowska, Malgorzata; Majewska, Alicja; Gajewska, Malgorzata; Pietrzak, Marta; Perszko, Mikolaj; Romanowska, Karolina; Pawlowski, Karol; Manuali, Elisabetta; Hellmen, Eva; Motyl, Tomasz

2014-01-01

119

Thermoseed hyperthermia treatment of mammary orthotopic transplantation tumors in rats and impact on immune function.  

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To evaluate the effect of thermoseed inductive heating on mammary orthotopic transplantation tumors and immunologic function in rats. Walker-256 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the mammary glands of Wistar rats. Rats were allocated to five treatment groups as follows: i) C group (control group); ii) M group (magnetic field group); iii) T group (thermoseed control group); iv) H1 group (hyperthermia treatment, 45 degrees C for 30 min); v) H2 group (hyperthermia treatment, 50-55 degrees C for 10 min). Immediately, 12 and 24 h after hyperthermia, two rats were sacrificed in each group for pathological and immunohistochemical examination of the expression of PCNA and HSP70. Tumor volume was measured and long-term survival was observed. The T lymphocyte subgroup IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels were measured in C, H1 and H2 groups. Both types of hyperthermia induced necrosis and apoptosis in the tumor tissue, decreased tumor volume (P<0.05), and increased survival time (P<0.01). The expression of PCNA and HSP70 in hyperthermia group was significantly different compared to the C, M and T groups (P<0.05), Hyperthermia increased CD4+ T lymphocytes and the levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma (P<0.05). Both types of hyperthermia can suppress the growth of mammary tumors and improve immunological function of rats. PMID:20811678

Ouyang, Weiwei; Gao, Fuping; Wang, Lufang; Xie, Xiaoxue; Lei, Fenglin; Zhou, Jumei; Liao, Yuping; Zhong, Meizuo; Tang, Jintian

2010-10-01

120

Comparative characteristics of mammary glands cancer in humans and animals  

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Full Text Available

 

This review is devoted to a comparative analysis of receptor status, immunity, angiogenesis, metastatic mammal glands cancer expression profiling in humans and animals. Angiogenesis has been assessed by quantitative and immunohistochemical characteristics by means of evaluation of microvascular density (MVD using Claudin-5 (CLDN-5 as a marker of vascular endothelium in tumors of mammary glands in dogs.

Vorobyova ?.V.

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

In vivo delivery of siRNA targeting vasohibin-2 decreases tumor angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth in ovarian cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vasohibin-2 (VASH2) is a homolog of vasohibin-1 and exhibits pro-angiogenic activity. We recently reported that VASH2 is expressed in certain ovarian cancers and promotes tumor growth through angiogenesis. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of molecular targeting of VASH2 for anticancer treatment, we applied in vivo delivery of siRNA targeting VASH2 (siVASH2) using atelocollagen to a xenograft model of ovarian cancer. We inoculated mice s.c. with DISS and SKOV-3, two representative human ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cell lines. When tumors were measurable, we initiated treatment with control or siVASH2 mixed with atelocollagen, which enveloped the whole tumor. Treatment with siVASH2 significantly inhibited s.c. tumor growth by abrogating tumor angiogenesis. We confirmed that expression of VASH2 mRNA in the tumor was downregulated by siVASH2 treatment. In addition, the siVASH2-treated tumor contained more blood vessels covered with pericytes, indicating that knockdown of VASH2 contributes to the normalization of tumor blood vessels. Based on these results, VASH2 may be a promising molecular target for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:24118388

Koyanagi, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Saga, Yasushi; Machida, Shizuo; Takei, Yuji; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Sato, Yasufumi

2013-12-01

122

Sequence organization and molecular cloning of mouse mammary tumor virus DNA endogenous to C57BL/6 mice.  

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The sequence organization of mouse mammary tumor virus DNA endogenous to the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain was characterized by Southern blot analysis, utilizing probes specific for particular regions of the mouse mammary tumor virus provirus and by molecular cloning of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus DNA. The genome of C57BL/6 mice contains three apparently intact, endogenous proviral units; two of these units comprise the Mtv-8 (unit II) and Mtv-9 (unit III) genetic loci that are also pr...

Peterson, D. O.; Kriz, K. G.; Marich, J. E.; Toohey, M. G.

1985-01-01

123

Celecoxib can induce vascular endothelial growth factor expression and tumor angiogenesis.  

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Increased COX-2 expression has been linked to increased angiogenesis and a worse prognosis in patients with malignant gliomas and other tumor types. This led to our interest in assessing the response of glioma cell lines to treatment with celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. However, contrary to its reported antiangiogenic effects, treatment with celecoxib actually induced the expression of VEGF in multiple glioma as well as other cancer cell lines. This induction of VEGF was comparable to, if not greater than, that found after exposure of cells to hypoxia. Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA silencing of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase and the Sp1 transcription factor revealed their involvement in this celecoxib-induced VEGF expression. Consistent with the documented role of Sp1 in this effect, VEGF induction was found to involve transcriptional activation and not to change the stability of VEGF mRNA. The biological significance of this effect was confirmed in vivo by showing both induction of VEGF expression and microvessel density in tumor xenografts and increased angiogenesis in a matrigel plug assay in nude mice that were administered celecoxib. We speculate that treatment with celecoxib may, in some instances, enhance tumor cell expression of VEGF as well as angiogenesis and, consequently, may have detrimental effects on the response of tumors to this drug. PMID:21220497

Xu, Kaiming; Gao, Huiying; Shu, Hui-Kuo G

2011-01-01

124

Glipizide, an antidiabetic drug, suppresses tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis.  

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Angiogenesis is involved in the development, progression and metastasis of various human cancers. Herein, we report the discovery of glipizide, a widely used drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, as a promising anticancer agent through the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. By high-throughput screening (HTS) of an FDA approved drug library utilizing our in vivo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and yolk sac membrane (YSM) models, glipizide has been identified to significantly inhibit blood vessel formation and development. Moreover, glipizide was found to suppress tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis using xenograft tumor and MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse models. We further revealed that the anticancer capability of glipizide is not attributed to its antiproliferative effects, which are not significant against various human cancer cell lines. To investigate whether its anticancer efficacy is associated with the glucose level alteration induced by glipizide application, glimepiride, another medium to long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug in the same class, was employed for the comparison studies in the same fashion. Interestingly, glimepiride has demonstrated no significant impact on the tumor growth and metastasis, indicating that the anticancer effects of glipizide is not ascribed to its antidiabetic properties. Furthermore, glipizide suppresses endothelial cell migration and the formation of tubular structures, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis by up-regulating the expression of natriuretic peptide receptor A. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of glipizide as a potential cancer therapy, and also for the first time, provide direct evidence to support that treatment with glipizide may reduce the cancer risk for diabetic patients. PMID:25294818

Qi, Cuiling; Zhou, Qin; Li, Bin; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liu; Ye, Yuxiang; Li, Jiangchao; Ding, Yi; Wang, Huiping; Wang, Jintao; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qianqian; Lan, Tian; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Li, Weidong; Song, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Lijing

2014-10-30

125

Role of angiogenesis in human tumor dormancy: animal models of the angiogenic switch.  

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Tumor progression depends on sequential events, including a switch to the angiogenic phenotype (i.e., initial recruitment of blood vessels). Failure of a microscopic tumor to complete one or more early steps in this process may lead to delayed clinical manifestation of the cancer. Microscopic human cancers can remain in an asymptomatic, non-detectable, and occult state for the life of a person. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that human tumors can persist for long periods of time as microscopic lesions that are in a state of dormancy (i.e., not expanding in tumor mass). Because it is well established that tumor growth beyond the size of 1-2 mm is angiogenesis-dependent, we hypothesized that presentation of large tumors is attributed to a switch to the angiogenic phenotype in otherwise microscopic, dormant tumors. Although clinically important, the biology of human tumor dormancy is poorly understood. The development of animal models which recapitulate the clinically observed timing and proportion of dormant tumors which switch to the angiogenic phenotype are reviewed here. The contributing molecular mechanisms involved in the angiogenic switch and different strategies for isolation of both angiogenic and non-angiogenic tumor cell populations from otherwise heterogeneous human tumor cell lines or surgical specimens are also summarized. Several imaging techniques have been utilized for the qualitative and quantitative detection of microscopic tumors in mice and their strengths and limitations are discussed. The animal models employed here permitted further studies of the angiogenic switch. These models also allowed development of an angiogenesis-based panel of blood and urine biomarkers that can be quantified and used to detect microscopic tumors before or during the angiogenic switch. If the information obtained from these animal models is translatable to the clinic, it may be possible in the future to liberate the management of cancer from a dependency on anatomical site years before it becomes symptomatic and detectable. PMID:16931911

Naumov, George N; Akslen, Lars A; Folkman, Judah

2006-08-01

126

Nestin in gastrointestinal and other cancers: Effects on cells and tumor angiogenesis  

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Full Text Available Nestin is a class VI intermediate filament protein that was originally described as a neuronal stem cell marker during central nervous system (CNS development, and is currently widely used in that capacity. Nestin is also expressed in non-neuronal immature or progenitor cells in normal tissues. Under pathological conditions, nestin is expressed in repair processes in the CNS, muscle, liver, and infarcted myocardium. Furthermore, increased nestin expression has been reported in various tumor cells, including CNS tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, malignant melanoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberances, and thyroid tumors. Nestin is reported to correlate with aggressive growth, metastasis, and poor prognosis in some tumors; however, the roles of nestin in cancer cells have not been well characterized. Furthermore, nestin is more specifically expressed in proliferating small-sized tumor vessels in glioblastoma and gastric, colorectal, and prostate cancers than are other tumor vessel markers. These findings indicate that nestin may be a marker for newly synthesized tumor vessels and a therapeutic target for tumor angiogenesis. It has received a lot of attention recently as a cancer stem cell marker in various cancer cells including brain tumors, malignant rhabdoid tumors, and uterine, cervical, prostate, bladder, head and neck, ovarian, testicular, and pancreatic cancers. The purpose of this review is to clarify the roles of nestin in cancer cells and in tumor angiogenesis, and to examine the association between nestin and cancer stem cells. Nestin has the potential to serve as a molecular target for cancers with nestin-positive cancer cells and nestin-positive tumor vasculature.

Toshiyuki Ishiwata, Yoko Matsuda, Zenya Naito

2011-01-01

127

A novel design of thermal anomaly for mammary gland tumor phantom for microwave radiometer.  

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Microwave radiometry is the spectral measurement technique of resolving electromagnetic radiation of all matters which temperature is above absolute zero. This technique utilizes the electromagnetic noise field generated by a thermal volume similar to a mechanism existing in biological tissues. One particular application of microwave radiometry is for analyzing temperature differentials of inside of human body to detect and diagnose some crucial pathological conditions. For the general evaluation of a microwave radiometer, we propose a new type of phantom containing a mammary gland tumor imitator by considering biological heat diffusion effects propagated by a real tumor. Theoretical researches of human tumor revealed the fact that temperature distribution of tissues around a tumor formed a Gaussian statistics. To comply with the physiological property of the real tumor, we built a mammary gland tumor imitator composed of two parts (pseudotumor and thermal anomaly) and observed its temperature distribution when it was placed inside a phantom. Our results showed that the thermal properties of tumor imitator well agreed with heat-transfer properties of a real tumor and the proportional linear relationship existed between the location of tumor imitator and the intensity of radiometer measurements. From this relationship, we could also estimate several parameters related with our phantom, such as the minimum detectable size and maximum detectable depth of a tumor imitator. PMID:12083304

Lee, Jeong-Whan; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Lee, Sang-Min; Eom, Sang-Jin; Troitsky, Roman V

2002-07-01

128

Contrast-enhanced color Doppler US in breast cancer: Tumoral vascularity correlated with angiogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the effects of contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) on the depiction of vascularity and flow pattern in breast cancer and to determine the relationship between tumoral vascularity and angiogenesis. Twenty-one patients with breast cancer were prospectively evaluated with CDUS before and after injection of the contrast agent (SH U 508A, 2.5g, 300 mg/ml ). The tumoral vascularity was expressed as percentage of color Doppler area, which was measured quantitatively by a computerized program (Ultrasonic Imaging Tool; Soongsil University, Seoul, Korea). The flow pattern (four-patterns; spotty, linear, branching, marginal) of the vascularity was analyzed. After surgery, tumor angiogenesis was assessed by microvessel density. The relationship between the vascularity on CDUS and microvessel density was statistically analyzed. At unenhanced CDUS, tumoral flow signals were detected in 12 lesions (48%); at contrast-enhanced CDUS, 18 lesions (86%). All These 18 lesions showed increased signals, compared with those at unenhanced CDUS. The percentage color Doppler area was 1.86 ± 0.48% at unenhanced CDUS and 5.23 ± 1.18% at contrast-enhanced CDUS. The flow patterns before contrast injection were spotty pattern in 11 tumors and linear pattern in one; after contrast injection, spotty in 8, linear in 4, branching in 5, and marginal in one. The tumoral vascularity at contrast-enhanced CDUS showed no significant correlation with microvessel density. Contraslation with microvessel density. Contrast-enhanced CDUS seems to be a valuable tool in the depiction of vascularity and characterization of flow pattern in breast cancer. However, tumoral vascularity on CDUS may not reflect tumoral angiogenesis.

129

Enhancement of glioblastoma radioresponse by a selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib: Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis with extensive tumor necrosis  

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Purpose: Toward improved glioblastoma multiforme treatment, we determined whether celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, could enhance glioblastoma radiosensitivity by inducing tumor necrosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Methods and Materials: U-87MG cells treated with celecoxib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival and angiogenic factor protein analysis (angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). In vivo, survival of mice intracranially implanted with U-87MG cells and treated with celecoxib and/or irradiation was monitored. Isolated tumors were assessed for tumor necrosis and tumor microvascular density by von Williebrand's factor (vWF) immunohistochemical staining. Results: Celecoxib (4 and 30 ?M; 24, 48, and 72 h) enhanced U-87MG cell radiosensitivity by significantly reducing clonogenic survival of irradiated cells. Angiopoietin-1 and VEGF proteins were decreased, whereas angiopoietin-2 expression increased after 72 h of celecoxib alone and when combined with irradiation. In vivo, median survival of control mice intracranially implanted with U-87MG cells was 18 days. Celecoxib (100 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks) significantly extended median survival of irradiated mice (24 Gy total) from 34 to 41 days, with extensive tumor necrosis [24.5 ± 8.6% of tumor region, compared with irradiation alone (2.7 ± 1.8%)]. Tumor microvascular density was significantly reduced in combined celecoxib and irradiated tumors (52.5 ± 2.9 microvessels per mm2 tumor region), compared with irradiated tumors alone (65.4 ± 4.0 microvessels per mm2). Conclusion: Celecoxib significantly enhanced glioblastoma radiosensitivity, reduced clonogenic survival, and prolonged survival of glioblastoma-implanted mice by inhibition of tumor angiogenesis with extensive tumor necrosis

130

Targeted microbubbles for imaging tumor angiogenesis: assessment of whole-body biodistribution with dynamic micro-PET in mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate in vivo whole-body biodistribution of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to tumor angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by using dynamic micro-positron emission tomography (PET) in living mice.

Willmann, Jürgen K; Cheng, Zhen

2008-01-01

131

Wilms' tumor protein (WT1) in mammary myofibroblastoma: an immunohistochemical study.  

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Wilms' tumor protein (WT1) has been immunohistochemically detected in the cytoplasm of some developing, adult normal and neoplastic human tissues, suggesting its complex regulator activity in transcriptional/translational processes. Among neoplastic tissues, WT1 has been documented in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant vascular tumors and in rhabdomyosarcoma, while there are no available studies about its expression in myofibroblastic tumors. Accordingly, we studied immunohistochemically the potential expression of WT1 in mammary myofibroblastoma (MFB), a prototypical myofibroblastic tumor. A series of 18 cases of mammary MFB, including several morphological variants (classic, fibrotic, myxoid, lipomatous, Schwannian-like, and epithelioid variants), were tested with antibodies against the N-terminal of WT1. The most striking finding was a diffuse and strong WT1 cytoplasmic immunostaining restricted to the "epithelioid cell MFB", a rare and diagnostically challenging variant. Conversely the other variants of MFB, including the classic-type, were negative or only focally positive. The present study shows that mammary epithelioid cell MFB should be added to the list of mesenchymal tumors which express WT1 in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells. Accordingly, we suggest that the detection of WT1 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity is of complementary diagnostic value to conventional myofibroblastic markers in identifying epithelioid cell myofibroblastoma. PMID:24709316

Magro, Gaetano; Longo, Francesca; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Parenti, Rosalba

2014-06-01

132

Tumor-protective and tumor-promoting actions of dietary whey proteins in an N-methyl-N-nitrosourea model of rat mammary carcinogenesis.  

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Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers; Dietary modulation of carcinogenesis-related pathways. Dietary item or component studied: whey protein hydrolysate (WPH)Outcome studied: mammary tumor incidence; tumor suppressor BRCA1 gene expression; tumor differentiation marker kappa-casein gene expressionStudy type: female Sprague-Dawley rats Tissue/biological material/sample size: mammary glandsMode of exposure: dietaryImpact on outcome (including dose-response): lifetime exposure to WP...

Eason, Renea R.; Till, S. Renee; Frank, Julie A.; Badger, Thomas M.; Korourian, Sohelia; Simmen, Frank A.; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.

2006-01-01

133

Combination angiostatic therapy completely inhibits ocular and tumor angiogenesis  

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Angiostatic therapies designed to inhibit neovascularization associated with multiple pathological conditions have only been partially successful; complete inhibition has not been achieved. We demonstrate synergistic effects of combining angiostatic molecules that target distinct aspects of the angiogenic process, resulting in the complete inhibition of neovascular growth associated with development, ischemic retinopathy, and tumor growth, with little or no effect on normal, mature tissue vas...

Dorrell, Michael I.; Aguilar, Edith; Scheppke, Lea; Barnett, Faith H.; Friedlander, Martin

2007-01-01

134

Suppression of tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis of human gastric cancer by adenovirus-mediated expression of NK4.  

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BACKGROUND: To improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer it is important to develop novel treatment modalities targeting the malignant behavior of tumor cells. Concerning this, NK4, which acts as HGF-antagonist and angiogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential therapeutic agent for gastric cancer. The HGF-c-MET pathway plays a pivotal role in gastric tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Therefore, the current study investigates whether adenoviral vector-mediated NK4...

Heideman, D. A. M.; Beusechem-kaptein, V. W.; Bloemena, E.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Craanen, M. E.; Offerhaus, Gj; Derksen, Pw; Bruin, M.; Witlox, M. A.; Molenaar, B.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.; Gerritsen, W. R.

2004-01-01

135

Angiotensin-converting enzyme and the tumor microenvironment: mechanisms beyond angiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is a network of enzymes and peptides that coalesce primarily on the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) to induce cell proliferation, angiogenesis, fibrosis, and blood pressure control. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the key peptidase of the RAS, is promiscuous in that it cleaves other substrates such as substance P and bradykinin. Accumulating evidence implicates ACE in the pathophysiology of carcinogenesis. While the role of ACE and its peptide network in modulating angiogenesis via the AT1R is well documented, its involvement in shaping other aspects of the tumor microenvironment remains largely unknown. Here, we review the role of ACE in modulating the immune compartment of the tumor microenvironment, which encompasses the immunosuppressive, cancer-promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cells, alternatively activated tumor-associated macrophages, and T regulatory cells. We also discuss the potential roles of peptides that accumulate in the setting of chronic ACE inhibitor use, such as bradykinin, substance P, and N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP), and how they may undercut the gains of anti-angiogenesis from ACE inhibition. These emerging mechanisms may harmonize the often-conflicting results on the role of ACE inhibitors and ACE polymorphisms in various cancers and call for further investigations into the potential benefit of ACE inhibitors in some neoplasms. PMID:23739345

Okwan-Duodu, Derick; Landry, Jerome; Shen, Xiao Z; Diaz, Roberto

2013-08-01

136

Pien Tze Huang inhibits tumor angiogenesis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer via suppression of multiple cellular pathways.  

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Angiogenesis plays an essential role in cancer progression, which therefore has become an attractive target for anticancer treatment. Tumor angiogenesis is tightly regulated by multiple signaling pathways that usually function redundantly; in addition, crosstalk between these pathways forms a complicated network that is regulated by compensatory mechanisms. Given the complexity of pathogenic mechanisms underlying tumor angiogenesis, most currently used angiogenesis inhibitors that only target single pathways may be insufficient and probably generate drug resistance, thus, increasing the necessity for development of novel anticancer agents. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are receiving great interest since they have relatively fewer side-effects and have been used for thousands of years to clinically treat various types of diseases including cancer. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formulation that was first prescribed 450 years ago, has long been used as an alternative remedy for cancers. However, the precise mechanism of PZH's anticancer activity remains to be further elucidated. Using a colorectal cancer mouse xenograft model, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of PZH on tumor angiogenesis and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH inhibited tumor growth since PZH treatment resulted in decrease in both tumor volume and tumor weight in CRC mice. In addition, PZH suppressed the activation of several signaling pathways such as STAT3, Akt and MAPKs. Consequently, the inhibitory effect of PZH on these pathways resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis as demonstrated by the decrease of microvessel density in tumor tissues. Moreover, PZH treatment reduced the expression of angiogenic factors including iNOS, eNOS, VEGF-A, bFGF as well as their specific receptors VEGFR2 and bFGFR. Altogether, our findings suggest that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis via suppression of multiple signaling pathways might be one of the mechanisms whereby PZH affects cancers. PMID:23843018

Shen, Aling; Lin, Jiumao; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Wei; Liu, Liya; Hong, Zhenfeng; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

2013-10-01

137

Tumores de glándula mamaria en caninos Tumors of mammary gland in canine  

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Full Text Available De los animales de compañía, los caninos son los que sufren con mayor frecuencia tumores de glándula mamaria y dentro de ellos las hembras son las que contribuyen con el mayor número de casos. Cuando estos tumores se presentan en machos por lo general tienen características histológicas malignas. Para el diagnóstico histopatológico la clasificación que ha tenido mayor aceptación es la propuesta por Hampe and Misdorp. A través de muchos años de investigación en este campo se han descrito varios factores considerados como predisponentes, entre los cuales están: raza, sexo, edad, dentro de estos la que presenta mayor disparidad de conceptos es la raza ya que, según algunos autores, se puede ver influenciada por factores externos como la localización geográfica y el gusto de los propietarios por ciertas razas como animales de compañía. Otro hecho importante es la descripción de agentes causales: el invalance hormonal (estrógenos, progesterona, mutaciones genéticas, (gen supresor del tumor, protooncogenes y consumo de dietas ricas en grasas. Finalmente, es importante hacer énfasis en el hecho que del diagnóstico adecuado y pautas de tratamiento llevados a cabo por el médico veterinario clínico, depende el pronóstico y las expectativas de vida del paciente canino.Among domestic animals, canines are those that most frequently suffertumors of mammary gland and among them females are those that present the biggest number of cases. When these tumors are present in males, they have malign hystologic characteristics. For the hysto-pathologic diagnosis the best accepted classification is Hampe and Misford ' s proposal. Through many years of research in this field several predisposition factors, as race, sex andage have been described. Among these, race accounts for the highest disparity of concepts since, as some authors argue, this can be influenced by some external factors as geographic location and the owners ' likes for certain races as company animals. Another important fact is the description of causal agents such as hormonal imbalance (estrogens, progesterone, genetic mutations (suppressive gene of the tumor and proto- oncogenesis, consumption of fat-rich diets. Finally, it is important to emphasize the fact that the prognosis and life expectations of the canine patient depend on the basis of a good diagnosis and clues for treatment carried out by the Clinic Veterinarian.

Osmar Fajardo

2005-10-01

138

Imaging angiogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Angiogenesis of tumors has gained tremendous attention in the research community over the last years. Novel anit-angiogenic treatment protocols are currently in various phases of clinical testing. Thus, the major challenge for Radiological diagnostics is to develop imaging methods which reliably measure the angiogenic tumor burden as well as tumor response to anti-angiogenic treatment in vivo. This article intends to provide a brief overview of imaging strategies for angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic treatment. (orig.)

139

Steroid metabolism and steroid receptors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors  

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Mammary tumors were induced in rats by treatment with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Cytosol receptors for 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were estimated by means of sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the metabolism of [14C]progesterone, [14C]testosterone, and 17 beta-[14C]estradiol by minced tumor tissue was studied. The estradiol receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels of the tumors varied considerably from less than 5 to 48 fmol/mg protein for ER and to 243 fmol/mg protein for PR. Considering a receptor level lower than 5 fmol/mg protein to be negative, four groups of tumors were found: ER-negative and PR-negative; ER-positive and PR-negative; ER-negative and PR-positive; ER-positive and PR-positive. In dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumor tissue, high 5 alpha-reductase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and somewhat lower 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 6 alpha-hydroxylase activities were found. No aromatization was detectable. Steroids, especially estradiol, were also metabolized in a high degree to unextractable metabolites. It was concluded that steroid metabolism of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors was not related to the ER and/or PR concentration of tumor tissue

140

Examining the role of Rac1 in tumor angiogenesis and growth: a clinically relevant RNAi-mediated approach.  

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Angiogenesis, the sprouting of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, is a well established target in anti-cancer therapy. It is thought that the Rho GTPase Rac1 is required during vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis. In the present study, we have used a clinically relevant RNA interference approach to silence Rac1 expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were transiently transfected with non-specific control siRNA (siNS) or Rac1 siRNA (siRac1) using electroporation or Lipofectamine 2000. Functional assays with transfected endothelial cells were performed to determine the effect of Rac1 knockdown on angiogenesis in vitro. Silencing of Rac1 inhibited VEGF-mediated tube formation, cell migration, invasion and proliferation. In addition, treatment with Rac1 siRNA inhibited angiogenesis in an in vivo Matrigel plug assay. Intratumoral injections of siRac1 almost completely inhibited the growth of grafted Neuro2a tumors and reduced tumor angiogenesis. Together, these data indicate that Rac1 is an important regulator of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. Knockdown of Rac1 may represent an attractive approach to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and growth. PMID:21789714

Vader, P; van der Meel, R; Symons, M H; Fens, M H A M; Pieters, E; Wilschut, K J; Storm, G; Jarzabek, M; Gallagher, W M; Schiffelers, R M; Byrne, A T

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Co-expression of vimentin and cytokeratin in bitch mammary gland tumors  

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Full Text Available This work presents the results of immunohistochemical studies on the distribution of intermediary filamentous proteins vimentin and cytokeratin in bitch mammary gland tumors, which had been previously classified according to the latest WHO-classification (1999. The overall test specimen included 45 bitches of different breeds and age, which resulted in diagnosing 27 malignant neoplasms, 11 benign neoplasms, and 3 hyperplastic-dysplastic changes, while 4 test specimens were taken from healthy bitches. The commonest malignant neoplasms were: simple adenocarcinoma (13 cases and complex adenocarcinoma (7. Among the benign neoplasms the ones that dominated were benign mixed tumors (8 cases. Vimentin was expressed on neoplastic proliferative suprabasal myoepithelial cells of simple adenocarcinomas; on resting, spindleshaped and star-shaped myoepithelial cells of complex adenocarcinomas; on cartilage cells of carcinomas in the mixed tumor and benign mixed tumors; on osteoid cells of osteosarcoma; and on myofibroblasts of simple adenocarcinomas, complex adenocarcinomas, carcinomas in the mixed tumor and benign mixed tumors, and connective tissue fibres of fibrosarcoma. The expression of cytokeratin was noticed on canalicular and alveolar lumen epithelium of simple adenocarcinomas; on epithelial cells of complex adenocarcinomas, carcinomas in the mixed tumor, mutinous carcinomas, fibrosarcoma and of osteosarcoma; on resting and starshaped myoepithelial cells of complex adenocarcinomas and carcinomas in the mixed tumor; as well as on spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells of carcinomas in the mixed tumor. Proliferative suprabasal myoepithelial cells of simple adenocarcinomas showed the co-expression of vimentin and cytokeratin, and so did the resting and spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells of complex tubular adenocarcinomas, whereas in complex solid adenocarcinomas the coexpression was also shown on star-shaped myoepithelial cells. The coexpression of vimentin and cytokeratin was found on resting myoepithelial cells of benign mixed tumors, simple and complex adenomas, and mammary gland hyperplasia; on spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells of benign mixed tumors, complex adenomas and myoepithelial solid adenomas; and on star-shaped myoepithelial cells of benign mixed tumors.

Jovi? Slavoljub

2007-01-01

142

Epoxy metabolites of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis  

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Epidemiological and preclinical evidence supports that omega-3 dietary fatty acids (fish oil) reduce the risks of macular degeneration and cancers, but the mechanisms by which these omega-3 lipids inhibit angiogenesis and tumorigenesis are poorly understood. Here we show that epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs), which are lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases from omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, inhibit VEGF- and fibroblast growth factor 2-induced angiogenesis in vivo, and suppress endothelial cell migration and protease production in vitro via a VEGF receptor 2-dependent mechanism. When EDPs (0.05 mg?kg?1?d?1) are coadministered with a low-dose soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, EDPs are stabilized in circulation, causing ?70% inhibition of primary tumor growth and metastasis. Contrary to the effects of EDPs, the corresponding metabolites derived from omega-6 arachidonic acid, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, increase angiogenesis and tumor progression. These results designate epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and EDPs as unique endogenous mediators of an angiogenic switch to regulate tumorigenesis and implicate a unique mechanistic linkage between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and cancers. PMID:23553837

Zhang, Guodong; Panigrahy, Dipak; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jun-Yan; Stephen Lee, Kin Sing; Wettersten, Hiromi I.; Ulu, Arzu; Hu, Xiaowen; Tam, Sarah; Hwang, Sung Hee; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Kieran, Mark W.; Weiss, Robert H.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Hammock, Bruce D.

2013-01-01

143

Anticancer activity of phenolic antioxidants against breast cancer cells and a spontaneous mammary tumor  

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Phenolics such as ferulic, caffeic, gallic acids and curcumin were tested for their potential anti proliferative and cytotoxic properties in human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) as well as on a spontaneous mammary adenocarcinoma tumor. As a single agent, caffeic acid showed substantial growth inhibitory activity. In combination with cisplatin it was also found to be effective. For the current study we used a chick embryo model to assess antiangiogenic activity. Curcumin and its beta cyclodex...

Indap M; Radhika S; Motiwale Leena; Kvk, Rao

2006-01-01

144

An exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus with properties of Mls-1a (Mtv- 7)  

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The classical minor lymphocyte stimulating (Mls) antigens, which induce a strong primary T cell response in vitro, are closely linked to endogenous copies of mouse mammary tumor viruses (MMTV). Expression of Mls genes leads to clonal deletion of T cell subsets expressing specific T cell receptor (TCR) V beta chains. We describe the isolation and characterization of a new exogenous (infectious) MMTV with biological properties similar to the Mls antigen Mls-1a. In vivo administration of either ...

1992-01-01

145

An experimental study on angiogenesis in rabbit VX2 brain tumor using perfusion CT  

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-1·100 g-1] and normal tissue region [(2.24±0.75)ml·100 g-1, (55.72±21.24)ml·100 g-1·min-1, and 0.04 ml·min-1·100 g-l] (P=0.000). Tumor BV [(16.41±4.12)ml·100 g-1], BF[(208.77±63.00)ml·100 g-1·min-1], and MVD (61.20± 12.93)/high power field in group 2 were significantly higher than those [(10.09±2.27) ml·100 g-l, (123.51±47.18)ml·100 g-1·min-l, and (41.40±7.34)/high power field] in group 1 (Ps=0.861, P=0.000). Conclusion: Perfusion CT can distinguish tumor from peritumor and normal tissue clearly, reflect tumor angiogenesis accurately, and provide useful information for the evaluation of brain tumor. (authors)

146

Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract A rare case of an apocrine tumor in the male perineal region is reported. A dermal cystic lesion developed in the region between the anus and scrotum of a 74-year-old Japanese male. The cystic lesion, measuring 3.5 × 5.0 cm in size, was lined by columnar or flattened epithelium with occasional apocrine features and supported by a basal myoepithelium lining. A mural nodule, measuring 1 × 1.5 cm in size, protruded into the cystic space and consisted of a solid proliferation of tubular glands with prominent apocrine secretion and basal myoepithelial cells. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the luminal cells were partially positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and human milk fat globulin 1, and the basal myoepithelial cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. Estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors were focally and weakly positive for luminal epithelium. Although no mammary-like glands were present in the dermis around the tumor, this unusual apocrine tumor has been suggested to be derived from male anogenital mammary-like glands and mimic a mammary-like gland adenoma in the male perineum.

Yoshioka Takako

2010-06-01

147

Paradoxical antiproliferative effect by a murine mammary tumor-derived epithelial cell line  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant advancement in breast cancer therapy, there is a great need for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in breast carcinogenesis and progression, as well as of the role of epigenetic contributions from stromal cells in mammary tumorigenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterized murine mammary tumor-derived epithelial and myofibroblast cell lines, and investigated the in vitro and in vivo effect of cellular soluble factors produced by the epithelial cell line on tumor cells. Methods Morphology, immunophenotype, cytogenetics, invasiveness, and tumorigenicity of epithelial (LM-234ep and myofibroblast (LM-234mf cell lines isolated from two murine mammary adenocarcinomas with common ancestor were studied. The in vitro effects of LM-234ep conditioned medium on proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and expression of cell cycle proteins, were investigated in LM-234mf cells, mouse melanoma cells (B16-F10, and human cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa. The in vivo anti-tumor activity of LM-234ep conditioned media was evaluated in subcutaneous tumors formed in nude mice by B16-F10 and HeLa cells. Results LM-234ep cells were found to be cytokeratin positive and hipertriploid, whereas LM-234mf cells were ?-smooth muscle actin positive and hypohexaploid. Chromosome aberrations were found in both cases. Only LM-234mf revealed to be invasive in vitro and to secrete active MMP-2, though neither of the cell types were able to produce progressing tumors. LM-234ep-derived factors were able to inhibit the in vitro growth of LM-234mf, B16-F10, and HeLa cells, inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. The administration of LM-234ep conditioned medium inhibited the growth of B16-F10 and HeLa tumors in nude mice. Conclusion Our data suggest the existence of epithelial cell variants with tumor suppressive properties within mammary tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities induced by tumor-derived epithelial cells.

Scharovsky O Graciela

2007-10-01

148

Impaired angiogenesis and tumor development by inhibition of the mitotic kinesin Eg5.  

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Kinesin motor proteins exert essential cellular functions in all eukaryotes. They control mitosis, migration and intracellular transport through interaction with microtubules. Small molecule inhibitors of the mitotic kinesin KiF11/Eg5 are a promising new class of anti-neoplastic agents currently evaluated in clinical cancer trials for solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Here we report induction of Eg5 and four other mitotic kinesins including KIF20A/Mklp2 upon stimulation of in vivo angiogenesis with vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Expression analyses indicate up-regulation of several kinesin-encoding genes predominantly in lymphoblasts and endothelial cells. Chemical blockade of Eg5 inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Mitosis-independent vascular outgrowth in aortic ring cultures is strongly impaired after Eg5 or Mklp2 protein inhibition. In vivo, interfering with KIF11/Eg5 function causes developmental and vascular defects in zebrafish and chick embryos and potent inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in experimental tumor models. Besides blocking tumor cell proliferation, impairing endothelial function is a novel mechanism of action of kinesin inhibitors. PMID:24327603

Exertier, Prisca; Javerzat, Sophie; Wang, Baigang; Franco, Mélanie; Herbert, John; Platonova, Natalia; Winandy, Marie; Pujol, Nadège; Nivelles, Olivier; Ormenese, Sandra; Godard, Virginie; Becker, Jürgen; Bicknell, Roy; Pineau, Raphael; Wilting, Jörg; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Hagedorn, Martin

2013-12-01

149

Targeting angiogenesis and tumor microenvironment in metastatic colorectal cancer: role of aflibercept.  

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In the last decades, we have progressively observed an improvement in therapeutic options for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment with a progressive prolongation of survival. mCRC prognosis still remains poor with low percentage of 5-year survival. Targeted agents have improved results obtained with standard chemotherapy. Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in colorectal cancer growth, proliferation, and metastasization and it has been investigated as a potential target for mCRC treatment. Accordingly, novel antiangiogenic targeted agents bevacizumab, regorafenib, and aflibercept have been approved for mCRC treatment as the result of several phase III randomized trials. The development of a tumor permissive microenvironment via the aberrant expression by tumor cells of paracrine factors alters the tumor-stroma interactions inducing an expansion of proangiogenic signals. Recently, the VELOUR study showed that addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI regimen as a second-line therapy for mCRC improved significantly OS, PFS, and RR. This molecule represents a valid second-line therapeutic option and its peculiar ability to interfere with placental growth factor (PlGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) axis makes it effective in targeting angiogenesis, inflammatory cells and in overcoming resistances to anti-angiogenic first-line treatment. Here, we discuss about Aflibercept peculiar ability to interfere with tumor microenvironment and angiogenic pathway. PMID:25136356

Giordano, Guido; Febbraro, Antonio; Venditti, Michele; Campidoglio, Serena; Olivieri, Nunzio; Raieta, Katia; Parcesepe, Pietro; Imbriani, Giusy Carmen; Remo, Andrea; Pancione, Massimo

2014-01-01

150

Cross-immunity among mammary carcinomas in C3H/HE mice immunized with gamma-irradiated tumor cells  

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By immunization with gamma-irradiated (13,000 rad) tumor cells, cross-immunity between ascites mammary carcinomas and among solid mammary carcinomas in C3H/He mice was studied. The results were as follows: (1) Two ascites mammary carcinomas designated MM 46 (high vitality) and MM 48 (intermediate vitality) were used in this experiment. The immunization with the tumor of high vitality (MM 46) induced strong cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of intermediate vitality (MM 48). The immunization with the tumor of intermediate vitality (MM 48) induced weak cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of high vitality (MM 46). (2) Three solid mammary carcinomas designated MT 10 (intermediate vitality), MT 7 (high vitality) and MT X (the highest vitality) were used in this experiment. The immunization with the tumor of high vitality (MT 7) induced strong cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of intermediate vitality (MT 10), and induced moderate cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of the highest vitality (MT X). The immunization with the tumor of intermediate vitality (MT 10) induced moderate cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of high vitality (MT 7), but could not induce any cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of the highest vitality (MT X). (author)

151

Resveratrol derivative-rich melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract suppresses multiple angiogenesis-related endothelial cell functions and tumor angiogenesis.  

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Angiogenesis is a promising target for cancer prevention and treatment. This study aimed to determine the antiangiogenic effects of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract and its resveratrol derivative components, such as gnetin C (GC), gnetin L (GL), gnemonoside A (GMA), gnemonoside C (GMC), and gnemonoside D (GMD). An ethanol extract of melinjo seeds (EEMS) and the two gnetins markedly inhibited the proliferation and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) stimulated with vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. The inhibitory effects of GC and GL were much stronger than those of resveratrol. GMC and GMD inhibited only proliferation, whereas GMA had almost no effect on the two endothelial cell functions. The EEMS and GC also reduced the cell viability of tube-forming HUVEC, with accompanying ERK1/2 inactivation, and suppressed the migration of HUVEC. Furthermore, dietary intake of EEMS significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis in a mouse dorsal air sac assay. In conclusion, we found that the EEMS and its resveratrol derivatives, particularly GC, suppress multiple angiogenesis-related endothelial cell functions and/or tumor angiogenesis, indicating that the melinjo seeds and the natural resveratrol derivatives may be useful for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:21936049

Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Toshiro; Tani, Hiroko; Kato, Eishin; Eguchi, Ryoji; Kaji, Kazuhiko; Ikeda, Katsumi; Mori, Hideki; Mori, Mari; Tatefuji, Tomoki; Yamori, Yukio

2011-11-01

152

Optimizing the time of doxil injection to increase the drug retention in transplanted murine mammary tumors  

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Full Text Available Shaojin You, Lian Zuo, Wei LiExperimental Cancer Therapeutic Laboratory and Histopathology Core, Atlanta Research and Educational Foundation (151F, Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USAAbstract: Sex hormonal milieus during the female fertility cycle modulate the tumor vascular permeability of breast cancer. It has been proposed that the liposomal formulated doxorubicin (ie, Doxil, given at the menstrual/estrous stage with the predicted highest tumor vascular permeability, allows significantly increased drug retention in the breast tumor. In the current study, syngeneic murine 4T1 mammary tumors were established on the backs of female BALB/c mice and Doxil was administered at particular mouse estrous cycle stages. The results indicated that Doxil administration during certain times in the mouse estrous cycle was crucial for drug retention in 4T1 tumor tissues. Significantly higher drug concentrations were detected in the tumor tissues when Doxil was administered during the diestrus stage, as compared to when the drug injection was given at all other estrous stages. Our study also showed that the tumor-bearing mice exhibited nearly normal rhythmicity of the estrous cycle post drug injection, indicating the feasibility of continual injection of Doxil at the same estrous cycle stage. By using 4T1 cells cultured in vitro, we showed that progesterone (P4 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and the production of six tumor-derived cytokines, eg, sTNF-RI, CXCL-16, GM-CSF, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and Flt3-L. Some of these factors have been shown to be vascular modulators in diverse tissues. In this report, we demonstrated that the concentration of P4 in the plasma and/or estrous cycle stage of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice can be used to select the best time for administrating the liposomal anticancer drugs.Keywords: progesterone, menstrual cycle, mouse mammary tumor, Doxil, breast cancer therapy

Shaojin You

2010-03-01

153

Usefulness of selective COX-2 inhibitors as therapeutic agents against canine mammary tumors.  

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Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme for converting arachidonic acids to prostanoids, which are known to be induced during inflammation and cancer initiation. Previously, it has been reported that COX inhibitors, such as aspirin, reduce the incidence of human colorectal cancer; therefore, it is widely believed that COX-2 is a potential therapeutic and chemoprevention target for several types of human cancer. However, whether selective COX-2 inhibitors have antitumor effects against canine mammary tumor cells remains unclear. In the present study, to elucidate the antitumor effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors against canine mammary tumors, we investigated the antitumor effects of meloxicam, etodolac and celecoxib using COX-2-expressing canine mammary tumor (CF33) cells. We analyzed the effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors on COX-2 protein expression levels in CF33 cells. Celecoxib (100 µM) was found to induce downregulation of COX-2 protein expression. We examined the effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors on CF33 cell proliferation. All the selective COX-2 inhibitors suppressed CF33 cell growth. Specifically, etodolac and celecoxib inhibited cell proliferation via a decrease in S-phase cells and an increase in G0/G1 arrest. We examined the apoptotic effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors on CF33 cells. Our data suggested that etodolac and celecoxib induced apoptosis in CF33 cells. In particular, celecoxib led to apoptosis mediated by the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, including the upregulation of BAX expression, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression and activation of caspase-3/7. Furthermore, celecoxib increased the percentages of cells in both early apoptosis and late apoptosis. Our results revealed that celecoxib induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in CF33 cells. The data suggested that celecoxib is the most viable candidate as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of canine mammary tumors. Furthermore, our findings provide the first indication that COX-2 inhibition can provide a new therapeutic strategy for treating canine mammary tumors. PMID:24503782

Saito, Teruyoshi; Tamura, Dai; Asano, Ryuji

2014-04-01

154

Biodegradable nanoassemblies of piperlongumine display enhanced anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities  

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Piperlongumine (PL) shows an inhibitory effect on tumor growth; however, lipophilicity has restricted its further applications. Nanotechnology provides an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility of lipophilic drugs. Polymeric micelles with small particle size can passively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, thus improving their anti-tumor effects. In this study, to improve the water solubility and anti-tumor activity of PL, PL encapsulated polymeric micelles (PL micelles) were prepared by a solid dispersion method. The prepared PL micelles showed a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency, which could be lyophilized into powder, and the re-dissolved PL micelles are homogenous and stable in water. In addition, a sustained release behavior of PL micelles was observed in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles could increase the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and reduce glutathione (GSH) levels in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles enhanced its inhibitory effect on neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with free PL, PL micelles showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, in a transgenic zebrafish model, embryonic angiogenesis was inhibited by PL micelles. Furthermore, PL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging survival in a subcutaneous CT-26 murine tumor model in vivo. Therefore, our data revealed that the encapsulation of PL into biodegradable polymeric micelles enhanced its anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities both in vitro and in vivo.

Liu, Yuanyuan; Chang, Ying; Yang, Chao; Sang, Zitai; Yang, Tao; Ang, Wei; Ye, Weiwei; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang; Luo, Youfu

2014-03-01

155

Canine classical seminoma: a specific malignant type with human classifications is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Human seminoma is classified as classical seminoma (SE and spermatocytic seminoma (SS. Human SE is known to be more malignant and metastasizing more frequently than SS. Tumor angiogenesis is highly related with tumor progression and metastasis, with microvessel density (MVD being an important parameter of metastatic potential. Canine seminoma is not yet well-established as SE or SS type including correlation with angiogenesis. We classified canine SE and SS, and then compared them to tumor associated vessels. Methods Twenty-three cases of canine seminomas (2 intratubular, 9 diffuse, and 12 intratubular/diffuse seminomas showing both intratubular and diffuse patterns were classified as SE or SS by immunohistochemistry (IHC using monoclonal antibody against PLAP and by PAS stain. The histopathological data were then compared to see if there was a correlation with SE or SS. Angiogenesis of seminomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay using polyclonal antibody against Von Willebrand factor (vWF and by calculating the means of MVD, vessels area and perimeters using computerized image analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program was used for various statistical analyses. Results The numbers of PLAP+/PAS+ canine SEs were 8/23 (34.8% and PLAP-/PAS- SSs were 15/23 (61.2%. All SE cases (8/8, 100% were intratubular/diffuse types. SS types included 2 intratubular (2/15, 13.3%, 9 diffuse (9/15, 60%, and 4 intratubular/diffuse (4/15, 26.7% types. MVD and vascular parameters in SEs were significantly higher than in SSs, showing the highest value in the intratubular/diffuse type. Seminomas observed with neoplastic cells invasion of vessels presented higher perimeter and area values than seminomas without conformed neoplastic cells invasion. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between canine SE and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we also showed that a tumor cells invasion of vessels were a correlated vascular parameter. Although metastasis of canine seminomas has rarely been reported, our results support that canine SE could have high metastatic potential similar to the human counterpart. Further studies are required to clarify the relationship between canine SE and clinical data with metastatic factors.

Kim Jong-Hyuk

2010-05-01

156

The selective Cox-2 inhibitor Celecoxib suppresses angiogenesis and growth of secondary bone tumors: An intravital microscopy study in mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant primary and secondary tumors in addition to established therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. There is strong experimental evidence in primary tumors that Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 inhibition is a potent mechanism to reduce angiogenesis. For bone metastases which occur in up to 85% of the most frequent malignant primary tumors, the effects of Cox-2 inhibition on angiogenesis and tumor growth remain still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Celecoxib, a selective Cox-2 inhibitor, on angiogenesis, microcirculation and growth of secondary bone tumors. Methods In 10 male severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice, pieces of A549 lung carcinomas were implanted into a newly developed cranial window preparation where the calvaria serves as the site for orthotopic implantation of the tumors. From day 8 after tumor implantation, five animals (Celecoxib were treated daily with Celecoxib (30 mg/kg body weight, s.c., and five animals (Control with the equivalent amount of the CMC-based vehicle. Angiogenesis, microcirculation, and growth of A549 tumors were analyzed by means of intravital microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified using the TUNEL assay. Results Treatment with Celecoxib reduced both microvessel density and tumor growth. TUNEL reaction showed an increase in apoptotic cell death of tumor cells after treatment with Celecoxib as compared to Controls. Conclusion Celecoxib is a potent inhibitor of tumor growth of secondary bone tumors in vivo which can be explained by its anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects. The results indicate that a combination of established therapy regimes with Cox-2 inhibition represents a possible application for the treatment of bone metastases.

Abdollahi Amir

2006-01-01

157

Identification of a stable molecular signature in mammary tumor endothelial cells that persists in vitro.  

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Long-term, in vitro propagation of tumor-specific endothelial cells (TEC) allows for functional studies and genome-wide expression profiling of clonally derived, well-characterized subpopulations. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of mammary adenocarcinoma, we have optimized an isolation procedure and defined growth conditions for long-term propagation of mammary TEC. The isolated TEC maintain their endothelial specification and phenotype in culture. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of multiple TEC subpopulations revealed striking, persistent overexpression of several candidate genes including Irx2 and Zfp503 (transcription factors), Alcam and Cd133 (cell surface markers), Ccl4 and neurotensin (Nts) (angiocrine factors), and Gpr182 and Cnr2 (G protein-coupled receptors). Taken together, we have developed an effective method for isolating and culture-expanding mammary TEC, and uncovered several new TEC-selective genes whose overexpression persists even after long-term in vitro culture. These results suggest that the tumor microenvironment may induce changes in vascular endothelium in vivo that are stably transmittable in vitro. PMID:24257808

Xiao, Lin; Harrell, J Chuck; Perou, Charles M; Dudley, Andrew C

2014-07-01

158

Inhibition of breast tumor growth and angiogenesis by a medicinal herb: Ocimum gratissimum.  

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Ocimum sp. is a traditionally used medicinal herb, which shows anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, radio-protective and free radical scavenging properties. So far no detailed studies have been reported on its effects on human cancers. Thus, we analyzed its effects on human breast cancer utilizing in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Aqueous extracts were prepared from the mature leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) cultivated devoid of pesticides. Tumor progression and angiogenesis related processes like chemotaxis, proliferation, apoptosis, 3D growth and morphogenesis, angiogenesis and tumor growth were studied in the presence or absence of the extract, and in some experiments a comparison was made with purified commercially available eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid. Aqueous OG leaf extract inhibits proliferation, migration, anchorage independent growth, 3D growth and morphogenesis and induction of COX-2 protein in breast cancer cells. A comparative analysis with eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid showed that the inhibitory effects on chemotaxis and 3D morphogenesis of breast cancer cells were specific to OG extract. In addition, OG extracts reduced tumor size and neoangiogenesis in a MCF10 DCIS.com xenograft model of human DCIS. This is the first detailed report showing that OG leaf extract may be of value as a breast cancer preventive and therapeutic agent and might be considered as additional additive in the arsenal of components aimed at combating breast cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:17437270

Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P V; Palomino, Eduardo; Hogan, Victor; Piechocki, Marie P; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Raz, Avraham

2007-08-15

159

Targeting the activator protein 1 transcription factor for the prevention of estrogen receptor-negative mammary tumors.  

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The oncogene erbB2 is overexpressed in 20% to 30% human breast cancers and is most commonly overexpressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers. Transgenic mice expressing erbB2 develop ER-negative mammary tumors, mimicking human breast carcinogenesis. Previously, we have shown that activator protein 1 (AP-1) regulates proliferation of ER-negative breast cancer cells. We hypothesized that blockade of AP-1 in mouse mammary epithelial cells will suppress ER-negative tumorigenesis induced by erbB2. Trigenic erbB2 mice were generated by crossing a bigenic pUHD-Tam67/MMTV-rtTA mouse to a MMTV-erbB2 mouse. The resulting trigenic mice develop tumors and express a doxycycline-inducible c-Jun dominant negative mutant (Tam67) in the mammary glands. In vivo AP-1 blockade by Tam67 expression started delayed mammary tumor formation in MMTV-erbB2 mice by more than 11 weeks. By 52 weeks of age, 100% (18 of 18) of the untreated animals had developed mammary tumors, whereas 56% (9 of 16) of the doxycycline-treated trigenic mice developed tumors. In addition, the tumors that arose in the AP-1-blocked erbB2 mice failed to express Tam67. Twenty-five percent of the doxycycline-treated MMTV-erbB2 mice survived more than 72 weeks of age without developing mammary tumors. Examination of normal-appearing mammary glands from these mice showed that AP-1 blockade by Tam67 also significantly prevents the development of premalignant lesions in these glands. The expression of erbB2 either in normal mammary tissue or in mammary tumors was not altered. Our results show that blocking the AP-1 signaling in mammary cells suppresses erbB2-induced transformation, and show that the AP-1 transcription factor is a critical transducer of erbB2. These results provide a scientific rationale to develop targeted drugs that inhibit AP-1 to prevent the development of ER-negative breast cancer. PMID:19138935

Shen, Qiang; Uray, Ivan P; Li, Yuxin; Zhang, Yun; Hill, Jamal; Xu, Xiao-Chun; Young, Matthew R; Gunther, Edward J; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Colburn, Nancy H; Chodosh, Lewis A; Brown, Powel H

2008-06-01

160

Endothelial deficiency of L1 reduces tumor angiogenesis and promotes vessel normalization.  

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While tumor blood vessels share many characteristics with normal vasculature, they also exhibit morphological and functional aberrancies. For example, the neural adhesion molecule L1, which mediates neurite outgrowth, fasciculation, and pathfinding, is expressed on tumor vasculature. Here, using an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic carcinoma, we evaluated L1 functionality in cancer vessels. Tumor-bearing mice specifically lacking L1 in endothelial cells or treated with anti-L1 antibodies exhibited decreased angiogenesis and improved vascular stabilization, leading to reduced tumor growth and metastasis. In line with these dramatic effects of L1 on tumor vasculature, the ectopic expression of L1 in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) promoted phenotypical and functional alterations, including proliferation, migration, tubulogenesis, enhanced vascular permeability, and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. L1 induced global changes in the EC transcriptome, altering several regulatory networks that underlie endothelial pathophysiology, including JAK/STAT-mediated pathways. In particular, L1 induced IL-6-mediated STAT3 phosphorylation, and inhibition of the IL-6/JAK/STAT signaling axis prevented L1-induced EC proliferation and migration. Evaluation of patient samples revealed that, compared with that in noncancerous tissue, L1 expression is specifically enhanced in blood vessels of human pancreatic carcinomas and in vessels of other tumor types. Together, these data indicate that endothelial L1 orchestrates multiple cancer vessel functions and represents a potential target for tumor vascular-specific therapies. PMID:25157817

Magrini, Elena; Villa, Alessandra; Angiolini, Francesca; Doni, Andrea; Mazzarol, Giovanni; Rudini, Noemi; Maddaluno, Luigi; Komuta, Mina; Topal, Baki; Prenen, Hans; Schachner, Melitta; Confalonieri, Stefano; Dejana, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Cavallaro, Ugo

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Effects of ionizing irradiation on the estradiol and progesterone receptors in rat mammary tumors  

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The determination of estradiol and progesterone receptor concentrations in mammary tumors is useful in predicting the hormone responsiveness. As this assay is carried out on tumor tissue which may have been subjected to radiotherapy, the possibility of an ionizing irradiation affecting the steroid receptor levels in neoplastic tissue should be taken into account. The steroid receptor concentrations are examined in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumors os Sprague-Dawley rats. The estradiol and the progesterone receptor titers become reduced significantly after treatment with 20 Gray while an application with 7 Gray does not affect the titer values. After treatment of the tumor with 20 Gray, the steroid receptor concentrations decrease progressively, reaching a maximal reduction 20 to 30 days after exposure. As radiation treatment affects the receptor concentrations, this should be kept in mind when interpreting the steroid receptor concentrations

162

Raising gestational choline intake alters gene expression in DMBA-evoked mammary tumors and prolongs survival.  

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Choline is an essential nutrient that serves as a donor of metabolic methyl groups used during gestation to establish the epigenetic DNA methylation patterns that modulate tissue-specific gene expression. Because the mammary gland begins its development prenatally, we hypothesized that choline availability in utero may affect the gland's susceptibility to cancer. During gestational days 11-17, pregnant rats were fed a control, choline-supplemented, or choline-deficient diet (8, 36, and 0 mmol/kg of choline, respectively). On postnatal day 65, the female offspring received 25 mg/kg of a carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene. Approximately 70% of the rats developed mammary adenocarcinomas; prenatal diet did not affect tumor latency, incidence, size, and multiplicity. Tumor growth rate was inversely related to choline content in the prenatal diet, resulting in 50% longer survival until euthanasia, determined by tumor size, of the prenatally choline-supplemented rats compared with the prenatally choline-deficient rats. This was accompanied by distinct expression patterns of approximately 70 genes in tumors derived from the three dietary groups. Tumors from the prenatally choline-supplemented rats overexpressed genes that confer favorable prognosis in human cancers (Klf6, Klf9, Nid2, Ntn4, Per1, and Txnip) and underexpressed those associated with aggressive disease (Bcar3, Cldn12, Csf1, Jag1, Lgals3, Lypd3, Nme1, Ptges2, Ptgs1, and Smarcb1). DNA methylation within the tumor suppressor gene, stratifin (Sfn, 14-3-3sigma), was proportional to the prenatal choline supply and correlated inversely with the expression of its mRNA and protein in tumors, suggesting that an epigenetic mechanism may underlie the altered molecular phenotype and tumor growth. Our results suggest a role for adequate maternal choline nutrition during pregnancy in prevention/alleviation of breast cancer in daughters. PMID:19047067

Kovacheva, Vesela P; Davison, Jessica M; Mellott, Tiffany J; Rogers, Adrianne E; Yang, Shi; O'Brien, Michael J; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof

2009-04-01

163

Evaluation of 64Cu- and 125I-radiolabeled bitistatin as potential agents for targeting alpha v beta 3 integrins in tumor angiogenesis.  

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The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is a feature common to all solid tumors. The integrin receptor alpha(V)beta(3), which is found on endothelial cells lining newly growing blood vessels at a higher density than on mature blood vessels, is being explored as a marker for tumor angiogenesis. Bitistatin, a member of the disintegrin family of polypeptides, has affinity for alpha(V)beta(3) integrins. To determine whether radiolabeled bitistatin could target tumors, its biodistribution was tested in tumor-bearing mice. For initial validation studies, (125)I-bitistatin was injected into BALB/c mice bearing EMT-6 mouse mammary carcinoma tumors, a model that is highly vascular but which lacks alpha(V)beta(3) directly on tumor cells. Tumor uptake reached maximal values (11.7 +/- 4.6 %ID/g) at 2 h. Co-injection of 200 microg of unlabeled bitistatin reduced tumor uptake 62%, suggesting that the binding of (125)I-bitistatin is receptor-mediated. This work was extended to include the beta(+)-emitting radionuclide (64)Cu, which was attached to bitistatin via 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N' ',N' "-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). This modification did not significantly alter receptor binding in vitro. MicroPET images obtained with (64)Cu-DOTA-bitistatin showed that the tumor could easily be identified 4 h after administering the radiopharmaceutical. The biodistribution of (64)Cu-DOTA-bitistatin differed from the (125)I analogue, in that maximum tumor uptake was nearly 8-fold lower and took at least 6 h to reach maximal binding (1.6 +/- 0.2 %ID/g). As with (125)I-labeled bitistatin, the (64)Cu conjugate showed a 50% reduction in tumor uptake with the co-injection of 200 microg of unlabeled bitistatin (0.8 +/- 0.2 %ID/g). Competition studies with integrin-specific peptides indicated that the tumor uptake was related to both alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin binding. To see if tumor uptake could be improved upon, (64)Cu was tethered to bitistatin using bromoacetamidobenzyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N' ',N' "-tetraacetic acid (BAD). Tumor uptake for (64)Cu-BAD-2IT-bitistatin was higher than the DOTA conjugate at all time points, reaching a maximum at least 6 h postinjection (5.2 +/- 0.6 %ID/g); however, this was accompanied by higher uptake in nontarget organs at all time points. Radiolabeled ligands of this type may be useful in the targeting of tumor angiogenesis, but the choice of radiolabeling approach has a significant impact on the in vivo properties of the radioligand. PMID:15366951

McQuade, Paul; Knight, Linda C; Welch, Michael J

2004-01-01

164

MR imaging of tumor angiogenesis using sterically stabilized Gd-DTPA liposomes targeted to CD105  

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Aim: To depict tumor angiogenesis via the expression of CD105 in tumor-bearing rats using Gd-DTPA liposomes targeted to CD105 (CD105-Gd-SLs) on MR imaging. Materials and methods: Three Gd-DTPA liposomal nanoparticles were prepared in our trial: liposomes entrapping Gd-DTPA (Gd-SLs), Gd-SLs conjugated to immunoglobulins (IgG-Gd-SLs) and CD105-Gd-SLs. Forty glioma-bearing rats were randomized into four groups: (a) Gd-DTPA; (b) Gd-SLs; (c) IgG-Gd-SLs; (d) CD105-Gd-SLs. Axial T1WI MRI images were collected at baseline and repeated at 5, 30, 60 and 120 min post-intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA or liposome. Enhancement features and contrast-to-noise ratio of each group were analyzed. After imaging, tumors were resected for immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining to assess vascularity and angiogenesis. Results: The four groups showed different enhancement features. The enhancement area was restricted for group CD105-Gd-SLs, while diffused for the other three. The degree of enhancement over time varied: group Gd-DTPA showed an early contrast enhancement at instant after injection with a peak at 30 min and a decline to baseline values at 60 min. In group CD105-Gd-SLs, the signal intensity (SI) continuously increased over 120 min. In groups IgG-Gd-SLs and Gd-SLs the SI peaked at 60 min, followed by a minor decrease for IgG-Gd-SLs and a rapid decrease for Gd-SLs almost to baseline. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the enhancement in the CD105-Gd-SLs group resulted mainly from new microvessels. While in the other three groups, mature microvessels and new microvasculature resulted in the enhancement of the tumor. Conclusion: CD105-Gd-SLs can be used to detect early tumor angiogenesis on MR images. This might provide a means to non-invasively reveal a malignant phenotype of extracerebral F98 tumor and evaluate its progression.

Zhang Dong [Department of Radiology, XinQiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, ChongQing 400037 (China); Feng Xiaoyuan [Department of Radiology, Hua Shan Hospital, Medical Center of FuDan University, ShangHai 200040 (China); Henning, Tobias D. [UCSF, Department of Radiology, Contrast Media Laboratory, 185 Berry Street, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); Wen Li [Department of Radiology, XinQiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, ChongQing 400037 (China); Lu Weiyue; Pan Hong [Department of Pharmaceutical Targeting, Institute of Pharmacy, Medical Center of FuDan University, ShangHai 200032 (China); Wu Xing [Department of Neurosurgery, Hua Shan Hospital, Medical Center of FuDan University, ShangHai 200040 (China); Zou Liguang [Department of Radiology, XinQiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, ChongQing 400037 (China)], E-mail: cqzdwl@yahoo.com.cn

2009-04-15

165

Serum human chorionic gonadotropin is associated with angiogenesis in germ cell testicular tumors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cell testicular tumors have survival rate that diminishes with high tumor marker levels, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. hCG may regulate vascular neoformation through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between hCG serum levels, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression in germ cell testicular tumors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 101 patients. Serum levels of hCG, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured prior to surgery. Vascular density (VD and VEGF tissue expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and underwent double-blind analysis. Results Histologically, 46% were seminomas and 54%, non-seminomas. Median follow-up was 43 ± 27 months. Relapse was present in 7.5% and mortality in 11.5%. Factors associated with high VD included non-seminoma type (p = 0.016, AFP ? 14.7 ng/mL (p = 0.0001, and hCG ? 25 mIU/mL (p = 0.0001. In multivariate analysis, the only significant VD-associated factor was hCG level (p = 0.04. When hCG levels were stratified, concentrations ? 25 mIU/mL were related with increased neovascularization (p Conclusion This is the first study that relates increased serum hCG levels with vascularization in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, its expression might play a role in tumor angiogenesis, independent of VEGF expression, and may explain its association with poor prognosis. hCG might represent a molecular target for therapy.

Avilés-Salas Alejandro

2009-08-01

166

Genetic mapping of mammary tumor traits to rat chromosome 10 using a novel panel of consomic rats.  

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Identification of novel breast cancer susceptibility and resistance genes in genetically diverse human populations is challenging, and so inbred rats have been used to identify novel mammary cancer susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with conventional mapping approaches. An alternative approach for QTL mapping is to use chromosome substitution (consomic) rat strains, which has the advantage of rapid generation of congenic from consomic animals. Using a novel rat strain pair, SS and BN, we identified rat mammary cancer QTLs in one of two consomic rat strains tested. Female rats of inbred parental (SS and BN) and two consomic (SS-10 BN and SS-12 BN) strains were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene orally. The phenotypes of tumor incidence, latency, and multiplicity were evaluated. SS rats were highly susceptible to mammary adenocarcinoma development, whereas BN rats were completely resistant. Statistical comparison of the phenotypes between the susceptible parental and the two consomic strains identified QTLs residing within chromosome 10 controlling mammary tumor latency and multiplicity. The study shows that SS-BN consomic rat strains can be used to map mammary tumor QTLs. This novel approach should accelerate positional cloning of mammary cancer susceptibility and resistant genes in the rat and the identification of homologous genes in humans. PMID:18786441

Adamovic, Tatjana; McAllister, Donna; Rowe, J Jordi; Wang, Tao; Jacob, Howard J; Sugg, Sonia L

2008-10-01

167

Mammary tumor in BALB/c/Cnb mouse: differential effect between fractionated irradiations and 5-FU administration  

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The effect of 5 FU fractional doses 9 h. after the 5th and the 10th fractional irradiation on a grafted mammary tumor, was studied. The results display that the association of those two treatments has a potentialisation effect which reduces the tumoral growth during the treatment and stabilizes it after the treatment at a volume inferior to which was grafted

168

Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Juice Augments Mammary Gland Differentiation and Reduces Mammary Tumor Growth in Mice Expressing the Unactivated c-erbB2 Transgene.  

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Morinda citrifolia (noni) is reported to have many beneficial properties, including on immune, inflammatory, quality of life, and cancer endpoints, but little is known about its ability to prevent or treat breast cancer. To test its anticancer potential, the effects of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) on mammary carcinogenesis were examined in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Mammary tumor latency, incidence, multiplicity, and metastatic incidence were unaffected by TNJ treatment, which suggests that it would not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in women taking TNJ for its other benefits. However, noni may be useful to enhance treatment responses in women with existing HER2/neu breast cancer since TNJ resulted in significant reductions in tumor weight and volume and in longer tumor doubling times in mice. Remarkably, its ability to inhibit the growth of this aggressive form of cancer occurred with the mouse equivalent of a recommended dose for humans (<3?oz/day). A 30-day treatment with TNJ also induced significant changes in mammary secondary ductule branching and lobuloalveolar development, serum progesterone levels, and estrous cycling. Additional studies investigating TNJ-induced tumor growth suppression and modified reproductive responses are needed to characterize its potential as a CAM therapy for women with and without HER2(+) breast cancer. PMID:22619689

Clafshenkel, William P; King, Tracy L; Kotlarczyk, Mary P; Cline, J Mark; Foster, Warren G; Davis, Vicki L; Witt-Enderby, Paula A

2012-01-01

169

Trisomy chromosome 5 is a recurrent cytogenetic lesion in mammary tumors from parous MMTV-erbB-2 transgenic mice.  

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erbB-2 is amplified or overexpressed in approximately 30% of human breast cancers, and has been associated with poor prognosis and therapeutic resistance. Previous studies have suggested that erbB-2 overexpression in transgenic mice induces genomic instability; however, the patterns of genetic lesions vary with individual model systems. The development of mammary tumors in multiparous murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-erbB-2 transgenic mice is accelerated due to hormonal interactions which induce the overexpression of MMTV-mediated erbB-2. However, whether or not accelerated tumor development is associated with modified cytogenetic patterns remains to be determined. In this study, chromosomal changes were characterized in mammary tumor cells derived from multiparous MMTV-erbB-2 transgenic mice, and compared with tumor cells derived from control virgin mice. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect erbB-2 overexpression in mammary tissues. Each of the five tumors from the multiparous MMTV-erbB-2 transgenic mice was found to exhibit a marked chromosomal imbalance, compared with only one tumor with aberrant chromosomes among the five tumors from the control virgin mice. In particular, trisomy 5 and loss of the X chromosome were recurrent cytogenetic lesions in tumors from the parous mice, which is a novel pattern compared with previous studies. The elevated number of genetic lesions in tumors from parous mice, which were characterized by enhanced erbB-2 overexpression and increased receptor tyrosine kinase activation in the mammary glands, suggest a causal role for erbB-2 in the genomic instability present in these tumors. These data advance our understanding of erbB-2-mediated pathogenesis and underscore the role of cytogenetic alteration in this process. PMID:22848270

Kim, Young Mi; Ma, Zhikun; Lee, Seungjik; Lee, Jiyun; Li, Shibo; Yang, Xiaohe

2011-11-01

170

The antiparasitic drug, potassium antimony tartrate, inhibits tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in nonsmall-cell lung cancer.  

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Repurposing existing drugs not only accelerates drug discovery but rapidly advances clinical therapeutic strategies. In this article, we identified potassium antimonyl tartrate (PAT), an antiparasitic drug, as a novel agent to block angiogenesis by screening US Food and Drug Administration-approved chemical drugs. By comparing the cytotoxicity of PAT in various nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with that observed in primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that HUVECs were much more sensitive to the PAT treatment. In in vivo tumor xenograft mouse models established either by PAT-resistant A549 cells or by patient primary tumors, PAT significantly decreased the tumor volume and tumor weight of NSCLC xenografts at dosage of 40 mg/kg (i.p., daily) and, more importantly, augmented the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin chemotherapy. Remarkable loss of vascularization in the treated xenografts indicated the in vivo antiangiogenesis property of PAT, which was well correlated with its tumor growth inhibition in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, in the in vitro angiogenic assays, PAT exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation in response to different stimuli. Consistently, PAT also abolished the vascular endothelial cell growth factor-induced angiogenesis in the Matrigel plugs assay. Mechanistically, we found that PAT inhibited the activities of several receptor tyrosine kinases and specifically blocked the activation of downstream Src and focal adhesion kinases in HUVECs. Taken together, our results characterized the novel antiangiogenic and antitumor function of PAT in NSCLC cells. Further study of PAT in anticancer clinical trials may be warranted. PMID:25352499

Wang, Beibei; Yu, Weiwei; Guo, Jiawei; Jiang, Xingwu; Lu, Weiqiang; Liu, Mingyao; Pang, Xiufeng

2015-01-01

171

Ursolic acid inhibits tumor angiogenesis and induces apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor.  

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Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene naturally occurring in many plant foods. In the present study, we investigated anti-cancer activity of UA in vivo in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor. 15 × 10(6) EAC cells were implanted intraperitoneally (i.p., ascitic tumor) and subcutaneous (s.c., solid tumor) in Swiss albino mice. Mice with established tumors received UA i.p. at 25, 50 and 100mg/kg bw for 14 d in ascitic and 100mg/kg bw in solid tumor for 30 d. On day 15, blood samples were collected for hematological assessment of hemoglobin (Hb%), RBCs, WBCs and PCV. Tumor volume, cell viability, angiogenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory factors and antioxidant parameters were determined. Immunohistochemistry analysis for VEGF, iNOS, CD31, caspase-3 and Bax were also performed. UA significantly inhibited tumor growth, cell viability, in both ascites and solid tumor model in vivo (pTNF-? and increased IL-12 levels. UA at 100mg/kg bw dose significantly increased SOD and CAT activity (p<0.01). GSH and TBARS were increased as compared to control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, UA increased total RBCs, WBCs as well as Hb% significantly (p<0.05) compared to cyclophosphamide (CP). Histopathological examination of tumor cells in the treated group demonstrated signs of apoptosis with chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage. Decreased peritoneal angiogenesis showed the anti-angiogenic potential. UA downregulated VEGF & iNOS expression whereas bax and caspase-3 expressions were upregulated suggesting drug induced tumor cell apoptosis through activating the pro-apoptotic bcl-2 family and caspase-3 and downregulation of VEGF. The present study sheds light on the potent antitumor property of the UA and can be extended further to develop therapeutic protocols for treatment of cancer. PMID:24051192

Saraswati, Sarita; Agrawal, S S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

2013-11-25

172

A DNA vaccine targeting angiomotin inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth  

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Endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors have shown promise in preclinical trials, but clinical use has been hindered by low half-life in circulation and high production costs. Here, we describe a strategy that targets the angiostatin receptor angiomotin (Amot) by DNA vaccination. The vaccination procedure generated antibodies that detected Amot on the endothelial cell surface. Purified Ig bound to the endothelial cell membrane and inhibited endothelial cell migration. In vivo, DNA vaccination blocked angiogenesis in the matrigel plug assay and prevented growth of transplanted tumors for up to 150 days. We further demonstrate that a combination of DNA vaccines encoding Amot and the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the human EGF receptor 2 (Her-2)/neu oncogene inhibited breast cancer progression and impaired tumor vascularization in Her-2/neu transgenic mice. No toxicity or impairment of normal blood vessels could be detected. This work shows that DNA vaccination targeting Amot may be used to mimic the effect of angiostatin. cancer vaccines | neoplasia | neovascularization | breast cancer | angiostatin

Holmgren, Lars; Ambrosino, Elena; Birot, Olivier; Tullus, Carl; Veitonmäki, Niina; Levchenko, Tetyana; Carlson, Lena-Maria; Musiani, Piero; Iezzi, Manuela; Curcio, Claudia; Forni, Guido; Cavallo, Federica; Kiessling, Rolf

2006-06-01

173

Effects of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl on tumor angiogenesis and on tumor growth in nude mice implanted with cervical cancer  

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Full Text Available Taksanee Mahasiripanth,1 Sanya Hokputsa,2 Somchai Niruthisard,3 Parvapan Bhattarakosol,4 Suthiluk Patumraj51Inter-Department of Physiology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Research and Development Institute, Government Pharmaceutical Organization, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, 4Department of Microbiology, 5Center of Excellence for Microcirculation, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the crude extract of Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl (AE on tumor growth and angiogenesis by utilizing a tumor model in which nude mice were implanted with cervical cancer cells containing human papillomavirus 16 DNA (HPV-16 DNA.Materials and methods: The growth-inhibitory effect of AE was investigated in four different cell types: CaSki (HPV-16 positive, HeLa (HPV-18 positive, hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2, and human dermal fibroblast cells (HDFs. The cell viabilities and IC50 values of AE were determined in cells incubated with AE for different lengths of time. To conduct studies in vivo, female BALB/c nude mice (aged 6–7 weeks, weighing 20–25 g were used. A cervical cancer-derived cell line (CaSki with integrated HPV-16 DNA was injected subcutaneously (1 × 107 cells/200 µL in the middle dorsum of each animal (HPV group. One week after injection, mice were fed orally with AE crude extract at either 300 or 3000 mg/kg body weight/day for 14 or 28 days (HPV-AE groups. Tumor microvasculature and capillary vascularity were determined using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Tumor tissue was collected from each mouse to evaluate tumor histology and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF immunostaining.Results: The time-response curves of AE and the dose-dependent effect of AE on growth inhibition were determined. After a 48-hour incubation period, the IC50 of AE in CaSki was discovered to be significantly different from that of HDFs (P < 0.05. A microvascular network was observed around the tumor area in the HPV group on days 21 and 35. Tumor capillary vascularity in the HPV group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.001. High-dose treatment of AE extract (HPV-3000AE group significantly attenuated the increase in VEGF expression and tumor angiogenesis in mice that received either the 14- or 28-day treatment period (P < 0.001.Conclusion: Our novel findings demonstrated that AE crude extract could inhibit cervical cancer growth, VEGF expression, and angiogenesis in a CaSki-cell transplant model in mice.Keywords: Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, tumor angiogenesis, VEGF, CaSki cell-implanted nude mice, capillary vascularity, laser scanning confocal microscopy

Mahasiripanth T

2012-08-01

174

Assesment of angiogenesis in basal cell carcinoma using CD31 & CD34 markers and relation with tumor invasiveness in histology  

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"nBackground and Aim: Tumor angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and appears to play an importating role both in invasive growth and metastasis. Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin are derived from a similar cell type but differ in the invasive and metastatic potential. Basal cell carcinoma generally shows a relatively benign course in contrast to squamous cell carcinoma .This study investigates whether the behavior of these tumors could be expla...

Firouz Amani; Mahdi Hadisi; Zahra Safaei Naraghi; Soulmaz Fathi

2010-01-01

175

DNA vaccines suppress tumor growth and metastases by the induction of anti-angiogenesis.  

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Four novel oral DNA vaccines provide long-lived protection against melanoma, colon, breast, and non-small cell lung carcinoma in mouse model systems. The vaccines are delivered by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to secondary lymphoid organs and are directed against targets such as carcinoembryonic antigen, tyrosine-related protein, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 [also called fetal liver kinase-1 (FLK-1)], and transcription factor Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1). The FLK-1 and Fra-1 vaccines are effective in suppressing angiogenesis in the tumor vasculature. All four vaccines are capable of inducing potent cell-mediated protective immunity, breaking peripheral T-cell tolerance against these self-antigens resulting in effective suppression of tumor growth and metastasis. It is anticipated that such research efforts will contribute toward the rational design of future DNA vaccines that will be effective for prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:15233734

Reisfeld, Ralph A; Niethammer, Andreas G; Luo, Yunping; Xiang, Rong

2004-06-01

176

Prognostic significance of tumor angio-genesis in advanced breast carcinoma: And Indian experience  

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Angio-genesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. In the present study we investigated the prognostic significance of microvessels (MV) density using immunohisto-localization of factor VIII antigen i 51 breast cancer patients. We counted microvessels per 200 x field in the most active areas of neovasculilarization by staining factor VIII related antigen and correlated with stage, LN involvement and histologic grade. Patient who subsequently developed metastases had significantly high MV counts than patients without metastatic disease (p25 MV per 200 x field had tumor recurrence faster as compared with patients having <25 MV (p<0.02). Thus, the MV count correlates with the prediction for metastasis and poor survival. Such an indicator would be useful in selection of a subgroup of patients with breast cancer who are at high risk for having occult metastasis at presentation and subsequently would benefit from aggressive therapy. (author)

177

BAC CGH-array identified specific small-scale genomic imbalances in diploid DMBA-induced rat mammary tumors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of breast cancer is a multistage process influenced by hormonal and environmental factors as well as by genetic background. The search for genes underlying this malignancy has recently been highly productive, but the etiology behind this complex disease is still not understood. In studies using animal cancer models, heterogeneity of the genetic background and environmental factors is reduced and thus analysis and identification of genetic aberrations in tumors may become easier. To identify chromosomal regions potentially involved in the initiation and progression of mammary cancer, in the present work we subjected a subset of experimental mammary tumors to cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Methods Mammary tumors were induced with DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthrazene in female rats from the susceptible SPRD-Cu3 strain and from crosses and backcrosses between this strain and the resistant WKY strain. We first produced a general overview of chromosomal aberrations in the tumors using conventional kartyotyping (G-banding and Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH analyses. Particular chromosomal changes were then analyzed in more details using an in-house developed BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome CGH-array platform. Results Tumors appeared to be diploid by conventional karyotyping, however several sub-microscopic chromosome gains or losses in the tumor material were identified by BAC CGH-array analysis. An oncogenetic tree analysis based on the BAC CGH-array data suggested gain of rat chromosome (RNO band 12q11, loss of RNO5q32 or RNO6q21 as the earliest events in the development of these mammary tumors. Conclusions Some of the identified changes appear to be more specific for DMBA-induced mammary tumors and some are similar to those previously reported in ACI rat model for estradiol-induced mammary tumors. The later group of changes is more interesting, since they may represent anomalies that involve genes with a critical role in mammary tumor development. Genetic changes identified in this work are at very small scales and thus may provide a more feasible basis for the identification of the target gene(s. Identification of the genes underlying these chromosome changes can provide new insights to the mechanisms of mammary carcinogenesis.

Samuelson Emma

2012-08-01

178

Fibrin formation induced by tumor procoagulants enhances urokinase activity produced by mammary carcinoma cells.  

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We have examined the relationship between the procoagulant activity of F3II mouse mammary carcinoma cells and the production of urokinase, a profibrinolytic serine protease involved in tumor invasion and hematogenous metastasis. F3II cells were capable of inducing the conversion of purified fibrinogen to fibrin in the presence of calcium and plasma traces. Immunocytochemical examination of semi-confluent monolayers demonstrated that F3II cells also synthesized high levels of urokinase. Although fibrinogen did not modify profibrinolytic activity produced by F3II monolayers, fibrin formation increased tumor-derived urokinase activity by two-fold. The present data provide new insights into the cooperative role of coagulation and fibrinolysis facilitating and perpetuating tumor invasion. PMID:9458324

Alonso, D F; De Lorenzo, M S; Tejera, A M; Gomez, D E

1998-01-01

179

[Effect of valproic acid against angiogenesis of Kasumi-1 xenograft tumor in nude mice].  

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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on angiogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia in vivo and vitro, and to explore its molecular mechanism. Human t (8;21) AML cell line Kasumi-1 cells were treated with VPA at different concentration for 3 d, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Ang1 and Ang2 were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Nude mice model with xenograft Kasumi-1 tumor was established by subcutaneous inoculation of Kasumi-1 cells. The CD34, Ang1 and Ang2 protein levels were analyzed by immunohistochemistry method. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Ang1, Ang2 and VEGF were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that in vitro, VPA at 3 mmol/L downregulated the Ang mRNA relative expression level for Ang1 from 0.360 ± 0.116 to 0.040 ± 0.008, Ang2 from 0.540 ± 0.049 to 0.146 ± 0.038. The animal experiment further verified that VPA 500 mg/kg, ip, for 14 d, reduced the relative expression of Ang1, Ang2 and VEGF mRNA and proteins in Kasumi-1 tumor of nude mice, and reduced microvascular density in xenograft tumor of nude mice (8.470 ± 0.300 vs 2.600 ± 0.200). It is concluded that VPA significantly inhibits tumor angiogenesis through the regulation of angiopoietins, thereby inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of leukemia cells. PMID:23484695

Wang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Cui-Min; Zhao, Li-Shuang; Hao, Chang-Lai

2013-02-01

180

Positron emission tomography imaging of CD105 expression during tumor angiogenesis  

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Overexpression of CD105 (endoglin) correlates with poor prognosis in many solid tumor types. Tumor microvessel density (MVD) assessed by CD105 staining is the current gold standard for evaluating tumor angiogenesis in the clinic. The goal of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging CD105 expression. TRC105, a chimeric anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody, was conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and labeled with {sup 64}Cu. FACS analysis and microscopy studies were performed to compare the CD105 binding affinity of TRC105 and DOTA-TRC105. PET imaging, biodistribution, blocking, and ex vivo histology studies were performed on 4T1 murine breast tumor-bearing mice to evaluate the ability of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-TRC105 to target tumor angiogenesis. Another chimeric antibody, cetuximab, was used as an isotype-matched control. FACS analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) revealed no difference in CD105 binding affinity between TRC105 and DOTA-TRC105, which was further validated by fluorescence microscopy. {sup 64}Cu labeling was achieved with high yield and specific activity. Serial PET imaging revealed that the 4T1 tumor uptake of the tracer was 8.0 {+-} 0.5, 10.4 {+-} 2.8, and 9.7 {+-} 1.8%ID/g at 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection, respectively (n = 3), higher than most organs at late time points which provided excellent tumor contrast. Biodistribution data as measured by gamma counting were consistent with the PET findings. Blocking experiments, control studies with {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-cetuximab, as well as ex vivo histology all confirmed the in vivo target specificity of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-TRC105. This is the first successful PET imaging study of CD105 expression. Fast, prominent, persistent, and CD105-specific uptake of the tracer in the 4T1 tumor was observed. Further studies are warranted and currently underway. (orig.)

Hong, Hao [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Yang, Yunan [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Third Military Medical University, Department of Ultrasound, Xinqiao Hospital, Chongqing (China); Zhang, Yin; Engle, Jonathan W.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Leigh, Bryan R. [TRACON Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin - Madison, Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States)

2011-07-15

 
 
 
 
181

Dietary grape polyphenol resveratrol increases mammary tumor growth and metastasis in immunocompromised mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol, a polyphenol from grapes and red wine has many health beneficial effects, including protection against cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, our group and others have provided evidence for a dual cancer promoting or inhibitory role for resveratrol in breast cancer, dependent on estrogenic or antiestrogenic activities. Moreover, much of the inhibitory effects of resveratrol have been reported from studies with high non-physiological concentrations. Methods We investigated the effects of a range of concentrations (0.5, 5, 50 mg/kg body weight of resveratrol on mammary tumor development post-initiation, using immunocompromised mice. Results Our findings suggest promotion of mammary tumor growth and metastasis by resveratrol at all concentrations tested in tumors derived from the low metastatic estrogen receptor (ER?(-, ER?(+ MDA-MB-231 and the highly metastatic ER(- MDA-MB-435 cancer cell lines. Additionally, the activity of the migration/invasion regulator Rac, which we have previously shown to be regulated by resveratrol in vitro, was measured in tumors from resveratrol treated mice. Our results show a significant induction of tumoral Rac activity and a trend in increased expression of the Rac downstream effector PAK1 and other tumor promoting molecules following resveratrol treatment. Conclusion Taken together, our findings implicate low concentrations of resveratrol in potential promotion of breast cancer. Therefore, this study illuminates the importance of further delineating resveratrol’s concentration dependent effects, particularly in breast cancer, before it can be tested in the clinic or used as a dietary supplement for breast cancer patients.

Castillo-Pichardo Linette

2013-01-01

182

?-Mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn reduces tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in an immunocompetent xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer carrying a p53 mutation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The mangosteen fruit has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Recently, the compound ?-mangostin, which is isolated from the pericarp of the fruit, was shown to induce cell death in various types of cancer cells in in vitro studies. This led us to investigate the antitumor growth and antimetastatic activities of ?-mangostin in an immunocompetent xenograft model of mouse metastatic mammary cancer having a p53 mutation that induces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancers. Methods Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of BALB/c mice syngeneic with metastatic BJMC3879luc2 cells, were subsequently treated with ?-mangostin at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day using mini-osmotic pumps and histopathologically examined. To investigate the mechanisms of antitumor ability by ?-mangostin, in vitro studies were also conducted. Results Not only were in vivo survival rates significantly higher in the 20 mg/kg/day ?-mangostin group versus controls, but both tumor volume and the multiplicity of lymph node metastases were significantly suppressed. Apoptotic levels were significantly increased in the mammary tumors of mice receiving 20 mg/kg/day and were associated with increased expression of active caspase-3 and -9. Other significant effects noted at this dose level were decreased microvessel density and lower numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells in mammary carcinoma tissues. In vitro, ?-mangostin induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and G1-phase arrest and S-phase suppression in the cell cycle. Since activation by Akt phosphorylation plays a central role in a variety of oncogenic processes, including cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic cell death, angiogenesis and metastasis, we also investigated alterations in Akt phosphorylation induced by ?-mangostin treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that ?-mangostin significantly decreased the levels of phospho-Akt-threonine 308 (Thr308, but not serine 473 (Ser473, in both mammary carcinoma cell cultures and mammary carcinoma tissues in vivo. Conclusions Since lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer patients, the antimetastatic activity of ?-mangostin as detected in mammary cancers carrying a p53 mutation in the present study may have specific clinical applications. In addition, ?-mangostin may have chemopreventive benefits and/or prove useful as an adjuvant therapy, or as a complementary alternative medicine in the treatment of breast cancer.

Okuno Yasushi

2011-06-01

183

Estrogen promotes mammary tumor development in C3(1)/SV40 large T-antigen transgenic mice: paradoxical loss of estrogen receptoralpha expression during tumor progression.  

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Although several lines of epidemiological evidence suggest that estrogen exposure influences the incidence of breast cancer development, the mechanisms by which estrogen may stimulate the formation of breast cancer remain poorly understood. We have explored how alterations in estrogen exposure can influence the development of mammary cancer in the C3(1)/T(AG) transgenic model, where estrogen levels and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) expression do not appear to modify the level of transgene expression. The C3(1)/T(AG) transgene becomes transcriptionally active in mammary ductal target cells at 3 weeks of age after the estrogen-induced differentiation of the mammary epithelial anlage to the ductal outgrowth stage. Complete maturation of the mammary ductal tree, however, is not required for cancer development because tumors arise in animals where ductal branching and terminal end bud formation have been prematurely arrested by ovariectomy. Mammary tumorigenesis in this model is promoted by increased estrogen exposure with the development of significantly more mammary intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and carcinomas associated with accelerated malignant conversion. The promotion of mammary tumors in this model appears to occur through an estrogen-induced proliferation and increase in the number of available target cells for transformation at the terminal ductal lobular units, as has been postulated to occur in women who receive hormone replacement therapy and/or by additional molecular mechanisms. We show, for the first time in a transgenic mouse model, that mammary tumor progression is associated with the loss of ERalpha expression, as has been often observed in human breast cancers with important clinical significance. Estrogen signaling may, therefore, serve different functions, depending upon the stage of tumorigenesis. ERbeta expression is up-regulated during tumor progression, although the functional significance of this remains to be determined. PMID:11156389

Yoshidome, K; Shibata, M A; Couldrey, C; Korach, K S; Green, J E

2000-12-15

184

Expression and function of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J (PTPRJ) in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast tumors.  

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The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J, PTPRJ, is a tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in a range of cancers, including breast cancer, yet little is known about its role in normal breast physiology or in mammary gland tumorigenesis. In this paper we show that PTPRJ mRNA is expressed in normal breast tissue and reduced in corresponding tumors. Meta-analysis revealed that the gene encoding PTPRJ is frequently lost in breast tumors and that low expression of the transcript associated with poorer overall survival at 20 years. Immunohistochemistry of PTPRJ protein in normal human breast tissue revealed a distinctive apical localisation in the luminal cells of alveoli and ducts. Qualitative analysis of a cohort of invasive ductal carcinomas revealed retention of normal apical PTPRJ localization where tubule formation was maintained but that tumors mostly exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic staining, indicating that dysregulation of localisation associated with loss of tissue architecture in tumorigenesis. The murine ortholog, Ptprj, exhibited a similar localisation in normal mammary gland, and was differentially regulated throughout lactational development, and in an in vitro model of mammary epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of human PTPRJ in HC11 murine mammary epithelial cells inhibited dome formation. These data indicate that PTPRJ may regulate differentiation of normal mammary epithelia and that dysregulation of protein localisation may be associated with tumorigenesis. PMID:22815804

Smart, Chanel E; Askarian Amiri, Marjan E; Wronski, Ania; Dinger, Marcel E; Crawford, Joanna; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Vargas, Ana Cristina; Reid, Lynne; Simpson, Peter T; Song, Sarah; Wiesner, Christiane; French, Juliet D; Dave, Richa K; da Silva, Leonard; Purdon, Amy; Andrew, Megan; Mattick, John S; Lakhani, Sunil R; Brown, Melissa A; Kellie, Stuart

2012-01-01

185

Visualization of a human mammary tumor in nude mice with In-111 labeled monoclonal antibody  

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A monoclonal antibody designated 103D2, specific for a tumor associated 126 kilodalton phosphoglycoprotein antigen from human mammary carcinoma (HMC) was used to determine the feasibility of tumor detection and visualization in nude mice. 103D2 was precoupled to DTPA and labeled with In-111 by the transchelation method. The labeled 103D2 (200?Ci/20?g) was injected intravenously via the tail veins into nude mice hosting a HMC BT-20(n=8). The mice were imaged at 1 hr, and every 24 hr thereafter for up to 6 days with a pinhole collimator. Four animals were killed at 48 hr and 4 at 7 days, and biodistribution determined by gamma counting of various organs. To define the specificity of distribution of the antibody, 8 additional tumor bearing animals were studied: 4 with a different In-111 labeled IgG (MOPC-21-myeloma IgG/sub 1/) and 4 with injection of ionic In-111. Localization of the In-111 labeled 103D2 was 14.72 +- 2.25% injected dose per gram of the tumor (D/g) at 48 hr, whereas In-111 labeled MOPC-21 was 5.78 +- 1.08 D/g and ionic In-111 was 3.8 +- 0.81% D/g. Tumor localization at 7 days after iv administration of In-111 labeled 103D2 was observed to be 21.97 +- 4.44% D/g. Tumors were visualized with In-111 labeled 103D2 as early as 1-2 hr after iv injection but by 24 hr, unequivocal delineation of the tumors was observed in all animals, with the best tumor delineation at 2 to 4 days. Tumor visualization with In-111 labeled 103D2 was also possible even when the tumors were inplanted in the upper abdominal region over the liver and spleen. The authors conclude that monoclonal antibody specific to a HMC associated 126 kd phosphoglycoprotein antigen can be used to visualize human mammary tumors hosted in nude mice by gamma scintigraphy

186

Overexpression of pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 in HCC is associated with angiogenesis and poor prognosis.  

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The pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) protein is cell-cycle regulated and is identified as a human securin that inhibits sister chromatid separation and is involved in transformation and tumorigenesis. PTTG1 has very low or undetectable expression in most normal human tissues, but it is abundantly expressed in malignant cell lines and pituitary tumors. In this study, we investigated human PTTG1 expression in 62 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. We found that, compared with corresponding noncancerous liver tissues, PTTG1 was remarkably overexpressed in HCCs (PTTG1/beta-actin; 0.443 +/- 0.073 vs. 0.068 +/- 0.007; P < .0001). Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between PTTG1 expression and serum alpha-fetoprotein level (P < .001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the PTTG1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free (odds ratio 2.70; P = .037) and overall (odds ratio 5.35; P = .007) survival. Moreover, we discovered a significant relationship between PTTG1 expression and intratumoral microvessel density. Our data supported an important role for PTTG1-mediated upregulation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, one of angiogenesis and modulation of tumor progression, in hepatocarcinogenesis. In conclusion, PTTG1 might be critically involved in the development of HCCs through the promotion of angiogenesis. PTTG1 is overexpressed in HCC and our results suggest that PTTG1 mRNA expression has prognostic significance for the survival of postoperative patients with HCC. PMID:16628605

Fujii, Tsutomu; Nomoto, Shuji; Koshikawa, Katsumi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Teshigawara, Osamu; Mori, Toshiaki; Inoue, Soichiro; Takeda, Shin; Nakao, Akimasa

2006-06-01

187

Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue: a tumor closely related to spindle cell lipoma.  

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Mammary myofibroblastoma is a benign breast tumor, with a reported predilection for older men. It is composed of fascicles of spindle cells having features of myofibroblasts, with intervening hyalinized collagenous stroma and a variably prominent component of adipose tissue. The spindle cells characteristically express both CD34 and desmin. Herein, we report the clinicopathologic features of nine tumors that were morphologically and immunohistochemically identical to myofibroblastoma of breast; however, they arose in subcutaneous soft tissue at extramammary sites. The study group comprised seven men and two women with an age range of 35-67 years (median 53 years). Lesions presented as either a slowly growing painless mass or were incidental findings at the time of surgery. The site distribution was as follows: inguinal/groin area (five cases) and one case each in posterior vaginal wall, buttock, anterior abdominal wall, and mid-back. Tumor size ranged from 2 to 13 cm (median 6 cm), and all lesions were well circumscribed. Eight tumors had a component of adipose tissue (ranging from 10% to 60%), within which some variation in adipocyte size was often seen. One case showed epithelioid cytomorphology and three cases showed rare atypical or multinucleated cells. Focal myxoid stromal change was seen in four cases. Tumor cells were positive for desmin (9 of 9 cases), CD34 (8 of 9 cases), and occasionally positive for smooth muscle actin (3 of 9 cases). Lesions were marginally excised with no recurrences to date, although follow-up is very limited. Lesions with morphologic and immunophenotypic features similar to myofibroblastoma of breast can arise at extramammary sites, with an apparent predilection for the inguinal area of older men. Both mammary and extramammary lesions show morphologic overlap with spindle cell lipoma and are likely closely related. PMID:11474286

McMenamin, M E; Fletcher, C D

2001-08-01

188

Andrographolide inhibits tumor angiogenesis via blocking VEGFA/VEGFR2-MAPKs signaling cascade.  

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Traditional medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata is known to possess anti-tumor activity, and its potential active compound is the diterpenoid lactone andrographolide (ANGL). In this study, we have found that ANGL inhibits tumor growth in nude mice bearing xenografted Hep3B cancer cells, concomitant with a reduction in tumor vessel counts. ANGL inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-induced angiogenic responses in vitro and neoangiogenesis in vivo. We also found that ANGL inhibits VEGFA-induced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and its downstream targets such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). ANGL interferes with the binding of VEGFA to VEGFR2, but has no effect on VEGFR2 kinase activity in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that ANGL possesses anti-angiogenic activity which is mediated by preventing VEGFA-induced phosphorylation and activation of VEGFR2 and MAPKs. The present study indicates that ANGL can block tumor angiogenesis and therefore represents therapeutic potential for cancer treatment. PMID:24814888

Shen, Kaikai; Ji, Lili; Lu, Bin; Xu, Chong; Gong, Chenyuan; Morahan, Grant; Wang, Zhengtao

2014-07-25

189

64Cu-Labeled tetraiodothyroacetic acid-conjugated liposomes for PET imaging of tumor angiogenesis  

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Introduction: We synthesized and evaluated 64Cu-labeled tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac)-conjugated liposomes for PET imaging of tumor angiogenesis, because tetrac inhibits angiogenesis via integrin ?V?3. Methods: Tetrac-PEG-DSPE and DOTA-PEG-DSPE were synthesized and formulated with other lipids into liposomes. The resulting tetrac/DOTA-liposomes were labeled with 64Cu at 40 °C for 1 h and purified using a PD-10 column. 64Cu-DOTA-liposomes were also prepared for comparison. Human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) binding studies were performed by incubating the liposomes with the cells at 37 °C. MicroPET imaging followed by tissue distribution study was carried out using U87MG tumor-bearing mice injected with tetrac/64Cu-DOTA-liposomes or 64Cu-DOTA-liposomes. Results: HAEC binding studies exhibited that tetrac/64Cu-DOTA-liposomes were avidly taken up by the cells from 1.02 %ID at 1 h to 11.89 %ID at 24 h, while 64Cu-DOTA-liposomes had low uptake from 0.47 %ID at 1 h to 1.57 %ID at 24 h. MicroPET imaging of mice injected with tetrac/64Cu-DOTA-liposomes showed high radioactivity accumulation in the liver and spleen. ROI analysis of the tumor images revealed 1.93 ± 0.12 %ID/g at 1 h and 2.70 ± 0.36 %ID/g at 22 h. In contrast, tumor ROI analysis of 64Cu-DOTA-liposomes revealed 0.54 ± 0.08 %ID/g at 1 h and 0.52 ± 0.09 %ID/g at 22 h. Tissue distribution studies confirmed that the tumor uptakes of tetrac/64Cu-DOTA-liposomes and 64Cu-DOTA-liposomes were 1.75 ± 0.03 %ID/g and 0.36 ± 0.01 %ID/g at 22 h, respectively. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that tetrac/64Cu-DOTA-liposomes have significantly enhanced tumor uptake compared to 64Cu-DOTA-liposomes due to tetrac conjugation. Further studies are warranted to reduce the liver and spleen uptake of tetrac/64Cu-DOTA-liposomes

190

Anticancer activity of phenolic antioxidants against breast cancer cells and a spontaneous mammary tumor  

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Full Text Available Phenolics such as ferulic, caffeic, gallic acids and curcumin were tested for their potential anti proliferative and cytotoxic properties in human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 as well as on a spontaneous mammary adenocarcinoma tumor. As a single agent, caffeic acid showed substantial growth inhibitory activity. In combination with cisplatin it was also found to be effective. For the current study we used a chick embryo model to assess antiangiogenic activity. Curcumin and its beta cyclodextrin complex were observed to interfere with capillary formation. The selected phenolics were structurally related which allowed us to gather additional information regarding the structure - activity relationship underlying the biological activity of these bioactive compounds. It was verified that the hydroxylated acid derivatives yielded better results than the merely hydroxylated ones in these tumor systems.

Indap M

2006-01-01

191

Effects of radiation type and dose and the role of glucocorticoids, gonadectomy, and thyroidectomy in mammary tumor induction in mammotropin-secreting pituitary tumor-grafted rats  

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Three experiments on the induction of mammary neoplasms by total-body 11- to 100-rad neutron or 50- to 500-rad gamma-radiation of female Fischer or W/Fu rats are reported. Grafts of mammotropin-secreting pituitary tumor were used to elevate mammotropic hormone levels. The results (a) confirm and extend previous reports that neutrons are more efficient in carcinoma induction than are gamma-rays (the neutron relative biological effectiveness for first carcinomas was 3.68) and (b) demonstrate that the potentiation of carcinoma induction by adrenalectomy is reversed by glucocorticoid replacement. Statistical analysis of the data by procedures that take into account time at risk as well as tumor frequency indicates that multiple mammary tumors do not occur independently (i.e., a first mammary neoplasm significantly increases the probability of development of another neoplasm). The statistical procedure used in this analysis is presented

192

Radiotherapy increases the permissiveness of established mammary tumors to rejection by immunomodulatory antibodies.  

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It is becoming increasingly evident that radiotherapy may benefit from coincident or subsequent immunotherapy. In this study, we examined whether the antitumor effects of radiotherapy, in established triple-negative breast tumors could be enhanced with combinations of clinically relevant monoclonal antibodies (mAb), designed to stimulate immunity [anti-(?)-CD137, ?-CD40] or relieve immunosuppression [?-programmed death (PD)-1]. While the concomitant targeting of the costimulatory molecules CD137 and CD40 enhanced the antitumor effects of radiotherapy and promoted the rejection of subcutaneous BALB/c-derived 4T1.2 tumors, this novel combination was noncurative in mice bearing established C57BL/6-derived AT-3 tumors. We identified PD-1 signaling within the AT-3 tumors as a critical limiting factor to the therapeutic efficacy of ?-CD137 therapy, alone and in combination with radiotherapy. Strikingly, all mice bearing established orthotopic AT-3 mammary tumors were cured when ?-CD137 and ?-PD-1 mAbs were combined with single- or low-dose fractionated radiotherapy. CD8+ T cells were essential for curative responses to this combinatorial regime. Interestingly, CD137 expression on tumor-associated CD8+ T cells was largely restricted to a subset that highly expressed PD-1. These CD137+PD-1High CD8+ T cells, persisted in irradiated AT-3 tumors, expressed Tim-3, granzyme B and Ki67 and produced IFN-? ex vivo in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin stimulation. Notably, radiotherapy did not deplete, but enriched tumors of functionally active, tumor-specific effector cells. Collectively, these data show that concomitant targeting of immunostimulatory and inhibitory checkpoints with immunomodulatory mAbs can enhance the curative capacity of radiotherapy in established breast malignancy. PMID:22570253

Verbrugge, Inge; Hagekyriakou, Jim; Sharp, Leslie L; Galli, Mara; West, Alison; McLaughlin, Nicole M; Duret, Hélène; Yagita, Hideo; Johnstone, Ricky W; Smyth, Mark J; Haynes, Nicole M

2012-07-01

193

Nuclear localization of long-VEGF is associated with hypoxia and tumor angiogenesis  

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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor that has a pivotal role in normal and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF has a long 5' untranslated region harboring an open reading frame (ORF) initiated by a CUG codon that is in-frame with the VEGF coding region. The ORF translation leads to the expression of a long isoform termed L-VEGF that is extended by an additional 180 amino acids. In this communication, we provide evidence that L-VEGF is subjected to proteolytic cleavage leading to the detachment of the 180 aa extension from the VEGF moiety. Using immunofluorescence staining, we show that upon hypoxia this 180 aa extension translocates to the nuclei of expressing cells. Accordingly, immunohistochemical staining of both normal and tumor tissue samples demonstrated restricted nuclear localization of the ORF, which was correlated with cytoplasmic localization of VEGF. This suggests that the 180 aa ORF is involved in VEGF-mediated angiogenic processes

194

Nuclear localization of long-VEGF is associated with hypoxia and tumor angiogenesis.  

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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor that has a pivotal role in normal and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF has a long 5' untranslated region harboring an open reading frame (ORF) initiated by a CUG codon that is in-frame with the VEGF coding region. The ORF translation leads to the expression of a long isoform termed L-VEGF that is extended by an additional 180 amino acids. In this communication, we provide evidence that L-VEGF is subjected to proteolytic cleavage leading to the detachment of the 180 aa extension from the VEGF moiety. Using immunofluorescence staining, we show that upon hypoxia this 180 aa extension translocates to the nuclei of expressing cells. Accordingly, immunohistochemical staining of both normal and tumor tissue samples demonstrated restricted nuclear localization of the ORF, which was correlated with cytoplasmic localization of VEGF. This suggests that the 180 aa ORF is involved in VEGF-mediated angiogenic processes. PMID:15896327

Rosenbaum-Dekel, Yifat; Fuchs, Alisa; Yakirevich, Evgeny; Azriel, Aviva; Mazareb, Salam; Resnick, Murray B; Levi, Ben-Zion

2005-06-24

195

The maspin expression in canine mammary tumors: an immunohistochemical and molecular study / A expressão do maspin nos tumores mamários caninos: um estudo imuno-histoquímico e molecular  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O serpin maspin, um supressor tumoral no câncer de mama foi descrito como inibidor de migração celular e indutor de adesão celular entre a membrana basal e a matriz extracelular resultando na inibição da metástase tumoral. Por outro lado, a alta expressão do maspin está relacionada com um mau prognó [...] stico em outros tipos de câncer. Pouco se sabe sobre a expressão, regulação e função do maspin nos tumores mamários caninos. Neste estudo, foi demonstrada uma perda da expressão de maspin nas células mamárias malignas de cães quando comparadas com um pool de tecido mamário normal de cães, analisado por PCR quantitativa em tempo real. Houve uma expressão fraca maspin em preparações de tumores mamários malignos observadas por imuno-histoquímica. Também foi verificado que a expressão nuclear do maspin em tumores mamários caninos está relacionada a um bom prognóstico. Assim, o maspin pode ser utilizado como um marcador prognóstico nas neoplasias mamárias em cães. Abstract in english The serpin maspin, a tumor suppressor in breast cancer was described as an inhibitor of cell migration and inducer of cell adhesion between the basement membrane and extracellular matrix resulting in inhibition of tumor metastasis. In contrast, overexpression of maspin is correlated with poor progno [...] sis in other types of cancer. Little is known about expression, regulation and function of maspin in canine mammary tumors. It was demonstrated in this study, a loss of maspin expression in malignant canine mammary cells compared with a pool of normal canine mammary tissue, analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR; weak maspin expression in malignant canine mammary tumors were observed by immunohistochemistry. It was also demonstrated that a correlation with nuclear maspin expression and a good prognosis. It is suggested that maspin could be used as a prognostic marker in canine mammary neoplasia.

Debora A.P.C., Zuccari; Rodrigo, Castro; Arieli F., Gavioli; Ulises M., Mancini; Eloisa H., Tajara; Cibelli S., Frade; Luana R., Pivaro; Juliana, Carmona-Raphe; Ana Carolina B., Terzian; Camila M., Ruiz; Eny M. Goloni, Bertollo; Érika C., Pavarino-Bertelli.

196

Targeting plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in a human cancer xenograft model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancers of the urinary bladder result in aggressive and highly angiogenic tumors for which standard treatments have only limited success. Patients with advanced disease have a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%, and no new anticancer agent has been successfully introduced into the clinic armamentarium for the treatment of bladder cancer in more than 20 years. Investigations have identified plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a serine protease inhibitor, as being highly expressed in several malignancies, including bladder cancer, in which high expression is associated with a poor prognosis. In this study, we evaluated PAI-1 as a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer. PAI-1 expression was manipulated in a panel of cell lines and functional inhibition was achieved using the small molecule tiplaxtinin. Reduction or inhibition of PAI-1 resulted in the reduction of cellular proliferation, cell adhesion, and colony formation, and the induction of apoptosis and anoikis in vitro. Treatment of T24 xenografts with tiplaxtinin resulted in inhibition of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis, leading to a significant reduction in tumor growth. Similar results were obtained through evaluation of the human cervical cancer HeLa cell line, showing that PAI-1-mediated effects are not restricted to tumor cells of bladder origin. Collectively, these data show that targeting PAI-1 may be beneficial and support the notion that novel drugs such as tiplaxtinin could be investigated as anticancer agents. PMID:24072883

Gomes-Giacoia, Evan; Miyake, Makito; Goodison, Steve; Rosser, Charles J

2013-12-01

197

Disruption of tumor neovasculature by microbubble enhanced ultrasound: a potential new physical therapy of anti-angiogenesis.  

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Tumor angiogenesis is of vital importance to the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. The angiogenesis is featured with a defective, leaky and fragile vascular construction. Microbubble enhanced ultrasound (MEUS) cavitation is capable of mechanical disruption of small blood vessels depending on effective acoustic pressure amplitude. We hypothesized that acoustic cavitation combining high-pressure amplitude pulsed ultrasound (US) and circulating microbubble could potentially disrupt tumor vasculature. A high-pressure amplitude, pulsed ultrasound device was developed to induce inertial cavitation of circulating microbubbles. The tumor vasculature of rat Walker 256 was insonated percutaneously with two acoustic pressures, 2.6 MPa and 4.8 MPa, both with intravenous injection of a lipid microbubble. The controls were treated by the ultrasound only or sham ultrasound exposure. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and histology were performed to assess tumor circulation and pathological changes. The CEUS results showed that the circulation of Walker 256 tumors could be completely blocked off for 24 hours in 4.8 MPa treated tumors. The CEUS gray scale value (GSV) indicated that there was significant GSV drop-off in both of the two experimental groups but none in the controls. Histology showed that the tumor microvasculature was disrupted into diffuse hematomas accompanied by thrombosis, intercellular edema and multiple cysts formation. The 24 hours of tumor circulation blockage resulted in massive necrosis of the tumor. MEUS provides a new, simple physical method for anti-angiogenic therapy and may have great potential for clinical applications. PMID:22178162

Liu, Zheng; Gao, Shunji; Zhao, Yang; Li, Peijing; Liu, Jia; Li, Peng; Tan, Kaibin; Xie, Feng

2012-02-01

198

PTK6/BRK is expressed in the normal mammary gland and activated at the plasma membrane in breast tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein Tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6/BRK) is overexpressed in the majority of human breast tumors and breast tumor cell lines. It is also expressed in normal epithelial linings of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and prostate. To date, expression of PTK6 has not been extensively examined in the normal human mammary gland. We detected PTK6 mRNA and protein expression in the immortalized normal MCF-10A human mammary gland epithelial cell line, and examined PTK6 expression and activation in a normal human breast tissue microarray, as well as in human breast tumors. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342 in the PTK6 activation loop corresponds with its activation. Similar to findings in the prostate, we detect nuclear and cytoplasmic PTK6 in normal mammary gland epithelial cells, but no phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 342. However, in human breast tumors, striking PTK6 expression and phosphorylation of tyrosine 342 is observed at the plasma membrane. PTK6 is expressed in the normal human mammary gland, but does not appear to be active and may have kinase-independent functions that are distinct from its cancer promoting activities at the membrane. Understanding consequences of PTK6 activation at the plasma membrane may have implications for developing novel targeted therapies against this kinase. PMID:25153721

Peng, Maoyu; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Wang, Zebin; Wiley, Elizabeth L.; Gann, Peter H.; Khan, Seema A.; Banerji, Nilanjana; McDonald, William; Asztalos, Szilard; Pham, Thao N.D.; Tonetti, Debra A.; Tyner, Angela L.

2014-01-01

199

1H-NMR METABONOMICS ANALYSIS OF SERA DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MAMMARY TUMOR-BEARING MICE AND HEALTHY CONTROLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Global analysis of 1H-NMR spectra of serum is an appealing approach for the rapid detection of cancer. To evaluate the usefulness of this method in distinguishing between mammary tumor-bearing mice and healthy controls, we conducted 1H-NMR metabonomic analyses on serum samples ob...

200

A histopathological study of spontaneous Wistar rat mammary tumor. The relation of the histopathological findings and X-ray CT image  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spontaneous malignant mammary tumor of Wistar female rat is relatively rare. The study of the tumor has not been performed from the histopathological and radiological points of view, especially in comparison with histopathological and X-ray CT findings. We examined the spontaneous mammary tumor of a 28 weeks Wistar female rat and studied it to make clear the relationship between histopathological findings and X-ray CT images. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Histopathologically, the necrosis and calcification were observed in the mammary tumor. These findings corresponded to the low density and several high density foci in the precontrast X-ray CT image of the mammary tumor. 2. Histopathologically, the nodular tubular pattern with separation of vascular fibrous tissue was observed in the tumor. The finding was corresponded to the position marked enhancement in the postcontrast CT image. (author).

Jinkoji, Tomio; Kiba, Hideo; Kaneda, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu [Nihon Univ., Matsudo, Chiba (Japan). School of Dentistry at Matsudo

1995-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Visualization of Tumor Angiogenesis Using MR Imaging Contrast Agent Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGF Receptor 2 Antibody Conjugate in a Mouse Tumor Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To visualize tumor angiogenesis using the MRI contrast agent, Gd- DTPA-anti-VEGF receptor 2 antibody conjugate, with a 4.7-Tesla MRI instrument in a mouse model. We designed a tumor angiogenesis-targeting T1 contrast agent that was prepared by the bioconjugation of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) antibody. The specific binding of the agent complex to cells that express VEGFR2 was examined in cultured murine endothelial cells (MS-1 cells) with a 4.7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Angiogenesis-specific T1 enhancement was imaged with the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate using a CT-26 adenocarcinoma tumor model in eight mice. As a control, the use of the Gd-DTPA-anti-rat immunoglobulin G (Gd-DTPA-anti-rat IgG) was imaged with a tumor model in eight mice. Statistical significance was assessed using the Mann-Whitney test. Tumor tissue was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate showed predominant binding to cultured endothelial cells that expressed a high level of VEGFR2. Signal enhancement was approximately three-fold for in vivo T1-weighted MR imaging with the use of the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate as compared with the Gd-DTPA-rat IgG in the mouse tumor model (p < 0.05). VEGFR2 expression in CT-26 tumor vessels was demonstrated using immunohistochemical staining. MR imaging using the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibodging using the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate as a contrast agent is useful in visualizing noninvasively tumor angiogenesis in a murine tumor model

202

Visualization of Tumor Angiogenesis Using MR Imaging Contrast Agent Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGF Receptor 2 Antibody Conjugate in a Mouse Tumor Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To visualize tumor angiogenesis using the MRI contrast agent, Gd- DTPA-anti-VEGF receptor 2 antibody conjugate, with a 4.7-Tesla MRI instrument in a mouse model. We designed a tumor angiogenesis-targeting T1 contrast agent that was prepared by the bioconjugation of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) antibody. The specific binding of the agent complex to cells that express VEGFR2 was examined in cultured murine endothelial cells (MS-1 cells) with a 4.7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Angiogenesis-specific T1 enhancement was imaged with the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate using a CT-26 adenocarcinoma tumor model in eight mice. As a control, the use of the Gd-DTPA-anti-rat immunoglobulin G (Gd-DTPA-anti-rat IgG) was imaged with a tumor model in eight mice. Statistical significance was assessed using the Mann-Whitney test. Tumor tissue was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate showed predominant binding to cultured endothelial cells that expressed a high level of VEGFR2. Signal enhancement was approximately three-fold for in vivo T1-weighted MR imaging with the use of the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate as compared with the Gd-DTPA-rat IgG in the mouse tumor model (p < 0.05). VEGFR2 expression in CT-26 tumor vessels was demonstrated using immunohistochemical staining. MR imaging using the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate as a contrast agent is useful in visualizing noninvasively tumor angiogenesis in a murine tumor model

Jun, Hong Young; Yin, Hong Hua; Kim, Sun Hee; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hun Soo; Yoon Kwon Ha Yoon [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-15

203

Evidence that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) inhibits angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial cell apoptosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its related ligands TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) play roles in the regulation of vascular responses, but their effect on the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is unclear. Therefore, we have examined the effects of these ligands on angiogenesis modeled with primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To examine angiogenesis in the context of the central nervous system, we have also modeled cerebral angiogenesis with the human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Parameters studied were bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and cell number (MTT) assay (to assess endothelial proliferation), scratch assay (migration) and networks on Matrigel (tube formation). In our hands, neither TRAIL nor FasL (1, 10, and 100 ng/ml) had an effect on parameters of angiogenesis in the HUVEC model. In hCMEC/D3 cells by contrast, TRAIL inhibited all parameters (10-100 ng/ml, 24 h). This was due to apoptosis, since its action was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVADfmk (5 x 10{sup -5} mol/l) and TRAIL increased caspase-3 activity 1 h after application. However FasL (100 ng/ml) increased BrdU uptake without other effects. We conclude that TRAIL has different effects on in vitro angiogenesis depending on which model is used, but that FasL is generally ineffective when applied in vitro. The data suggest that TRAIL primarily influences angiogenesis by the induction of vascular endothelial apoptosis, leading to vessel regression.

Chen, Pei-Lin, E-mail: pchen@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Easton, Alexander S., E-mail: alexander.easton@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

2010-01-01

204

c-erbB-2 expression and nuclear pleomorphism in canine mammary tumors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present investigation was to study the expression of c-erbB-2 and MIB-1 and try to associate them with morphological features of the cell such as nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count and histological grade in a series of 70 canine mammary gland tumors, 22 of them benign and 48 ma [...] lignant. Tumors were collected at the Veterinary Hospital of UFMG (Brazil) and the Veterinary Faculty of Porto University (Portugal). c-erbB-2 expression was determined according to the guidelines provided by the manufacturer of the HercepTest system and nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count and histological grade according the Elston and Ellis grading system. The HercepTest is the FDA-approved in vitro diagnostic test marketed by Dako. It is a semi-quantitative immunohistochemical assay used to determine overexpression of HER2 protein (human epidermal growth factor receptor) in breast cancer tissue. MIB-1 expression was also evaluated in 28 malignant tumors. Seventeen (35.4%) of the malignant tumors were positive for c-erbB-2 expression, which was positively associated with nuclear pleomorphism (P

A.P., Dutra; N.V.M., Granja; F.C., Schmitt; G.D., Cassali.

205

Mammary hamartomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five cases of mammary hamartoma are described, with special reference to the radiographic features. Hamartomas are well circumscribed lesions composed of normal or dysplastic mammary tissue. They are probably more common than has been anticipated from the literature and are important because they may be confused with other well circumscribed tumors, such as cystosarcoma phyllodes. The radiographic characteristics of hamartoma allows a tentative diagnosis in most cases. (Auth.)

206

The basic and additional immunohistochemical criteria in differential diagnostics of tumors and tumor-like processes of mammary gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphological diagnostics of mammary gland neoplasm is complex due to polymorphism of tumors and tumor-like processes. The purpose of our research was to reveal the basic and additional immunohistochemical markers for differential diagnostics of some diseases. We have established that the basic markers for differential diagnostics of adenosis and invasive carcinomas were MSA, ?-SMA, S100, collagen IV, ?63, ??-67 and ?53, additional - 34??12, ??7, ??8, ??5/6, E-cadgerin. The loss of expression of myoepithelial markers, positive reaction with ??-67, ?53, Her2/neu also matters. Mutually contrary patterns of 34??12 and E-cadgerin expression allow to differentiate ductal or lobular primacy of process. ??7, ??8, 34??12 play a key role in differential diagnostics of carcinosarcomas and sarcomas. myoepithelial markers and basal membrane also give the additional information. At differential diagnostics of carcinoma and malignant tumors of other nature ??7, ??8, E-cadgerin, Her2/neu, ER/PgR, myoepithelial markers were the most important, being typical only for epithelial tumors. At Paget disease the reliable diagnostic criteria are absence of S100 and expression of certain classes ?? (more often luminal epithelium ??7, ??8, E-cadgerin, ???. Clone AE1/AE3 and revealing ??7 is valuable for diagnostics of micro-metastasises.

Shponka I.S.

2009-01-01

207

A direct comparison of tumor angiogenesis with (68)Ga-labeled NGR and RGD peptides in HT-1080 tumor xenografts using microPET imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peptides containing asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) and arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence are being developed for tumor angiogenesis-targeted imaging and therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of NGR- and RGD-based probes for imaging tumor angiogenesis in HT-1080 tumor xenografts. Two PET probes, (68)Ga-NOTA-G3-NGR2 and (68)Ga-NOTA-G3-RGD2, were successfully prepared. In vitro stability, partition coefficient, tumor cell binding, as well as in vivo biodistribution properties were also analyzed for both PET probes. The results revealed that the two probes were both hydrophilic and stable in vitro and in vivo, and they were excreted predominately and rapidly through the kidneys. For both probes, the higher tumor uptake and lower accumulation in vital organs were determined. No significant difference between two probes was observed in terms of tumor uptake and the in vivo biodistribution properties. We concluded that these two probes are promising in tumor angiogenesis imaging. (68)Ga-NOTA-G3-NGR2 has the potential as an alternative for PET imaging in patients with fibrosarcoma, and it may offer an opportunity to noninvasively monitor CD13-targeted therapy. PMID:24990522

Shao, Yahui; Liang, Wansheng; Kang, Fei; Yang, Weidong; Ma, Xiaowei; Li, Guiyu; Zong, Shu; Chen, Kai; Wang, Jing

2014-10-01

208

In vivo tumor angiogenesis imaging with site-specific labeled 99mTc-HYNIC-VEGF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We recently developed a cysteine-containing peptide tag (C-tag) that allows for site-specific modification of C-tag-containing fusion proteins with a bifunctional chelator, HYNIC (hydrazine nicotinamide)-maleimide. We then constructed and expressed C-tagged vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and labeled it with HYNIC. We wished to test 99mTc-HYNIC-C-tagged VEGF (99mTc-HYNIC-VEGF) for the imaging of tumor vasculature before and after antiangiogenic (low continuous dosing, metronomic) and tumoricidal (high-dose) cyclophosphamide treatment. HYNIC-maleimide was reacted with the two thiol groups of C-tagged VEGF without any effect on biologic activity in vitro. 99mTc-HYNIC-VEGF was prepared using tin/tricine as an exchange reagent, and injected via the tail vein (200-300 ?Ci, 1-2 ?g protein) followed by microSPECT imaging 1 h later. Sequencing analysis of HYNIC-containing peptides obtained after digestion confirmed the site-specific labeling of the two accessible thiol groups of C-tagged VEGF. Tumor vascularity was easily visualized with 99mTc/VEGF in Balb/c mice with 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma 10 days after implantation into the left axillary fat pad in controls (12.3±5.0 tumor/bkg, n=27) along with its decrease following treatment with high (150 mg/kg q.o.d. x 4; 1.14±0.48 tumor/bkg, n=9) or low (25 mg/kg q.d. x 7; 1.03±0.18 tumor/bkg, n=9) dose cyclophosphamide. Binding specificity was confirmed by observing a 75% decrease in tumor uptake of 99mTc/biotin-inactivated VEGF, as compared with 99mTc-HYNIC-VEGF. 99mTc can be loaded onto C-tagged VEGF in a site-specific fashion without reducing its bioactivity. 99mTc-HYNIC-VEGF can be rapidly prepared for the imaging of tumor vasculature and its response to different types of chemotherapy. (orig.)

209

A model of spontaneous mouse mammary tumor for human estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently malignancy in women. Therefore, establishment of an animal model for the development of preventative measures and effective treatment for tumors is required. A novel heterogeneous spontaneous mammary tumor animal model of Kunming mice was generated. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spontaneous mammary tumor model. Histopathologically, invasive nodular masses of pleomorphic tubular neoplastic epithelial cells invaded fibro-vascular stroma, adjacent dermis and muscle tissue. Metastatic spread through blood vessel into liver and lungs was observed by hematoxylin eosin staining. No estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) immunoreactivity was detected in their associated malignant tumors, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) protein weak expression was found by immunohistochemistry. High expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), moderate or high expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1 were observed in tumor sections at different stages (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after cancer being found) when compared with that of the normal mammary glands. The result showed that the model is of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Remarkably in the mouse model, ER and PR-negative and HER2 weak positivity are observed. The high or moderate expressions of breast cancer markers (VEGF, c-Myc and cyclin D1) in mammary cancer tissue change at different stages. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous mammary model displaying colony-strain, outbred mice. This model will be an attractive tool to understand the biology of anti-hormonal breast cancer in women. PMID:25230850

ZHENG, LIXIANG; ZHOU, BUGAO; MENG, XIANMING; ZHU, WEIFENG; ZUO, AIREN; WANG, XIAOMIN; JIANG, RUNDE; YU, SHIPING

2014-01-01

210

A model of spontaneous mouse mammary tumor for human estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently malignancy in women. Therefore, establishment of an animal model for the development of preventative measures and effective treatment for tumors is required. A novel heterogeneous spontaneous mammary tumor animal model of Kunming mice was generated. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spontaneous mammary tumor model. Histopathologically, invasive nodular masses of pleomorphic tubular neoplastic epithelial cells invaded fibro-vascular stroma, adjacent dermis and muscle tissue. Metastatic spread through blood vessel into liver and lungs was observed by hematoxylin eosin staining. No estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) immunoreactivity was detected in their associated malignant tumors, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) protein weak expression was found by immunohistochemistry. High expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), moderate or high expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1 were observed in tumor sections at different stages (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after cancer being found) when compared with that of the normal mammary glands. The result showed that the model is of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Remarkably in the mouse model, ER and PR-negative and HER2 weak positivity are observed. The high or moderate expressions of breast cancer markers (VEGF, c-Myc and cyclin D1) in mammary cancer tissue change at different stages. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous mammary model displaying colony-strain, outbred mice. This model will be an attractive tool to understand the biology of anti-hormonal breast cancer in women. PMID:25230850

Zheng, Lixiang; Zhou, Bugao; Meng, Xianming; Zhu, Weifeng; Zuo, Airen; Wang, Xiaomin; Jiang, Runde; Yu, Shiping

2014-12-01

211

Misregulation of Stromelysin-1 in Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells Accompanies Acquisition of Stromelysin-1 dependent Invasive Properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stromelysin-1 is a member of the metalloproteinase family of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes that regulates tissue remodeling. We previously established a transgenic mouse model in which rat stromelysin-1 targeted to the mammary gland augmented expression of endogenous stromelysin-1, disrupted functional differentiation, and induced mammary tumors. A cell line generated from an adenocarcinoma in one of these animals and a previously described mammary tumor cell line generated in culture readily invaded both a reconstituted basement membrane and type I collagen gels, whereas a nonmalignant, functionally normal epithelial cell line did not. Invasion of Matrigel by tumor cells was largely abolished by metalloproteinase inhibitors, but not by inhibitors of other proteinase families. Inhibition experiments with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides revealed that Matrigel invasion of both cell lines was critically dependent on stromelysin-1 expression. Invasion of collagen, on the other hand, was reduced by only 40-50%. Stromelysin-1 was expressed in both malignant and nonmalignant cells grown on plastic substrata. Its expression was completely inhibited in nonmalignant cells, but up-regulated in tumor cells, in response to Matrigel. Thus misregulation of stromelysin-1 expression appears to be an important aspect of mammary tumor cell progression to an invasive phenotype. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes that have been implicated in a variety of normal developmental and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis. The MMP family comprises at least 15 members with different, albeit overlapping, substrate specificities. During activation of latent MMPs, their propeptides are cleaved and they are converted to a lower molecular weight form by other enzymes, including serine proteinases, and by autocatalytic cleavage. Among the MMPs, stromelysin-1 (SL1) possesses the broadest substrate specificity. Despite increasing knowledge about its enzymatic properties and the regulation of its expression, little is known about its function. We have generated transgenic animals that express an autoactivating mutant of rat SL1 targeted to the epithelial compartment of the mammary gland. Phenotypically, SL1 transgenic mice display increased branching morphogenesis and lactogenic differentiation at prepubertal stages and premature involution during late pregnancy. Branching morphogenesis requires the invasion of epithelial cells into the adipose tissue, a process reminiscent of invasion of stromal compartments by tumor cells. Strikingly, a large number of SL1 transgenic animals also develop mammary tumors of various histotypes, including invasive adenocarcinomas. Because tumor development is a late response of SL1 transgenic mice to overexpression of the transgene, it remains unclear whether SL1 plays a direct role in tumor growth and/or invasion or whether the observed tumors are a consequence of other molecular alterations in the microenvironment of the mammary gland before the onset of tumor growth. Studies performed with synthetic inhibitors of MMP activity and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have shown that suppression of MMP activity also suppresses tumor growth and metastasis. In many cases, the level of SL1 expression in tumors of the mammary gland and other tissues is positively correlated with the degree of malignancy. However, the only direct evidence for the nature of the MMPs involved was provided by the demonstration that function-blocking antibodies against gelatinase A and antisense inhibition of matrilysin expression decreased the invasiveness of tumor cells in a reconstituted basement membrane assay. These studies encouraged us to investigate whether SL1 plays a direct role in invasion of ECM. We used two carcinoma cell lines, TCL1 and SCg6 that formed rapidly growing, invasive tumors in vivo and migrated through Matrigel and collagen gels in culture. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against SL1 inhibited Matrigel invasion by TCL1 and SCg

Lochter, A.; Srebrow, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Terracio, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

1997-02-21

212

The relationship between tumor blood flow, angiogenesis, tumor hypoxia, and aerobic glycolysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anti-angiogenic therapies are being pursued as means of starving tumors of their energy supply. While numerous studies show that such therapies render tumors hypoxic, just as many studies have, surprisingly, shown improved tumor oxygenation. These contradicting findings challenge both the original rationale for anti-angiogenic therapy and our understanding of the physiology of tissue oxygenation. The flow-diffusion equation, which describes the relation between blood flow and the extraction of freely diffusible molecules in tissue, was recently extended to take the heterogeneity of capillary transit times (CTH) into account. CTH is likely to be high in the chaotic microvasculature of a tumor, increasing the effective shunting of blood through its capillary bed. We review the properties of the extended flow-diffusion equation in tumor tissue. Elevated CTH reduces the extraction of oxygen, glucose, and cytotoxic molecules. The extent to which their net extraction is improved by anti-angiogenic therapy in turn, depends on the extent to which CTH is normalized by the treatment. The extraction of oxygen and glucose are affected to different extents by elevated CTH, and the degree of aerobic glycolysis - known as the Warburg effect - is thus predicted to represent an adaptation to the CTH of the local microvasculature.

Østergaard, Leif; Tietze, Anna

2013-01-01

213

BRCA1 Suppresses Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Stem Cell Dedifferentiation during Mammary and Tumor Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

BRCA1 mutation carriers are predisposed to developing basal-like breast cancers with high metastasis and poor prognosis. Yet, how BRCA1 suppresses formation of basal-like breast cancers is still obscure. Deletion of p18(Ink4c) (p18), an inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, functionally inactivates the RB pathway, stimulates mammary luminal stem cell (LSC) proliferation, and leads to spontaneous luminal tumor development. Alternately, germline mutation of Brca1 shifts the fate of luminal cells to cause luminal-to-basal mammary tumor transformation. Here, we report that disrupting Brca1 by either germline or epithelium-specific mutation in p18-deficient mice activates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and induces dedifferentiation of LSCs, which associate closely with expansion of basal and cancer stem cells and formation of basal-like tumors. Mechanistically, BRCA1 bound to the TWIST promoter, suppressing its activity and inhibiting EMT in mammary tumor cells. In human luminal cancer cells, BRCA1 silencing was sufficient to activate TWIST and EMT and increase tumor formation. In parallel, TWIST expression and EMT features correlated inversely with BRCA1 expression in human breast cancers. Together, our findings showed that BRCA1 suppressed TWIST and EMT, inhibited LSC dedifferentiation, and repressed expansion of basal stem cells and basal-like tumors. Thus, our work offers the first genetic evidence that Brca1 directly suppresses EMT and LSC dedifferentiation during breast tumorigenesis. Cancer Res; 74(21); 6161-72. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25239453

Bai, Feng; Chan, Ho Lam; Scott, Alexandria; Smith, Matthew D; Fan, Cheng; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Perou, Charles M; Livingstone, Alan S; Robbins, David J; Capobianco, Anthony J; Pei, Xin-Hai

2014-11-01

214

Relationship between expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tumor angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective To explore the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator(uPA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma(EOC and the relationship of the expression to microvessel density.Methods SP immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the expression of uPA in ovarian cancer(85 cases,borderline ovarian tumor(16 cases,benign ovarian tumor(39 cases and normal ovarian tissue(24 cases.Microvessels in ovarian cancer were marked by CD34,and microvessel density(MVD was determined by direct count.The relationship between uPA and MVD was analyzed.The 85 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were followed up.Results The highest positive rate of uPA existed in the patients with EOC.There was a correlation between the expression of uPA and MVD and the differentiation of EOC,clinical stage,lymphatic metastasis,omental metastasis,and 5 years survival rate.A significant positive correlation was found between the expression of uPA in EOC and MVD(r=0.56,P=0.02.Conclusion uPA may promote the angiogenesis of EOC,and participate in the occurrence,development,invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer.The detection of uPA and MVD may be used as an indicator of biological behaviors and prognosis of ovarian cancer.

Ping NAN

2011-06-01

215

Tumor angiogenesis, macrophages and mast cell microdensities in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to observe and compare the values of microvessel density (MVD), mast cell microdensity (McMD) and macrophage microdensity (MphMD) in intratumoral areas compared with the advancing edges, and to assess any correlations between these values and the degree and stage of the neoplasia. The cases of 52 patients who were diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma between 2003 and 2011 were analyzed, the majority of which were in the first stage of the disease (44 cases). Double sequential immunohistochemistry and the hot-spot counting method were used to assess the MVD (CD105+ MVD), McMD [tryptase+ (Try+) McMD] and MphMD (CD68+ MphMD) densities. The ?2 test, paired Student’s t-test and the Pearson correlation index were used to assess the significance of the results. A weak correlation was observed at the advancing edge only, between CD105+ MVD and Try+ McMD (P=0.039). No significant differences were identified in the analysis of CD105+ MVD, Try+ McMD and CD68+ MphMD, but wide variations in their distribution were observed. Depending on the tumor stage, CD105+ MVD exhibited an intratumoral, indirect correlation with Try+ McMD for stage IA (P=0.026) and II (P=0.013) tumors. CD105+ MVD presented an indirect correlation with CD68+ MphMD in stage IB tumors (P=0.016) and at the advancing edge for well-differentiated tumors (P=0.027). An analysis of the correlation between CD68+ MphMD and Try+ McMD indicated that the intratumoral levels of CD68+ MphMD were directly proportional with the Try+ McMD values in well-differentiated (P=0.005) and stage II (P=0.012) tumors, while at the front of the invasion, this correlation was indirect (P=0.010) in stage II tumors. In endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC), angiogenesis is at its most active at the advancing edge of the tumor, where mast cells play a pro-angiogenic role. PMID:24137338

SIMIONESCU, CRISTIANA; MARGARITESCU, CLAUDIU; STEPAN, ALEX; PIRICI, DANIEL; CIUREA, RALUCA; CERNEA, NICOLAE

2013-01-01

216

Cultivation of mouse mammary tumor cells derived from DD/Tbr, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors affecting production of MuMTV by DD-762 cells, an established cell line from a spontaneous mammary tumor in a DD/Tbr mouse, were examined. When the cells were seeded and cultures medium were refreshed at every 3 - 4 day intervals without passage of cells, virus production began after exponential pase of cell growth and attained to peaks at every 10 - 12 days intervals up to approximately 60 days after seeding. MuMTV production was dependent on cell seeding density. Seeding at higher cell density, virus release occurred earlier. Maximum amount of MuMTV was observed with the medium containing 10 ?g INS, 5 ?g DXM and 10% FCS. The RDDP activities in the culture fluid were rapidly inactivated by incubation at 370C. (author)

217

Identification of novel carcinogen-mediated mammary tumor susceptibility loci in the rat using the chromosome substitution technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

We here report the genetic basis for susceptibility and resistance to carcinogen-mediated [7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)] mammary tumorigenesis using the full panel of SS/BN consomic rat strains, in which substitutions of individual chromosomes from the resistant BN strain onto the genomic background of the susceptible SS strain were made. Analysis of 252 consomic females identified rat mammary Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) affecting tumor incidence on chromosomes 3 and 5, latency on chromosomes 3, 9, 14, and 19, and multiplicity on chromosomes 13, 16, and 19. In addition, we unexpectedly identified a novel QTL on chromosome 6 controlling a lethal toxic phenotype in response to DMBA. Upon further investigation with chromosomes 6 and 13 congenic lines, in which an additional 114 rats were investigated, we mapped (1) a novel mammary tumor QTL to a region of 27.1 Mbp in the distal part of RNO6, a region that is entirely separated from the toxicity phenotype, and (2) a novel and powerful mammary tumor susceptibility locus of 4.5 Mbp that mapped to the proximal q-arm of RNO13. Comparison of genetic strain differences using existing rat genome databases enabled us to further construct priority lists containing single breast cancer candidate genes within the defined QTLs, serving as potential functional variants for future testing. PMID:20737482

Adamovic, Tatjana; McAllister, Donna; Wang, Tao; Adamovic, Dragan; Rowe, J Jordi; Moreno, Carol; Lazar, Josef; Jacob, Howard J; Sugg, Sonia L

2010-11-01

218

Over-expression of p53 mutants in LNCaP cells alters tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has investigated the impact of three specific dominant-negative p53 mutants (F134L, M237L, and R273H) on tumorigenesis by LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mutant p53 proteins were associated with an increased subcutaneous 'take rate' in NOD-SCID mice, and increased production of PSA. Tumors expressing F134L and R273H grew slower than controls, and were associated with decreased necrosis and apoptosis, but not hypoxia. Interestingly, hypoxia levels were increased in tumors expressing M237L. There was less proliferation in F134L-bearing tumors compared to control, but this was not statistically significant. Angiogenesis was decreased in tumors expressing F134L and R273H compared with M237L, or controls. Conditioned medium from F134L tumors inhibited growth of normal human umbilical-vein endothelial cells but not telomerase-immortalized bone marrow endothelial cells. F134L tumor supernatants showed lower levels of VEGF and endostatin compared with supernatants from tumors expressing other mutants. Our results support the possibility that decreased angiogenesis might account for reduced growth rate of tumor cells expressing the F134L p53 mutation

219

Expressão dos filamentos intermediários no diagnóstico dos tumores mamários de cadelas Expression of intermediate filaments in canine mammary tumors diagnosis  

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Full Text Available Foram utilizados anticorpos monoclonais para marcação imunoistoquímica dos tecidos tumorais e obtenção de informações sobre a histogênese dos tumores mamários utilizando-se anti-citoqueratinas para marcação de células epiteliais, e anti-actina e anti-vimentina para células mioepiteliais. O procedimento imunoistoquímico mostrou-se esclarecedor com relação à histogênese dos tumores mamários, confirmando a marcação de células epiteliais com as citoqueratinas que perdem sua expressão na transformação celular maligna. A alfa-actina e a vimentina mostraram-se eficientes na marcação de células mioepiteliais. A alfa-actina diminuiu a marcação na metaplasia óssea ou cartilaginosa contrariamente à vimentina cuja marcação foi aumentada. Os resultados permitem melhor entendimento da classificação dos tumores mamários de cadelas com a utilização de anticorpos monoclonais como marcadores do citoesqueleto, que se mostraram eficientes nessa caracterização.Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed to study the histogenesis of canine mammary tumors and to contribute to a better understanding of their classification. Monoclonal antibodies specific for different types of intermediate filaments (cytokeratins, vimentin, alpha-actin were used. Epithelial cells stained positively for cytokeratins and their expression was lost as the malignant transformation occurs. Myoepithelial cells stained positively for vimentin and alpha-actin. In contrast to vimentin, alpha-actin lost the expression as the cartilaginous or osseous metaplasia occurs. Immunohistochemical evaluation with monoclonal antibodies proved to be efficient for identification of tumor histogenesis. alpha-actin were used. Epithelial cells stained positively for cytokeratins and their expression was lost as the malignant transformation occurs. Myoepithelial cells stained positively for vimentin and alpha-actin. In contrast to vimentin, alpha-actin lost the expression as the cartilaginous or osseous metaplasia occurs. Immunohistochemical evaluation with monoclonal antibodies proved to be efficient for identification of tumor histogenesis.

D.A.P.C. Zuccari

2002-12-01

220

Expressão dos filamentos intermediários no diagnóstico dos tumores mamários de cadelas / Expression of intermediate filaments in canine mammary tumors diagnosis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados anticorpos monoclonais para marcação imunoistoquímica dos tecidos tumorais e obtenção de informações sobre a histogênese dos tumores mamários utilizando-se anti-citoqueratinas para marcação de células epiteliais, e anti-actina e anti-vimentina para células mioepiteliais. O procedime [...] nto imunoistoquímico mostrou-se esclarecedor com relação à histogênese dos tumores mamários, confirmando a marcação de células epiteliais com as citoqueratinas que perdem sua expressão na transformação celular maligna. A alfa-actina e a vimentina mostraram-se eficientes na marcação de células mioepiteliais. A alfa-actina diminuiu a marcação na metaplasia óssea ou cartilaginosa contrariamente à vimentina cuja marcação foi aumentada. Os resultados permitem melhor entendimento da classificação dos tumores mamários de cadelas com a utilização de anticorpos monoclonais como marcadores do citoesqueleto, que se mostraram eficientes nessa caracterização. Abstract in english Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed to study the histogenesis of canine mammary tumors and to contribute to a better understanding of their classification. Monoclonal antibodies specific for different types of intermediate filaments (cytokeratins, vimentin, alpha-actin) were used. Epithelia [...] l cells stained positively for cytokeratins and their expression was lost as the malignant transformation occurs. Myoepithelial cells stained positively for vimentin and alpha-actin. In contrast to vimentin, alpha-actin lost the expression as the cartilaginous or osseous metaplasia occurs. Immunohistochemical evaluation with monoclonal antibodies proved to be efficient for identification of tumor histogenesis. alpha-actin) were used. Epithelial cells stained positively for cytokeratins and their expression was lost as the malignant transformation occurs. Myoepithelial cells stained positively for vimentin and alpha-actin. In contrast to vimentin, alpha-actin lost the expression as the cartilaginous or osseous metaplasia occurs. Immunohistochemical evaluation with monoclonal antibodies proved to be efficient for identification of tumor histogenesis.

D.A.P.C., Zuccari; A.E., Santana; N.S., Rocha.

2002-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effect of changing tumor oxygenation on glycolytic metabolism in a murine C3H mammary carcinoma assessed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

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The rate of conversion of D-[1-(13)C]glucose into [3-(13)C]lactate (apparent glycolytic rate) has been determined in C3H murine mammary carcinomas in vivo using tumor-selective (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with (1)H-(13)C cross-polarization. Under conditions of acute hypoxia induced by breathing carbon monoxide at 660 ppm, the apparent glycolytic rate was 0.0239 +/- 0.0019 min(-1). The proportion of (13)C label incorporated into [4-(13)C]glutamate (measured in tumor extracts) was 25-fold lower than that incorporated into [3-(13)C]lactate, reflecting a very limited oxidative metabolism during this hypoxic episode. For animals breathing air or carbogen (95% O(2) + 5% CO(2)), the calculated glycolytic rates were correspondingly lower (0.0160 +/- 0.0021 min(-1) and 0.0050 +/- 0.0011 min(-1), respectively). Although (13)C labeling of glutamate at C4 was still an order of magnitude lower than that for lactate at C3 (11-fold for air and 9-fold for carbogen), these ratios did show a greater degree ofoxidative metabolism than that seen in animals breathing carbon monoxide at 660 ppm. The marked difference in apparent glycolytic rate for this tumor model between well-oxygenated and hypoxic conditions demonstrates a substantial Pasteur effect (inhibition of glycolysis by oxygen). Dynamic (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides a noninvasive estimate of tumor glycolysis that can be used to evaluate the relationship between oxygenation and energy metabolism, and this has potential consequences for the sensitivity of hypoxic cells to treatment and their ability to promote angiogenesis.

Nielsen, Flemming U.; Daugård, Preben

2001-01-01

222

Tumor-derived hydrogen sulfide, produced by cystathionine-?-synthase, stimulates bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in colon cancer.  

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The physiological functions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) include vasorelaxation, stimulation of cellular bioenergetics, and promotion of angiogenesis. Analysis of human colon cancer biopsies and patient-matched normal margin mucosa revealed the selective up-regulation of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) in colon cancer, resulting in an increased rate of H2S production. Similarly, colon cancer-derived epithelial cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, LoVo) exhibited selective CBS up-regulation and increased H2S production, compared with the nonmalignant colonic mucosa cells, NCM356. CBS localized to the cytosol, as well as the mitochondrial outer membrane. ShRNA-mediated silencing of CBS or its pharmacological inhibition with aminooxyacetic acid reduced HCT116 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; reduced endothelial cell migration in tumor/endothelial cell cocultures; and suppressed mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption, ATP turnover, and respiratory reserve capacity), as well as glycolysis. Treatment of nude mice with aminooxyacetic acid attenuated the growth of patient-derived colon cancer xenografts and reduced tumor blood flow. Similarly, CBS silencing of the tumor cells decreased xenograft growth and suppressed neovessel density, suggesting a role for endogenous H2S in tumor angiogenesis. In contrast to CBS, silencing of cystathionine-?-lyase (the expression of which was unchanged in colon cancer) did not affect tumor growth or bioenergetics. In conclusion, H2S produced from CBS serves to (i) maintain colon cancer cellular bioenergetics, thereby supporting tumor growth and proliferation, and (ii) promote angiogenesis and vasorelaxation, consequently providing the tumor with blood and nutritients. The current findings identify CBS-derived H2S as a tumor growth factor and anticancer drug target. PMID:23836652

Szabo, Csaba; Coletta, Ciro; Chao, Celia; Módis, Katalin; Szczesny, Bartosz; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R

2013-07-23

223

Tumor-derived hydrogen sulfide, produced by cystathionine-?-synthase, stimulates bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in colon cancer  

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The physiological functions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) include vasorelaxation, stimulation of cellular bioenergetics, and promotion of angiogenesis. Analysis of human colon cancer biopsies and patient-matched normal margin mucosa revealed the selective up-regulation of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) in colon cancer, resulting in an increased rate of H2S production. Similarly, colon cancer-derived epithelial cell lines (HCT116, HT-29, LoVo) exhibited selective CBS up-regulation and increased H2S production, compared with the nonmalignant colonic mucosa cells, NCM356. CBS localized to the cytosol, as well as the mitochondrial outer membrane. ShRNA-mediated silencing of CBS or its pharmacological inhibition with aminooxyacetic acid reduced HCT116 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; reduced endothelial cell migration in tumor/endothelial cell cocultures; and suppressed mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption, ATP turnover, and respiratory reserve capacity), as well as glycolysis. Treatment of nude mice with aminooxyacetic acid attenuated the growth of patient-derived colon cancer xenografts and reduced tumor blood flow. Similarly, CBS silencing of the tumor cells decreased xenograft growth and suppressed neovessel density, suggesting a role for endogenous H2S in tumor angiogenesis. In contrast to CBS, silencing of cystathionine-?-lyase (the expression of which was unchanged in colon cancer) did not affect tumor growth or bioenergetics. In conclusion, H2S produced from CBS serves to (i) maintain colon cancer cellular bioenergetics, thereby supporting tumor growth and proliferation, and (ii) promote angiogenesis and vasorelaxation, consequently providing the tumor with blood and nutritients. The current findings identify CBS-derived H2S as a tumor growth factor and anticancer drug target. PMID:23836652

Szabo, Csaba; Coletta, Ciro; Chao, Celia; Modis, Katalin; Szczesny, Bartosz; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R.

2013-01-01

224

Inhibition of mammary tumor cell adhesion, migration, and invasion by the selective synthetic urokinase inhibitor B428.  

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We have analyzed the anti-invasive properties of the selective synthetic urokinase inhibitor 4-iodo benzo[b]thiopene-2-carboxamidine (B428) in the mouse mammary carcinoma model F3II. At non-cytotoxic concentrations (10-20 microM), B428 blocked secreted and cell-associated tumor-derived urokinase activity as well as whole cell plasminogen-dependent casein degradation. Pretreatment of F3II monolayers with B428 enhanced membrane bound uPA, suggesting that the compound may modify urokinase receptor mobilization and urokinase-dependent cell signaling. B428 exerted a dose-dependent inhibition of Matrigel invasion by F3II cells and also reduced tumor cell adhesion and migration using the same doses. Our data indicate that uPA and its cell surface receptor are involved in attachment, migration, and invasion of mammary tumor cells, and that the three processes can be blocked by a synthetic urokinase inhibitor. PMID:9891516

Alonso, D F; Tejera, A M; Farias, E F; Bal de Kier Joffe, E; Gomez, D E

1998-01-01

225

T cell-mediated delay of spontaneous mammary tumor onset: increased efficacy with in vivo versus in vitro activation.  

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Peripheral tolerance to shared Ags expressed on both tumors and normal self-tissues presents a major barrier to T cell-based immunotherapy as a treatment for cancer. To assess the activity of tumor-specific T cells against spontaneously arising carcinomas in the context of shared Ag expression, we developed a model system whereby an identified tumor Ag, tumor ERK (tERK), is expressed transgenically on both normal mammary tissue and spontaneous mammary carcinomas. Transfer of in vitro-activated, tERK-specific DUC18 T cells delayed spontaneous tumor development in tERK-expressing mice when T cells were given before the development of palpable carcinomas. However, antitumor activity mediated by in vitro-activated DUC18 T cells, as measured by responsiveness against a transplanted tERK-expressing fibrosarcoma challenge, was lost within days of transfer. This loss was due to expression of tERK as a self-Ag on normal tissues and was independent of the presence of mammary tumors. In contrast, transferred naive DUC18 T cells maintained a long-term protective function in tERK-expressing mice. Ten-fold fewer naive T cells activated in vivo were able to replicate the delay in spontaneous tumor development achieved by in vitro-activated T cells. These results are in contrast to our earlier studies using transplanted tumors alone, in which in vitro-activated DUC18 T cells were more efficacious than naive DUC18 T cells and highlight the need to perform tumor studies in the presence of tumor Ag expression on normal self-tissue. PMID:15814690

O'Mara, Leigh A; Norian, Lyse A; Kreamalmeyer, Darren; White, J Michael; Allen, Paul M

2005-04-15

226

Overexpression of Bcl-x(L) promotes chemotherapy resistance of mammary tumors in a syngeneic mouse model.  

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Bcl-x(L), a prosurvival member of the Bcl-2 family that is expressed in many tumors, represses apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. However, the contribution of apoptosis and prosurvival Bcl-2-related proteins to chemotherapy resistance in vivo is unknown and has been challenged by recent results with clonogenic survival assays. To test the ability of Bcl-x(L) to provide chemotherapy resistance to tumors, we transfected the mouse bcl-x(L) gene into the tumorigenic SCK mammary cell line and assessed the response of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs in clonogenic assays and in a syngeneic mouse model. Bcl-x(L) conferred protection on SCK cells against methotrexate at certain drug concentrations, but not at all against 5-fluorouracil in clonogenic survival assays in vitro. Injection of SCK cells transfected with Bcl-x(L) or control plasmid in the mammary fat pads of syngeneic recipient mice resulted in tumors of similar size. However, although the volume of control tumors regressed up to 80% after 4 to 5 days of chemotherapy, SCK tumors expressing Bcl-x(L) did not regress and continued to grow in the presence of methotrexate or 5-fluorouracil. In addition, numbers of apoptotic cells were significantly higher in control tumors as compared to Bcl-x(L)-expressing tumors in animals treated with methotrexate or 5-fluorouracil. These results provide evidence that inhibition of apoptosis through Bcl-x(L) overexpression can promote resistance to chemotherapy in tumors in vivo. PMID:10595916

Liu, R; Page, C; Beidler, D R; Wicha, M S; Núñez, G

1999-12-01

227

Overexpression of Bcl-xL Promotes Chemotherapy Resistance of Mammary Tumors in a Syngeneic Mouse Model  

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Bcl-xL, a prosurvival member of the Bcl-2 family that is expressed in many tumors, represses apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. However, the contribution of apoptosis and prosurvival Bcl-2-related proteins to chemotherapy resistance in vivo is unknown and has been challenged by recent results with clonogenic survival assays. To test the ability of Bcl-xL to provide chemotherapy resistance to tumors, we transfected the mouse bcl-xL gene into the tumorigenic SCK mammary cell line and assessed the response of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs in clonogenic assays and in a syngeneic mouse model. Bcl-xL conferred protection on SCK cells against methotrexate at certain drug concentrations, but not at all against 5-fluorouracil in clonogenic survival assays in vitro. Injection of SCK cells transfected with Bcl-xL or control plasmid in the mammary fat pads of syngeneic recipient mice resulted in tumors of similar size. However, although the volume of control tumors regressed up to 80% after 4 to 5 days of chemotherapy, SCK tumors expressing Bcl-xL did not regress and continued to grow in the presence of methotrexate or 5-fluorouracil. In addition, numbers of apoptotic cells were significantly higher in control tumors as compared to Bcl-xL-expressing tumors in animals treated with methotrexate or 5-fluorouracil. These results provide evidence that inhibition of apoptosis through Bcl-xL overexpression can promote resistance to chemotherapy in tumors in vivo. PMID:10595916

Liu, Rebecca; Page, Carmen; Beidler, David R.; Wicha, Max S.; Nunez, Gabriel

1999-01-01

228

Elevated GH/IGF-I promotes mammary tumors in high-fat, but not low-fat, fed mice.  

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Growth hormone (GH) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are thought to promote breast cancer based on reports showing circulating IGF-I levels correlate, in epidemiological studies, with breast cancer risk. Also, mouse models with developmental GH/IGF-I deficiency/resistance are less susceptible to genetic- or chemical-induced mammary tumorigenesis. However, given the metabolic properties of GH, medical strategies have been considered to raise GH to improve body composition and metabolic function in elderly and obese patients. Since hyperlipidemia, inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity increase breast cancer risk, elevating GH may serve to exacerbate cancer progression. To better understand the role GH/IGF-I plays in tumor formation, this study used unique mouse models to determine if reducing GH/IGF-I in adults protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz[?]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor development, and if moderate elevations in endogenous GH/IGF-I alter DMBA-induced tumorigenesis in mice fed a standard-chow diet or in mice with altered metabolic function due to high-fat feeding. We observed that adult-onset isolated GH-deficient mice, which also have reduced IGF-I levels, were less susceptible to DMBA-treatment. Specifically, fewer adult-onset isolated GH-deficient mice developed mammary tumors compared with GH-replete controls. In contrast, chow-fed mice with elevated endogenous GH/IGF-I (HiGH mice) were not more susceptible to DMBA-treatment. However, high-fat-fed, HiGH mice showed reduced tumor latency and increased tumor incidence compared with diet-matched controls. These results further support a role of GH/IGF-I in regulating mammary tumorigenesis but suggest the ultimate consequences of GH/IGF-I on breast tumor development are dependent on the diet and/or metabolic status. PMID:25085903

Gahete, Manuel D; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Lantvit, Daniel D; Ortega-Salas, Rosa; Sanchez-Sanchez, Rafael; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José; Swanson, Steven M; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M; Kineman, Rhonda D

2014-11-01

229

Activation of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor by TCDD Inhibits Mammary Tumor Metastasis in a Syngeneic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer  

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Treatment with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists can slow or reverse the growth of primary mammary tumors in rodents, which has fostered interest in developing selective AhR modulators for treatment of breast cancer. However, the major goal of breast cancer therapy is to inhibit metastasis, the primary cause of mortality in women with this disease. Studies conducted using breast cancer cell lines have demonstrated that AhR agonists suppress proliferation, invasiveness, and colony formation in vitro; however, further exploration using in vivo models of metastasis is warranted. To test the effect of AhR activation on metastasis, 4T1.2 mammary tumor cells were injected into the mammary gland fat pad of syngeneic Balb/c mice treated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Primary tumor growth was monitored for 4 weeks, at which time metastasis was determined. TCDD treatment suppressed metastasis by approximately 50%, as measured both in the lung and in mammary glands at sites distant from the primary tumor. Primary tumor growth was not suppressed by TCDD exposure nor was proliferation of 4T1.2 cells affected by TCDD treatment in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effect of AhR activation was selective for the metastatic process and not simply the result of a direct decrease in tumor cell proliferation or survival at the primary site. These observations in immunologically intact animals warrant further investigation into the mechanism of the protective effects of AhR activation and support the promise for use of AhR modulators to treat breast cancer. PMID:21948867

Wang, Tao; Wyrick, Katie L.; Meadows, Gary G.; Wills, Tamara B.; Vorderstrasse, Beth A.

2011-01-01

230

Proteínas de fase aguda em cadelas com neoplasia mamária Acute phase proteins in female dogs with mammary tumors  

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Full Text Available As proteínas de fase aguda (PFA apresentam concentrações séricas alteradas mediante processos infecciosos, inflamatórios e neoplásicos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as variações séricas das PFA em cadelas portadoras de neoplasia mamária, comparando com a avaliação histológica e leucograma. As PFA foram avaliadas em 45 cadelas com tumor de mama, distribuídas nos grupos neoplasia benigna (n=13, maligna não ulcerada (n=24 e maligna ulcerada (n=8. O grupo controle foi composto por 20 cadelas saudáveis. Foram realizados o teste de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE para identificar as PFA (albumina, ceruloplasmina, transferrina, haptoglobina Hp, ?-1 antitripsina e ?-1 glicoproteina ácida e o teste ultrassensível para proteína C reativa (PCR. As pacientes com neoplasia mamária maligna ulcerada apresentaram elevações sérica para PCR e Hp e redução da albumina (PAcute phase proteins (APPs are serum proteins whose concentrations change after infectious and inflammatory disease, and cancer. The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in APPs concentration and to correlate these findings with histological classification and WBC in female dogs with mammary tumors. APPs were studied in 45 female dogs with mammary tumor distributed in the following groups: benign (n=13, malignant without tumor ulceration (n=24, and malignant with tumor ulceration (n=8. SDS-polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used to measure APPs concentrations (albumin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, haptoglobinHp, ?-1-acid glycoprotein and ?-1-antitrypsin and ultrasensitive assay was used to evaluate serum C-reactive protein (CRP. Patients with malignant mammary neoplasia plus ulceration had significant increase of CRP and Hp, and had decreased levels of albumin (P<0.05, One-Way ANOVA and Dunn Test. Positive correlation among APPs and inflammatory leukocytosis were observed (P=0.002, Fisher test. No correlation was observed between APPs and histological subtype. In conclusion, combined changes of CRP, Hp and albumin may be used as a prediagnostic tool and prognosis in dogs with mammary tumors.

Michelly Kheidy Borges Battisti

2013-05-01

231

Correlation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1? with Angiogenesis in Liver Tumors After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization in an Animal Model  

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This study sought to determine the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and its relation to angiogenesis in liver tumors after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in an animal model. A total of 20 New Zealand White rabbits were implanted with VX2 tumor in liver. TAE-treated group animals (n = 10) received TAE with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Control group animals (n = 10) received sham embolization with distilled water. Six hours or 3 days after TAE, animals were humanely killed, and tumor samples were collected. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate HIF-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression and microvessel density (MVD). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine VEGF mRNA levels. The levels of HIF-1? protein were significantly higher in TAE-treated tumors than those in the control tumors (P = 0.001). HIF-1? protein was expressed in viable tumor cells that were located predominantly at the periphery of necrotic tumor regions. The levels of VEGF protein and mRNA, and mean MVD were significantly increased in TAE-treated tumors compared with the control tumors (P = 0.001, 0.000, and 0.001, respectively). HIF-1? protein level was significantly correlated with VEGF mRNA (r = 0.612, P = 0.004) and protein (r = 0.554, P = 0.011), and MVD (r = 0.683, P = 0.001). We conclude that HIF-1? is overexpressed in VX2 tumors treated with TAE as a result of intratumoral hypoxia generated by the procedure and involved in activation of the TAE-associated tumor angiogenesis. HIF-1? might represent a promising therapeutic target for antiangiogenesis in combination with TAE against liver tumors.

232

Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid) inhibits tumor angiogenesis by targeting Src/FAK/Rho GTPases signaling pathway.  

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Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), a natural inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase from Amphipterygium adstringens, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidative, and antimicrobial functions. However, whether this salicylic acid could block angiogenesis has not been elucidated to date. Here, we postulate that anacardic acid affects multiple steps of tumor angiogenesis to contribute to tumor inhibition. In this study, we found that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion and capillary-like structure formation of primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) could all be significantly suppressed by anacardic acid in vitro, without detectable cellular toxicity. Furthermore, anacardic acid effectively inhibited vascular development in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane ex vivo (n = 10) and VEGF-triggered corneal neovascularization in vivo (n = 10). A mechanistic study revealed that anacardic acid blocked activities of Src and FAK kinases in concentration- and time-dependent manners in HUVECs, resulting in activation of RhoA-GTPase and inactivation of Rac1- and Cdc42-GTPases. Of note, when anacardic acid (2 mg/kg per day) was subcutaneously administrated to mice bearing human prostate tumor xenografts (n = 6-7), the volume and weight of solid tumors were significantly retarded. Src, Ki-67, and CD31 immunohistochemical staining further revealed that Src protein expression, tumor cell proliferation, and microvessel density could be remarkably suppressed by anacardic acid. Taken together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that anacardic acid functions as a potent tumor angiogenesis inhibitor by targeting the Src/FAK/Rho GTPase signaling pathway, leading to significant suppression of prostate tumor growth. PMID:21828260

Wu, Yuanyuan; He, Lijun; Zhang, Li; Chen, Jing; Yi, Zhengfang; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Mingyao; Pang, Xiufeng

2011-11-01

233

Reexpression of ARHI inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis and impairs the mTOR/VEGF pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Reconstitution of ARHI suppresses the growth of HCC xenografts. ? ARHI reexpression impairs tumor angiogenesis in vivo. ? Inhibition of the mTOR/VEGF signaling by forced expression of ARHI. ? Manipulating ARHI may be of therapeutic benefit in treatment of ARHI-negative HCCs. -- Abstract: The Ras-related tumor suppressor gene aplasia Ras homolog member I (ARHI) is frequently downregulated in many types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we sought to explore the therapeutic implications of ARHI reconstitution in the treatment of HCC. We generated stable cell lines overexpressing ARHI in Hep3B and SK-Hep1 cells, both of which lack endogenous ARHI. The effects of ARHI reexpression on tumor growth and angiogenesis were assessed. Given the key role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in HCC progression, we also tested whether ARHI overexpression affected the mTOR pathway. Forced expression of ARHI resulted in a significant inhibition of the proliferation of both Hep3B and SK-Hep1 cells compared to control cells (P < 0.01). Cell cycle analysis revealed a G0-G1 arrest induced by ARHI reexpression. Moreover, ARHI reexpression significantly retarded Hep3B xenograft growth in vivo, and caused a marked reduction in tumor angiogenesis assessed by CD31-stained microvessel count. Western blot analysis of the xenografts showed that ARHI overexpression substantially reduced the phosphorylation of two mTOR substrates, S6K1 and 4E-BP1, indicative of an inactivation of the mTOR pathway. Accompanying with the mTOR inactivation, the angiogenic factors, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor, were significantly downregulated. These data highlighted an important role for ARHI in controlling HCC growth and angiogenesis, therefore offering a possible therapeutic strategy against this malignancy.

234

Berberine Reverses Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Inhibits Metastasis and Tumor-Induced Angiogenesis in Human Cervical Cancer Cells.  

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Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related death in patients, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for cancer metastasis, which is a multistep complicated process that includes local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. When cancer cells metastasize, angiogenesis is also required for metastatic dissemination, given that an increase in vascular density will allow easier access of tumor cells to circulation, and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. Berberine has several anti-inflammation and anticancer biologic effects. In this study, we provided molecular evidence that is associated with the antimetastatic effect of berberine by showing a nearly complete inhibition on invasion (P markers such as E-cadherin and inhibited mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and snail-1. Selective snail-1 inhibition by snail-1-specific small interfering RNA also showed increased E-cadherin expression in SiHa cells. Berberine also reduced tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, an in vivo BALB/c nude mice xenograft model and tail vein injection model showed that berberine treatment reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis by oral gavage, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggested that berberine could reduce metastasis and angiogenesis of cervical cancer cells, thereby constituting an adjuvant treatment of metastasis control. PMID:25217495

Chu, Shu-Chen; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Su, Mei-Yu; Chen, Pei-Ni

2014-12-01

235

Expression and Function of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor J (PTPRJ) in Normal Mammary Epithelial Cells and Breast Tumors  

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The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J, PTPRJ, is a tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in a range of cancers, including breast cancer, yet little is known about its role in normal breast physiology or in mammary gland tumorigenesis. In this paper we show that PTPRJ mRNA is expressed in normal breast tissue and reduced in corresponding tumors. Meta-analysis revealed that the gene encoding PTPRJ is frequently lost in breast tumors and that low expression of the transcript assoc...

Smart, Chanel E.; Askarian Amiri, Marjan E.; Wronski, Ania; Dinger, Marcel E.; Crawford, Joanna; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Vargas, Ana Cristina; Reid, Lynne; Simpson, Peter T.; Song, Sarah; Wiesner, Christiane; French, Juliet D.; Dave, Richa K.; Da Silva, Leonard; Purdon, Amy

2012-01-01

236

Menhaden, coconut, and corn oils and mammary tumor incidence in BALB/c virgin female mice treated with DMBA.  

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Omega-3 fatty (n-3) acids are believed to inhibit the rate of occurrence and the growth of mammary tumors in rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Linoleic acid, on the other hand, has been shown to promote mammary tumorigenesis. This study was undertaken to see whether replacing 18% of the corn oil (high in linoleic acid) in a 20% fat diet with menhaden oil (high in n-3 fatty acids, low in linoleic acid) or coconut oil (low in n-3 fatty acids, low in linoleic acid), while keeping constant the cholesterol, antioxidant, and total fat content, would affect tumor incidence in virgin female BALB/c mice dosed with DMBA. Dietary treatment had no effect on body weight, feed intake, or survival to 44 weeks of age (36 wks after the first of 6 DMBA doses). Mammary tumor incidence was the same in the menhaden oil and coconut oil diet groups but was significantly higher in the 20% corn oil diet group. The protective effect of menhaden oil and coconut oil may be due, at least in part, to the decreased linoleic acid content of these diets relative to the corn oil diet. We conclude that n-3 fatty acids per se do not seem to inhibit tumor formation. PMID:8233985

Craig-Schmidt, M; White, M T; Teer, P; Johnson, J; Lane, H W

1993-01-01

237

Expression of angiogenesis-related genes in canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors.  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related genes in canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors (ATs). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNA encoding for vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2, angiopoietin 1 and 2 (ANGPT1 and ANGPT2), the splice variant ANGPT2443, the ANGPT-receptor Tie2, and basic fibroblast growth factor in 38 canine cortisol-secreting ATs (26 carcinomas and 12 adenomas) and 15 normal adrenals. The relative expression of both ANGPT2 and ANGPT2443 was higher in adenomas (P = 0.020 for ANGPT2 and P = 0.002 for ANGPT2443) and carcinomas (P = 0.003 for ANGPT2 and P Tie2 was mainly present in the tumor vascular endothelial cells. The ANGPT2-to-ANGTPT1 ratio, a marker for a proangiogenic state, was higher in both adenomas (P = 0.020) and carcinomas (P = 0.043). With the use of the human H295R cortisol-producing adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, we were able to demonstrate that the ANGPT2 expression was stimulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate and progesterone but not by cortisol. In conclusion, canine cortisol-secreting ATs have enhanced ANGPT2 expression with a concomitant shift toward a proangiogenic state. On the basis of this information, treatment modalities may be developed that interfere with ANGPT2 expression, including inhibition of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A pathway, or of the effect of ANGPT2, by using specific ANGPT2 inhibitors. PMID:24377872

Kool, M M J; Galac, S; Kooistra, H S; Mol, J A

2014-04-01

238

Rosiglitazone inhibits metastasis development of a murine mammary tumor cell line LMM3  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR? induces diverse effects on cancer cells. The thiazolidinediones (TZDs, such as troglitazone and ciglitazone, are PPAR? agonists exhibiting antitumor activities; however, the underlying mechanism remains inconclusive. Rosiglitazone (RGZ, a synthetic ligand of PPAR? used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes, inhibits growth of some tumor cells and is involved in other processes related to cancer progression. Opposing results have also been reported with different ligands on tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if RGZ and 15d-PGJ2 induce antitumor effects in vivo and in vitro on the murine mammary tumor cell line LMM3. Methods The effect on LMM3 cell viability and nitric oxide (NO production of different doses of RGZ, 15-dPGJ2, BADGE and GW9662 were determined using the MTS colorimetric assay and the Griess reaction respectively. In vivo effect of orally administration of RGZ on tumor progression was evaluated either on s.c. primary tumors as well as on experimental metastasis. Cell adhesion, migration (wound assay and invasion in Transwells were performed. Metalloproteinase activity (MMP was determined by zymography in conditioned media from RGZ treated tumor cells. PPAR? expression was detected by inmunohistochemistry in formalin fixed tumors and by western blot in tumor cell lysates. Results RGZ orally administered to tumor-bearing mice decreased the number of experimental lung metastases without affecting primary s.c. tumor growth. Tumor cell adhesion and migration, as well as metalloproteinase MMP-9 activity, decreased in the presence of 1 ?M RGZ (non-cytotoxic dose. RGZ induced PPAR? protein expression in LMM3 tumors. Although metabolic activity -measured by MTS assay- diminished with 1–100 ?M RGZ, 1 ?M-treated cells recovered their proliferating capacity while 100 ?M treated cells died. The PPAR? antagonist Biphenol A diglicydyl ether (BADGE did not affect RGZ activity. On the contrary, the specific antagonist GW9662 completely abrogated RGZ-induced decrease in cell viability. A decrease in NO levels was detected in the presence of either 1 or 100 ?M RGZ. The natural ligand 15d-PGJ2 did not affect metabolic activity although it induced a significant decrease in NO production. Conclusion A significant decrease in the number of experimental LMM3 lung metastasis, but not on primary tumor growth, after oral RGZ administration was observed. In vitro, 100 ?MRGZ also reduced cell viability and NO production, while no changes were observed in the presence of 15d-PGJ2. BADGE did not reverse RGZ effect while the antagonist GW9662 completely abrogated it, suggesting a PPAR?- dependent mechanism. Inhibition of lung metastatic nodules by RGZ administered in vivo, might be associated with the observed decrease in MMP-9 expression, in cell adhesion, migration and invasion. RGZ augmented its expression. PPAR? was detected in cell lysates by western blot and by immunohistochemistry in tumors from RGZ-treated mice. In summary we can suggest that RGZ or any other TZDs might be possible future approaches in the treatment of metastasis of PPAR?-expressing cells.

Rolando Romina

2008-02-01

239

The investigation of tumoral angiogenesis with HIF-1 alpha and microvessel density in women with endometrium cancer  

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Full Text Available Objective: Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1? is a nuclear protein upregulated in response to reduced cellular oxygen concentration which therefore acts as a marker for hypoxia. The aim of this study was to determine tumoral angiogenesis with immunohistochemical markers in endometrium cancer and its relation with stage, grade, survival rates and other prognostic factors.Material and Methods: Using the database in our Gynecologic Oncology clinic, we selected 94 patients who were diagnosed with endometrial cancer and underwent primary surgery at our institution between 2001 and 2010. Tissue microarrays believed to demonstrate the optimum part of the tumor were reprepared from the paraffin blocks. Angiogenesis and microvessel density (MVD were investigated with the aid of HIF-1? and CD34 antibodies. Results: High expression of HIF-1? was significantly more frequent in advanced grade endometrial cancers (p=0.044. HIF-1? expression was highly correlated with CD34 expression in the tumor cells (p<0.001. However lack of relation among stage, overall survival rates and histological types were analyzed with HIF-1?. When we compared HIF-1? positive and negative cases with cervical, adnexial, lymphovascular and myometrial invasion, there was no difference between these groups. MVD was evaluated with CD34 and it was remarkable and significantly different on advanced grade tumors (r=0.268; p=0.009. A similar significant difference was observed between the high expression of CD34 and type II endometrial cancer histology (p<0.001. However, there was no relationship between the MVD and stage or survival rates.Conclusion: High expression of HIF-1? is associated with tumoral angiogenesis in endometrial adenocarcinomas. Further studies targeting HIF-1? for disrupting mechanisms essential for tumor growth in endometrium cancer will be significant investigations in the future.

Aysun Aybatl?

2012-03-01

240

Study on the effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with endostatin on the angiogenesis in rabbit VX2 tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

was no significant difference between them (q=0.70, P>0.05). The values of MVD were (80 ± 17), (84 ± 16) and (57 ± 13)/HPF for the 3 groups respectively. There was significant difference among them (F=8.70, P0.05) in MVD. Conclusion: Compared with chemoembolization only, chemoembolization combined with endostatin can significantly depress the expression of VEGF and decrease the angiogenesis of the tumor. The combined method has a beneficial effect on prognosis of hepatic tumor. (authors)

 
 
 
 
241

Immunohistochemical detection of Ki-67 and PCNA in canine mammary tumors: relationship to clinical and pathologic variables.  

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The objectives of this study were to measure the proliferation indices in canine mammary tumors using immunohistochemical detection of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), to determine the relationship of these antigens to clinical and pathologic variables, and to investigate the usefulness of these antigens as prognostic indicators. Ninety-six female dogs with 115 primary nonmetastasized spontaneous mammary tumors and dysplasias were included in the study. Immunostaining was performed using MIB-1 and PC10 monoclonal antibodies against Ki-67 and PCNA, respectively. Ki-67 and PCNA proliferation indices were determined. Dogs were followed for 18 months, with clinical examinations every 3-4 months. There was a significant correlation between Ki-67 and PCNA indices in the dogs with dysplasias and benign tumors but not in the dogs with malignant tumors. The clinical stage at first presentation was related to the proliferative index measured with Ki-67 but not to that measured with PCNA. Proliferation indices were significantly lower in the nonmalignant tumors and dysplasias than in the malignant tumors. In malignant tumors, the PCNA index had a positive correlation with the histologic malignant grade and the nuclear grade. High index values of Ki-67 were positively correlated with metastasis, death from neoplasia, low disease-free survival rates, and low overall survival rates. PCNA displayed no significant association with these variables. Multivariate analyses concerning metastasis, disease-free survival, and overall survival revealed that the Ki-67 index had prognostic value. PMID:9683072

Peña, L L; Nieto, A I; Pérez-Alenza, D; Cuesta, P; Castaño, M

1998-07-01

242

Modulation of growth and urokinase secretion by vasopressin and closely related nonapeptides in metastatic mouse mammary tumor cells.  

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We examined the effects of the neuropeptide hormones vasopressin and oxytocin, and their respective synthetic derivatives desmopressin and isotocin, on F3II mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Vasopressin and desmopressin at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 mu M were mitogenic for F3II cells and induced protein accumulation. On the contrary, oxytocin and isotocin were moderately growth inhibitory at similar doses. In confluent monolayers vasopressin stimulated the secretion of urokinase, a profibrinolytic enzyme involved in hematogenous metastasis. However, the net effect of the peptide on tumor-derived proteolytic activity was dependent on cell density. Stimulation of cell growth and urokinase production by vasopressin was strongly linked with calcium mobilization. These data suggest that vasopressin and its synthetic analog desmopressin may be important modulators of the behavior of metastatic mammary tumor cells. PMID:21533387

Alonso, D; Skilton, G; Farina, H; Delorenzo, M; Gomez, D

1997-02-01

243

Alterations in chromatin structure associated with glucocorticoid-induced expression of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus genes.  

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Alterations in the chromatin structure of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus genes accompany glucocorticoid induction of viral RNA synthesis in the C57BL/6 T lymphoma cell line T1M1. These alterations are defined by the appearance of sites of DNase I hypersensitivity within proviral DNA in isolated nuclei, as well as by changes in the moderate nuclease sensitivity of entire proviral transcription units. Induced hypersensitive sites, termed type I, appear with a time course comparable to tha...

Peterson, D. O.

1985-01-01

244

Expression of the gene coding for a human mucin in mouse mammary tumor cells can affect their tumorigenicity.  

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The human epithelial mucin which is the product of the MUC1 gene is expressed by many carcinomas, including those of breast, ovary, colon, and lung. The core protein is aberrantly glycosylated in the tumors resulting in the exposure or appearance of novel epitopes. To examine the possibility of using the MUC1 gene and its products in active immunization against breast and other carcinomas, we have developed a syngeneic mouse model, by transfecting the gene into the mouse mammary epithelial tu...

Lalani, E. N.; Berdichevsky, F.; Boshell, M.; Shearer, M.; Wilson, D.; Stauss, H.; Gendler, S. J.; Taylor-papadimitriou, J.

1991-01-01

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Survival of mouse mammary gland transplants of normal, hyperplastic, and tumor tissues exposed to X-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mouse mammary tissues, including ducts, prelactating lobules, hyperplastic outgrowth lines, and tumors, were exposed to varying doses of X-rays and then transplanted to fat pads of nonirradiated BALB/c mice for study. Estimates of the dose of radiation that would allow survival of 50% of the transplants (SD50) were made with the use of probit analysis. Nearly all duct and lobule transplants survived doses of X-rays from 0 to 800 rad. The survival rate declined rapidly following doses above 800 rad, and the calculated SD50 was 1,020 and 1,260 rad for mammary ducts and lobules, respectively. The three hyperplastic outgrowth lines tested gave very different results. Hyperplastic line Z5C1 transplants had better than 90% survival at doses up to 1,200 rad and an SD50 between 1,200 and 1,600 rad. Hyperplastic line Z5D transplants had an SD50 of between 800 and 1,200 rad. Hyperplastic line D1 transplants had a better than 90% survival following doses of 0-600 rad and an SD50 between 600 and 800 rad. The survival of tumor transplants was 100% following doses of X-rays up to 1,200 rad; the SD50 was in excess of 1,600 rad. The mouse mammary transplantation system can be used to study the direct effect of X-rays on normal, premalignant, and malignant mammary tissues and provides a basis for the study of the radiobiology of mammary tissues

246

Synergistic anti-tumor activity and inhibition of angiogenesis by cotargeting of oncogenic and death receptor pathways in human melanoma.  

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Improving treatment of advanced melanoma may require the development of effective strategies to overcome resistance to different anti-tumor agents and to counteract relevant pro-tumoral mechanisms in the microenvironment. Here we provide preclinical evidence that these goals can be achieved in most melanomas, by co-targeting of oncogenic and death receptor pathways, and independently of their BRAF, NRAS, p53 and PTEN status. In 49 melanoma cell lines, we found independent susceptibility profiles for response to the MEK1/2 inhibitor AZD6244, the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 and the death receptor ligand TRAIL, supporting the rationale for their association. Drug interaction analysis indicated that a strong synergistic anti-tumor activity could be achieved by the three agents and the AZD6244-TRAIL association on 20/21 melanomas, including cell lines resistant to the inhibitors or to TRAIL. Mechanistically, synergy was explained by enhanced induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis, mitochondrial depolarization and modulation of key regulators of extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways, including c-FLIP, BIM, BAX, clusterin, Mcl-1 and several IAP family members. Moreover, silencing experiments confirmed the central role of Apollon downmodulation in promoting the apoptotic response of melanoma cells to the combinatorial treatments. In SCID mice, the AZD6244-TRAIL association induced significant growth inhibition of a tumor resistant to TRAIL and poorly responsive to AZD6244, with no detectable adverse events on body weight and tissue histology. Reduction in tumor volume was associated not only with promotion of tumor apoptosis but also with suppression of the pro-angiogenic molecules HIF1?, VEGF?, IL-8 and TGF?1 and with inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. These results suggest that synergistic co-targeting of oncogenic and death receptor pathways can not only overcome melanoma resistance to different anti-tumor agents in vitro but can also promote pro-apoptotic effects and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:25275595

Grazia, G; Vegetti, C; Benigni, F; Penna, I; Perotti, V; Tassi, E; Bersani, I; Nicolini, G; Canevari, S; Carlo-Stella, C; Gianni, A M; Mortarini, R; Anichini, A

2014-01-01

247

Effect of selenodiglutathione on the metabolism of canine mammary tumor cells  

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Selenodiglutathione (SDG) has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of tumor growth. The present studies were designed to evaluate altered metabolism in canine mammary tumor cells (CMT-13) exposed to various concentrations of SDG. Addition of SDG at 0.025 ?g Se/ml did not inhibit growth of CMT-13 cells after 24 h of incubation. At this concentration of SDG, approximately 25% of 75Se-35S-SDG was retained in these tumor cells after 24 h of incubation. The nuclear fraction contained 96% of the 75Se and 35S radioactivity. The ratio of 75Se to 35S was 1 to 4.5 in the whole cell and in the nuclear fraction. SDG increased glutathione peroxidase activity by 40% compared to CMT-13 cells not exposed to SDG. Glutathione reductase activity was decreased by 63% by the addition of SDG. In addition, supplemental SDG resulted in a 55% decrease in GSH content but did not alter GSSG concentrations. After 4d of incubation, SDG at 0.1 and 0.5 ?g Se/ml caused a 43 and 58% inhibition of growth of CMT-13 cells. Addition of GSH (100?M) partially prevented, 68% and 54%, the growth inhibition caused by SDG at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5 ?g Se per ml respectively during the 4d incubation period. Preincubation of CMT-13 cells with GSH for 48 h before addition of SDG (0.5 ?g Se/ml) completely prevented the growth inhibition caused by this seleno-compound

248

Reduction of mouse mammary tumor formation and metastasis by lovastatin, an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway of cholesterol synthesis.  

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Lovastatin, a fungal antibiotic used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the key regulatory enzyme in the mevalonate pathway of cholesterol synthesis. We examined the antitumor properties of lovastatin on the F3II sarcomatoid mammary carcinoma, a highly invasive and metastatic murine tumor model. Female BALB/c inbred mice were inoculated subcutaneously with F3II tumor cells and injected i.p. daily with 10 mg/kg body weight of lovastatin or administered p.o. at a level corresponding to the human dosage of 1-2 mg/kg/day. Treatment significantly prolonged tumor latency and reduced tumor formation and metastatic dissemination to the lungs from established mammary tumors. In vitro, antitumor properties of lovastatin were strongly associated with inhibition of tumor cell attachment and migration. These actions were prevented by addition of mevalonate but not by equivalent concentrations of farnesyl pyrophosphate. In accordance, Western blot assays showed that lovastatin effects did not appear to be related to modifications in Ras oncoproteins in our model. The present data indicate that lovastatin could be an antitumor agent with potentially useful clinical applications in breast cancer. PMID:9802623

Alonso, D F; Farina, H G; Skilton, G; Gabri, M R; De Lorenzo, M S; Gomez, D E

1998-07-01

249

Correlative study of dynamic MRI and tumor angiogenesis in gastric carcinoma  

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Objective: To investigate the correlation between the dynamic MRI enhancement characteristics and tumor angiogenesis in gastric carcinoma. Methods: Histopathological slides of 30 patients underwent CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunohistochemical staining. Microvessel density (MVD) and VEGF protein expression were analyzed with their relationship to pathological features. The dynamic MRI characteristics, including the maximum contrast enhancement ratio (CERmax), were correlatively studied with MVD and VEGF expression. Results: In 30 cases, MVD was 13.00 to 68.25 per vision field with an average of 42.95 ±14.79. The low expression rate of VEGF was 30% (9/30), while the high expression rate of VEGF was 70% (21/30). MVD and VEGF expression correlated with lymph node metastasis (P>0.05), but their relationships to the degree of differentiation and depth of invasion were not significant (P>0.05). MVD was related to TNM-staging of gastric carcinoma (P>0.05). The expression of VEGF between the stage I and IV had significant differences (P>0.05). MVD was higher in VEGF-high expression than in VEGF-low expression [(47.30 ± 14.16) per vision versus (32.81 ± 11.25) per vision]. CERmax was significantly correlated with MVD (r=0.556, P=0.0014). The distribution features and shape of microvessels within gastric carcinoma were related to the enhancement characteristics such as irregular enhancement and delaminated enhancement. The correlation between CERmax and expression of VEGF was not significant (t=-0.847, P=0.404). Conclusion: The manifestations on dynamic MR images can reflect the distribution features and shape of microvessels within gastric carcinoma. Dynamic MR imaging may prove to be a valuable means in estimating the MVD of gastric carcinoma noninvasively, and further predicting the biological behavior of gastric carcinoma and judging the prognosis. (authors)

250

Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is Present in the Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Promotes Angiogenesis  

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OBJECTIVE: Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) belongs to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily of proteins and is implicated in innate immunity, cell polarity, and differentiation. Here we studied the role of DMBT1 in endothelial cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: DMBT1 was secreted into the extracellular matrix (ECM) by endothelial cells in vitro and in situ and the presence of DMBT1 in the ECM increased endothelial cell adherence. Endothelial cell-derived DMBT1 associated with galectin-3 (coprecipitation), and human recombinant DMBT1 bound EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor and Delta-like (Dll) 4 (specific ELISAs). Compared to cells from wild-type mice, endothelial cells from DMBT1(-/-) mice demonstrated reduced migration, proliferation, and tube formation. In vivo recovery from hindlimb ischemia was attenuated in DMBT1(-/-) animals as was vascular endothelial growth factor -induced endothelial sprouting from isolated aortic rings; the latter response could be rescued by the addition of recombinant DMBT1. The Notch pathway is involved in multiple aspects of vascular development, including arterial-venous differentiation and we found that endothelial cells from DMBT1(-/-) mice expressed more EphrinB2 than cells from wild-type mice. Levels of Dll1, Dll4, Hes1, Hey1, and EphB4, on the other hand, were increased. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results of this study indicate that DMBT1 functions as an important endothelium-derived ECM protein that is able to bind angiogenic factors and promote adhesion, migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis as well as vascular repair. Mechanistically, DMBT1 interacts with galectin-3 and modulates the Notch signaling pathway as well as the differential expression of ephrin-B2 and EphB4.

Mollenhauer, Jan

2012-01-01

251

Scutellaria barbata D. Don Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis via Suppression of Hedgehog Pathway in a Mouse Model of Colorectal Cancer  

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Full Text Available Angiogenesis, which plays a critical role during tumor development, is tightly regulated by the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH pathway, which has been known to malfunction in many types of cancer. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis via modulation of the SHH signaling pathway has become very attractive for cancer chemotherapy. Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB has long been used in China to treat various cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC. Our published data suggested that the ethanol extract of SB (EESB is able to induce apoptosis of colon cancer cells and inhibit angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. To further elucidate the precise mechanisms of its anti-tumor activity, in the present study we used a CRC mouse xenograft model to evaluate the effect of EESB on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Our current data indicated that EESB reduces tumor size without affecting on the body weight gain in CRC mice. In addition, EESB treatment suppresses the expression of key mediators of the SHH pathway in tumor tissues, which in turn resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, EESB treatment inhibits the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A, an important target gene of SHH signaling and functioning as one of the strongest stimulators of angiogenesis. Our findings suggest that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis via suppression of the SHH pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which Scutellaria barbata D. Don can be effective in the treatment of cancers.

Jun Peng

2012-07-01

252

Angiogenesis in advanced colorectal adenocarcinoma with special reference to tumoral invasion / Angiogênese no adenocarcinoma colorretal avançado com especial referência à invasão tumoral  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Racional- A angiogênse é uma etapa fundamental no crescimento e progressão tumoral. Sua quantificação, através da contagem microvascular, apresenta valor prognóstico em muitas neoplasias malignas e, recentemente, tem sido avaliada em tumores gastrointestinais. Objetivos - Avaliar a significância pro [...] gnóstica da contagem microvascular no carcinoma colorretal, estudando sua associação com metástases hematogênicas, sobrevida e variáveis clinicopatológicas, tais como tamanho, diferenciação histológica e profundidade de invasão tumoral. Pacientes/Métodos - Foram incluídos 48 pacientes com adenocarcinoma colorretal. Secções histológicas contendo a margem tumoral invasiva (4 mm) foram analisadas e os microvasos foram identificados através de imunohistoquímica utilizando o anticorpo monoclonal anti-FVIII (Von Willebrand Factor - mouse). A contagem microvascular foi realizada através da identificação de áreas com maior densidade microvascular - hot spots - e resulta da média entre cinco destas áreas. Resultados - A contagem microvascular mediana foi de 14 microvasos/0,785 mm², dividindo a amostra em grupos hipo e hipervascular. Enquanto 2/8 (25%) tumores com invasão da muscular própria foram classificados como hipervasculares, 11/15 (73%) tumores com invasão da serosa ou tecidos peri-colônicos foram classificados como hipervasculares. No entanto, associação não significativa foi encontrada entre a quantificação angiogênica e metástases hematogênicas, sobrevida e variáveis clinicopatológicas, tais como o tamanho tumoral e diferenciação histológica. Conclusões - O achado de aumento significativo na contagem microvascular em conformidade com a maior profundidade de invasão tumoral suporta a teoria que a progressão tumoral possa estar relacionada à angiogênese. Embora a angiogênese seja etapa importante no crescimento tumoral e durante a metastatização à distância, outros fatores podem estar implicados em tais processos. Abstract in english Background - Angiogenesis is a crucial step in tumor growth and progression. Its quantification by microvessel counting has a prognostic value in several types of malignancies and recently has been appraised in gastrointestinal tumors. Aim - To assess the prognostisc significance of microvessel quan [...] tification in colorectal carcinomas, studying its association with hematogenous metastases, survival and clinicopathological variables such as size, histologic differentiation and depth of tumoral invasion. Patients/Methods - Forty eight patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma were included in this study. Histologic sections of invasion tumoral margin (4 µm) were analyzed and endothellined microvessels were immunostained with monoclonal mouse Von Willebrand Factor (anti-FVIII). The microvessel count was performed from the identification of the area with increased microvessel density - hot spots - and results of the mean in five of these fields. Results- The cut-off microvessel count was 14 microvessels/0,785 mm² , which divided the sample into hypovascular and hypervascular groups. While 2/8 (25%) tumors with muscularis propria invasion were classified as hypervascular, 11/15 (73%) tumors with serosa or perivisceral fat were classified as hypervascular. However, a non-significant statistical association was found between the angiogenesis quantification, hematogenous metastases, survival and clinicopathological variables such as size and histologic differentiation of the tumor. Conclusions - The findings of significantly increase of microvessel count in conformity with tumoral invasion depth supports the hypothesis that tumor progression might be related to angiogenesis. Although angiogenesis is an important step in the tumoral growth and during the metastatization process, other factors can be implicated.

Cláudio, TARTA; Cláudio Rolim, TEIXEIRA; Shinji, TANAKA; Ken, HARUMA; César, CHIELE-NETO; Vinícius Duval da, SILVA.

253

Expression of human sequences related to those of mouse mammary tumor virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sequences related to those of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) genome have been cloned from human DNA by screening a library prepared from the DNA of a human breast cancer cell line with MuMTV gag-pol DNA. Nine distinct groups of (MuMTV-related) sequences were identified among 100 lambda recombinants by cross-hybridization experiments with subcloned fragments containing gag-pol-related DNA. The largest group, of 64 recombinants, contains the MuMTV-related sequences cloned by others. The other eight groups contain MuMTV-related sequences that have not been described previously. The gag-pol regions of one recombinant from each of the nine groups were hybridized to RNA prepared from five human breast cancer cell lines, from placenta, and from two cell lines derived from other malignancies. RNAs were detected by probes for several of the groups. The RNAs ranged in size from 1.2 to 12 kilobases. Probes for six of the groups detected large RNAs that could represent transcripts of full-length proviral DNA. Two of the probes detected RNA in one breast cancer cell line only. Most of the RNAs were detected in more than one cell line

254

Kinetically directed combination therapy with adriamycin and x-irradiation in a mammary tumor model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present studies, the interaction of adriamycin (A) and x-irradiation (X) in T1699 mouse mammary tumors was evaluated. Mitotic indices and thymidine labeling indices were determined at various intervals after A or X alone, and after A + X given in combination. The results with A (1.0 mg/kg) and X(200 R) alone suggest that those quantities of each agent induce a G2 progression delay of 9 to 12 h. The kinetic results after A + X in combination indicated increased S phase transit time and G2 progression delay. Recovery kinetics after A + X were used to predict optimum sequence intervals for subsequent A + X fractions. Sequential A + X treatment schedules, up to 4 fractions, were designed and evaluated by regrowth delay measurements. The results indicated that the interaction was additive when A and X were given together in combination. Fractionation of A + X to minimize proliferative recovery between fractions resulted in an enhanced antitumor effect

255

Interstitial fluid pressure as an alternate regulator of angiogenesis independent of hypoxia driven HIF-1? in solid tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously showed that interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) may be an alternate regulator of angiogenesis in solid tumors. Given the accepted link between hypoxia-induced factor and angiogenesis this study investigated the effect of IFP on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human osteosarcoma xenografts in SCID mice and in different hypoxic environments. Tumors were grown either at heterotopic (flank) or orthotopic (medullary canal of the proximal tibia) sites in the host animal. Microfluidic probes determined pH, O(2)-saturation, IFP, and peripheral blood flow perfusion continuously. We assessed tumor growth in the orthotopic site (n = 15) by softex radiographs weekly, 3D microCT, histological evaluation, and for molecular responses. An increased cytoplasmic immunohistostaining of cells for HIF-1? (p = 0.03) and VEGF-A (p = 0.004) on the outer periphery was noted compared to the tumor center, with VEGFR2 uniformly stained throughout. This paralleled a raised state of interstitial hypertension (p = 0.007) in the tumor center relative to the peripheral surface but was inconsistent with a state of hypoxia (p = 0.03) in the tumor center. In vitro culture of human osteosarcoma cell lines (HOS, U2OS) and a human osteoblast control at 0- and 20-mmHg of hydrostatic pressure revealed suppression of HIF-1? (p = 0.02) and VEGF-A (p = 0.02) gene expression when IFP was raised, while the effect on VEGFR1 was equivocal. This study proposes an alternative regulatory angiogenic pathway via the influence of IFP on cancer cell function. The identification of a mechanistic cellular link to the physical parameter becomes an important tool to evaluate cancer cell growth within solid tumors. PMID:22622799

Aung, Khin Zarchi; Pereira, Barry P; Tan, Pamela H S; Han, Hwan-Chour; Nathan, Saminathan S

2012-12-01

256

Suppression of Wnt1-induced mammary tumor growth and lower serum insulin in offspring exposed to maternal blueberry diet suggest early dietary influence on developmental programming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the well-accepted notion that early maternal influences persist beyond fetal life and may underlie many adult diseases, the risks imposed by the maternal environment on breast cancer development and underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether early exposure to blueberry (BB) via maternal diet alters oncogene Wnt1-induced mammary tumorigenesis in offspring. Wnt1-transgenic female mice were exposed to maternal Casein (CAS, control) or blueberry-supplemented (CAS + 3%BB) diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned to CAS and mammary tumor development was followed until age 8 months. Tumor incidence and latency were similar for both groups; however, tumor weight at killing and tumor volume within 2 weeks of initial detection were lower (by 50 and 60%, respectively) in offspring of BB- versus control-fed dams. Dietary BB exposure beginning at weaning did not alter mammary tumor parameters. Tumors from maternal BB-exposed offspring showed higher tumor suppressor (Pten and Cdh1) and lower proproliferative (Ccnd1), anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) and proangiogenic (Figf, Flt1 and Ephb4) transcript levels, and displayed attenuated microvessel density. Expression of Pten and Cdh1 genes was also higher in mammary tissues of maternal BB-exposed offspring. Mammary tissues and tumors of maternal BB-exposed offspring showed increased chromatin-modifying enzyme Dnmt1 and Ezh2 transcript levels. Body weight, serum insulin and serum leptin/adiponectin ratio were lower for maternal BB-exposed than control tumor-bearing offspring. Tumor weights and serum insulin were positively correlated. Results suggest that dietary influences on the maternal environment contribute to key developmental programs in the mammary gland to modify breast cancer outcome in adult progeny. PMID:23144318

Rahal, Omar M; Pabona, John Mark P; Kelly, Thomas; Huang, Yan; Hennings, Leah J; Prior, Ronald L; Al-Dwairi, Ahmed; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

2013-02-01

257

Proteínas de fase aguda em cadelas com neoplasia mamária / Acute phase proteins in female dogs with mammary tumors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As proteínas de fase aguda (PFA) apresentam concentrações séricas alteradas mediante processos infecciosos, inflamatórios e neoplásicos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as variações séricas das PFA em cadelas portadoras de neoplasia mamária, comparando com a avaliação histológica e leucograma [...] . As PFA foram avaliadas em 45 cadelas com tumor de mama, distribuídas nos grupos neoplasia benigna (n=13), maligna não ulcerada (n=24) e maligna ulcerada (n=8). O grupo controle foi composto por 20 cadelas saudáveis. Foram realizados o teste de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE) para identificar as PFA (albumina, ceruloplasmina, transferrina, haptoglobina Hp, ?-1 antitripsina e ?-1 glicoproteina ácida) e o teste ultrassensível para proteína C reativa (PCR). As pacientes com neoplasia mamária maligna ulcerada apresentaram elevações sérica para PCR e Hp e redução da albumina (P Abstract in english Acute phase proteins (APPs) are serum proteins whose concentrations change after infectious and inflammatory disease, and cancer. The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in APPs concentration and to correlate these findings with histological classification and WBC in female dogs with mammary [...] tumors. APPs were studied in 45 female dogs with mammary tumor distributed in the following groups: benign (n=13), malignant without tumor ulceration (n=24), and malignant with tumor ulceration (n=8). SDS-polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE) electrophoresis was used to measure APPs concentrations (albumin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, haptoglobinHp, ?-1-acid glycoprotein and ?-1-antitrypsin) and ultrasensitive assay was used to evaluate serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients with malignant mammary neoplasia plus ulceration had significant increase of CRP and Hp, and had decreased levels of albumin (P

Michelly Kheidy Borges, Battisti; Daniella Matos da, Silva; Mhayara Samile de Oliveira, Reusing; Olair Carlos, Beltrame; Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos, Schmidt; José Jurandir, Fagliari; Rosângela Locatelli, Dittrich; Simone Domit, Guérios.

258

Proteínas de fase aguda em cadelas com neoplasia mamária / Acute phase proteins in female dogs with mammary tumors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As proteínas de fase aguda (PFA) apresentam concentrações séricas alteradas mediante processos infecciosos, inflamatórios e neoplásicos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as variações séricas das PFA em cadelas portadoras de neoplasia mamária, comparando com a avaliação histológica e leucograma [...] . As PFA foram avaliadas em 45 cadelas com tumor de mama, distribuídas nos grupos neoplasia benigna (n=13), maligna não ulcerada (n=24) e maligna ulcerada (n=8). O grupo controle foi composto por 20 cadelas saudáveis. Foram realizados o teste de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE) para identificar as PFA (albumina, ceruloplasmina, transferrina, haptoglobina Hp, ?-1 antitripsina e ?-1 glicoproteina ácida) e o teste ultrassensível para proteína C reativa (PCR). As pacientes com neoplasia mamária maligna ulcerada apresentaram elevações sérica para PCR e Hp e redução da albumina (P Abstract in english Acute phase proteins (APPs) are serum proteins whose concentrations change after infectious and inflammatory disease, and cancer. The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in APPs concentration and to correlate these findings with histological classification and WBC in female dogs with mammary [...] tumors. APPs were studied in 45 female dogs with mammary tumor distributed in the following groups: benign (n=13), malignant without tumor ulceration (n=24), and malignant with tumor ulceration (n=8). SDS-polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE) electrophoresis was used to measure APPs concentrations (albumin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, haptoglobinHp, ?-1-acid glycoprotein and ?-1-antitrypsin) and ultrasensitive assay was used to evaluate serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients with malignant mammary neoplasia plus ulceration had significant increase of CRP and Hp, and had decreased levels of albumin (P

Michelly Kheidy Borges, Battisti; Daniella Matos da, Silva; Mhayara Samile de Oliveira, Reusing; Olair Carlos, Beltrame; Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos, Schmidt; José Jurandir, Fagliari; Rosângela Locatelli, Dittrich; Simone Domit, Guérios.

2013-05-01

259

Estudo retrospectivo de 207 casos de tumores mamários em gatas / A retrospective study of 207 cases of mammary tumors in queens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivos determinar os tumores mais prevalentes em gatos e relacionar os tumores mamários a alguns de seus fatores prognósticos. Os arquivos do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) foram revisados e um total de 1.427 protocol [...] os de biopsias e necropsias de felinos, entre 2000 e 2011, foi encontrado. Com base nas informações dos arquivos, foi estabelecida a relação entre os tumores e alguns fatores como sexo, idade, raça, estado reprodutivo, uso de contraceptivos, número e localização das glândulas afetadas, ulcerações, tamanho do neoplasma, metástases distantes e para os linfonodos. Assim, observou-se que os tumores de mama foram o segundo diagnóstico mais prevalente, após os tumores de pele. Todos os gatos com tumores mamários eram fêmeas, sendo os sem raça definida e os idosos os mais afetados. Os neoplasmas malignos foram diagnosticados com maior frequência, seguidos pelos tumores não neoplásicos e pelos neoplasmas benignos. Os tumores menores eram, na sua maioria, carcinomas. Ulcerações estavam presentes não só em neoplasmas malignos, mas também em alterações não neoplásicas. Metástases distantes foram encontradas principalmente nos pulmões e na pele. Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the most prevalent mammary tumors in cats and associate them to some prognostic factors. The files from the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) were reviewed, and 1.427 feline biopsies and autopsy protocols betwee [...] n the years 2000 and 2011 were found. Based on the information retrieved from the files, a relationship was established among the tumors and some prognostic factors such as sex, age, breed, reproductive status, use of contraceptives, number and location of affected glands, ulcers, size of the neoplasm, distant metastases, and affected lymph nodes. Thus, it was observed that mammary cancer is the second most prevalent diagnosis, following skin tumors. All cats with mammary tumors were female, being the elderly and mixed breed the most affected. Malignant neoplasms were the most frequently diagnosed, followed by non-neoplastic tumors, and benign neoplasms. Smaller tumors were mostly carcinomas. Ulcerations were present not only in malignant neoplasms but also in non-neoplastic changes. Distant metastases were found mainly to the lungs and skin.

Monique, Togni; Eduardo K., Masuda; Glaucia D., Kommers; Rafael A., Fighera; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen.

260

Estudo retrospectivo de 207 casos de tumores mamários em gatas / A retrospective study of 207 cases of mammary tumors in queens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivos determinar os tumores mais prevalentes em gatos e relacionar os tumores mamários a alguns de seus fatores prognósticos. Os arquivos do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) foram revisados e um total de 1.427 protocol [...] os de biopsias e necropsias de felinos, entre 2000 e 2011, foi encontrado. Com base nas informações dos arquivos, foi estabelecida a relação entre os tumores e alguns fatores como sexo, idade, raça, estado reprodutivo, uso de contraceptivos, número e localização das glândulas afetadas, ulcerações, tamanho do neoplasma, metástases distantes e para os linfonodos. Assim, observou-se que os tumores de mama foram o segundo diagnóstico mais prevalente, após os tumores de pele. Todos os gatos com tumores mamários eram fêmeas, sendo os sem raça definida e os idosos os mais afetados. Os neoplasmas malignos foram diagnosticados com maior frequência, seguidos pelos tumores não neoplásicos e pelos neoplasmas benignos. Os tumores menores eram, na sua maioria, carcinomas. Ulcerações estavam presentes não só em neoplasmas malignos, mas também em alterações não neoplásicas. Metástases distantes foram encontradas principalmente nos pulmões e na pele. Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the most prevalent mammary tumors in cats and associate them to some prognostic factors. The files from the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) were reviewed, and 1.427 feline biopsies and autopsy protocols betwee [...] n the years 2000 and 2011 were found. Based on the information retrieved from the files, a relationship was established among the tumors and some prognostic factors such as sex, age, breed, reproductive status, use of contraceptives, number and location of affected glands, ulcers, size of the neoplasm, distant metastases, and affected lymph nodes. Thus, it was observed that mammary cancer is the second most prevalent diagnosis, following skin tumors. All cats with mammary tumors were female, being the elderly and mixed breed the most affected. Malignant neoplasms were the most frequently diagnosed, followed by non-neoplastic tumors, and benign neoplasms. Smaller tumors were mostly carcinomas. Ulcerations were present not only in malignant neoplasms but also in non-neoplastic changes. Distant metastases were found mainly to the lungs and skin.

Monique, Togni; Eduardo K., Masuda; Glaucia D., Kommers; Rafael A., Fighera; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Overexpression of inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID-1 protein related to angiogenesis in tumor advancement of ovarian cancers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID has been involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. This prompted us to study ID functions in tumor advancement of ovarian cancers. Methods Sixty patients underwent surgery for ovarian cancers. In ovarian cancers, the levels of ID-1, ID-2 and ID-3 mRNAs were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The histoscore with the localization of ID-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Patient prognosis was analyzed with a 36-month survival rate. Microvessel counts were determined by immunohistochemistry for CD34 and factor VIII-related antigen. Results ID-1 histoscores and mRNA levels both significantly (p Conclusion ID-1 increased in ovarian cancer cells during tumor progression. Moreover, ID-1 expression levels correlated with microvessel counts. Therefore, ID-1 might work on tumor advancement via angiogenesis and is considered to be a candidate for a prognostic indicator in ovarian cancers.

Tamaya Teruhiko

2009-12-01

262

Assesment of angiogenesis in basal cell carcinoma using CD31 & CD34 markers and relation with tumor invasiveness in histology  

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Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Tumor angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and appears to play an importating role both in invasive growth and metastasis. Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs of the skin are derived from a similar cell type but differ in the invasive and metastatic potential. Basal cell carcinoma generally shows a relatively benign course in contrast to squamous cell carcinoma .This study investigates whether the behavior of these tumors could be explained by differences in their angiogenesis pattern."n"nMaterial and Methods: Vessel counts were made of blood vessels in stroma and the body of 50 variants of BCC of skin samples including: nodular, micronodular, sclerosing and superficial, both after H&E and immunohistochemical staining for CD31 and CD34 markers."n"nResults: The body vessel counts of invasive variants (sclerosing & micronodular differed significantly from the counts of noninvasive variants (nodular and superficial using both CD31 & CD34 markers. The stromal vessel counts compared between invasive and noninvasive variants showed no significantly difference using CD31 & CD34 markers, respectively."n"nConclusion: The invasive growth pattern of BCC variants correlated with the microvascular density and according to results, vessel counts of the body play a more important role.

Firouz Amani

2010-09-01

263

Establishment of linear accelerator-based image guided radiotherapy for orthotopic 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model.  

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This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for orthotopic 4T1 mouse mammary tumor using linear accelerator (LINAC). Eighteen Balb/C mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells on left mammary fat pad and nine of them were irradiated using LINAC. Tumors, planning target volumes (PTV), bowels adjacent to tumors, bones and lungs were delineated on planning CT images. IGRT plans were generated to irradiate prescription dose to at least 90% of the PTV and then compared with conventional 2-dimensional plans with anterior-posterior and posterior-anterior beams with 5 mm margins (2D AP/PA plan). Homemade dose-build-up-cradle was designed to encompass mouse bed for homogeneous dose build up. To confirm the irradiated dose, tumor doses were measured using diode detector placed on the surface of tumors. Plan comparison demonstrated equivalent doses to PTV while sparing more doses to normal tissues including bowel (from 90.9% to 40.5%, median value of mean doses) and bone marrow (from 12.9% to 4.7%, median value of mean doses) than 2D AP/PA plan. Quality assurance using diode detector confirmed that IGRT could deliver 95.3-105.3% of the planned doses to PTV. Tumors grew 505.2-1185.8% (mean 873.3%) in the control group and 436.1-771.8% (mean 615.5%) in the irradiated group. These results demonstrate that LINAC-based IGRT provides a reliable approach with accurate dose delivery in the radiobiological study for orthotropic tumor model maintaining tumor microenvironment. PMID:24999360

Lee, Seung-Heon; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyu-Chan; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Choi, Jinho; Lee, Seok-Ho; Sung, Ki-Hoon; Ahn, So-Hyun

2014-06-01

264

Endogenous mouse mammary tumor viruses (mtv): new roles for an old virus in cancer, infection, and immunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mouse Mammary Tumor Viruses are beta-retroviruses that exist in both exogenous (MMTV) and endogenous (Mtv) forms. Exogenous MMTV is transmitted via the milk of lactating animals and is capable of inducing mammary gland tumors later in life. MMTV has provided a number of critical models for studying both viral infection as well as human breast cancer. In addition to the horizontally transmitted MMTV, most inbred mouse strains contain permanently integrated Mtv proviruses within their genome that are remnants of MMTV infection and vertically transmitted. Historically, Mtv have been appreciated for their role in shaping the T cell repertoire during thymic development via negative selection. In addition, more recent work has demonstrated a larger role for Mtv in modulating host immune responses due to its peripheral expression. The influence of Mtv on host response has been observed during experimental murine models of Polyomavirus- and ESb-induced lymphoma as well as Leishmania major and Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection. Decreased susceptibility to bacterial pathogens and virus-induced tumors has been observed among mice lacking all Mtv. We have also demonstrated a role for Mtv Sag in the expansion of regulatory T cells following chronic viral infection. The aim of this review is to summarize the latest research in the field regarding peripheral expression of Mtv with a particular focus on their role and influence on the immune system, infectious disease outcome, and potential involvement in tumor formation. PMID:24324930

Holt, Michael P; Shevach, Ethan M; Punkosdy, George A

2013-01-01

265

Endogenous Mouse Mammary Tumor Viruses (Mtv: New Roles for an Old Virus in Cancer, Infection and Immunity  

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Full Text Available Mouse Mammary Tumor Viruses are beta-retroviruses that exist in both exogenous (MMTV and endogenous (Mtv forms. Exogenous MMTV is transmitted via the milk of lactating animals and is capable of inducing mammary gland tumors later in life. MMTV has provided a number of critical models for studying both viral infection as well as human breast cancer. In addition to the horizontally transmitted MMTV, most inbred mouse strains contain permanently integrated Mtv proviruses within their genome that are remnants of MMTV infection and vertically transmitted. Historically, Mtv have been appreciated for their role in shaping the T cell repertoire during thymic development via negative selection. In addition, more recent work has demonstrated a larger role for Mtv in modulating host immune responses due to its peripheral expression. The influence of Mtv on host response has been observed during experimental murine models of Polyomavirus- and ESb-induced lymphoma as well as Leishmania major and Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection. Decreased susceptibility to bacterial pathogens and virus-induced tumors has been observed among mice lacking all Mtv. We have also demonstrated a role for Mtv Sag in the expansion of regulatory T cells following chronic viral infection. The aim of this review is to summarize the latest research in the field regarding peripheral expression of Mtv with a particular focus on their role and influence on the immune system, infectious disease outcome, and potential involvement in tumor formation.

GeorgePunkosdy

2013-11-01

266

Antitumor effects of SMANCS on rat mammary tumor induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously found that a high-molecular-weight anticancer agent, polystyrene-co-maleic acid conjugated neocarzinostatin (SMANCS), in which two chains of styrene/maleic acid copolymer are conjugated to the anticancer protein neocarzinostatin (NCS), accumulated more selectively in tumor tissue than in normal tissue and was more stable than NCS in blood. These results indicate that SMANCS should have less systemic toxicity and a better therapeutic effect than NCS. In this study, the antitumor activity and adverse effects of SMANCS were compared with those of NCS by using rat mammary tumor induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. When tumors of rats, that had received 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (20 mg/kg, one dose, p.o. in oily formulation), became palpable usually after 4-20 weeks, SMANCS treatment was initiated. Thirty days after i.v. administration of SMANCS (0.1 mg/kg 3 times and 0.3 mg/kg 3 times), tumors had shrunk in 35 of 37 rats (a mean weight was about 10% of control value; or decreased to about 30% of the value of before treatment in tumor weight); tumor size had not changed in 1 rat, and in the remaining 1 rat the tumor had enlarged. Thirty days after i.v. administration of NCS, tumors had shrunk in 8 of 14 rats, but the tumor size was unchanged in 1 rat and was enlarged in 5. In the control group, all tumors had enlarged. Development of new tumors was completely prevented by the administration of SMANCS. Histological examination of sequential slices of tumor revealed clear finding of degeneration and tumor encapsulation at 30 days after initial administration of SMANCS, with an accompanying fatty degeneration, but these effects were not observed for tumors treated with NCS. Although red blood cell counts and hemoglobin amounts decreased significantly in rats receiving NCS, no such effects were apparent in the SMANCS group. PMID:1531320

Kimoto, A; Konno, T; Kawaguchi, T; Miyauchi, Y; Maeda, H

1992-02-15

267

Prevention of hepatic and peritoneal metastases by the angiogenesis inhibitor fr-118487 after removal of growing tumor in mice.  

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We established a mouse rising dbl quote, left (low)primary tumor resection model" in which a transplanted tumor was resected after an orthotopic transplantation of colorectal cancer tissue to estimate the therapeutic effect of an angiogenesis inhibitor on metastasis. The angiogenesis inhibitor FR-118487 is a member of the fumagillin family. Here, 1 mg / kg / day of FR-118487 was subcutaneously administered to nude mice for 1 week, 2 weeks, or 4 weeks through an osmotic pump. Liver metastasis developed in 7 of 9 control mice, 2 of 6 mice that underwent the tumor resection 2 weeks after transplantation (early resection), and in all 7 of the mice that underwent the tumor resection 4 weeks after transplantation (late resection). In the short treatment trial, the FR-118487 administration immediately after the early resection completely inhibited both hepatic and peritoneal metastases, whereas its administration after the late resection had no effect on liver metastasis. In the prolonged treatment trial, inhibitory effects of prolonged treatment with FR-118487 on both hepatic and peritoneal metastases after the late resection were clearly demonstrated. The mice of the resection-alone group all died within 106 days after tumor inoculation, due to metastases of colon carcinoma. In contrast, half of the mice that underwent resection and then received antiangiogenic therapy were alive at the end of the observation period (160 days after transplantation). In conclusion, the combination of surgery and subsequent antiangiogenic therapy may be useful to prevent the distant metastasis of colorectal cancer and to improve the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:11173549

Tanaka, T; Konno, H; Baba, S; Kanai, T; Matsumoto, K; Matsuda, I; Ohba, K; Ohta, M; Kamiya, K; Nakamura, S

2001-01-01

268

Hypoxia-driven osteopontin contributes to breast tumor growth through modulation of HIF1?-mediated VEGF-dependent angiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoxia is a salient feature of most solid tumors, and hypoxic adaptation of cancer cells has crucial implications in propagation of malignant clonal cell population. Osteopontin (OPN) has been identified as a hypoxia-responsive gene, but the mechanistic and regulatory role of OPN under hypoxia is less characterized. The present study identifies the existence of a positive inter-regulatory loop between hypoxia and OPN. We have shown that hypoxia induces OPN expression in breast cancer cells; however, the expression was found to be HIF1? independent. OPN enabled transcriptional upregulation of HIF1? expression both under normoxia and hypoxia, whereas stability of HIF1? protein in breast cancer cells remained unaffected. Moreover, we have shown that OPN induces integrin-linked kinase (ILK)/Akt-mediated nuclear factor (NF)-?B p65 activation leading to HIF1?-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in response to hypoxia. These in vitro data are biologically important as OPN expressing cells induce greater tumor growth and angiogenesis through enhanced expressions of proangiogenic molecules as compared with control. Immunohistochemical analysis of human breast cancer specimens revealed significant correlation between OPN and HIF1? but not HIF2?. Elevated expression of HIF1? and OPN was observed in pre-neoplastic and early stage infiltrating ductal carcinoma implicating the role of these proteins in neoplastic progression of breast cancer. Together, our results substantiate the prime role of OPN in cellular adaptation through ILK and NF-?B-mediated HIF1?-dependent VEGF expression in response to hypoxia that ultimately controls breast cancer progression and angiogenesis. Our study reinforces the fact that targeting OPN and its regulated signaling network hold important therapeutic implications. PMID:23728336

Raja, R; Kale, S; Thorat, D; Soundararajan, G; Lohite, K; Mane, A; Karnik, S; Kundu, G C

2014-04-17

269

Detection of mutations within exons 4 to 8 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in canine mammary glands Identificação de mutações nos exons 4 a 8 do gene p53 supressor de tumor em glândulas mamárias caninas  

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Full Text Available Fifteen female canines with mammary tumors and 6 normal females were used to study mutations in exons 4 to 8 of the p53 gene. DNA samples from the tumors, respective adjacent normal mammary tissue and mammary glands from healthy animals were sequenced and analyzed for the presence of mutations. Mutations were found in 71.8% of the samples and the most frequent were missense mutations. The most attacked exons in the mammary tumor were 5, 7 and 8, with 23.4, 31.6 and 23.4% mutations, respectively. Canine mammary tumors are related to mutations in gene p53 and mutations mostly occur in the region of the protein that is linked to the DNA in the cell nucleus, which can change the functionality of the cell and propitiate tumor growth. Despite being macroscopically normal, the mammary tissue adjacent to the tumors has mutations that can lead to recurrence if not removed together with the tumor.Para estudar as mutações nos exos 4 a 8 do gene p53, foram utilizados 15 tumores mamários, mamas normais das mesmas cadelas e seis mamas de cadelas normais. O DNA extraído das amostras de tecido foi sequenciado e analisado para a presença de mutações. Em 71,8% das amostras obtidas foram observadas mutações, sendo as "missense" as mais frequentes. Os exons mais comprometidos foram 5, 7 e 8 com 23,4, 31,6 e 23,4% de mutações, respectivamente. O estudo conclui que tumores mamários caninos têm relação com mutações no gene p53 e que as mutações ocorrem com maior frequência nas regiões da proteína que estão ligadas ao DNA no núcleo celular. Isto pode alterar a funcionalidade da proteína e propiciar o crescimento do tumor. As mamas adjacentes aos tumores, apesar da aparência macroscópica normal, apresentaram mutações, que podem representar recidivas se a mama não for retirada juntamente com o tumor.

D.M.B. Souza

2012-04-01

270

The 5' enhancer of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat contains a functional AP-2 element.  

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The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) retrovirus causes mammary adenocarcinomas in mice by proviral insertion near members of the wnt family of proto-oncogenes, leading to their deregulation and cellular transformation. The 5' end of the MMTV long terminal repeat (LTR) has been implicated in tissue-specific activation of these genes. In this study, we characterize an enhancer element (Ban2; -1075 to -978) at the 5' end of the MMTV LTR. We show that this enhancer is 5-fold more active in a murine mammary carcinoma cell line (34i) than in a fibroblast cell line (NIH3T3), and is inactive in the liver carcinoma cell line HepG2. Mutagenesis of the enhancer reveals four cis-acting elements that are required for maximal activity. DNA-binding proteins that interact with each of the four elements have been identified. One of these factors, designated mp5, is either identical to, or closely related to, the transcription factor AP-2. The mp5/AP-2 DNA binding activity co-migrates with recombinant AP-2 and is supershifted by anti-AP-2 antibodies. We also show that the lack of enhancer activity in HepG2 cells results from the absence of AP-2 protein in these cells. Co-transfection of an AP-2 expression vector restores the activity of this enhancer in HepG2 cells, and requires an intact mp5-binding site. PMID:7989375

Mellentin-Michelotti, J; John, S; Pennie, W D; Williams, T; Hager, G L

1994-12-16

271

Inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth in the brain. Suppression of endothelial cell turnover by penicillamine and the depletion of copper, an angiogenic cofactor.  

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Microvascular proliferation, a hallmark of malignant brain tumors, represents an attractive target of anticancer research, especially because of the quiescent nonproliferative endothelium of the normal brain. Cerebral neoplasms sequester copper, a trace metal that modulates angiogenesis. Using a rabbit brain tumor model, normocupremic animals developed large vascularized VX2 carcinomas. By contrast, small, circumscribed, relatively avascular tumors were found in the brains of rabbits copper-d...

Brem, S. S.; Zagzag, D.; Tsanaclis, A. M.; Gately, S.; Elkouby, M. P.; Brien, S. E.

1990-01-01

272

Mls-1 is encoded by the long terminal repeat open reading frame of the mouse mammary tumor provirus Mtv-7.  

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The murine Mls-1 antigen is the prototype of endogenous superantigens, molecules whose activities lead to deletion of T cells expressing certain T-cell receptor V beta genes from the mature repertoire. However, Mls-1 also stimulates T cells expressing these particular V beta genes (V beta 6, V beta 7, V beta 8.1, and V beta 9) in vitro, making it one of the strongest known T-cell activators. We have recently reported that the Mls-1 gene is closely linked to the endogenous mammary tumor virus ...

Beutner, U.; Frankel, W. N.; Cote, M. S.; Coffin, J. M.; Huber, B. T.

1992-01-01

273

Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid inhibits prostate tumor growth by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated angiogenesis.  

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The role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis is well established. Identification of a small molecule that blocks tumor angiogenesis and is safe and affordable has been a challenge in drug development. In this study, we showed that acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), an active component from an Ayurvedic medicinal plant (Boswellia serrata), could strongly inhibit tumor angiogenesis. AKBA suppressed tumor growth in the human prostate tumor xenograft mice treated daily (10 mg/kg AKBA) after solid tumors reached approximately 100 mm(3) (n = 5). The inhibitory effect of AKBA on tumor growth was well correlated with suppression of angiogenesis. When examined for the molecular mechanism, we found that AKBA significantly inhibited blood vessel formation in the Matrigel plug assay in mice and effectively suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced microvessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay ex vivo. Furthermore, AKBA inhibited VEGF-induced cell proliferation, chemotactic motility, and the formation of capillary-like structures from primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis and in vitro kinase assay revealed that AKBA suppressed VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) kinase (KDR/Flk-1) with IC(50) of 1.68 micromol/L. Specifically, AKBA suppressed the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src family kinase, focal adhesion kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase. Our findings suggest that AKBA potently inhibits human prostate tumor growth through inhibition of angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathways. PMID:19567671

Pang, Xiufeng; Yi, Zhengfang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sung, Bokyung; Qu, Weijing; Lian, Xiaoyuan; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Liu, Mingyao

2009-07-15

274

STAT5b as Molecular Target in Pancreatic Cancer--Inhibition of Tumor Growth, Angiogenesis, and Metastases12  

Science.gov (United States)

The prognosis of patients suffering from pancreatic cancer is still poor and novel therapeutic options are urgently needed. Recently, the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) was associated with tumor progression in human solid cancer. Hence, we assessed whether STAT5b might serve as an anticancer target in ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (DPAC). We found that nuclear expression of STAT5b can be detected in approximately 50% of DPAC. Blockade of STAT5b by stable shRNA-mediated knockdown showed no effects on tumor cell growth in vitro. However, inhibition of tumor cell motility was found even in response to stimulation with epidermal growth factor or interleukin-6. These findings were paralleled by a reduction of prometastatic and proangiogenic factors in vitro. Subsequent in vivo experiments revealed a strong growth inhibition on STAT5b blockade in subcutaneous and orthotopic models. These findings were paralleled by impaired tumor angiogenesis in vivo. In contrast to the subcutaneous model, the orthotopic model revealed a strong reduction of tumor cell proliferation that emphasizes the meaning of assessing targets in an appropriate microenvironment. Taken together, our results suggest that STAT5b might be a potential novel target for human DPAC. PMID:23097626

Moser, Christian; Ruemmele, Petra; Gehmert, Sebastian; Schenk, Hedwig; Kreutz, Marina P; Mycielska, Maria E; Hackl, Christina; Kroemer, Alexander; Schnitzbauer, Andreas A; Stoeltzing, Oliver; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Lang, Sven A

2012-01-01

275

STAT5b as molecular target in pancreatic cancer--inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prognosis of patients suffering from pancreatic cancer is still poor and novel therapeutic options are urgently needed. Recently, the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) was associated with tumor progression in human solid cancer. Hence, we assessed whether STAT5b might serve as an anticancer target in ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (DPAC). We found that nuclear expression of STAT5b can be detected in approximately 50% of DPAC. Blockade of STAT5b by stable shRNA-mediated knockdown showed no effects on tumor cell growth in vitro. However, inhibition of tumor cell motility was found even in response to stimulation with epidermal growth factor or interleukin-6. These findings were paralleled by a reduction of prometastatic and proangiogenic factors in vitro. Subsequent in vivo experiments revealed a strong growth inhibition on STAT5b blockade in subcutaneous and orthotopic models. These findings were paralleled by impaired tumor angiogenesis in vivo. In contrast to the subcutaneous model, the orthotopic model revealed a strong reduction of tumor cell proliferation that emphasizes the meaning of assessing targets in an appropriate microenvironment. Taken together, our results suggest that STAT5b might be a potential novel target for human DPAC. PMID:23097626

Moser, Christian; Ruemmele, Petra; Gehmert, Sebastian; Schenk, Hedwig; Kreutz, Marina P; Mycielska, Maria E; Hackl, Christina; Kroemer, Alexander; Schnitzbauer, Andreas A; Stoeltzing, Oliver; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Lang, Sven A

2012-10-01

276

Dietary fat modulation of mammary tumor growth and metabolism demonstrated by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship of dietary fat concentration and saturation on the growth and metabolic activity of line 168 was studied using syngeneic mice fed 6 experimental diets before and during tumor growth. Tumor latency was significantly greater for mice fed a diet containing the minimum of essential fatty acids (EFA, 0.5% corn oil) or 8% coconut oil (SF) than for mice fed 8 or 20% safflower oil (PUF) or 20% SF. Changes in dietary fat resulted in alterations of tumor cell and serum fatty acid composition but not the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor. 31P-surface coil NMR was used to measure possible changes in tumor metabolism in vivo. Although pH decreased from 7.2 to 6.6 as the tumor volume increased, there was no difference in pH among dietary groups. There was an inverse relationship between both sugar phosphate (SP)/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios and tumor volume; those ratios for mice fed an EFA deficient or minimal EFA diet decreased at a different rate than ratios for mice fed diets with additional fat. Tumors of mice fed diets containing no or a low level (0.3%) of 18:2 had higher SP/ATP ratios than mice fed diets containing a moderate level (? 4%) of 18:2. Thus, high levels of dietary fat had a significant effect on promotion of mammary tumors during early stages of tumor growth. Differences in tumor volume associated with dietary fat may be related to changes in the levels of high energy phosphate metabolites

277

Jiedu Xiaozheng Yin, a Chinese herbal formula, inhibits tumor angiogenesis via downregulation of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 expression in vivo and in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiogenesis is crucial for cancer growth and metastasis and inhibition of angiogenesis has been recognized to be a promising strategy for the treatment of cancer. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cancer. Jiedu Xiaozheng Yin (JXY), a polyherbal formula of TCM, has been used to treat various tumors in China. However, the mechanism of its anticancer activity has yet to be fully elucidated. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and a hepatoma mouse xenograft model, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol extract of Jiedu Xiaozheng Yin (EE-JXY). EE-JXY treatment significantly inhibited tumor cell growth both in vitro and in the mouse xenograft model (P<0.05). Moreover, EE-JXY reduced tube formation of HUVECs and angiogenesis in the CAM (P<0.01) and microvessel density (MVD) of tumor in vivo (P<0.05). Further studies showed that EE-JXY was able to suppress the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in both HepG2 cells and HUVECs (P<0.01) and in tumor (P<0.01). Thus, JXY suppressed tumor growth at least by inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:23254951

Cao, Zhiyun; Lin, Wei; Huang, Zhengrong; Chen, Xuzheng; Zhao, Jinyan; Zheng, Liangpu; Ye, Hongzhi; Liu, Zhizhen; Liao, Lianming; Du, Jian

2013-03-01

278

Tumstatin, the NC1 domain of ?3 chain of type IV collagen, is an endogenous inhibitor of pathological angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is required for physiological development of vertebrates and repair of damaged tissue, but in the pathological setting contributes to progression of cancer. During tumor growth, angiogenesis is supported by up-regulation of angiogenic stimulators (pro-angiogenic) and down-regulation of angiogenic inhibitors (anti-angiogenic). The switch to the angiogenic phenotype (angiogenic switch) allows the tumors to grow and facilitate metastasis. The bioactive NC1 domain of type IV collagen ?3 chain, called tumstatin, imparts anti-tumor activity by inducing apoptosis of proliferating endothelial cells. Tumstatin binds to ?V?3 integrin via a mechanism independent of the RGD-sequence recognition and inhibits cap-dependent protein synthesis in the proliferating endothelial cells. The physiological level of tumstatin is controlled by matrix metalloproteinase-9, which most effectively cleaves it from the basement membrane and its physiological concentration in the circulation keeps pathological angiogenesis and tumor growth in check. These findings suggest that tumstatin functions as an endogenous inhibitor of pathological angiogenesis and functions as a novel suppressor of proliferating endothelial cells and growth of tumors

279

Epidemiological studies of canine neoplasms with special reference to mutational analysis of p53 gene in canine mammary tumors by PCR-SSCP  

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Epidemiological studies of canine neoplasms with special reference to mutational analysis of p53 gene in canine mammary tumors by PCR-SSCP were carried out to know age wise, sex wise and breed wise incidence of neoplastic conditions in canine and to study the mutations in exon 4 and exon 8 of p53 gene segment in canine mammary tumors. The epidemiological study was conducted by analyzing available data of last ten years (1996-2005) of 175 specimens of canine neoplasms at Departm...

Pawar, Sanjay J.

2006-01-01

280

Captopril inhibits angiogenesis and slows the growth of experimental tumors in rats.  

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Captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, is widely used clinically to manage hypertension and congestive heart failure. Here captopril is shown to be an inhibitor of angiogenesis able to block neovascularization induced in the rat cornea. Captopril acted directly and specifically on capillary endothelial cells, inhibiting their chemotaxis with a biphasic dose-response curve showing an initial decrease at clinically achievable doses under 10 microM and a further slow decline i...

Volpert, O. V.; Ward, W. F.; Lingen, M. W.; Chesler, L.; Solt, D. B.; Johnson, M. D.; Molteni, A.; Polverini, P. J.; Bouck, N. P.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

HGF/SF Activates Glycolysis and Oxidative Phosphorylation in DA3 Murine Mammary Cancer Cells  

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Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a paracrine growth factor which increases cellular motility and has also been implicated in tumor development and progression and in angiogenesis. Little is known about the metabolic alteration induced in cells following Met-HGF/SF signal transduction. The hypothesis that HGF/SF alters the energy metabolism of cancer cells was investigated in perfused DA3 murine mammary cancer cells by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, oxygen an...

Kaplan, Ofer; Firon, Michal; Vivi, Antonio; Navon, Gil; Tsarfaty, Han

2000-01-01

282

Assessment of cell proliferation and prognostic factors in canine mammary gland tumors Avaliação da proliferação celular e fatores prognósticos em tumores mamários caninos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three methods for the analysis of cell proliferation, mitotic index/10 high-power fields (10 HPF, mitotic index/four sets of 10 HPF (40 HPF, and MIB-1 index were evaluated in a series of canine mammary gland tumors, as well as the possible correlation between them. Fifty-six canine mammary gland tumors, including 23 benign and 33 malignant, were studied. In addition, the prognostic impact of mitotic index/10 HPF, and histological malignancy grade were evaluated in 17 malignant tumors, being seven ductal and 10 metaplastic carcinomas. The three methods used to evaluate cell proliferation were correlated with the prognostic impact of mitotic index/10 HPF and histological malignancy grade. The results showed a strong association between mitotic figure counts and MIB-1 index (PAvaliaram-se três métodos de proliferação celular, índice mitótico/10 campos de grande aumento (10 CGA, quatro vezes 10 CGA (40 CGA e índice de marcação por MIB-1, em uma série de tumores mamários caninos, e as possíveis correlações entre estes métodos. Foram estudados 56 tumores mamários caninos, 23 benignos e 33 malignos. Foi também avaliado o impacto prognóstico do índice mitótico (10 CGA e o grau histológico maligno em 17 tumores malignos, sete carcinomas ductais e 10 carcinomas metaplásicos. A correlação entre os três métodos para avaliar a proliferação celular e o impacto prognóstico do índice mitótico por 10 CGA e o grau histológico maligno foi realizada. Os resultados mostraram que existe uma forte associação entre contagem de mitose e o índice de marcação por MIB-1(P<0,0001 e correlação entre contagem de mitoses em 40 CGA e índice de marcação por MIB-1 e entre índice mitótico em 10 CGA e 40 CGA (P<0,05. Observou-se correlação entre os três métodos de avaliação da proliferação celular e os fatores prognósticos semelhante aos estudos de câncer de mama humano.

A.P. Dutra

2008-12-01

283

Dietary suppression of the mammary CD29(hi)CD24(+) epithelial subpopulation and its cytokine/chemokine transcriptional signatures modifies mammary tumor risk in MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diet is highly linked to breast cancer risk, yet little is known about its influence on mammary epithelial populations with distinct regenerative and hence, tumorigenic potential. To investigate this, we evaluated the relative frequency of lineage-negative CD29(hi)CD24(+), CD29(lo)CD24(+) and CD29(hi)Thy1(+)CD24(+) epithelial subpopulations in pre-neoplastic mammary tissue of adult virgin MMTV-Wnt1-transgenic mice fed either control (Casein) or soy-based diets. We found that mammary epithelial cells exposed to soy diet exhibited a lower percentage of CD29(hi)CD24(+)Lin(-) population, decreased ability to form mammospheres in culture, lower mammary outgrowth potential when transplanted into cleared fat pads, and reduced appearance of tumor-initiating CD29(hi)Thy1(+)CD24(+) cells, than in those of control diet-fed mice. Diet had no comparable influence on the percentage of the CD29(lo)CD24(+)Lin(-) population. Global gene expression profiling of the CD29(hi)CD24(+)subpopulation revealed markedly altered expression of genes important to inflammation, cytokine and chemokine signaling, and proliferation. Soy-fed relative to casein-fed mice showed lower mammary tumor incidence, shorter tumor latency, and reduced systemic levels of estradiol 17-?, progesterone and interleukin-6. Our results provide evidence for the functional impact of diet on specific epithelial subpopulations that may relate to breast cancer risk and suggest that diet-regulated cues can be further explored for breast cancer risk assessment and prevention. PMID:24012543

Rahal, Omar M; Machado, Heather L; Montales, Maria Theresa E; Pabona, John Mark P; Heard, Melissa E; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Simmen, Rosalia C M

2013-11-01

284

Targeting Angiogenesis in Cancer Therapy  

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Full Text Available Angiogenesis is an essential process in tumor growth. The concept of angiogenesis, when proposed by Folksman in 1971, had a great impact on cancer research and therapy, as the survival and proliferation of cancer depend on angiogenesis, which could be a target of cancer therapy. In subsequent decades, numerous antiangiogenic agents were developed, and some of them have been applied clinically. However, angiogenesis includes a complex and multistep process that has not been sufficiently elucidated. In this review, we focus on signaling pathways related with tumor angiogenesis and several antiangiogenic agents approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration or under investigation.

Ichihara,Eiki

2011-12-01

285

Effects of soy-derived isoflavones and a high-fat diet on spontaneous mammary tumor development in Tg.NK (MMTV/c-neu) mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytoestrogens such as isoflavonoids and lignans have been postulated as breast cancer protective constituents in soy and whole-grain cereals. We investigated the ability of isoflavones (IFs) and flaxseed to modulate spontaneous mammary tumor development in female heterozygous Tg.NK (MMTV/c-neu) mice. Two different exposure protocols were applied, either from 4 wk of age onward (postweaning) or during gestation and lactation (perinatal). In the postweaning exposure study, mice were fed IFs or flaxseed in a high-fat diet. In addition, flaxseed in a low-fat diet was tested. Postweaning exposure to IFs and flaxseed tended to accelerate the onset of mammary adenocarcinoma development, although tumor burden at necropsy was not changed significantly. Perinatal IF exposure resulted in enhanced mammary gland differentiation, but palpable mammary tumor onset was not affected. However, tumor burden at necropsy in the perinatal exposure study was significantly increased in the medium- and high-IF dose groups. Comparison of both exposure scenarios revealed a strongly accelerated onset of tumor growth after perinatal high-fat diet exposure compared with the low-fat diet. This study shows that breast cancer-modulating effects of phytoestrogens are dependent both on the background diet and on the timing of exposure in the life cycle. PMID:15572297

Luijten, Mirjam; Thomsen, Anni Rønfeldt; van den Berg, Jolanda A H; Wester, Piet W; Verhoef, Aart; Nagelkerke, Nico J D; Adlercreutz, Herman; van Kranen, Henk J; Piersma, Aldert H; Sørensen, Ilona K; Rao, Ghanta N; van Kreijl, Coen F

2004-01-01

286

Keratin 6a marks mammary bipotential progenitor cells that can give rise to a unique tumor model resembling human normal-like breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progenitor cells are considered an important cell of origin of human malignancies. However, there has not been any single gene that can define mammary bipotential progenitor cells, and as such it has not been possible to use genetic methods to introduce oncogenic alterations into these cells in vivo to study tumorigenesis from them. Keratin 6a is expressed in a subset of mammary luminal epithelial cells and body cells of terminal end buds. By generating transgenic mice using the Keratin 6a (K6a) gene promoter to express tumor virus A (tva), which encodes the receptor for avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV/A), we provide direct evidence that K6a(+) cells are bipotential progenitor cells, and the first demonstration of a non-basal location for some biopotential progenitor cells. These K6a(+) cells were readily induced to form mammary tumors by intraductal injection of RCAS (an ALV/A-derived vector) carrying the gene encoding the polyoma middle T antigen. Tumors in this K6a-tva line were papillary and resembled the normal breast-like subtype of human breast cancer. This is the first model of this subtype of human tumors and thus may be useful for preclinical testing of targeted therapy for patients with normal-like breast cancer. These observations also provide direct in vivo evidence for the hypothesis that the cell of origin affects mammary tumor phenotypes. PMID:21532625

Bu, W; Chen, J; Morrison, G D; Huang, S; Creighton, C J; Huang, J; Chamness, G C; Hilsenbeck, S G; Roop, D R; Leavitt, A D; Li, Y

2011-10-27

287

Obesity and perinatal TCDD exposure increases mammary tumors in FVB mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk of breast cancer has been consistently shown to correlate to total lifetime exposure to estrogens. Because both TCDD exposure and the state of obesity interact with the estrogen pathway, we wanted to investigate how TCDD and obesity interact with mammary cancer susceptibili...

288

Obesity and perinatal TCDD exposure increases mammary tumor incidence in FVB mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer risk consistently correlates with total lifetime exposure to estrogens. Because both TCDD and adipocytes impact the estrogen pathway, we examined how TCDD and obesity interact to alter mammary cancer susceptibility. At 12.5 days post conception, we exposed FVB fema...

289

Role of tumor-derived granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in mice bearing a highly invasive and metastatic mammary carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have examined the role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in tumor-bearing BALB/c mice using the syngeneic F3II mammary carcinoma. In the present model, progression of subcutaneous tumors induced massive myelopoiesis in bone marrow and spleen due to GM-CSF secretion by tumor cells. In vitro, the addition of recombinant mouse GM-CSF (5- 25 ng/ml) caused a significant increase in F3II cell growth, either in the presence or absence of serum. Zymographic analysis of conditioned media from F3II monolayers showed that GM-CSF exerted a dose-dependent enhancement in the metalloproteinases MMP-9 (105 kD) and MMP-2 (70 kD), key enzymes in mammary tumor cell invasion. Our data suggest that ectopic GM-CSF production stimulates myelopoiesis and may also play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis formation. PMID:10738179

Gabri, M R; Menna, P L; Scursoni, A M; Gomez, D E; Alonso, D F

1999-01-01

290

Selective ablation of tumor-associated macrophages suppresses metastasis and angiogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play a critical role in promoting tumor development and metastasis. In the present study, we found that legumain, an asparaginyl endopeptidase, was highly expressed on the surface of TAM. A doxorubicin-based prodrug specifically activated by legumain selectively ablated TAM and resulted in a significant reduction of angiogenic factors and related tumor vessel growth. Treatment with the prodrug also suppressed circulating tumor cells and myeloid immune suppressor Gr-1+/CD11b+ cells in tumor-bearing animals. After selective ablation of TAM using the prodrug, tumor growth and metastases were greatly inhibited in murine tumor models. These results indicate that legumain-activated prodrugs targeting TAM in tumors might represent a novel anticancer strategy. PMID:23691974

Lin, Yingying; Wei, Chongyang; Liu, Yuan; Qiu, Yongming; Liu, Cheng; Guo, Fang

2013-09-01

291

Detection and Quantitation of Circulating Tumor Cell Dynamics by Bioluminescence Imaging in an Orthotopic Mammary Carcinoma Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been detected in the bloodstream of both early-stage and advanced cancer patients. However, very little is know about the dynamics of CTCs during cancer progression and the clinical relevance of longitudinal CTC enumeration. To address this, we developed a simple bioluminescence imaging assay to detect CTCs in mouse models of metastasis. In a 4T1 orthotopic metastatic mammary carcinoma mouse model, we demonstrated that this quantitative method offers sensitivity down to 2 CTCs in 0.1–1mL blood samples and high specificity for CTCs originating from the primary tumor, independently of their epithelial status. In this model, we simultaneously monitored blood CTC dynamics, primary tumor growth, and lung metastasis progression over the course of 24 days. Early in tumor development, we observed low numbers of CTCs in blood samples (10–15 cells/100 µL) and demonstrated that CTC dynamics correlate with viable primary tumor growth. To our knowledge, these data represent the first reported use of bioluminescence imaging to detect CTCs and quantify their dynamics in any cancer mouse model. This new assay is opening the door to the study of CTC dynamics in a variety of animal models. These studies may inform clinical decision on the appropriate timing of blood sampling and value of longitudinal CTC enumeration in cancer patients. PMID:25188396

Sasportas, Laura Sarah; Hori, Sharon Seiko; Pratx, Guillem; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

2014-01-01

292

Enzyme-digested Fucoidan Extracts Derived from Seaweed Mozuku of Cladosiphon novae-caledoniaekylin Inhibit Invasion and Angiogenesis of Tumor Cells  

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Fucoidan is a uniquely-structured sulfated polysaccharide found in the cell walls of several types of brown seaweed that has recently, especially as enzyme-digested fucoidan extract, attracted a lot attention due to its anti-tumor potential. In this study, we evaluated the effects of enzyme-digested fucoidan extracts prepared from seaweed Mozuku of Cladosiphon novae-caledoniae kylin on in vitro invasion and angiogenesis abilities of human tumor cells. First, we evaluated the effect of the fuc...

Ye, Jun; Li, Yuping; Teruya, Kiichiro; Katakura, Yoshinori; Ichikawa, Akira; Eto, Hiroshi; Hosoi, Mutsutaka; Hosoi, Masako; Nishimoto, Shinji; Shirahata, Sanetaka

2005-01-01

293

Assessment of cell proliferation and prognostic factors in canine mammary gland tumors / Avaliação da proliferação celular e fatores prognósticos em tumores mamários caninos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se três métodos de proliferação celular, índice mitótico/10 campos de grande aumento (10 CGA), quatro vezes 10 CGA (40 CGA) e índice de marcação por MIB-1, em uma série de tumores mamários caninos, e as possíveis correlações entre estes métodos. Foram estudados 56 tumores mamários caninos, [...] 23 benignos e 33 malignos. Foi também avaliado o impacto prognóstico do índice mitótico (10 CGA) e o grau histológico maligno em 17 tumores malignos, sete carcinomas ductais e 10 carcinomas metaplásicos. A correlação entre os três métodos para avaliar a proliferação celular e o impacto prognóstico do índice mitótico por 10 CGA e o grau histológico maligno foi realizada. Os resultados mostraram que existe uma forte associação entre contagem de mitose e o índice de marcação por MIB-1(P Abstract in english Three methods for the analysis of cell proliferation, mitotic index/10 high-power fields (10 HPF), mitotic index/four sets of 10 HPF (40 HPF), and MIB-1 index were evaluated in a series of canine mammary gland tumors, as well as the possible correlation between them. Fifty-six canine mammary gland t [...] umors, including 23 benign and 33 malignant, were studied. In addition, the prognostic impact of mitotic index/10 HPF, and histological malignancy grade were evaluated in 17 malignant tumors, being seven ductal and 10 metaplastic carcinomas. The three methods used to evaluate cell proliferation were correlated with the prognostic impact of mitotic index/10 HPF and histological malignancy grade. The results showed a strong association between mitotic figure counts and MIB-1 index (P

A.P., Dutra; G.M., Azevedo Júnior; F.C., Schmitt; G.D., Cassali.

294

Peripheral pulmonary nodules: Relationship between multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging and tumor angiogenesis and VEGF expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between16-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging and tumor angiogenesis and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor expression in patients with benign and malignant pulmonary nodules, and differential diagnosis between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. Methods Sixty-four patients with benign and malignant pulmonary nodules underwent 16-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging. The CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for TDC (time density curve, perfusion parametric maps, and the respective perfusion parameters. Immunohistochemical findings of MVD (microvessel density measurement and VEGF expression was evaluated. Results The shape of the TDC of peripheral lung cancer was similar to those of inflammatory nodule. PH (peak height, PHpm/PHa (peak height ratio of pulmonary nodule to aorta, BF (blood flow, BV (blood volume value of peripheral lung cancer and inflammatory nodule were not statistically significant (all P > 0.05. Both showed significantly higher PH, PHpm/PHa, BF, BV value than those of benign nodule (all P 0.05. In the case of adenocarcinoma, BV, BF, PS, PHpm/PHa, and MVD between poorly and well differentiation and between poorly and moderately differentiation were statistically significant (all P 0.05. PH, PHpm/PHa, BV, and PS of benign nodule were significantly lower than those of peripheral lung cancer (all P Conclusion Multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging closely correlated with tumor angiogenesis and reflected MVD measurement and VEGF expression. It provided not only a non-invasive method of quantitative assessment for blood flow patterns of peripheral pulmonary nodules but also an applicable diagnostic method for peripheral pulmonary nodules.

Cheng Xiao-Ling

2008-06-01

295

Gene expression analysis on small numbers of invasive cells collected by chemotaxis from primary mammary tumors of the mouse  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background cDNA microarrays have the potential to identify the genes involved in invasion and metastasis. However, when used with whole tumor tissue, the results average the expression patterns of different cell types. We have combined chemotaxis-based cell collection of the invasive subpopulation of cells within the primary tumor with array-based gene expression analysis to identify the genes necessary for the process of carcinoma cell invasion. Results Invasive cells were collected from live primary tumors using microneedles containing chemotactic growth factors to mimic chemotactic signals thought to be present in the primary tumor. When used with mammary tumors of rats and mice, carcinoma cells and macrophages constitute the invasive cell population. Microbeads conjugated with monoclonal anti-CD11b (Mac-1? antibodies were used to separate macrophages from carcinoma cells. We utilized PCR-based cDNA amplification from small number of cells and compared it to the quality and complexity of conventionally generated cDNA to determine if amplified cDNA could be used with fidelity for array analysis of this cell population. These techniques showed a very high level of correlation indicating that the PCR based amplification technique yields a cDNA population that resembles, with high fidelity, the original template population present in the small number of cells used to prepare the cDNA for use with the chip. Conclusions The specific collection of invasive cells from a primary tumor and the analysis of gene expression in these cells are is now possible. By further comparing the gene expression patterns of cells collected by invasion into microneedles with that of carcinoma cells obtained from the whole primary tumor, the blood, and whole metastatic tumors, genes that contribute to the invasive process in carcinoma cells may be identified.

Segall Jeffrey E

2003-08-01

296

Histone hyperacetylation does not alter the positioning or stability of phased nucleosomes on the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of mouse mammary tumor virus transcription by the hormone-bound glucocorticoid receptor results in disruption of a nucleosome that is specifically positioned on the promoter. Limited treatment of cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate prevents receptor-dependent promoter activation and nucleosome disruption [Bresnick, E. H., John, S., Berard, D. S., LeFebvre, P., & Hager, G. L. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 3977-3981]. On the basis of this observation, we undertook a series of experiments to compare the structure of normal and hyperacetylated mouse mammary tumor virus chromatin. Although butyrate prevents hormone-induced restriction enzyme cutting specifically in the B nucleosome region, chromatin containing hyperacetylated histones does not differ from normal chromatin in general sensitivity to restriction enzymes. Indirect end-labeling analysis of micrococcal nuclease digested chromatin reveals that nucleosomes are identically phased on the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat in normal and hyperacetylated chromatin. A synthetic DNA fragment spanning the B nucleosome region was reconstituted into a monosome by using core particles containing normal or hyperacetylated histones. Analysis of the structure of reconstituted monosomes by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, salt stability, thermal stability, restriction enzyme accessibility, and exonuclease III or DNase I footprinting reveals no effect of histone hyperacetylation on monosome structure. These observations suggest that histone hyperacetylation does not induce a major change in the structure of mouse mammary tumor virus chromatin, such as nucleosome unfolding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1849427

Bresnick, E H; John, S; Hager, G L

1991-04-01

297

Inhibition of mammary tumor promotion by dietary D,L-2-difluoromethylornithine in combination with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors laboratory has shown an inhibitor effect on mammary tumor promotion by a 20% corn oil diet when D,L-2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), was fed to female rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. Analyses of mammary adenocarcinomas from these rats showed that DFMO not only inhibited ODC but also eicosanoid synthesis. Inhibition of tumor promotion, ODC activity and eicosanoid synthesis was additive when dietary combinations of DFMO and menhaden oil were fed. However, when 0.5% DFMO was fed along with 20% dietary fat, signs of toxicity were seen. The overall objective of this study was to establish the minimal and non-toxic dose of DFMO which can give an additive or synergistic antipromoter effect when fed along with dietary n-3 and/or n-6 fatty acids to female Sprague-Dawley rats with DMBA-induced mammary tumors. Four dietary levels of DFMO (0, 0.125, 0.250, and 0.500%) were fed in diets containing 20% fat as either corn, black currant seed or menhaden oil. Dose response effects on tumorigenicity as well as toxicity were noted. Long chain n-3 fatty acids gave greater inhibition of tumorigenesis than shorter chain fatty acids when combined with DFMO. DFMO (0.25%) inhibited tumorigenesis without toxic effects on weight gain, whereas, 0.125% DFMO did not alter tumorigenesis. Supporting biochemical data are presented.

Bunce, O.R.; Abou-El-Ela, S.H. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States))

1990-02-26

298

Evaluation of tumor angiogenesis measured with microvessel density (MVD) as a prognostic indicator in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Results of RTOG 9505  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate tumor angiogenesis as measured by microvessel density (MVD) as an independent prognostic factor in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and materials: Eligible patients included those with NPC treated with radiotherapy. Paraffin blocks of the primary tumor had a hematoxylin and eosin-stained section prepared at the block face. One representative section for tumor was stained for factor VIII-related antigen using a standard immunoperoxidase staining technique. MVD was determined by light microscopy in areas of invasive tumor containing the highest numbers of capillaries and microvessels per area. Individual microvessel counts were made on a 200x field within the area of most intense tumor neovascularization. Results were expressed as the highest number of microvessels identified within any single 200x field. Using a breakpoint of MVD < 60 vs. ?60, the distributions between the two MVD groups were compared by the method of Gray. Overall survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was employed to examine the relationship between MVD and disease outcomes while adjusting for other concomitant variables. Results: One hundred sixty-six were eligible, of whom 123 had values determined for MVD. The MVD values ranged from 9 to 243 with a median of 70. In the multivariate analysis of overall survival, distant metastases, and local-regional failure, MVD did not significantly improve the model containing T stage, N stage, age, radiation dose, and World Health Organization class. Conclusions: We found no significant differences in overall survival, time to distant metastasis, or time to local-regional failure using a breakpoint of MVD < 60 vs. MVD ?60. The study was perhaps limited by the small size of the NPC samples

299

PTEN deficiency in a luminal ErbB-2 mouse model results in dramatic acceleration of mammary tumorigenesis and metastasis.  

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Overexpression and/or amplification of the ErbB-2 oncogene as well as inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor are two important genetic events in human breast carcinogenesis. To address the biological impact of conditional inactivation of PTEN on ErbB-2-induced mammary tumorigenesis, we generated a novel transgenic mouse model that utilizes the murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter to directly couple expression of activated ErbB-2 and Cre recombinase to the same mammary epithelial cell (MMTV-NIC). Disruption of PTEN in the mammary epithelium of the MMTV-NIC model system dramatically accelerated the formation of multifocal and highly metastatic mammary tumors, which exhibited homogenous pathology. PTEN-deficient/NIC-induced tumorigenesis was associated with an increase in angiogenesis. Moreover, inactivation of PTEN in the MMTV-NIC mouse model resulted in hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. However, like the parental strain, tumors obtained from PTEN-deficient/NIC mice displayed histopathological and molecular features of the luminal subtype of primary human breast cancer. Taken together, our findings provide important implications in understanding the molecular determinants of mammary tumorigenesis driven by PTEN deficiency and ErbB-2 activation and could provide a valuable tool for testing the efficacy of therapeutic strategies that target these critical signaling pathways. PMID:19435886

Schade, Babette; Rao, Trisha; Dourdin, Nathalie; Lesurf, Robert; Hallett, Michael; Cardiff, Robert D; Muller, William J

2009-07-10

300

The hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive proteins semaphorin 4D and vascular endothelial growth factor promote tumor growth and angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma  

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Growth and metastasis of solid tumors requires induction of angiogenesis to ensure the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to rapidly dividing transformed cells. Through either mutations, hypoxia generated by cytoreductive therapies, or when a malignancy outgrows its blood supply, tumor cells undergo a change from an avascular to a neovascular phenotype, a transition mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcriptional regulators. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one example of a gene whose transcription is stimulated by HIF. VEGF plays a crucial role in promoting tumor growth and survival by stimulating new blood vessel growth in response to such stresses as chemotherapy or radiotherapy-induced hypoxia, and it therefore has become a tempting target for neutralizing antibodies in the treatment of advanced neoplasms. Emerging evidence has shown that the semaphorins, proteins originally associated with control of axonal growth and immunity, are regulated by changes in oxygen tension as well and may play a role in tumor-induced angiogenesis. Through the use of RNA interference, in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays and tumor xenograft experiments, we demonstrate that expression of semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D), which is under the control of the HIF-family of transcription factors, cooperates with VEGF to promote tumor growth and vascularity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We use blocking antibodies to show that targeting SEMA4D function along with VEGF could represent a novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OSCC and other solid tumors. -- Highlights: ? Similar to VEGF, SEMA4D promotes angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. ? Both VEGF and SEMA4D are produced by OSCC cells in a HIF-dependent manner. ? These factors combine to elicit a robust pro-angiogenic phenotype in OSCC. ? Anti-SEMA4D blocking antibody inhibits Plexin-B1 activation. ? SEMA4D is a valid anti-angiogenic target in the treatment of OSCC.

 
 
 
 
301

An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells  

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Full Text Available Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis.The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyloxy]methyl}furan-3-ylmethyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF, inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin.In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyloxy]methyl}furan (BGF nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?v?3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site.These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethylfuran and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo.

Grazia Marano

2012-05-01

302

An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell's microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt's imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis.The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin.In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?(v)?(3) was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site.These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo. PMID:23015827

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

2012-01-01

303

Xiaotan Sanjie decoction attenuates tumor angiogenesis by manipulating Notch-1-regulated proliferation of gastric cancer stem-like cells  

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AIM: To determine the underlying mechanisms of action and influence of Xiaotan Sanjie (XTSJ) decoction on gastric cancer stem-like cells (GCSCs). METHODS: The gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 line was selected and sorted by FACS using the cancer stem cell marker CD44; the stemness of these cells was checked in our previous study. In an in vitro study, the expression of Notch-1, Hes1, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Ki-67 in both CD44-positive gastric cancer stem-like cells (GCSCs) and CD44-negative cells was measured by Western blot. The effect of XTSJ serum on cell viability and on the above markers was measured by MTT assay and Western blot, respectively. In an in vivo study, the ability to induce angiogenesis and maintenance of GCSCs in CD44-positive-MKN-45- and CD44-negative-engrafted mice were detected by immunohistochemical staining using markers for CD34 and CD44, respectively. The role of XTSJ decoction in regulating the expression of Notch-1, Hes1, VEGF and Ki-67 was measured by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: CD44+ GCSCs showed more cell proliferation and VEGF secretion than CD44-negative cells in vitro, which were accompanied by the high expression of Notch-1 and Hes1 and positively associated with tumor growth (GCSCs vs CD44-negative cells, 2.72 ± 0.25 vs 1.46 ± 0.16, P Hes1, VEGF and Ki-67 expression in these cells. Similarly, in vivo, XTSJ decoction inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. A significant difference was observed in the medium- (1.76 ± 0.15) and high-dose XTSJ (1.33 ± 0.081) groups compared with the GCSCs control group (2.72 ± 0.25) and the low-dose XTSJ group (2.51 ± 0.25) (P Hes1, VEGF and Ki-67 expression highly mirrored the results of XTSJ decoction in inhibiting tumor growth, MVD and CD44 expression. CONCLUSION: Notch-1 may play an important role in regulating the proliferation of GCSCs; XTSJ decoction could attenuate tumor angiogenesis, at least partially, by inhibiting Notch-1.

Yan, Bing; Liu, Long; Zhao, Ying; Xiu, Li-Juan; Sun, Da-Zhi; Liu, Xuan; Lu, Ye; Shi, Jun; Zhang, Yin-Cheng; Li, Yong-Jin; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Qi; Feng, Shou-Han; Lv, Can; Wei, Pin-Kang; Qin, Zhi-Feng

2014-01-01

304

Dose-rate effects for mammary tumor development in female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to X and ? radiation  

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Mammary tumour development was followed in two experiments involving a total of 2229 female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to various doses of X or ? rays at different dose rates. The data for another 462 rats exposed to tritiated water in one of these experiments were also analyzed. The incidence of adenocarcinomas and fibroadenomas at a given time after exposure increased linearly in proportion to total radiation dose for most groups. However, no significant increase in adenocarcinomas was observed with chronic ? exposures up to 1.1 Gy, and the increase in fibroadenomas observed with chronic gamma exposures at a dose rate of 0.0076 Gy h-1 up to an accumulated dose of 3.3 Gy was small compared to that observed after acute exposures. The incidence of all mammary tumors increased almost linearly with the log of dose rate in the range 0.0076 to 26.3 Gy h-1 for 3 Gy total dose of gamma rays. The effects of X rays appeared to be less influenced by dose rate than were the effects of ? rays. (author)

305

SZ-117, a monoclonal antibody against matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibits tumor cell-mediated angiogenesis.  

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In this study, using an in vitro tube formation model, we observed that SZ117, a monoclonal antibody against matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), attenuated a capillary-like tube structure formed by tumor endothelial cell 3B11 and human sarcoma cell MG63. In addition, gelatin zymography showed that SZ117 markedly inhibited MMP2 activity, but did not affect the capability of MMP9-mediated gelatin degradation. These data suggest that SZ117 might have an anti-tumor angiogenic effect and that angiogenic tumor cells and MMP2 may be targeted by monoclonal antibodies for novel anti-tumor angiogenic and anti-cancerous drug discovery. PMID:22142190

Bu, Zibin; Pan, Yanyan; Shang, Bingxue; Cao, Zhifei; Zhou, Quansheng; Ruan, Changgeng

2012-02-01

306

Single-level dynamic spiral CT of hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation between imaging features and tumor angiogenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the correlation of the enhancement imaging features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and relevant parameters revealed by single-level dynamic spiral CT scanning with tumor microvessel counting (MVC). Methods: The study included 26 histopathologically proven HCC patients. Target-slice dynamic scanning and portal venous phase scanning were performed for all patients. The time-density curves were generated with measurement of relevant parameters including: peak value (PV) and contrast enhancement ratio (CER), and the gross enhancement morphology analyzed. Histopathological slides were carefully prepared for the standard F8RA and VEGF immunohistochemical staining and tumor microvessel counting and calculation of VEGF expression percentage of tumor cells. The enhancement imaging features of HCC lesions were correlatively studied with tumor MVC and VEGF expression. Results: Peak value of HCC lesions were 7.9 to 75.2 HU, CER were 3.8% to 36.0%. MVC were 6 to 91, and the VEGF expression percentage were 32.1% to 78.3%. The PV and CER were significantly correlated with tumor tissue MVC (r = 0.508 and 0.423, P < 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). There were no correlations between PV and CER and VEGF expression percentage. Both the patterns of time-density curve and the gross enhancement morphology of HCC lesions were also correlated with tumor MVC, and reflected the distribution characteristics of tumor microvessels within HCC lesions. A close association was found between the likelihood of intrahepatic metastasis of HCC lesions with densely enhanced pseudo capsules and the presence of rich tumor microvessels within these pseudo capsules. Conclusion: The parameters and the enhancement imaging features of HCC lesions on target-slice dynamic scanning are correlated with tumor MVC, and can reflect the distribution characteristics of tumor microvessels within HCC lesions. Dynamic spiral CT scanning is a valuable means to assess the angiogenic activity and tumor neo-vascularity in vivo for HCC patients

307

DEspR roles in tumor vasculo-angiogenesis, invasiveness, CSC-survival and anoikis resistance: a 'common receptor coordinator' paradigm.  

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A priori, a common receptor induced in tumor microvessels, cancer cells and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) that is involved in tumor angiogenesis, invasiveness, and CSC anoikis resistance and survival, could underlie contemporaneous coordination of these events rather than assume stochasticity. Here we show that functional analysis of the dual endothelin1/VEGFsignal peptide receptor, DEspR, (formerly named Dear, Chr.4q31.2) supports the putative common receptor paradigm in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and glioblastoma (GBM) selected for their invasiveness, CD133+CSCs, and polar angiogenic features. Unlike normal tissue, DEspR is detected in PDAC and GBM microvessels, tumor cells, and CSCs isolated from PDAC-Panc1 and GBM-U87 cells. DEspR-inhibition decreased angiogenesis, invasiveness, CSC-survival and anoikis resistance in vitro, and decreased Panc1-CSC and U87-CSC xenograft tumor growth, vasculo-angiogenesis and invasiveness in nude(nu/nu) rats, suggesting that DEspR activation would coordinate these tumor progression events. As an accessible, cell-surface 'common receptor coordinator', DEspR-inhibition defines a novel targeted-therapy paradigm for pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. PMID:24465725

Herrera, Victoria L; Decano, Julius L; Tan, Glaiza A; Moran, Ann M; Pasion, Khristine A; Matsubara, Yuichi; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

2014-01-01

308

In vivo tumor angiogenesis imaging with site-specific labeled {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-VEGF  

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We recently developed a cysteine-containing peptide tag (C-tag) that allows for site-specific modification of C-tag-containing fusion proteins with a bifunctional chelator, HYNIC (hydrazine nicotinamide)-maleimide. We then constructed and expressed C-tagged vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and labeled it with HYNIC. We wished to test {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-C-tagged VEGF ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-VEGF) for the imaging of tumor vasculature before and after antiangiogenic (low continuous dosing, metronomic) and tumoricidal (high-dose) cyclophosphamide treatment. HYNIC-maleimide was reacted with the two thiol groups of C-tagged VEGF without any effect on biologic activity in vitro. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-VEGF was prepared using tin/tricine as an exchange reagent, and injected via the tail vein (200-300 {mu}Ci, 1-2 {mu}g protein) followed by microSPECT imaging 1 h later. Sequencing analysis of HYNIC-containing peptides obtained after digestion confirmed the site-specific labeling of the two accessible thiol groups of C-tagged VEGF. Tumor vascularity was easily visualized with {sup 99m}Tc/VEGF in Balb/c mice with 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma 10 days after implantation into the left axillary fat pad in controls (12.3{+-}5.0 tumor/bkg, n=27) along with its decrease following treatment with high (150 mg/kg q.o.d. x 4; 1.14{+-}0.48 tumor/bkg, n=9) or low (25 mg/kg q.d. x 7; 1.03{+-}0.18 tumor/bkg, n=9) dose cyclophosphamide. Binding specificity was confirmed by observing a 75% decrease in tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc/biotin-inactivated VEGF, as compared with {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-VEGF. {sup 99m}Tc can be loaded onto C-tagged VEGF in a site-specific fashion without reducing its bioactivity. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-VEGF can be rapidly prepared for the imaging of tumor vasculature and its response to different types of chemotherapy. (orig.)

Blankenberg, Francis G. [Stanford University, Division of Nuclear Medicine/Department of Radiology and MIPS (Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford), Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford, CA (United States); Backer, Marina V.; Patel, Vimalkumar; Backer, Joseph M. [SibTech, Inc., Newington, CT (United States); Levashova, Zoia [Stanford University, Division of Nuclear Medicine/Department of Radiology and MIPS (Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford), Stanford, CA (United States)

2006-07-15

309

Inhibition of fibrinolysis by a synthetic urokinase inhibitor enhances lung colonization of metastatic murine mammary tumor cells.  

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We have investigated the role of coagulation and fibrinolysis during the metastatic lung colonization of F3II mouse mammary carcinoma cells. The selective synthetic urokinase inhibitor B623 significantly enhanced lung colonization and blocked the antimetastatic effect of heparin when administered i.p. during the first stages of metastasis formation. In B623-treated mice the overall activity of the fibrinolytic system was reduced and circulating urokinase was specifically inhibited by this agent. In vitro studies demonstrated that B623 induces the aggregation of F3II cells in the presence of mouse plasma and facilitates the entrapment of tumor cells in a fibrin gel matrix. Our data suggest that imbalances of fibrin deposition and removal may dramatically influence metastatic lung colonization. PMID:21594506

Alonso, D; Bertolesi, G; Farias, E; Gomez, D; Joffe, E

1996-11-01

310

Crosstalk between VEGF and novel angiogenic protein regulates tumor angiogenesis and contributes to aggressiveness of breast carcinoma.  

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We have identified and characterized a novel proangiogenic glycoprotein (NAP) with molecular weight of 67 kDa from synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Proteomic analysis of the protein revealed 29% sequence coverage with maximum identity for human retinoblastoma binding protein 2. N-terminal amino acid sequence showed no identity to recently discovered protein sequences. NAP was also identified in both normal and tumor cell lines by Western blotting. NAP is a permeability factor as verified by miles permeability assay. The proangiogenic potential of NAP was identified using shell less CAM, rat cornea and tumor on CAM assays. NAP induces expression of VEGF and Flt-1 gene as verified by promoter reporter gene analysis. Further NAP induces proliferation of endothelial cells and formation of tube like structures. NAP is also involved in migration and invasion of tumor cells. Clinical data revealed the presence of NAP in breast cancer biopsies. We have developed monoclonal antibody (mAb), and specific ELISA, which confirmed the presence of NAP in the cytosol of tumor cells. The mAb effect was evaluated with established angiogenic assays. Further, we investigated the detailed mechanism by which NAP induces angiogenesis. NAP is phosphorylated by VEGF induced activation of MAPK and JNK pathways through VEGFR2 phosphorylation. NAP involves JNK pathway predominantly with further activation of NF?B in downstream processing of VEGF activation. Together these findings establish that NAP displays angiogenic properties and promotes efficient neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo models. These observations suggest that anti-NAP-mAb can be targeted for antiangiogenic therapy of cancer. PMID:23000338

Belugali Nataraj, Nishanth; Salimath, Bharathi P

2013-01-01

311

Investigation into the cancer protective effect of flaxseed in Tg.NK (MMTV/c-neu) mice, a murine mammary tumor model  

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The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low flaxseed doses relevant to human dietary exposure can prevent mammary tumors in transgenic Tg.NK mice, a model of breast cancer. Animals were exposed to flaxseed through the diet at human relevant levels. Tumor-related parameters and tumor development were evaluated. Hepatic cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase activities were significantly reduced in animals receiving low flaxseed doses. An incidence of palpable tumors before sacrifice, a number of tumors per mouse, and a number of large tumors (>6 mm diameter) at necropsy were statistically significantly lower in the high flaxseed group compared to controls, suggesting a beneficial effect on tumor progression of small dietary doses of flaxseed. However, the number of tumor-bearing mice and multiplicity of tumors at necropsy were not statistically significantly lower compared to the controls. Thus, the effect of small dietary doses of flaxseed on mammary tumor development in Tg.NK mice remains to be established.

Mortensen, Alicja; SØrensen, Ilona Kryspin

2011-01-01

312

Neoplasias mamárias em cadelas: influência hormonal e efeitos da ovario-histerectomia como terapia adjuvante Canine mammary tumors: hormonal influence and effects of ovariohiysterectomy as an adjuvant therapy  

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Full Text Available As neoplasias mamarias constituem aproximadamente 50% dos tumores diagnosticados em cadelas. Apesar dosharmónios sexuais femininos desempenharem papel fundamental no desenvolvimento desses tumores em mamíferos, o valor da supressão hormonal pela ovário-histerectomia como auxiliar no tratamento do tumor de mama em caninos permanece controverso. Discute-se ainda se a realização da ovário-histerectomia após o diagnóstico influencia ou não o crescimento e progressão do tumor na glândula afetada ou em outras glândulas mamarias. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir alguns aspectos relacionados à influência hormonal na etiologia de tumores mamarias em cadelas, assim como o valor terapêutico da castração, quando realizada no momento da mastectomia.The mammary neoplasms comprises aproximatel 50% ofthe diagnosed tumor s m the bitch. Although female sexual honnones play a fundamental role in the development of these tumors in mammals, the value of the suppression hormonal (ovariohysterectomy as an adjuvam treatment remains controversial. There are still arguments on whether the ovariohysterectomy after diagnosis of the tumor possesses influences lhe growth and progression of the tumor on the affected gland or on other mammary glands. The objective ofthis review is to discuss some aspects related to the hormonal influence in the pathogenesis of the canine tumor, as well as the therapeutic value ofspaying. when accomplished in the moment ofthe mastectomy.

Cláudia Sampaio Fonseca

2000-08-01

313

Biomarker-guided sequential targeted therapies to overcome therapy resistance in rapidly evolving highly aggressive mammary tumors.  

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Combinatorial targeted therapies are more effective in treating cancer by blocking by-pass mechanisms or inducing synthetic lethality. However, their clinical application is hampered by resistance and toxicity. To meet this important challenge, we developed and tested a novel concept of biomarker-guided sequential applications of various targeted therapies using ErbB2-overexpressing/PTEN-low, highly aggressive breast cancer as our model. Strikingly, sustained activation of ErbB2 and downstream pathways drives trastuzumab resistance in both PTEN-low/trastuzumab-resistant breast cancers from patients and mammary tumors with intratumoral heterogeneity from genetically-engineered mice. Although lapatinib initially inhibited trastuzumab-resistant mouse tumors, tumors by-passed the inhibition by activating the PI3K/mTOR signaling network as shown by the quantitative protein arrays. Interestingly, activation of the mTOR pathway was also observed in neoadjuvant lapatinib-treated patients manifesting lapatinib resistance. Trastuzumab + lapatinib resistance was effectively overcome by sequential application of a PI3K/mTOR dual kinase inhibitor (BEZ235) with no significant toxicity. However, our p-RTK array analysis demonstrated that BEZ235 treatment led to increased ErbB2 expression and phosphorylation in genetically-engineered mouse tumors and in 3-D, but not 2-D, culture, leading to BEZ235 resistance. Mechanistically, we identified ErbB2 protein stabilization and activation as a novel mechanism of BEZ235 resistance, which was reversed by subsequent treatment with lapatinib + BEZ235 combination. Remarkably, this sequential application of targeted therapies guided by biomarker changes in the tumors rapidly evolving resistance doubled the life-span of mice bearing exceedingly aggressive tumors. This fundamentally novel approach of using targeted therapies in a sequential order can effectively target and reprogram the signaling networks in cancers evolving resistance during treatment. PMID:24675532

Sahin, Ozgur; Wang, Qingfei; Brady, Samuel W; Ellis, Kenneth; Wang, Hai; Chang, Chia-Chi; Zhang, Qingling; Priya, Preety; Zhu, Rui; Wong, Stephen T; Landis, Melissa D; Muller, William J; Esteva, Francisco J; Chang, Jenny; Yu, Dihua

2014-05-01

314

Alterations in c-Src/HER1 and estrogen receptor ? signaling pathways in mammary gland and tumors of hexachlorobenzene-treated rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide that acts as an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. The development of breast cancer strongly depends on endocrine conditions modulated by environmental factors. We have demonstrated that HCB is a tumor co-carcinogen in rats and an inducer of proliferation in MCF-7 cells, in an estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-dependent manner, and of migration in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. In the present study, we examined HCB effect on c-Src/human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1) and ER? signaling pathways in mammary glands and in N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumors in rats. Furthermore, we evaluated histopathological changes and serum hormone levels. Rats were separated into four groups: control, HCB (100 mg/kg b.w.), NMU (50 mg/kg b.w.) and NMU-HCB. Our data show that HCB increases c-Src and HER1 activation, c-Src/HER1 association, and Y699-STAT5b and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in mammary glands. HCB also enhances Y537-ER? phosphorylation and ER?/c-Src physical interaction. In tumors, HCB also induces c-Src and HER1 activation, c-Src/HER1 association, as well as T308-Akt and Y699-STAT5b phosphorylation. In addition, the pesticide increases ER? protein content and decreases p-Y537-ER? levels and ER?/c-Src association in tumors. HCB increases serum 17-beta estradiol and prolactin contents and decreases progesterone, FSH and LH levels in rats without tumors, while the opposite effect was observed in rats with tumors. Taken together, our results indicate that HCB induces an estrogenic effect in mammary gland, increasing c-Src/HER1 and ER? signaling pathways. HCB stimulates c-Src/HER1 pathway, but decreases ER? activity in tumors, appearing to shift them towards a higher malignancy phenotype.

315

Capillary networks in tumor angiogenesis: from discrete endothelial cells to phase-field averaged descriptions via isogeometric analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor angiogenesis, the growth of new capillaries from preexisting ones promoted by the starvation and hypoxia of cancerous cell, creates complex biological patterns. These patterns are captured by a hybrid model that involves high-order partial differential equations coupled with mobile, agent-based components. The continuous equations of the model rely on the phase-field method to describe the intricate interfaces between the vasculature and the host tissue. The discrete equations are posed on a cellular scale and treat tip endothelial cells as mobile agents. Here, we put the model into a coherent mathematical and algorithmic framework and introduce a numerical method based on isogeometric analysis that couples the discrete and continuous descriptions of the theory. Using our algorithms, we perform numerical simulations that show the development of the vasculature around a tumor. The new method permitted us to perform a parametric study of the model. Furthermore, we investigate different initial configurations to study the growth of the new capillaries. The simulations illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of our numerical method and provide insight into the dynamics of the governing equations as well as into the underlying physical phenomenon. PMID:23653256

Vilanova, Guillermo; Colominas, Ignasi; Gomez, Hector

2013-10-01

316

Influence of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide on the inhibitory effects of cisplatin on the tumor growth and angiogenesis in bladder cancer (T24 cells -bearing nude mice  

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Full Text Available Objective?To explore the chemo-sensitizing effect and inhibitory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP on tumor angiogenesis of bladder cancer. Methods?The effect of GLP combined with cisplatin on the in vitro proliferation of human bladder cancer cell lines T24 was determined by MTS assay. The interaction between the two drugs was evaluated using the Chou-Talalay method. A T24 (bladder cancer-bearing nude mouse model was established, and then the therapeutic effect of GLP combined with cisplatin was evaluated. The microvessel density (MVD and the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in the tumor tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining, and the expression levels of VEGF and bFGF in tumor tissue were determined by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blotting. Results?GLP combined with cisplatin markedly inhibited T24 cells proliferation in vitro showing a synergistic effect (CI<1. Immunohistochemical staining showed that GLP could enhance the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on the tumor growth in the tumorbearing nude mice (P<0.05, and it could also inhibit the angiogenesis and expressions of VEGF and bFGF in the tumor tissue. The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blotting showed that the expression levels of VEGF and bFGF in tumor tissue significantly decreased in the tumor-bearing nude mice after being treated with GLP combined with cisplatin as compared with those treated by cisplatin alone. Conclusions?GLP combined with cisplatin could inhibit the proliferation of T24 cells in vitro synergically. GLP could enhance the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on tumor growth and angiogenesis in T24 tumor-bearing nude mice, and the mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of VEGF and bFGF expressions. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.06.09

Peng-rong GUO

2014-08-01

317

The comparative study of tumor angiogenesis and CT enhancement in pancreatic carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to study the correlation of pancreatic phase Computed tomography (CT) enhancement, intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) and pathologic grades in pancreatic carcinoma and to evaluate the relationship between CT enhancement degree and the malignancy degree of pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: 34 patients with pancreatic carcinoma underwent CT scanning before resection. The enhancement degrees and forms of tumor were observed in pancreatic phase. The operational sample was stained with HE and CD34 marked by immunohistochemistry. MVD and histopathological grades of pancreatic carcinoma were examined. CT enhancement of the tumor, MVD counting in hot spot areas of neoplastic parenchymal cells and pathological grades of pancreatic carcinoma were comparatively analyzed. Result: Highly differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma was identified in 16 patients, moderately differentiated tumor in seven and poorly differentiated tumor in 11. Isodensity CT enhancement was demonstrated in 13 cases, slight low density enhancement in nine, slight low density enhancement along with small cyst lesion in nine and slight low density enhancement along with large cyst lesion in three. The counting of MVD with CD34 marked by immunohistochemistry in hot spot areas of neoplastic parenchyma cells were small in ten cases, medium in 16 and large in eight. The pathological grades correlated with CT enhancement of tumor (r=0.7857, P<0.001). The pathological grade correlated with MVD counting of tumor (r=0.3613, P<0.05). The CT enhancement of tumor correlated with MVD (r=0.6768, P<0.001). Conclusion: There was obvious and significant correlation between CT enhancement, pathological grades and MVD numbers in the hot spot areas of tumor. The extent of CT enhancement was inversely proportional to the malignancy degree of pancreatic carcinoma, and inversely proportional to MVD numbers in the hot spot areas of neoplastic parenchyma. The MVD in the hot spot areas of neoplastic parenchyma cells could also reflect the prognosis of the patients, and was directly proportional to malignancy degree of pancreatic carcinoma

318

Adenovirus-mediated endostatin delivery results in inhibition of mammary gland tumor growth in C3(1)/SV40 T-antigen transgenic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate the efficacy of systemic administration of a replication-defective adenovirus expressing endostatin (Ad-mEndo) administered during the preinvasive stage of mammary tumor development in C3(1)/T antigen transgenic mice. Mean serum levels of endostatin increased about 8-fold above that of controls and resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth and an increase in survival. The inhibitory effect of endostatin occurred during or after the progression to invasive carcinoma. Reduced levels of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA were found in association with high levels of endostatin. Our results demonstrate that the adenoviral induction of high levels of circulating endostatin significantly inhibits mammary tumor growth during the period when the "angiogenic switch" occurs. PMID:12124322

Calvo, Alfonso; Feldman, Andrew L; Libutti, Steven K; Green, Jeffrey E

2002-07-15

319

Neoplasias mamárias em cadelas: influência hormonal e efeitos da ovario-histerectomia como terapia adjuvante / Canine mammary tumors: hormonal influence and effects of ovariohiysterectomy as an adjuvant therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As neoplasias mamarias constituem aproximadamente 50% dos tumores diagnosticados em cadelas. Apesar dosharmónios sexuais femininos desempenharem papel fundamental no desenvolvimento desses tumores em mamíferos, o valor da supressão hormonal pela ovário-histerectomia como auxiliar no tratamento do tu [...] mor de mama em caninos permanece controverso. Discute-se ainda se a realização da ovário-histerectomia após o diagnóstico influencia ou não o crescimento e progressão do tumor na glândula afetada ou em outras glândulas mamarias. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir alguns aspectos relacionados à influência hormonal na etiologia de tumores mamarias em cadelas, assim como o valor terapêutico da castração, quando realizada no momento da mastectomia. Abstract in english The mammary neoplasms comprises aproximatel 50% ofthe diagnosed tumor s m the bitch. Although female sexual honnones play a fundamental role in the development of these tumors in mammals, the value of the suppression hormonal (ovariohysterectomy) as an adjuvam treatment remains controversial. There [...] are still arguments on whether the ovariohysterectomy after diagnosis of the tumor possesses influences lhe growth and progression of the tumor on the affected gland or on other mammary glands. The objective ofthis review is to discuss some aspects related to the hormonal influence in the pathogenesis of the canine tumor, as well as the therapeutic value ofspaying. when accomplished in the moment ofthe mastectomy.

Cláudia Sampaio, Fonseca; Carlos Roberto, Daleck.

320

The Protective Effect Of SPIRULINA PLATENSIS Against MAMMARY Tumors Induction By Dimethylbenz(A)Anthracene In Sprague- Dawley Female Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

sis was found to be in thoracic mammary gland. Both estrogen and testosterone have a role in mammary cancers. The study showed that both estrogen and testosterone were important in mammary cancer diagnosis. It is suggested that sex hormones have a role in late stages in breast carcinogenesis. Estradiol, which is the main form of estrogen, affects the different stage of mammary gland carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the results indicated that Spirulina platensis may have therapeutic and protective effects (30%) on mammary cancers of Sprague-Dawely female rats chemically induced by DMBA.

 
 
 
 
321

MicroPET imaging of brain tumor angiogenesis with 18F-labeled PEGylated RGD peptide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have previously labeled cyclic RGD peptide c(RGDyK) with fluorine-18 through conjugation labeling via a prosthetic 4-[18F]fluorobenzoyl moiety and applied this [18F]FB-RGD radiotracer for ?v-integrin expression imaging in different preclinical tumor models with good tumor-to-background contrast. However, the unfavorable hepatobiliary excretion and rapid tumor washout rate of this tracer limit its potential clinical applications. The aims of this study were to modify the [18F]FB-RGD tracer by inserting a heterobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, M.W. =3,400) between the 18F radiolabel and the RGD moiety and to test this [18F]FB-PEG-RGD tracer for brain tumor targeting and in vivo kinetics. [18F]FB-PEG-RGD was prepared by coupling the RGD-PEG conjugate with N-succinimidyl 4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB) under slightly basic conditions (pH=8.5). The radiochemical yield was about 20-30% based on the active ester [18F]SFB, and specific activity was over 100 GBq/?mol. This tracer had fast blood clearance, rapid and high tumor uptake in the subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma model (5.2±0.5%ID/g at 30 min p.i.). Moderately rapid tumor washout was observed, with the activity accumulation decreased to 2.2±0.4%ID/g at 4 h p.i. MicroPET and autoradiography imaging showed a very high tumor-to-background ratio and limited activity accumulation in the liver, kidneyvity accumulation in the liver, kidneys and intestinal tracts. U87MG tumor implanted into the mouse forebrain was well visualized with [18F]FB-PEG-RGD. Although uptake in the orthotopic tumor was significantly lower (P18F]FB-PEG-RGD gave improved tumor retention and in vivo kinetics compared with [18F]FB-RGD. (orig.)

322

PC3 prostate tumor-initiating cells with molecular profile FAM65Bhigh/MFI2low/LEF1low increase tumor angiogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem-like cells are proposed to sustain solid tumors by virtue of their capacity for self-renewal and differentiation to cells that comprise the bulk of the tumor, and have been identified for a variety of cancers based on characteristic clonal morphologies and patterns of marker gene expression. Methods Single cell cloning and spheroid culture studies were used to identify a population of cancer stem-like cells in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line PC3. Results We demonstrate that, under standard culture conditions, ~10% of PC3 cells form holoclones with cancer stem cell characteristics. These holoclones display high self-renewal capability in spheroid formation assays under low attachment and serum-free culture conditions, retain their holoclone morphology when passaged at high cell density, exhibit moderate drug resistance, and show high tumorigenicity in scid immunodeficient mice. PC3 holoclones readily form spheres, and PC3-derived spheres yield a high percentage of holoclones, further supporting their cancer stem cell-like nature. We identified one gene, FAM65B, whose expression is consistently up regulated in PC3 holoclones compared to paraclones, the major cell morphology in the parental PC3 cell population, and two genes, MFI2 and LEF1, that are consistently down regulated. This molecular profile, FAM65Bhigh/MFI2low/LEF1low, also characterizes spheres generated from parental PC3 cells. The PC3 holoclones did not show significant enriched expression of the putative prostate cancer stem cell markers CD44 and integrin ?2?1. PC3 tumors seeded with holoclones showed dramatic down regulation of FAM65B and dramatic up regulation of MFI2 and LEF1, and unexpectedly, a marked increase in tumor vascularity compared to parental PC3 tumors, suggesting a role of cancer stem cells in tumor angiogenesis. Conclusions These findings support the proposal that PC3 tumors are sustained by a small number of tumor-initiating cells with stem-like characteristics, including strong self-renewal and pro-angiogenic capability and marked by the expression pattern FAM65Bhigh/MFI2low/LEF1low. These markers may serve as targets for therapies designed to eliminate cancer stem cell populations associated with aggressive, androgen-independent prostate tumors such as PC3.

Waxman David J

2010-12-01

323

PC3 prostate tumor-initiating cells with molecular profile FAM65Bhigh/MFI2low/LEF1low increase tumor angiogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Cancer stem-like cells are proposed to sustain solid tumors by virtue of their capacity for self-renewal and differentiation to cells that comprise the bulk of the tumor, and have been identified for a variety of cancers based on characteristic clonal morphologies and patterns of marker gene expression. Methods Single cell cloning and spheroid culture studies were used to identify a population of cancer stem-like cells in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line PC3. Results We demonstrate that, under standard culture conditions, ~10% of PC3 cells form holoclones with cancer stem cell characteristics. These holoclones display high self-renewal capability in spheroid formation assays under low attachment and serum-free culture conditions, retain their holoclone morphology when passaged at high cell density, exhibit moderate drug resistance, and show high tumorigenicity in scid immunodeficient mice. PC3 holoclones readily form spheres, and PC3-derived spheres yield a high percentage of holoclones, further supporting their cancer stem cell-like nature. We identified one gene, FAM65B, whose expression is consistently up regulated in PC3 holoclones compared to paraclones, the major cell morphology in the parental PC3 cell population, and two genes, MFI2 and LEF1, that are consistently down regulated. This molecular profile, FAM65Bhigh/MFI2low/LEF1low, also characterizes spheres generated from parental PC3 cells. The PC3 holoclones did not show significant enriched expression of the putative prostate cancer stem cell markers CD44 and integrin ?2?1. PC3 tumors seeded with holoclones showed dramatic down regulation of FAM65B and dramatic up regulation of MFI2 and LEF1, and unexpectedly, a marked increase in tumor vascularity compared to parental PC3 tumors, suggesting a role of cancer stem cells in tumor angiogenesis. Conclusions These findings support the proposal that PC3 tumors are sustained by a small number of tumor-initiating cells with stem-like characteristics, including strong self-renewal and pro-angiogenic capability and marked by the expression pattern FAM65Bhigh/MFI2low/LEF1low. These markers may serve as targets for therapies designed to eliminate cancer stem cell populations associated with aggressive, androgen-independent prostate tumors such as PC3. PMID:21190562

2010-01-01

324

Curcumin induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines and delays the growth of mammary tumors in neu transgenic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is a leading cancer in women and despite the benefits of the current therapies a significant number of patients with this tumor is at risk of relapse. Some of the alterations taking place in breast cancer cells are currently exploited by molecularly targeted drugs. Different drugs have been developed which target a single molecule but, given that the tumor originates from the dysregulation of many genes, there is the need to find new drugs that have more than one molecular target. Curcumin [1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] (CUR), a polyphenolic compound found in the spice turmeric, is a pleiotropic molecule able to interact with a variety of molecular targets and has antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. Here we demonstrate that CUR inhibits the growth of breast cancer cell lines in a dose dependent manner, with IC50 values in the micromolar range, and induces an increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G0 phase, representing the apoptotic cell population. The activation of apoptosis was confirmed by PARP-1 cleavage and by the increased ratio between the pro-apoptotic Bax and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. In addition, in CUR-treated cells the activity of ERK1/ERK2 MAP kinases was down-regulated. The cytotoxic effects of CUR were observed in breast cancer cells expressing either high or low levels of ErbB2/neu. The in vivo antitumor activity of CUR was tested in BALB-neuT mice transgenic for the neu oncogene, which develop atypical hyperplasia of the mammary gland at 6 weeks of age and invasive carcinoma at 16 weeks of age. CUR, administered to mice both early and in an advanced stage of mammary carcinogenesis, induced a significant prolongation of tumor-free survival and a reduction of tumor multiplicity. In addition, CUR administration was safe, since no modification of hematological and clinical chemistry parameters could be observed in BALB-neuT and BALB/c mice treated with this compound for several weeks. These findings support further studies on the therapeutic potential of CUR in combination with standard therapies in breast cancer patients. PMID:23489691

Masuelli, L; Benvenuto, M; Fantini, M; Marzocchella, L; Sacchetti, P; Di Stefano, E; Tresoldi, I; Izzi, V; Bernardini, R; Palumbo, C; Mattei, M; Lista, F; Galvano, F; Modesti, A; Bei, R

2013-01-01

325

Lack of ABCG2 shortens latency of BRCA1-deficient mammary tumors and this is not affected by genistein or resveratrol.  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to their role in drug resistance, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCG2 and ABCB1 have been suggested to protect cells from a broad range of substances that may foster tumorigenesis. Phytoestrogens or their metabolites are substrates of these transporters and the influence of these compounds on breast cancer development is controversial. Estrogen-like properties might accelerate tumorigenesis on the one hand, whereas their proposed health-protective properties might antagonize tumorigenesis on the other. To address this issue, we used a newer generation mouse model of BRCA1-mutated breast cancer and examined tumor latency in K14cre;Brca1(F/F); p53(F/F), Abcb1a/b(-/-);K14cre;Brca1(F/F); p53(F/F), or Abcg2(-/-);K14cre;Brca1(F/F); p53(F/F) animals, fed with genistein- or resveratrol-supplemented diets. Ovariectomized K14cre;Brca1(F/F); p53(F/F) animals were included to evaluate whether any estrogen-mimicking effects can restore mammary tumor development in the absence of endogenous estrogens. Compared with the ABC transporter proficient model, ABCG2-deficient animals showed a reduced median tumor latency of 17.5 days (P resveratrol altered this latency reduction in Abcg2(-/-);K14cre;Brca1(F/F); p53(F/F) animals. Ovariectomy resulted in nearly complete loss of mammary tumor development, which was not restored by genistein or resveratrol. Our results show that ABCG2 contributes to the protection of genetically instable epithelial cells against carcinogenesis. Diets containing high levels of genistein or resveratrol had no effect on mammary tumorigenesis, whether mice were lacking ABCG2 or not. Because genistein and resveratrol only delayed skin tumor development of ovariectomized animals, we conclude that these phytoestrogens are no effective modulators of mammary tumor development in our mouse model. PMID:22767648

Zander, Serge A L; Kersbergen, Ariena; Sol, Wendy; Gonggrijp, Maaike; van de Wetering, Koen; Jonkers, Jos; Borst, Piet; Rottenberg, Sven

2012-08-01

326

Progesterone receptor isoform analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine mammary dysplasias and tumors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cloning and sequencing of the progesterone receptor gene in dogs have revealed 2 isoforms, A and B, transcribed from a single gene. Distribution of isoforms A and B in canine mammary lesions has hitherto been investigated only by Western blot analysis. This study analyzed progesterone receptor and its isoforms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from canine mammary lesions (4 dysplasias, 10 benign tumors, and 46 carcinomas) using 1-step SYBR Green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Progesterone receptor was expressed in 75% of dysplasias, all benign tumors, and 59% of carcinomas. Carcinomas, and particularly simple epithelial-type carcinomas, displayed the lowest levels of expression. A high rate of agreement was recorded between RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical labeling. Isoforms A and B were successfully amplified, with correlation coefficients of 0.99 and amplification efficiencies close to 2, and were expressed in all lesion types analyzed. Predominance of A over B expression was observed in carcinomas and complex adenomas. Low-grade tumors exhibited higher progesterone receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, but no difference was observed in the expression of isoform A versus B. Analysis of progesterone receptor mRNA isoforms by RT-qPCR was successful in routinely formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples and enabled the distribution of isoforms A and B to be identified for the first time in dysplasias, benign tumors, and malignant tumors of the canine mammary gland. These findings will facilitate future research into the role of progesterone receptor isoforms in the progression of canine mammary tumors.

Guil-Luna, S.; Stenvang, Jan

2014-01-01

327

Detection of mutations within exons 4 to 8 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in canine mammary glands / Identificação de mutações nos exons 4 a 8 do gene p53 supressor de tumor em glândulas mamárias caninas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para estudar as mutações nos exos 4 a 8 do gene p53, foram utilizados 15 tumores mamários, mamas normais das mesmas cadelas e seis mamas de cadelas normais. O DNA extraído das amostras de tecido foi sequenciado e analisado para a presença de mutações. Em 71,8% das amostras obtidas foram observadas m [...] utações, sendo as "missense" as mais frequentes. Os exons mais comprometidos foram 5, 7 e 8 com 23,4, 31,6 e 23,4% de mutações, respectivamente. O estudo conclui que tumores mamários caninos têm relação com mutações no gene p53 e que as mutações ocorrem com maior frequência nas regiões da proteína que estão ligadas ao DNA no núcleo celular. Isto pode alterar a funcionalidade da proteína e propiciar o crescimento do tumor. As mamas adjacentes aos tumores, apesar da aparência macroscópica normal, apresentaram mutações, que podem representar recidivas se a mama não for retirada juntamente com o tumor. Abstract in english Fifteen female canines with mammary tumors and 6 normal females were used to study mutations in exons 4 to 8 of the p53 gene. DNA samples from the tumors, respective adjacent normal mammary tissue and mammary glands from healthy animals were sequenced and analyzed for the presence of mutations. Muta [...] tions were found in 71.8% of the samples and the most frequent were missense mutations. The most attacked exons in the mammary tumor were 5, 7 and 8, with 23.4, 31.6 and 23.4% mutations, respectively. Canine mammary tumors are related to mutations in gene p53 and mutations mostly occur in the region of the protein that is linked to the DNA in the cell nucleus, which can change the functionality of the cell and propitiate tumor growth. Despite being macroscopically normal, the mammary tissue adjacent to the tumors has mutations that can lead to recurrence if not removed together with the tumor.

D.M.B., Souza; M.G.O., Barros; J.S.C., Silva; M.B., Silva; Z.F., Coleto; G.C., Jimenez; M., Adrião; A., Wischral.

328

Detection of mutations within exons 4 to 8 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in canine mammary glands / Identificação de mutações nos exons 4 a 8 do gene p53 supressor de tumor em glândulas mamárias caninas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para estudar as mutações nos exos 4 a 8 do gene p53, foram utilizados 15 tumores mamários, mamas normais das mesmas cadelas e seis mamas de cadelas normais. O DNA extraído das amostras de tecido foi sequenciado e analisado para a presença de mutações. Em 71,8% das amostras obtidas foram observadas m [...] utações, sendo as "missense" as mais frequentes. Os exons mais comprometidos foram 5, 7 e 8 com 23,4, 31,6 e 23,4% de mutações, respectivamente. O estudo conclui que tumores mamários caninos têm relação com mutações no gene p53 e que as mutações ocorrem com maior frequência nas regiões da proteína que estão ligadas ao DNA no núcleo celular. Isto pode alterar a funcionalidade da proteína e propiciar o crescimento do tumor. As mamas adjacentes aos tumores, apesar da aparência macroscópica normal, apresentaram mutações, que podem representar recidivas se a mama não for retirada juntamente com o tumor. Abstract in english Fifteen female canines with mammary tumors and 6 normal females were used to study mutations in exons 4 to 8 of the p53 gene. DNA samples from the tumors, respective adjacent normal mammary tissue and mammary glands from healthy animals were sequenced and analyzed for the presence of mutations. Muta [...] tions were found in 71.8% of the samples and the most frequent were missense mutations. The most attacked exons in the mammary tumor were 5, 7 and 8, with 23.4, 31.6 and 23.4% mutations, respectively. Canine mammary tumors are related to mutations in gene p53 and mutations mostly occur in the region of the protein that is linked to the DNA in the cell nucleus, which can change the functionality of the cell and propitiate tumor growth. Despite being macroscopically normal, the mammary tissue adjacent to the tumors has mutations that can lead to recurrence if not removed together with the tumor.